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ENGIN.

LIBRARY
UC-NRLF

Meeh, dept.

PRACTICAL CALCULATION TRANSMISSION LINES

OF

PEACTICAL CALCULATION
OF

TBANSMISSION LINES
FOR DISTRIBUTION OF DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS BY MEANS OF OVERHEAD, UNDERGROUND, AND INTERIOR WIRES FOR PURPOSES OF LIGHT, POWER, AND TRACTION

BY
L.

W. ROSENTHAL, o
ASSOCIATE MEMBER,
A.I.E.E.

E.E.

NEW YORK MCGRAW PUBLISHING COMPANY


239

WEST

39TH

STREET

1909

Engineering library

COPYRIGHT,

1909,

BY THE

McGKAW PUBLISHING COMPANY

NEW YORK

Stanbopc Jpresa
F.

H.G1LSON COMPANY
BOSTON.
U.S.A.

PREFACE.

THIS little book is offered to the engineering profession with the hope that it may be of practical help in the rapid and accurate Its existence is the outcome of calculation of transmission lines.
the belief that this field
Its chief mission is to is in part barren. substitute a direct solution for the trial method which was formerly

a necessary evil. The arrangement of the formulas, tables and text has been dictated solely by the needs of the rapid worker. All sections except the last include the important effects of

The section relating to temperature and specific conductivity,, direct-current railways is novel in the form of its tables, and the
methods outlined in

The

have been found rapid and comprehensive., alternating-current division presents a new and original method
it

It is the only method known to for the solution of these problems. the author which determines the size of wire directly from the volt

and it also possesses unique features of scope, accuThe chapter on single-phase railways is in and simplicity. racy accord with most of the consistent data published on the subject,
loss in the line,

although further accurate investigations of installed lines modify to some extent the present accepted values.

may

The author desires to call particular attention to the fallacies of some familiar methods of calculating alternating-current transmisIt will be sion lines which heretofore have been in common use. evident from Tables 11, 28, and 36 that their results are wholly erroneous under certain practical conditions, and indicate wires which may be entirely at variance with the specified requirements. The scope of this book has been confined to methods of calculation. Hence, the most desirable limits of line losses are not
discussed, but the tables are sufficiently extended to cover all cases There is no discussion of the characterlikely to arise in practice.
istics of alternating-current

transmission lines, although the tables

many of their important features. does not either the determination of the book include Furthermore,
iii

of wire factors render apparent

254556

iv

PREFACE
maximum economy
or the

the size of conductors for conditions of

consideration of alternating-current circuits in series. The preparation of the tables has involved thousands of calculations,

but thorough checks by the methods of differences and curve plotting have probably eliminated almost all errors of material
influence.

However, some discrepancies may have crept


L.

in,

and the
R.

author would be glad to learn of them.

W.

NEW YORK

CITY. December, 1908.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
PAR.
1.

I.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR LIGHT AND POWER.


PAGES
6^
:

2. 3. 4.
5. 6.
7.

INTRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF CONDUCTORS CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY PARALLEL RESISTANCE OF WIRES GIVEN ITEMS

6
9
10 10
10
11

8.

FORMULAS AMPERE-FEET EXAMPLES.


.

CHAPTER
9.

II.

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS.


16

10.

11.
12.

13.
14. 15. 16.

INTRODUCTION RESISTANCE OF RAILS PARALLEL RESISTANCE OF RAILS AND FEEDERS NEGATIVE CONDUCTORS POSITIVE CONDUCTORS RESISTANCE OF CIRCUIT GIVEN ITEMS

16

17
18

18
19

19

EXAMPLES

20

CHAPTER
17. 18.

III.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY

OVERHEAD WIRES.
INTRODUCTION OUTLINE OF METHOD
29 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 33 33

19.

20.

RANGE OF APPLICATION MAXIMUM ERROR


TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS BALANCED LOADS

21. 22.
23.

TEMPERATURE

CONDUCTIVITY SOLID AND STRANDED CONDUCTORS 26. SKIN EFFECT 27. WIRE SPACING
24. SPECIFIC

25.

34

vi
PAR.
28.
29.
30.

CONTENTS
ARRANGEMENT OF WIRES FREQUENCY
MULTIPLE CIRCUITS CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE VOLT LOSS POWER TRANSMITTED
PAGE 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39

31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

POWER

LOSS

36.
37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

POWER-FACTOR WIRE FACTOR GIVEN ITEMS SIZE OF WIRE PER CENT VOLT LOSS CHARGING CURRENT
CAPACITY EFFECTS

42.
43.

EXAMPLES

CHAPTER
44. 45. 46. 47.

IV.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY

UNDERGROUND CABLES.
INTRODUCTION MAXIMUM ERROR
63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65

TEMPERATURE
PROPERTIES OF CONDUCTORS THICKNESS OF INSULATION CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY CAPACITY EFFECTS

48. 49.
50.

51

EXAMPLES

CHAPTER
52.
53. 54. 55.
56.

V.

INTERIOR WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT


DISTRIBUTION.
75 75 75 76

INTRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF CONDUCTORS SPACING OF WIRES AMPERE-FEET

EXAMPLES

76

CHAPTER
57.

VI.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE PHASE RAILWAYS.


85 85 85 86 86 86

INTRODUCTION

58.

METHOD OF CALCULATION
IMPEDANCE OF RAIL PERMEABILITY OF RAIL IMPEDANCE AND WEIGHT OF RAIL IMPEDANCE OF RAIL AND FREQUENCY

59.

60. 61.

62.

CONTENTS
PAR.
63.
64.
65.

vii

PAGE
,

FORMULA FOR RAIL IMPEDANCE


POWER-FACTOR OF TRACK, HEIGHT OF TROLLEY EFFECT OF CATENARY CONSTRUCTION IMPEDANCE OF COMPLETE CIRCUIT MULTIPLE TRACKS .. .,.. EXAMPLES ,.....-..*
,

66.
67. 68.
69.

86 87 87 87

87 88 88

TABLES.
CHAPTER
No.
I.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR LIGHT AND POWER.


PAGE 6 6
,

Values of 2. Values of
1.

3.

4.
5.

6.

and aluminum and aluminum F Properties of copper and aluminum Ampere-feet per volt drop and current-carrying capacity Values of H for copper or aluminum. Formulas for direct-current wiring Values of a for copper and aluminum.
for copper for copper
.
,

8 8
14

15

CHAPTER
7. 8.
9.

II.

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT CURRENT RAILWAYS.


17
.

Values of T l for steel Equivalents of copper of 100 per cent conductivity. Resistance to direct current of one steel rail

10. Values of

Formulas for direct-current railway A for wires and rails


III.

circuits

20 24 25
26

CHAPTER
11.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY

OVERHEAD WIRES.
Error in per cent of volt loss , 12. Maximum error in per cent of true values at. 20 cent 13. Values of c for overhead wires 14. Reactance factors ,...., Formulas for a. c. transmission by overhead wires 15. Values of volt loss factors 16. Values of A for balanced loads 17. Values of B for balanced loads. for overhead copper wires at 15 cycles per second 18. Values of for overhead copper wires at 25 cycles per second 19. Values of for overhead copper wires at 40 cycles per second 20. Values of 21. Values of for overhead copper wires at 60 cycles per second. ..... 22. Values of for overhead copper wires at 125 cycles per second 23. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 15 cycles per second. 24. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 25 cycles per second. 25. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 40 cycles per second. 26. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 60 cycles per second. 27. Values of for overhead aluminum wires at 125 cycles per second.
. ,

31

32 39 39 50
51

M M M M M M M M M M

52 52 53 54 55

56
57

58 59

60 61 62

ix

TABLES

CHAPTER
No.

IV.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY

UNDERGROUND CABLES.
PAGE
'

28. Error in per cent of true volt loss 29. Maximum error in per cent of true values at 20 30. Values of c for

cent
cables

underground cables
transmission

63 64 65
71

Formulas for
31. Values of 32. Values

a. c.

