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April tS-20, 2013

2'd International

Conference on Nanotechnologies

and Biomedical Engineering, Chisinau, Repuhtic of Moldova, April I g-20, 201 3

The Role ofAlternating Cuffent in PhotoAssisted Electrochemical Porosification of GaN

Ainorkhilah Mahmood*r'', NaserM. Ahmedr, Ion Tiginyanu3, Yushamdan Yusofr, yam Fong

of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Science of Moldova, and NCMST, Technicol University of Moldova, Republic of Moldova aPhysics Section, School of Distance Education, (Jniversiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 penang, Malaysia *ainor

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Abstract -- In this paper, we report the formation of porous GaN films under a novel alternating current (sine-wavea.c. (50 Hz)) photo-assistedelectrochemical (ACPEC) etching conditions. The ACpEC formed porous GaN with excellent structural and surface morphology. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM)' atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) phi-scan and rocking curves measurements evidenced important features of the pore morphology and nanostructures. According to the FESEM micrographs' the spatial nanoarchitecture of the porous structures exhibits pores with perfect hexagonalshape.The AFM measurementsrevealed an increasein the surface roughnessinduced by porosification. X-ray diffraction phi-scan showed that porous GaN sample maintained the epitaxial features. Index Tetms -- Porous GaN, Alternating current photo-assisted electrochemicaletching (ACPEC), FESEM, AFM. HR-XRD. photo-assisted electrochemicaletching. To gain a high porosify layer, the most common techniqueis to use dc The wide band gap semiconductorGaN and related conditions with a constant and relatively high current materialshave received increasing attention in recent density.Although dramatic researchhas been conducted yearsdue to their potential applicationsfor optoelectronic to understandthe formation of porous GaN prepared by the commontechnique, substantial fundamental properties devicesoperatingin the spectralregion from the blue to [8-14]. near-UV and in electronic devices such as high are still not well understood The goal of this study is to prepareporous GaN by a temperature, high power and high frequency transistors novel technique, namely by alternating current photo[1-3]. Note that GaN devices are capableto operatein assisted electrochemical etching (ACPEC) [15]. Results hostile and harsh environments l4l, while GaN of systematic morphological, structural and surface nanostructuringinduces an increase in the radiation hardnessof the material [5]. Additionally, GaN has studiesof porous GaN samplesare reported. emerged as importantmaterial for high power electronics II. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS devices owing to its high breakdownfield. Since the unearthingof porous Si shows augmented The commercial unintentionally doped (UID) n-type GaN luminescence efficiency in 1990 [6], initial efforts to film grown by metalorganicchemical vapor deposition makeporousGaN were motivatedby the desireto realize (MOCVD) on a two inch diameter sapphire (0001) similar effect with an ulkaviolet (UV) band gap material. substrate was usedin the formation of porous GaN by the PorousGaN exhibitshigh surfacearea,shift ofband gap, ACPEC etchingtechniques. The thicknessof GaN film is luminescence intensity enhancement, as well as efficient 3 pm with carrier concentration of - 6.05 x l0l? cm-3as photoresponse as comparedto bulk. Thus, the expectation determinedby Hall effect measurements. The ac etching is that porous GaN can be tailored to fabricate novel process was performed with a current density of 25 sensing devices. mNcm2 in 4 %oconcentration of KOH electrolyteunder Porous GaN can be prepared through dry-etching illumination of 500 W ultra-violet for 45 and 90 minutes techniques,such as ion milling, chemical-assisted etch time. The porous GaN sampleswere characterizedby ion beam etching, reactive ion etching, and inductively using FESEM, AI'M and HR-XRD. coupled plasma reactive ion etching. However, these methods could induce surface damage; moreover, they III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION lack the desired selectivity for the morphology, dopant, FESEM imagesof the porous GaN samplesgenerated and composition[7]. The most feasibleand cost-effective under different etching durations are shown in Fig. l. The method to prepare porous GaN is the direct current (dc) FESEM images in Fig. I show well-defined network of . I,INTRODUCTION


2ndlnternationalconJ.erenceonNanotechnologies andBiomedicalEngineering,chisinau,RepubticofMoldova,AprillS-20'2013

pores with different sizes grown in the monocrystalline pore size-for45 and 99 epilayerof GaN. The average 1* ,u-pt.t were of about 35-40 and 55-60 nm, respectively' of Th"' pore size varies significantly as a function epilayers' GaN starting the quality of the

