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SHORT QUESTIONS
QUESTIONS Define Science ANSWERS It is knowledge that provides understanding of this world and how it works. Define Chemistry The branch of science that deals with the composition, structure, properties and reactions of matter, is called chemistry. What was the concept of Greek A Greek philosopher, Empedocles thought philosophers? that all the matter was made up of only four elements. Earth, Air, Water and Fire. This concept exist for 2000 years. What was Doltons Atomic Theory? Matter is made up of small invisible particles called atoms. The atoms of any one element are identical in all respects but different from those of other elements. What is the modern concept about atom? Atom is further composed of sub-atomic particles such as electron, proton and neutron. Define Physical Chemistry It is the study of the laws and theories that describe the structure and changes of matter. Define Organic Chemistry It is the study of covalent compounds of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives. Define Inorganic Chemistry It is the study of all elements & compounds except organic compounds. Define Biochemistry It is the study of physical and chemical changes that occur in living things. Industrial Chemistry It deals with preparation of chemical substances on commercial scale. Define Nuclear Chemistry It is the study of changes that occur in atomic nuclei. Define Environmental chemistry It is the study of chemicals that pollute the environment and their effects on human beings. Define Analytical Chemistry It deals with the methods and instruments that determine the composition of matter. Define Classification of Matter Mixture. Further classified into Homogenous & Heterogeneous Substance. Further classified into Elements & Compounds.
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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-5665666 E-mail: shahzad.sunny@gmail.com Website: www.onlineislamabad.com CHEMISTRY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 1) ============================================================

Define substance

Define Element

Define Compound

Define mixture

What are the types of mixture?

It is a matter that has a particular set of characteristics which differ from the character of any other kind of matter. For example oxygen, water, urea, glucose etc. The substance that cannot be converted into other simpler substance is called an element. Modern Definition: It is a substance made up of same type of atoms, having same atomic number. A compound is a pure substance that is ade upof two or more elements held together in fixed ratios by natural forces called chemical bonds. For example water, carbon dioxide etc. An impure substance that contains two or more pure substances which retain their individual chemical characteristics is called a mixture. For example air, salt dissolved in water etc. Homogenous mixture: A mixture that consists of only one phase is called homogenous mixture. For example salt or sugar dissolved in water.

Heterogeneous mixture: A mixture that consists of two or more visibly different components is called heterogeneous mixture. For example sand+salt, oil floating on water etc. Define Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called atomic number. It is denoted by Z. Define Mass Number The total number of protons and neutrons is called mass number. What is relative atomic mass. Why it is The mass of an atom of an element needed? relative to the mass of an atom of C-12 is called relative atomic mass. It is needed because atom is so small that we cannot determine its mass. Therefore we can determine its mass relative to another experimentally. Define atomic mass unit (amu) One atomic mass unit is one twelfth the mass of one atom of carbon-12.
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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-5665666 E-mail: shahzad.sunny@gmail.com Website: www.onlineislamabad.com CHEMISTRY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 1) ============================================================

Define Chemical Formula

A chemical formula tell us: i) Which elements are present in compound? ii) The whole number ratio of their atoms. Write types of chemical formula Empirical Formula: It gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms present in a compound. For example empirical formula of glucose is CH2O. Molecular Formula: It gives the actual whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a molecule of that compound. Molecular Formula of Glucose is C6H12O6. Define Molecular Mass It is the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms present in the molecule. Define Formula Unit It indicates the simplest ratio between cations (positive ions) and anions (negative ions) in ionic compounds. Define Formula Mass The sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in the formula unit of a substance is called Formula Mass. Define Chemical species Matter is composed of chemical species. These species are atoms, ions, free radicals, molecules and formula units. Define Atom Atom is the smallest particle of an element that cannot exist in free state. It is electrically neutral. Define Ion Ion is an atom or group of atoms having a charge on it. Define Types of Ions Cations: An atom or group of atoms having positive charge on it is called cation. Anions: An atom or group of atoms having negative charge on it is called anion. Why an ion acquires a net positive or Ion acquires a net positive or negative negative charge? charge due to difference in number of protons and electrons in it. Define Molecular ions When a molecule loses or gains electrons, the resulting species is called a molecular ion. These ions are short lived and only exists at high temperature. They do not form ionic compounds.
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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-5665666 E-mail: shahzad.sunny@gmail.com Website: www.onlineislamabad.com CHEMISTRY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 1) ============================================================