33. Values

34. Values of 35.

M for multiple conductor copper cables Values of M for multiple conductor copper cables
V.

VQ '" = F (1 - 0.01 F of A for balanced loads of B for balanced loads

by underground
)

72 72
72 73 74

CHAPTER
36.

INTERIOR WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT


DISTRIBUTION.
loss

Error in per cent of true volt

76
81

Formulas
38. Values of 39. Values of 40. Values of

for a.

c.

37. Values of a

and

interior wiring b for balanced loads

for balanced loads

M for copper wires in interior conduits M for copper wires in molding or on cleats

...

82 82 83 84

CHAPTER
41. Test

VI.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS.


88 92 93

and calculated values of impedance per mile Formulas for single-phase railway circuits

42. Values of

M for single-phase railway circuits

PART

I.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION BY MEANS OF


OVERHEAD, UNDERGROUND AND INTERIOR WIRES FOR PURPOSES OF LIGHT, POWER AND TRACTION

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION
CHAPTER

I.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION FOR LIGHT AND POWER.


1.

Introduction.

Problems

in

direct-current

transmission

and distribution are


all

relatively simple. conditions of installation and operation whether by overhead, underground or interior wires. The formulas give accurate
results,

The same formula covers

and

all

are concise but comprehensive

items of influence are easily included. The tables and will cover almost all the

usual and unusual requirements of varied practice. The resistance of stranded and 2. Properties of Conductors.
solid conductors of the

the same.
cent, or 68

Table

and length is practically the 3, page 8, gives properties of wires at 20 fahr. for copper of 100 per cent and aluminum of

same

cross section

62 per cent conductivity in Matthiessen's standard scale. The resistance at any other temperature and conductivity may be found for copper or aluminum from formulas (1) and (2).

Ohms
Ohms
S =

resistance per 1000 feet

>

v *
. .

resistance per mile

= 54/700 X T
o

Cross section of metal in circular mils.


factor.

T = Temperature

Table

1,

page

6.

Thus, at 40 cent, the resistance per mile of No.


of 98 per cent conductivity
is

copper wire

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Table
i.

Values of

T for

Copper and Aluminum.

Temperature

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION
Table
3. Properties of Copper and Aluminum at 20 Cent, or 68 Fahr. Conductivity in Matthiessen's Standard Scale ; Copper 100 Per Cent, Aluminum 62 Per Cent.

8
Table
4.

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Ampere-Feet per Volt Drop and Current-Carrying
Capacity.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION

current per wire for lead-covered underground cables is based on tests for a temperature rise from 70 fahr. initial to 150 fahr.
final.*
rise

Formula

(4)

may

be solved for

to find the temperature

under given conditions.

Amperes per wire


d

=H

\~r

.....

(4)f

Diameter of wire in inches.


rise in

H=

C = Temperature
Heat
factor.

degrees centigrade.
5,

Table

T = Temperature factor at final temperature.

page

8.

Table

1,

page

6.

The size of wires is sometimes determined by their currentcarrying capacity, especially in interior work where the runs are short. For longer lines it is usually advisable to calculate the loss and then note that the wire has sufficient carrying capacity,
while for shorter stretches
it is

often better to select a wire of

proper current capacity and then find by calculation whether the loss is within the specified limit.

The parallel resistance at any temperature for a number of wires of any conductivity is given by the following formulas:
4.

Parallel Resistance of Wires.

Ohms

resistance per 1000 feet

T 1
i

u>

+ T + 12
1
*

Ohms

resistance per mile

(5)

"/
.

T2
*

Where all the wires have the same temperature and conductivity, formulas (5) reduce to those below.

Ohms

resistance per 1000 feet


resistance per mile
(5)

Ohms

X T S + + S, = 54 700 X T S + S 2 410 350


'

In formulas
Sit

and

T,

S 2 = Circular mils in T T 2 = Temperature


l}

(6)

respective wires. factors of respective wires. Table

1,

page

6.

* Standard

Underground Cable

Co.'s

" t Based on formulas in Foster's Electrical Engineers' Pocketbook," 1908, page 208.

Handbook No. XVII, page

192.

10

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

Thus, the resistance per mile at 30 cent, of one No. 00 trolley wire of 97 per cent conductivity in parallel with one 1,000,000cir. mil aluminum feeder of 62 per cent conductivity is
54,700
133,100
1,000,000

=
1.674

0.0758 ohm.

1.069

Similarly, the parallel resistance per 1000 feet at 40 cent, of one No. and one No. 4 copper wires of 97 per cent conductivity
18

10,350

105,500
5.

X +

1.110

Q 078Q

ohm

41,740
require the determinaloss, or the volt loss from

Given Items.

The problem may


from the volt

tion of the size of wire

the given size of wire.


are conductor metal

In either case the other required items

and temperature, current and distance of If power in watts is specified, then the voltage transmission. at load or source must also be given. The term " source " is used in this book to designate the point from which the circuit, or the part of circuit under consideration, starts. Thus in direct-current distribution it may signify the
generator, rotary converter, storage battery, connection to main, to feeder or to sub-feeder, or simply a certain point of the circuit. 6. Formulas. Formulas for the complete solution of direct-

current problems are given on page 14, and the method of procedure will be clear from the arrangement of the table. The
size of wire

may be determined from the volt drop, or from the cent volt per drop, which in direct-current systems is always equal to the per cent power loss. The value of a is found in Table 6,
page
15,

size of each wire is noted from Table 3, page 7, corresponding to the required circular mils. The per cent volt drop is expressed in terms of power as well as current, so that problems involving voltage at source and watts at load may be solved without preliminary approximation. It should be carefully noted that percent loss, V or V is expressed as a whole number, and that the length of transmission, I, is the dis,

and the

tance from source to load, which is the same as the length of one wire. In formula (14), r is the resistance per foot of one wire, equal to the values in Table 3, columns 4 or 8, divided by 1000.

The size 7. Ampere-Feet. mined from the ampere-feet per

of wires
volt

may be readily deterdrop as given by formula (7).

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION
The wire having
Table
4,

11

a corresponding

value

is

then noted from

page

8.

Ampere-feet per volt drop


/
I

(7)

= Amperes. = Distance from = Drop in volts.

source to load, in feet.

The values in Table 4 are for copper and aluminum of 100 per cent and 62 per cent conductivity, respectively, at 20 cent.
For other conductivities or temperatures, formula
is

(8),

page

14,

more convenient.

In case of distributed loads, as in interior lighting work, II is sum of the products given by each load, /, multiplied by Thus if 6 amperes are to be transits respective distance, I.
the

mitted 25
II

ft.,

amperes 50
25

ft.,

and 2 amperes 100


2

ft.,

50

100

500 ampere-feet.

Examples. Examples in practice may take innumerable of procedure in any case will be clear but the method forms, from the table of formulas on page 14. The following problems
8.

are typical and serve to illustrate the simplicity of the calculations for direct-current distribution.
.

Example

i.

to deliver 200

amperes
cent.

copper circuit of 97 per cent conductivity is for a distance of 1000 feet with a loss of

10 volts at 40

GIVEN ITEMS.
I

From

v = 10 volts; 200 amperes; Table 6, page 15, a = 23.0.

1000

feet.

Size of each wire.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (8),


200
10

= 23 X

1000

46Q 000

ci]

Use 500,000
Volt drop.

cir.

mil wires.

From

(9),

23

200

1000

9.2 volts.

500,000

12
Watt
loss.

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

From Tables 1 and 3, T = 1.110, and r = 0.0000207 ohm.


1.11

From
p

(14),

0.0000207

(200)

1000

1840 watts.

the voltage at the load at any value, say 100, cent the per drop and per cent power loss are found to be the

By assuming

same, 9.2 per cent.

Example
feet with a
circuit
is

2.

motor

is

to take 25 kw. at a distance of 240

per cent of the 110 volts generated, while the to consist of copper wires of 98 per cent conductivity
loss of 5

with a temperature of 30 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

w=

25,000 watts;
(19),

110 volts;

7 =5per

cent;

= 240

feet.