REFERENCES tll S. C. Jain, et al., "[I--nitrides: Growth, characterization,and properties," Journal of Applied 2000' vol. 87, PP.965-1006, Physics, rtt depositionof epitaxial laser al.,I'Pulsed et D."Feiler, LLJ AlN, GaN, and InN thin films on sapphire(0001)," Jouinat of Crystal Growth, vol' 171, pp' 12-20' 1997. emitting heterostructure 13] G. Landwehr, el al., "Blue laser diodes," Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems vol. 3, pp' 158-168,1998' and Nanostructures, Khan, "Transistors and 14] J.-Y. Duboz and M' A. materials,"in Group GaN-related on based detectors B' Gil, Ed'' Compounds, Semiconductors III Nitrides Oxford, 1998,pp' 343-390' Press, ed: Clarendon O' Volciuc, V' Popa' t5l V. V. Ursaki, I. M. Tiginyanu, V. A. Skuratov and H. Morkog, "Nanostructuring induced enhancementof radiation hardnessin GaN Applied PhysicsLetters,Vol' 90, 161908 epilayers", (2007). quantum wlre array t6] L. T. Canham, "Silicon fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers," Applied Physics Letters' vol' 1990. 57, pP. 1046-1048, by n-type GaN surfaces a/., el "Smooth C.'Youtsey, t7l Physics photoenhanced wet etching," Applied 1998' Letters,vol' 72,PP.560-562, in Porous t8] M. Mynbaeva, et al., "Photoconductivity 228' pp' (b), vol' solidi status physica GaN Layers," 589-592,2001. Properties Of t9l A. Mahmoo4 et al., "Enhanced Assisted UV Porous GaN PrePared BY Materials Advanced " Electrochemical Etching vol. 364, PP.90-94,2012' Research, et al., "Characteristicsof undoped Mahmood tlO] A. assisted porous GaN PrePared bY UV Mater' Adv' electrochemicaletching," Optoelectron' 2010' pp' l3l6-20' vol. 4, RapidComm., optical quality [l] A. P. Vaipeyi, et al., "High photoelectrochemical by prepared GaN nanoporous etching," ElectrochemicalSolid State Lett', vol' 8'

imageof the as grown and porousGaN elg. 1. FESENa formed under different etching durations: (a) as grown; (b) 45 minutes,(c) 45 minutes for high magnification' and (d) 90 minutes[15]' The AFM measurements revealed that the surface in roughnessover a 5 i{ m x 5 .# m scan area increased further tho porous GaN samples. These results were ,npplrt"d by FESEM images in Fig' 1' The crystalline q*iitv uttd lafiice parameters were assessed and on determined by using HR-XRD' The Phi-scan GaN (10 I 2) reflectionplane showedsix-fold asymmetric for both as-grown and porous GaN symmetry az"imuthal samples. Six-fold symmetric is consistent with the wurtzite (hexagonal)crystal structure [16]' IV. CONCLUSION

p p .G 8 5 - G 8 8 , 2 0 0 5 . In summary,a novel, simple and cost-effective alternating an to be demonstrated was i\4. Mynbaeva, et al., "structural characterization etching (ACPEC) PEb t12] current with GaN and strain relaxation in porous GaN layers," Applied effective technique to form nano-porous the images, FESEM PhysicsLetters, vol.76, pp' I I 13-1I 15, 2000' excellent properties. According to of Porosity on the the of size the on impact etching durati,onhas signihcant t13] A. Mahmood, et al., "Effect on Sapphire,"l1P surface Grown that GaN of evidenced Characteristics measurements . pores. AFM pp.45-47,2011' Conf.Proc.,vol. 1341, ioughness increased in porous samples' The obtained SurfaceStudies ,"rJtr hittt at the possibility to prepare high quality nano- [14] A. Mahmood, el a/., "structural and on Sapphire"' Grown strongly GaN We Porous stress' of Undoped porous GaN layers with tuneable pp' 4549, 620, ac vol' Research, sine-wave the Materials of refinements Advanced teteve that further enhance will technologies processing electrochemical AC Technique for their role in semiconductor nanotechnology and ll5l A. Mahmood, et al.,"A Novel Int' Journal of GaN," High Quality Porous in the near future. nanoelectronics 3' 201 8, vol. Science, Electrochentical of ZnO hlms on growth al.,"Epiraxial et Nahhas, A. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS GaN buffer," Applied epitaxial an using substrates Si Support from Universiti Sains Malaysia, 600L e t t e r sv , o l . 7 8 ,p p . 1 5 l l - 1 5 1 3 , 2 0 0 1 ' Physics Dana and UiTM nrvrvdifpncS5l3Fst(2212011) 600Grant Research Kecemerlangan gratefully ate RMVSTIDANA5/3/Dst(134/2011) acknowledged.