Differentiate molecular ion

& Molecule: It is smallest particle that can exist independently. It is always neutral It is formed by combination of atoms It is a stable unit Molecular Ion: It is formed by loss or gain of electrons It can have positive or negative charge. It is formed by ionization of molecule. It is reactive specie. Define Free Radicals. Free radicals are atoms or group of atoms having odd number of electrons. They are neutral specie. Differentiate between ion and free Ion: radicals An atom or group of atoms having charge They exist in solution or in crystal lattice Ion cannot be produced with the help of light Free Radical: An atom or group of atoms having unpaired electrons. They exist in solution as well in air. Light may produce free radicals. Define representative particles of an The representatives particles of a element or compound substance are atoms, molecules or formula unit. Define molecule and its types Smallest particle of a covalent compound or an element which can exist independently is called molecule. Its types are as under: Monoatomic: A molecule that contains only one atom is called monoatomic molecule. i.e. He, Ne, Ar, Kr etc. Polyatomic: A molecule that contains two or more similar or different atoms called polyatomic is molecule. i.e. H2, O2, N2, Cl2 etc. Define Avogadros Number. How it is The number of atoms, ions or molecules related to mole of a substance. present in one mole of a substance is called Avogadros number. It is denoted by NA and is equal to 6.02x1023. Relation to a mole: 1 mole of substance = Avogadros No.
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between

molecule

Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-5665666 E-mail: shahzad.sunny@gmail.com Website: www.onlineislamabad.com CHEMISTRY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 1) ============================================================

Define molar mass Define mole Define Gram Atomic Mass Define Gram Molecular Mass Define Gram Formula Mass Write empirical and molecular formula of aspirin. Write empirical and molecular formula of vinegar. Write Atomic Masses of

What do you know about corpuscular nature of matter?

Classify into compounds

elements,

mixture

and

The mass of one mole of a substance is called its molar mass. The atomic mass, molecular mass or formula mass expressed in grams is called mole. Atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass. Molecular mass of an element or a compound expressed in grams is called gram molecular mass. Formula mass of an ionic compound expressed in grams is called gram molecular mass or gram molecule. Molecular = C9H8O4 Empirical = C9H8O4 Molecular = C2H4O2 Empirical = CH2O Potassium = K = 39 Carbon = C = 12 Chlorine = Cl = 35.5 Oxygen = O = 16 Hydrogen = H = 1 Sodium = Na = 23 Nitrogen = N = 14 As per this concept, matter is supposed to be composed of minute particles. An ancient Greek philosopher, Empedocles thought that all materials were made up four things called elements. Earth, Air, Water and Fire Element = Iron Mixture = Milk, Smoke, Tea Compound = Water, Sugar

LONG QUESTIONS
Question: What is the difference between Compound & Mixture? Compound: It is formed by a chemical combination of atoms of the elements. The constituents lose their identity and form a new substance having entirely different properties from them. Compounds always have fixed composition by mass. The components cannot be separated by physical means.

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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-5665666 E-mail: shahzad.sunny@gmail.com Website: www.onlineislamabad.com CHEMISTRY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 1) ============================================================

Every compound is represented by a chemical formula. Compounds have homogeneous composition. Compounds have sharp and fixed melting points.

Mixture: Mixture is formed by the simple mixing up of the substances. Mixture shows the properties of the constituents. Mixtures do not have fixed composition. The components can be separated by simple physical methods. It consists of two or more components and does not have any chemical formula. They may be homogeneous of heterogeneous in composition. Mixture does not have sharp fixed melting points. =*=*=*=*=

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