From

v=

0.05

X 110=

5.5 volts.

From Table

6,

page

15,

21.9.

Size of each wire.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (8),

s=

21.9

239
5.5

240

Use No. 0000


Per
cent volt drop.

wires, for

which
(11),

S=

211,600
.

cir.

mils.

V
From Table

"'

From 2L9 X
0.01

25,000

211,600

X 240 X (HO)

=
2

7 = 5.4 per cent. v = 0.054 X 110 = 5.9 volts. Volt drop. From (19), From (13), e= 110 - 5.9 = 104.1 volts. Volts at load. 054 X 25 QOQ = From (14), p = Wattloss. 1430 watts.
31,

page

72,

'

~~

U.Uo4

Watts

at generator.

From
25,000

(15),

w =

+ 1430=

26,430 watts.

From Table 4, page 8, it is seen that the wire should have weatherproof insulation or else be increased to 250,000 cir, mils.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION
Example
3.

13
amperes

The load on

a feeder

is

to consist of 20

at 50 feet, 25 amperes at 100 feet, and 40 amperes at 150 feet, from the source. Calculate the required size of a uniform circuit
of 100 per cent conductivity for a total loss of 2 volts at 20 From (7), Ampere-feet per volt drop

cent.

20

50

25

X
2

100

40

150

4, page 8, the required size of each wire is No. copper and No. 000 for aluminum. Example 4. Copper mains of 98 per cent conductivity are to deliver 500 amperes to a point 550 feet from a rotary converter with a loss of 3 per cent of the voltage at load. Calculate the

From Table

for

size of wire of

98 per cent conductivity and at 50

cent,

if

220

volts are generated.

GIVEN ITEMS.
7

= 500
From

amperes;
(18),
6,

=220

volts;

V=3
-

per cent;

= 550

feet.

03
^

6.4 volts.

From Table

page

15,

23.6.

Size of each wire.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (8),

a=

23.6

500

550

1;010>000 cir
cir.

Use 1,000,000
Volt drop.

mils.

- From

(9),

t;

23 6
'

^ 1,UUU,UUU
2^

55

6.5 volts.

Per cent

volt drop.

From

(19),

7 = -5A =
,2\j

2.95 per cent.

Volts at load.

Watts

at load.

From (13), e = 220 - 6:5= 213.5 volts. From (16), w = 213.5 X 500 = 106,750 watts.

Find the combined resistance of 1500 feet of Example 5. 500,000 cir. mils of 98 per cent copper wire at 20 cent, in parallel with the same length of 1,000,000 cir. mils of aluminum wire of 62 per cent conductivity at 30 cent.

From

(5)

and Table

1,

1.02

1.674

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Formulas For Direct-Current Wiring.
Required Items.

DIRECT-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION
Table
6.

15

Values of a For Copper and Aluminum.

Temperature
in

degrees.

CHAPTER

II.

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS.


9.

Introduction.
rails for

track

Electric railways almost always use the the return of current. Besides this, other differ-

ences between circuits for railways and those for power and lighting purposes are the higher voltage employed on the trolley, the
greater per cent loss allowed in the line and the variable nature of the loads.

moving and
and

Due

to the track rails the calculations of railway feeders

working conductors are somewhat complex and uncertain. However, the recent character of bonding has made the calculations more reliable by giving a higher and more permanent value
to the conductivity of the grounded side. In electric railways such as the open conduit and the double trolley systems, the track rails are not used for the return current, and the calculations for their circuits are therefore simpler and more definite. Where the feeders and working conductors form a complete

copper
10.

circuit,

the formulas on page 14

may

be used.

9, page 24, gives the equivalent copper section and the resistance of third rails or track rails at 20 cent., for various values of relative resistance of steel to

Resistance of Rails.

Table

The corresponding value for any number of rails is copper. found by multiplying the equivalent copper section, or by dividThe resistance at any other ing the resistance, by the number. temperature is found by multiplying the value in the table by the temperature factor of resistance for steel, T1} Table 7, page 17,
while the equivalent section of copper is equal to the tabular value divided by 7\; or, the values may be found for one rail for any other condition of relative resistance and temperature by

means

Equivalent

of the following formulas: cir. mils of 100 per cent copper

125,000

T X
l

X Pounds per yard Relative resistance


10

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS

17

Ohms

resistance per 1000 feet

T X
t

Relative resistance

12.1

X Pounds

(21)

per yard

Ohms

resistance per mile

2.28

T\ X Relative resistance X Pounds per yard

(22)

Table 7, page 17. factor of steel. As an example, the total resistance per mile at 30 cent, of two 65-lb. track rails having a relative resistance of 13.2 is
l

T = Temperature

1.05

13.2

=
2

2.28

X
7.

65

0.0468 ohm.

Table

Values of

for Steel.

Temperature, deg. cent

18

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

copper feeder of 97 per cent conductivity and one 500,000-cir. mil aluminum feeder of 62 per cent conductivity is

=
833^000
1.05
12.

500,000
1.069

500,000
1.674

Negative

Conductors.

The track

rails

and negative

feeders carry the return current. The size of rails is fixed by conditions other than electrical conductivity and usually give a Electrototal resistance much below that of the positive side.

may require that negative feeders be connected to the rails at certain points, but otherwise the rails generally
lytic conditions

have ample conductivity without any copper reinforcement. The section of negative conductors may be based on a maxi-

mum
feeder

The size of the negative allowable drop in the return. is found by subtracting the equivalent copper section of

the rails from the total circular mils required. The additional resistance of bonds rnay be included by increasing the true
relative resistance of the rail to

an apparent value.

As an

negative feeder, suppose that S in formula (25) on page 26 should come out 2,000,000 cir. mils for the negative side of a circuit for which the track is to consist of two 70-lb. rails of an apparent
relative

example

of the determination of the size of

resistance
in
parallel
2,

of

feeders

14 (including bonding). The required with the track should have 2,000,000
cir.

625,000

X
cir.

or 750,000

ductivity.

Based on Table

mils of copper of 100 per cent con8, page 20, this is equivalent to

773,000
cir.

mils of

aluminum

mils of copper of 97 per cent conductivity, or 1,210,000 of 62 per cent conductivity.

The positive conductors consist of 13. Positive Conductors. auxiliary feeders in parallel with trolleys or third rails. Trolley wires vary in size from Nos. to 0000, while third rails usually range from 60 to 100 pounds per yard. The drop in the positive
conductors is found by subtracting the calculated negative drop from the total that is allowed. Then for a third-rail system,
in

exactly like the determination of negative feeders paragraph 12; while for systems using trolley wires, the total section of positive conductors is calculated from formula
is

the method

(25),

page

25.

The

size of the auxiliary feeder is

given by the

difference

between the total circular mils required and that of

the trolley wire.

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS

19

The temperature is included in the calculation of the circular by means of A in Table 10, page 26. For conductivities other than 100 per cent, the value of S in formula (25) is divided by the given conductivity. Thus if S comes out 1,000,000 cir. mils
mils
of 100 per cent copper, the required section of
1

copper of 97 per
mils, as

cent conductivity

'

ooo 000
1
,

is

0.97
8,

or 1,030,000

cir.

may

be

noted from Table


14.
is

page

20.

Resistance of Circuit.

The

total resistance of the circuit

obtained by adding the resistance of the grounded side and the overhead. Where there are no negative feeders, the resist-

ance of the rails may be taken directly from Table 9, page 24, and if no positive feeders are used, the resistance of the trolleys
is

given in Table

3,

page

7.

Thus the

resistance per mile at

cent, of a single-track road having two 60-lb. rails of an apparent relative resistance of 14 (including bonding) and a

20

No. 00 trolley of 100 per cent conductivity

is

2^2 +

o 411

o.462 ohm.

The determination of the proper loading on 15. Given Items. which to base the feeder systems is usually more difficult than In general the requirement will the calculation of the feeders. be for a maximum drop with a very severe condition of loading or for a much smaller drop with a distributed loading of an average In either case the loads and their positions are first value. settled and then the formulas are applied successively to the separate loads; or, where the feeder system is uniform throughout, one determination is made, using the total of the loads at
their center of gravity. In case the feeder system
is

known

the total loss

is

easily

calculated by considering the loads separately, or by considering their combined effect where the feeder system is uniform

throughout the area of loading. For convenience in calculation the formulas have been expressed in terms of, current. The per cent volt loss has also been given in terms of power, so that no preliminary approximation is necessary when the voltage is known only at the source. 16. Examples. Although^ in practice, these problems occur in a great many different forms, the application of the formulas .will be clear from the following typical examples.

20
Table
8.

TRANSMISSION CALCULA TIONS


Equivalents of Copper of 100 Per Cent Conductivity.
Conductivity in Matthiessen's Standard Scale.

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS


in the negative feeder from 500,000 to 1,000,000 to an increase of 100 per cent.
cir.

21

mils, equal

For a temperature of 40 cent., determine the which take 100 amperes each at respective locations of 500, 2000, 3000, and 5000 feet from a power station generating 550 volts, if the circuit consists of four

Example

7.

line voltage at successive cars

having a relative resistance of 14 (including bonding), and two No. 00 trolleys of 97 per cent conductivity in parallel with one 500,000 cir. mil aluminum feeder of 62
80-lb. track rails

per cent conductivity. From Tables 7 and 9, the resistance of the tracks
Resistance per 1000
feet =
1
-

is,

0145

i- 09

0.00395 ohm.
is,

From

(23)

and Tables

and

3,

the resistance of the overhead

Resistance per 1000 feet

10350
133,100
1.11

=
500,000
1.738

Q 01962

ohm<

Hence the

total resistance per 1000 feet of road

is

0.00395
1st

0.01962

0.02357 ohm.

Car

2d

Car

3d Car
4th Car

= 0.02357 X 400 X0.5 = 550 - 4.7 Additional drop = 0.02357 X 300 X 1 .500 - 545.3 - 10.6 Line volts Additional drop = 0.02357 X 200 X 1 .000 = 534.7 - 4.7 Line volts Additional drop = 0.02357 X 100X2.000 = 530 - 4.7 Line volts
Total drop Line volts

= 4.7 volts. = 545.3. = 10.6 volts. - 534.7. = 4.7 volts. = 530. = 4.7 volts. = 525.3.

side

In the above typical problem, the resistance of the grounded is but 20 per cent of the resistance of the overhead. A single-track road with two 75-lb. rails having Example 8.

relative

a relative resistance of 13 plus 10 per cent for bonding (apparent resistance = 14.3), is to supply four cars with 150

amperes each when located at

0.8, 1.0, 1.5

and

2.5 miles

from a

If the minimum line e.m.f. substation generating 550 volts. is to be 400 volts at 50 cent., what size copper feeder of 97 per cent conductivity should be in parallel with a No. 00 trolley

of 96 per cent conductivity?

22

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
(22)

From

and Table

7,

page

17,

Resistance per mile of two

rails

2.28

Total drop in track

0.0477

150

X 14 3 = 0.0477 ohm. X 75 X 2 (0.8 + 1.0 + 1.5 + 2.5) 1<14


'

41.5

volts.

Allowable drop in overhead

150

- 41.5=

108.5 volts.

(25), in which IL is the sum of products of each load multiplied by its distance from source, and from Table 10, page 26,

From

s=

61,100

150(0.8

1.0

1.5

+W =
cir.

lOo.O
of 100 per cent copper.

490>000

ci

mils

Based on Table
copper
in trolley

8,
is

page 20, the equivalent section of 100 per cent

133,100

X 0.96= -

128,000

mils.

Required section of 100 per cent copper in feeder

490,000

128,000

362,000

cir.

mils.

Required section of 97 per cent copper

in feeder

= 5^2,220 ,
0.97

373,000

cir.

mils.

Example

9.

Find the

size of a third rail of relative resistance

7.5 (including bonding) required to start two cars taking 1000 amperes at a point midway between substations 8 miles apart,
if

rotaries.

the drop at 20 cent, is to be 25 per cent of the 600 volts at Each track rail is to weigh 80 Ib. per yard and to have a relative resistance of 13 (including bonding).

Distance from either substation to cars = f = 4 miles. Current from each substation = ^-^ = 500 amperes.

Total allowable drop = 600 X 0.25 = 150 volts. From Table 9, page 24, resistance per mile of two-track

rails

=
Drop
in track

0.0713

= 003565 ohm
X
4

0.03565

500

Allowable drop in third

rail =

From

(25), in

which

s=

54,700

A from x 500 XJ =

= 71.3 volts. 150 71.3= 78.7 volts. Table 10, page 26 = 54,700,

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS

23

From Table
rail.

9,

page

24, this section

corresponds to an 85-lb.

Then from above and Table 9, Total resistance per mile= R = 0.03565 + 0.0387

= 0.07435 ohm.

From From From

0.07435 X 500 X 4 148.7 volts. (28), total drop at cars 148.7= 451.3 600 volts. (37), voltage

(40),

V=
From
Watt

drop

in per cent of volts at load is

148.7^-0.01

451.3

33.0 per cent.

(41), drop in per cent of volts at substation is 24.8 per cent. 148.7-r-0.01 600

7 =

loss.

From

above,

From

(35),

= X R = 0.07435 ohm. p = 0.07435 X (500) X = 148,700 watts.


2

Example

10.

required for a uniformly distributed load of

Calculate the size of positive feeders at 30 cent, 600 amperes per mile
loss of

between two substations 6 miles apart with an average

5 per cent of the 650 volts generated, if there are to be eight 100-lb. track rails and four 70-lb. third rails having relative resistances (including bonding) of 12.5 and 8.0, respectively.

Since the average loss is to be 5 per cent, the maximum is 10 per cent or 65 volts. The result is equivalent to the total load concentrated at a point one-quarter the distance between substations from either one.

Total load per substation

^ = fiOO V

fi

1800 amperes.

Center of
station.

gravity of
7

load

2 miles

from

either sub-

From Tables

and

9,

resistance per mile of four tracks

= 0.0548 X 1.05-5-8 =0.00719 ohm. = 0.00719 X 1800 X 2 = 25.9 volts. in track Drop Allowable positive drop = 65 - 25.9= 39.1 volts. From (25), 5 = 57,400 X 1800 X 2-4-39.1 = 5,280,000
of 100 per cent copper. From Tables 7 and 9, third-rail section =1,090,000 X 4,150,000 cir. mils of 100 per cent copper.

cir.

mils

4-*-

1.05

Required section of 100 per cent copper feeder


5,280,000 4,150,000 = 1,130,000 of section 97 Required per cent copper feeder

cir.

mils.

= 1,130,000-4-0.97 = 1,165,000 cir. mils. of 62 per cent aluminum feeder section Required

l,130,000-s-0.62

1,823,000

cir.

mils.

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
oooo oooo o o' o' o o' o o o'
oooo oooo d o' o' o' o' o' o o'

oooo oooo

oooo oooo o' o' o o' o' o' o' o'


=2 22 oooo oooo
oo r^ r^

oooo'
oooo
o' o' o' o'

oooo
odd o'

oooo oooo
OO (S
t-s

oooo

slis
oooo

oooo oooo o' o' o' o" d o' o' d

8888

o o o o'

HIS

oooo oooo oooo' oooo


.

oooo oooo
om
M rq

r^

C >O

coo's

oooo
o'o'oo'

His
SSS8

I o
s

o'o'o'd

d d o' d d d d o'
iT\rr\

oooo

oooo

o o o o'

oooo oooo
oo oo

ISIi

888S
o' o'

dd

o m r^
To * ST oo
o'

Ills ills
o'

o d o" d o' o' o'

d o' o'
fs,rr,

o 2
1

poo oooo
o oo rs
)'

"^ ^" O O o^ O OOOO


rr,

\oo

I
a

111! llli o' o' o' o' d o' d

OOOO ills
o'
OO

d o' o' o o d d
O OO

>o o

.S8.

oooo
.

g5 O

sss;

liSs
oo'oo

OOjQ

I
tn

ill!
ITS

0000 0000 r^^^t'ir* oooo oooo


tr\

<

r-% ITS

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888 i 88 IS
o' o'

d o' o o o o

DISTRIBUTION FOR DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS


Formulas for D.
Required Items.

25

C.

Railway

Circuits.

26

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Table 10.
Temperature
degrees.
in

Values of

for

Wires and Rails.

PART

II.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY MEANS OF OVERHEAD, UNDERGROUND AND INTERIOR WIRES FOR PURPOSES OF LIGHT, POWER AND TRACTION

27

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
CHAPTER
III.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY OVERHEAD WIRES


17.

Introduction.

The methods

in

common

use for calcu-

lating alternating-current transmission lines from the volt loss This condition results from are either indirect or inaccurate.
it is impossible to devise an exact formula for any alternating-current system which will directly indicate the size of wire required for the transmission of a given amount of power

the fact that

with a given volt loss. Methods of the indirect class require that the size wire be known, and hence are trial methods. Approximations of the second class may be sufficiently close

under certain conditions but give wholly erroneous results for


other practical cases.

The
wire,

essential feature^pLthe desirable


loss

directly determine for

method is that it should any system and frequency, the size of

and power-factor at generator when given the line, power received, load power-factor, voltage at generator or load and distance between wires. The following method accomplishes this result with commercial

power

volt

loss,

length of

accuracy over a sufficiently wide range of conditions to cover

almost air practical cases.

One

familiar

method

of calculating alternating-current lines

assumes that the impedance volts equals the line loss, or in Figs. 1 and 2 AB = AC. Several other methods in common use assume that the line loss equals the projection of the impedance volts on the vector of delivered voltage. The errors of these approximations in terms of the actual volt loss are shown in Table 11, for copper wires on 36-inch centers and a true volt
loss of 10 per cent of the generated volts. The errors for leading power-factors, larger wires or greater spacings exceed those shown in Table 11, and it is evident

then, that both methods

may

lead to erroneous results.


29

The

30
first

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

assumption gives wires which are too large, while the other assumption gives wires too small. By stating the errors of calculated the 11 in terms of Table values, the percentages for the first assumption and decreased would be shown greatly case. in second the similarly increased All items which depend on the 18. Outline of Method. load of wire, power-factor and wire spacing were frequency, size

grouped into one term, which


wire factor.

is

denoted by

and

called the

All other variables that determine the size of wire

Fig. 2

were grouped into the second member of the equation of M. after introducing the proper transmission factors, the equation took the form shown in the table of formulas opposite the size of wire. The remaining formulas are simple derivations or from well known relations. either from the equation of The vector diagram from which the fundamental equation was

Then

derived

is

shown

in Fig.

for lagging current

and

in Fig. 2 for

leading current, wherein,

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
01 = OA =
Current at load.
Volts at load.

31

OB
<p

Volts at source.

AC= OB - OA = Volt loss.


(f> Q

AD=
DB =
19.

Resistance volts.

Reactance

volts.
volts.

AB= Impedance
Range
losses less

= = =

Power-factor angle of load. Power-factor angle of line. Power-factor angle at source.

of Application. The formulas apply for all volt than 20 per cent of the generated voltage or 25 per cent of the voltage at load, and for a sufficient range of wire At high sizes to cover the usual and unusual cases in practice. standard frequencies and for power-factors near 100 per cent for the largest wires were omitted in order to the values of

confine the
in

maximum
page 32.

possible error within the limits prescribed

Table

12,

Table

n.

Error in Per Cent of True Volt Loss.

Size of

Wire.

A.W.G.

32

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

formula for

reduces to a zero error near 10 per cent loss. The point where the should be correct was arbitrarily fixed at 10 per cent volt loss, since this is about the mean value in practice,

is determined, the actual per cent drop is calcuIn order to minimize its error and that of the remaining has been divided into a items, each column in the tables of maximum of three sections. It will be observed that any value of is found between the section letters a and b, b and c,

After the wire

lated.

and d, depending upon the and ing power-factor.


or c

size of wire, frequency, spac-

errors in the calculations are shown in Table These errors occur near per cent and 20 per cent volt losses but gradually reduce to zero near 10 per cent loss. In practical problems the calculated value of is most often between the section letters c and d, and therefore the errors of

The maximum

12 below.

the remaining calculations are negligible. It should be observed that the values in Table 12 are expressed in per cent of the true result. Thus for an error of 2 per cent with a true volt loss of 5 per cent, the calculated value would

be no greater than 5.1 and no

less

than 4.9 per cent.

Table 12.

Maximum

Errors in Per Cent of True Values


at 20

Cent.

Calculated Items.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

33

Accurate formulas cannot be given for ,the two-phase three-wire system where the size of the common wire is different from the others. However, the result may be .approximated by calculating for three equal wires and then making the proper allowance for the larger cross section of the common lead. (See In the three-phase four- wire system Example 16, page 44.) the neutral wire carries no current when the system is balanced,

and hence the

results are exactly similar to those for the three-

phase system with three wires. 22. Balanced Loads. A balanced load is assumed in all the In practice such is often not the case, although formulas. the variation from a balanced condition is usually small. The effect of unbalancing is to alter the voltage in proportion to the amount of unbalancing. The other items are also affected, but seldom is the discrepancy of any practical importance. All results have been calculated for a 23. Temperature. varies temperature of 20 cent, or 68 fahr. The value of directly with the temperature, but it also depends to a lesser degree on other conditions. However, as the error of commission is much less than the error of omission, the values of A in Table 16, page 52, have been calculated for various temperatures. The calculations have been made 24. Specific Conductivity. for a specific conductivity of 100 per cent for copper and 62 per The value of varies inversely with the cent for aluminum. specific conductivity but also depends somewhat upon other conditions. However, sufficiently accurate results are obtained by including the proper conductivity of the conductor by the

Wires smaller than No. have been considered solid, while the larger sizes have been taken stranded. However, since the inductance of a stranded
wire
is

method shown in Table 16. 25. Solid and Stranded Conductors.

between that

of a solid wire of the

same

cross section of
final
is

metal and one of the same diameter, the discrepancy in the


results for

any ordinary variation from the assumed conditions

not appreciable. 26. Skin Effect.


effective

Owing
is

to

decreasing current
direct

density
to

toward the center of wires carrying alternating currents, the


resistance
its

increased

in

proportion

the

product of
sizes of

and the frequency. In the usual transmission wire the effect is negligible, and even in the
cross section

34

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

largest sizes shown for. the higher frequencies the maximum additional resistance is less than 5 per cent, which value decreases very rapidly with the size of wire.

Wire Spacing. - Inductance increases directly with the distance from center to center of the wires. However, the effect on the impedance of the line for large variations in the spacing
27.
-

is

order to cover

not great, even at the higher commercial frequencies. In all cases in practice, the wire factor has been In calculated for three different spacings at each frequency.

sufficiently accurate for spacings less

general the results for wires on 18 and 60-inch centers will be than 27 inches and greater than 48 inches, respectively, while the values for 36 inches will

is

But, where greater accuracy desired for spacings other than shown, the values of may be readily interpolated from the tables.

cover spacings from 27 to 48 inches.

28.

Arrangement

of Wires.

It is

assumed

in the

two and

three-phase systems with three wires that the conductors are For other placed at the three corners of an equilateral triangle. arrangements, with the wires properly transposed, little error is

introduced by taking the distance from center to center of the wires as the average of the distances between wires 1 and 2, In the two-phase four-wire system the 2 and 3, and 1 and 3.

same phase should be used. tables have been calculated for The 29. Frequency. standard frequencies. The values for 15 cycles per second
distance between wires of the

all

are

necessary for the design of single-phase railway systems, while 25, 40, 60, and 125 cycles per second cover the remaining systems Howof transmission for purposes of light, power, and traction.

where an odd frequency is to be employed, the required may be interpolated from the tables. Where circuits are in parallel from 30. Multiple Circuits. the source to receiver, the load should be proportioned between them and each line calculated separately.
ever,

value of

31.

city in

The current-carrying capaCurrent-carrying Capacity. in Table 4, page 8, for both is shown wire amperes per

copper and aluminum. The values in the table are based on a temperature rise of 40 cent, or 72 fahr., but the currentcarrying capacity for any temperature elevation may be found from formula (4), page 9. In general, overhead transmission lines are of sufficient length

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
to

35

insure the necessary current-carrying capacity when the conditions of volt loss are met. However, it is desirable to note from Table 4 that such is the case, after each determination of
wire.

Transmission Voltage. The voltage is taken between either at or the load source. The term "source" designates wires,
32.

the generator, the secondary terminals of step-up or step-down transformers, or a certain point of the circuit from which the calculation is made. In general the voltage at the source is
given, although in some cases of transmission to a single center of distribution, the voltage at the load is specified. The formulas have been stated in terms of both voltages in order to cover all
cases without any preliminary approximation. For convenience the voltage has been expressed in kilovolts, thousands of volts. In a two-phase four-wire system the voltage between the wires
of the

same phase is specified. With lagging current the voltage


is less

at the load

is

always

less

than the voltage at the generator.


voltage at load
of load

With leading current the


of the power-factor angles

when the sum

and line is less than 90 degrees, but it gradually becomes greater than the voltage at the generator as their sum increases above 90 degrees. In an alternating-current system the volt 33. Volt Loss. loss in the line is the difference between the voltages at the generator and at the load. The line loss is always less than the impedance volts and almost always greater than the projection of the impedance volts on the vector of delivered volts. It may be greater or less than the resistance volts. (See Figs. 1 and 2,
be expressed in terms of the volts However, either may be obtained from the other by means of the simple equations shown below the table of formulas on page 50. For convenience in calculations the cent loss is a whole number. as per expressed
loss

page 30.) The per cent volt


at load or source.

may

Power Transmitted. The power transmitted is always at the and is specified load, usually expressed as true power in kilowatts or as apparent power in kilo volt-amperes. Where
34.

the load

is given in amperes the equivalent value of kilowatts be obtained from equations (59) or (60) solved for W. The may values of B in Table 17, page 52, serve to make the formula

36
for

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
amperes per wire
applicable
to
all

systems

of

trans-

mission.

For balanced loads in one-phase, two-phase four-wire or threephase circuits the current is the same in each wire, while in the two-phase three-wire system, the current in the common lead is In the two-phase 1.41 times that in each of the other wires. three-wire system / represents the amperes in each of the outer

same as the current per phase. The power loss in any system depends only upon the current and resistance. The per cent power loss may
wires, this being the 35. Power Loss.

be greater or less than the per cent volt loss. It is less than the per cent volt loss, V, when the power-factor at the source is less than the power-factor of the load, and is greater when the reverse An exception to this statement may occur when capacity is true.
effects in the line are included.

(See Example 20, page 48, and Example 25, page 69.) The power at the source is the sum of the power at load and the power loss in line. The power-factor of the load is always 36. Power-Factor. have been calculated from 95 per cent The values of given.

lead to 75 per cent lag, for all frequencies except 125 cycles per second, giving a range sufficient to cover almost all practical
cases of transmission.

The power-factor at the load should be known accurately, as the value of varies greatly with it. The power-factor at the source depends upon the power-factor

at the load, the per cent power loss and the per cent volt loss. For current leading at the load, the power-factor is less leading at the source than at the load, and even may become lagging at

(See Example 24, page 68.) Lagging current at the always accompanied by lagging current at the source. The power-factor at 'the source is lower than the powerfactor of the load when the volt loss, V, is a larger percentage than the power loss, P, and it is higher at the source when the reverse is true. This statement may be modified by capacity

the source.
is

load

effects in the line.

(See

Example

20,

page

48,

and Example

25,

page
37.

69.)

The wire factor, M, depends upon the and on the power-factor angles of the impedance load and line. The values have been calculated for copper and aluminum at all standard frequencies, for a range of sizes and
of the wires,

Wire Factor.

load power-factors sufficient to cover

all

practical cases likely

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

37

Tables 18 to 22 give the results to arise in transmission design. for copper, and Tables 23 to 27 for aluminum. Those values
which, under certain conditions, might lead to errors greater than previously specified have been omitted.
38.

Given Items.
is

either the line loss

the size of wire

The given problem may be of two kinds; and the size of wire is required, or In both specified and the line loss is required.
is

specified

cases the additional items to be given are system of transmission,


of transmission,

conductor metal, temperature, frequency, wire spacing, distance power delivered, power-factor of load, and the
voltage between wires at the source of load. The size of wire is generally determined 39. Size of Wire.

from the per cent volt loss, although in some instances it is fixed by the condition of per cent power loss. Formulas are given for both methods of procedure. When the per cent volt loss is given, the value of A is taken from Table 16, page 52, for the given system of transmission, temperature and specific conductivity. From Table 15, page 51, or VQ is found, depending upon whether the voltage is given is then calculated from The value of at the load or source. of or and the size wire is noted from Tables 18 formula (46) (47),

to 27, opposite the required value of

M.

given the per cent power loss, R is calculated from formula (48) or (49), and the size of wire is found in Table 3, page 7,

When

The wire found by opposite the required resistance per mile. of each conductor. either method is the required size
It is desirable to calculate the 40. Per Cent Volt Loss. per cent volt loss after the size of wire is determined. The value

of

M whether between the section letters a and


noted from the proper table.

b,

and c, or

d, is

The

value of

V"

or

and " is

calculated from formula (50) or (51), and then located in Table 15, page 51, in the column headed by the same section letters as

noted above for M. The corresponding value of per cent volt loss in terms of the volts at load or source, respectively, is then Where the calcuobtained in the column headed by V or V lated value does not appear in the table, the corresponding value of V or V is easily found by interpolation.
.

calculations are clearly outlined in the table of When the voltages at the load and source formulas on page 50. become known, either formula for any required item may be used.

The remaining

38

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

The total charging current for a 41. Charging Current. single-phase circuit or for each phase of a two-phase four-wire
circuit
is

0.000122
2
log,,

EJL
D
of a three-phase three-wire

-j-

The charging current per wire


circuit
is

0.000141

EJL

E = / = L = D = d =

Kilovolts between wires at source.

Frequency in cycles per second. Distance from source to load, in miles.


Distance between center of wires. Diameter of wire in same unit as D.

42. Capacity Effects. Capacity influences the voltage loss, In all systems the power loss and the power-factor at generator. or commercial high frequency, except those of unusual length capacity may be entirely neglected without any disturbing error. However, the effect of capacity may be easily included in the

calculations

by assuming that the same

result

is

produced by

substituting for the distributed capacity of the line one-half its total at each end.* The true power-factor of the load is then

replaced by an apparent value determined as follows:


.

.'....

(44)

After if has been calculated, the corresponding apparent power-factor is taken from Table 14, page 39-, and this value is for the determination of the size of wire, used in the table of

volt loss

and power

loss.

The true power-factor at the source is obtained by the follow' using the apparent ing method: Formula (61) is solved for ' power-factor of load for K. The value of t corresponding to

',

KQ
is
t
.

is

noted from Table

14,

page
14,

(45) for the reactance factor.

39, and substituted in formula The true power-factor at source

then obtained from Table


(See

Example

20,

page

48,

by finding and Example

K
25,

corresponding to

page 69.)
(45)

WQ
*

Method

of

H. Fender, Proceedings of A.I.E.E., June, 1908, page 772.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
In formulas (44) and (45) above,

39

= E = EQ =s / = L = =
c

Capacity factor. Table 13, page 39. Kilovolts between wires at load.
Kilovolts between wires at source.

=
=

W= W=

Frequency in cycles .per second. Distance from source to load, in miles. Reactance factor for true power-factor of load. Table 14. Reactance factor for apparent power factor of load. Reactance factor for true power-factor at source. Reactance factor for apparent power-factor at source.
Kilowatts at load.

Kilowatts at source.
Table 13.

Values of c for Overhead Wires.

Cir. Mils

or A.W.G.

40

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

has been inclosed in brackets after


values.

many

of

the

calculated

transformer substation of an electric railway 3200 kw. at 15 cycles per second and 80 per cent lagging power-factor over 40 miles of single-phase copper The loss is to be 15 per line with its wires on 60-inch centers. cent of the 33,000 volts generated, the temperature 20 cent., and
is to be supplied with

Example n.

the wires are to be of 100 per cent conductivity.

GIVEN ITEMS.

3200 kw.;

From Table From Table

16, 15,

EQ = 33 kv.; 7 = L = 40 miles; K = page 52, A = 0.200. page 51, V = 10.9.


'

15 per cent;

0.80 lag.

Size of each wire.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (47),


.

M=
From Table
(o

(33) X10.9 2 X 3200 X 40

18,

page 53, use No. 00, for which

M
f

0.494

d).
volt loss.
T/ __

Per cent

From
0.494

(51),

0.2

3200

40

n6

_^\

From Table

15,

page

51,

V =
Kttovolts at load.

15.3 per cent.

[15.3 per cent.]

From
33
(1

(53),

E =
VoUloss.

0.153)

= -

28.0 kv.

[28.0 kv.]

From
v

(54),

1000 (33

28)

5000
3,

volts.
7,

[5000 volts.]

Per cent power

loss.

From Table

page

R =

0.411 ohm.

Kilowatts at source.

From
(1

[21.0 per cent.]


(57),

3200

0.21)

3870 kw.

[3870 kw.]

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
Watt
loss.

41

From

(58),

P= 1000 (3870-3200) = 670,000


Amperes per
wire.

watts.
52,

[670,000 watts.]

From Table

17,

page

B=

1.000.

From

(60),

33

(1
4,

page
8,

From Table
current.

No. 00 conductors will safely carry this

Power-factor at source.

From

(61),

(1

0.21) (1

0.153) 0.80

0.820.

[0.820.]

A lighting transformer 10,000 feet distant is Example 12. to receive 50 kw. at 95 per cent lagging power-factor and 125 cycles per second with a loss of 5 per cent of the 2000 volts at
load at a temperature of 30 cent. The line is to be single-phase and of copper conductors of 100 per cent conductivity on 18inch centers.

GIVEN ITEMS.

T7=50kw.;
From Table From Table

#=2kv.; L = 10,000
16,
15,

7=
feet;

5 per cent;

K=

0.95 lag.

page page

52,

51,

A = 0.0393. V = 4.8.

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Size of each wire.

From
(2)
2

(46),

^
From Table
Per cent
22, use
volt loss.

4.8

0.0393

50

10

No.

0, for

which

M
10

0.905

(b

c).

From

(50),

v/ ,

= 0.905 X
15,

0.0393

50

= 445/5

From Table

page 51,
2 (1

7=

4.75 per cent.

[4.75 per cent.]

Kilovolts at source.

From

(52),

E =
Per cent power
loss.

0.0475)

=
3,

2.10 kv.

[2.10 kv.]

From Table

page

7,

R=

0.518 ohm.

42

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

From

(55),

Kilowatts at source.

From
50
(1

(57),

W
Amperes per

0.0282)

51.4 kw.
52,

[51.4 kw.]

wire.
/

From Table
2

17,

page

A=

1.000.

From

(59),

^_ =
0.95

26.3 amperes.
(61),

[26.3 amperes.]

Power-factor at source.

From

Example

13.

(From

Electric Journal, 1907,

page 231, Ex.

2.)

GIVEN ITEMS.

TF=75kw.;
System: 1-phase, 60

#=2kv.; L = 5000 feet;

Wires

No. 4;
0.95 lag.

K=

Assume
cent.

cycles, 18-inch spacing. wires of 100 per cent copper and temperature of 20

From Table From Table

16,

page

52, 56,

A =

0.0379.
1.38
(c

21,

page

M=

d).

Per

cent volt loss.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (50),


75

r/ ,

_ 1.38X0.0379 X
2

X 5_

9(Hc

(2)

From Table

15,

page

51,

V=

5.40 per cent.

[5.40 per cent.]

Kilovolts at source.

From

(52),

E=
Volt loss.

2 (1

0.054)

2.11 kv.

[2.11 kv.]

From

(54),

v=
Example
14.

1000 (2.11

2.00)

110 volts.
"

[110 volts.]

(From "Alternating Currents

by Franklin and

Esty, 1907, page 321.)

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
GIVEN ITEMS.

43

TF=1000kw.;

# =23kv.; L = 30 miles;

E =

20 kv.;
0.85 lag.

K =

System: 1-phase, 60 cycles, 18-inch spacing. Assume temperature of 20 cent, and copper of 100 per cent
conductivity.

From Table

16,

page

52,

A=

0.200.
15,

7= -^=15 per cent.


Size of each wire.
(20)
0.2

From Table

page

51,

V=

13.1.

REQUIRED ITEMS From (46),


2

X13.1

1000

30
1,

From Table

21,

page
(c

56, use No.

for

which

M= 0.936
Per cent
volt loss.

d}.

From

(50),

T/"

0.936

From Table
Example
15.

15,

X 1000 X 30 __+ Anff ^ ~7207" [15.5 per cent.] page 51, V = 15.75 per cent. A load of 750 kw. of 2-phase power at 25 cycles
X
0.2

per second and 100 per cent power-factor is to be delivered over 5 miles of aluminum line of 4 wires with 36 inches between conductors of the same phase, with a loss of 7.5 per cent of the 6600 volts generated, at 30 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W= 750

kw.;

E = L =

6.6 kv.;

7 =

5 miles;

K=
0.104.
6.4.

7.5 per cent; 1.00.

From Table From Table

16, 15,

page 52, page 51,

A = F '=

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Size of each wire.

From

(47),
.

()' xa.4-- 0716 M- 0.104 X 750 X 5

44

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
23,

From Table

page
(c

58, use

No.

0, for

which

M
Per cent

0.755

d).

volt loss.

From

(51),

y
From Table

0.755X0.104X75X5 =
2

6 ?6

(c

(6.6)
15,

page

51,

F = E =
Per cent power

8.16 per cent.

[8.10 per cent.]

Kilovolts at load.

From

(53),

6.6 (1
loss.

0.0816)

6.06 kv.
3,

[6.07 kv.]
7,

From Table
750

page

R=

0.837 ohm.

From

(55),

p =

0.837

0.104
(6.06)

=88Qpercent
(57),

[8

82 per cent>]

Kilowatts at source.

From
(1

W = 750
Amperes per
wire. 7

+
75Q

0.0889)
17,

817 kw.
52,

[816 kw.]

From Table
'

page

B =

0.500.

From

(59),
4,

= 61.9

6.06

amperes.

[61.8 amperes.]
will easily

From Table

page

8,

No.

aluminum conductors
(61),

carry this current.


Power-factor at source.

From

K =
Example
16.

(1

0.0889). (1

0.0816)

1.00.

[1.00.]
is

A two-phase

three-wire line 30 miles long

to deliver 2000 kw. at 40 cycles per second and 98 per cent lagging power-factor with a loss of 10 per cent of the 20,000 volts at
load.
tivity on 36-inch centers

Calculate the size of copper wires of 98 per cent conducfor a temperature of 50 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W= 2000
From Table
From Table
16,
15,

kw.;

E= 20 L= 30
52, 'A
51,

kv.;

V=
K =
0.138.

10 per cent; 0.98 lag.

miles;

page

^~ =
U. C/O

page

V=

9.1.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
REQUIRED ITEMS.
Size of each wire.

45

From

(46),

M= 0.138
From Table
the
20,

2000

30

common

lead to No. 000.

page 55, use three No. 00 wires, or increase = 0.466 (c - d). For No. 00,

Per cent
T///

volt loss.

From

(50),

0.466

0.138

X
2

2000

30

Q R4

(20)

From Table

15,

page

51,

7=

10.84 per cent.


1.41 times that in each

Since the volt loss in the


of the outer wires,

common lead is

Per cent volt

loss in

outer wire

-:

4.50 per cent.

larger in the A. than cent each outer wire, larger) per Approximate per cent volt loss in common lead

With a common lead one number

W. Gauge

(26

= 10.841.26

4.5

Therefore, in the above case with No. 00 outer wires

and No.
per

000 for the


cent.

common

lead,

Approximate

total per cent volt loss


wire.

4.50

5.03

= 9.53
0.500.

Amperes per

From Table

17,

page

52,

B =

From

(59), in

each outer wire,

In

common

wire,

/=

51

1.41

71.9 amperes.

Two substations located respectively at 40 Example 17. and 50 miles away are supplied from a No. 00, 25-cycle threephase aluminum line with wires on 60-inch centers. The total
load at the nearer substation (No. 1) is 2000 kw. at 95 per cent lagging power-factor, while the other (No. 2) takes 1000 kw. at 98 per cent lagging power-factor, the generator voltage being 33,000 and the temperature 30
cent.

46

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
GIVEN ITEMS.
For No.
For No.
1
:

W= 2000 kw.
K=
0.95 lag;
(c

E =

2:

W= 1000 kw.; M= 0.655 16,

M= L=
d).

L = 40 miles 0.690 (c d) 10 miles; K = 0.98 lag;


33 kv.
;
;
.

From Table

page

52,

A=

0.104.

Per cent
T/
//

volt

drop

to

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (51), No. 1.


0.104

VQ

_ 0.690 X
:

X
2

2000

40

9ft

(33)

From Table
Per cent
above.
volt

15,

page
1.

51,

V =
1

6.26 per cent.

KilovoltsatNo.

From

(53),

#=

33
2.

(1

drop from No.

to

No.

- 0.0626) = 30.9 kv. E =30.9 kv. from

From
T/

(51),

VQ

_ 0.655 X
:

0.104

X
2

1000

10

n 71

^
= 30.6

(30.9)

From Table

15,

page

51,

V =
(53),

0.81 per cent.

Kilovolts at No. 2.

From

E=

30.9 (1 -0.0081)

kv.

A three-phase load of 5000 kw. and 25 cycles at is to be delivered 30,000 volts to a receiver having 95 per cent lagging power-factor, over 40 miles of No. 00 copper wires of
Example
18.*

100 per cent conductivity on 48-inch centers, at a temperature


of 20
cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W= 5000

kw.;

E= 30

kv.;

L=

40 miles;
54, M

K= 0.95
=
0.457

lag.
(c

By interpolation from Table 19, page From Table 16, page 52, A = 0.100.

d).

Per cent

volt loss.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (50),

T///

_ 0.457 X

""
0.1

5000

40

,.

Problem of H. Fender, Proceedings

of A.I.E.E., June, 1908,

page 771.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
From Table
15,

47

page

51,

V =

11.3 per cent.

[11.3 per cent.]

Kilovolts at source.

From
0.113)

(52),

EQ =
Volt loss.
v

30

(1

33.4 kv.

[33.4 kv.]

From

(54),

1000 (33.4
loss.

30.0)

3400
3,

volts.
7,

[3400 volts.]
0.411 ohm.

Per cent power

From Table

page

R =

From

(55),

Kilowatts at source.

From

(57),

WQ =
Amperes per

5000
wire.

(1

0.101)

5505 kw.
17,

[5505 kw.]
52,

From Table

page

B =

0.578.

From

(59),

'

578

500

101.4 amperes.

[101.4 amperes.]

From Table

4,

page

8,

No. 00 wires have ample current-

carrying capacity.
Power-factor at source.

From

(61),

=
Example

o.94 lag.

[0.94 lag.]

A three-phase load of 10,000 kw. at 60 cycles 19. and second 98 per cent leading power-factor is to be delivered per over 65 miles of three aluminum wires on 60-inch centers, with
a loss of 15 per cent of the 44,000 volts generated; temperature

40

cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W=

10,000 kw.

E = L =

44 kv.

F =

65 miles;

K= 0.98

15 per cent;
lead.

From Table From Table

16,

15,

page page

52, 51,

A = 0.108. TV = 10.9.

REQUIRED ITEMS.
.

Size of each wire.

From
0.108

(47),
2

M==

(44)

10.9

10,000

65

48

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
26,

From Table
(a

page

61, use

No. 0000, for which

M = 0.316
M

6). volt loss.

Per cent
T,

From

(51),

0.316

0.108

10,000

65

1 1

(44)*

From Table
From
(56),

15,

page 51,

F =

17.3 per cent.


3,

Per cent power

loss.

From Table

page

7,

R=

[17.4 per cent.]

0.417 ohm.

Power-factor at source.

From

(61),

K =

(1

0.23) (1

0.173)

0.98=

1.00.

[0.994 lead.]

A three-phase load of 7500 kw. at 90 per Example 20.* cent lagging power-factor and 60 cycles per second is to be delivered over 140 miles of three copper wires of 100 per cent
conductivity on 96-inch centers, with a voltage loss of 18.7 per cent of the volts at load, the voltage at the source being 71,200.

Include the effect of capacity and assume a temperature of

20 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W= 7500

kw.;

71.2 kv.;

V=

18.7 per cent;


lag.

L=
From Table
From
(63),
16,

140 miles;

K= 0.90

page

52,

A-

0.100.

V =
15,

|yj^
51,
T

15-8 per cent.


11.2.

From Table

page

V=

REQUIRED ITEMS.
size of wire

Apparent power-factor of load. Assuming that the required will be between Nos. 0000 and 8, c is approximately 0.00005. (From Table 13, page 39.) From Table 14, page 39, the reactance factor corresponding
to 90 per cent lagging power-factor

0.49.

* Based on Problem of H. Fender, Proceedings of A.I.E.E., June, 1908,

page 774.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
From
,

49

(44),

page 38,

Q 4Q

Q.QOQQ5[71.2

(1

0.158)]

60

140

Q 2g

7500

By interpolation in Table 14, page 39, the apparent powerfactor of load, K', = 0.96 lag
Size of each wire.

From
0.1

(47),

7500

140

21, page 56, use No. 00, for to be 0.600 (c d). interpolation

From Table
Per cent
T7
T
:

which

is

found by

volt loss.

From

(51),

0.600

0.1

7500

140

10

,,

(71.2)'

From Table

15,

Page 51,F

16.7 per cent.

[17.2 per cent.]

Kilovolts at load.

From
71.2 (1

(53),

E=
Per cent power

0.167)

=
3,

59.3 kv.

[59.0 kv.]

loss.

From Table

page

7,

R=

0.411 ohm.

From

(55),

Kilowatts at source.

From
(1

(57),

W
K '=

7500

0.133)

8500 kw.

[8500 kw.]

Power-factor at generator (not including capacity).


(1

From

(61),

0.133) (1
'

0.167) 0.96

0.91.

From Table 14, page From (45), page 38,

39,

0.46.

0.00005 X(71.2) 2 8500

60

140

n 91

From Table

14,
Z

page 39, the true power-factor at load,


),

(corresponding to

0.98 lag.

[0.98 lag.]

50

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Formulas for A.
Required Items.

C. Transmission

by Overhead Wires.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION
Table 15.

51

Values of Volt Loss Factors.

52

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

Table 16

Values of

for

Balanced Loads.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

53

-S

a
S

a
S

S
K

3s

= ss: .^
8 8.s.

? s-~.

SIS
58$

i
CO

-.-.-.

*..*.*.-

U O
10

op

t^-

ITN

Npmrom

5? 25
S S

5*2

^"

s *~

SIS
'

So
-

O>

S
i

fSJ

o 8
S
<u

gl^^SS X _ _
O
c* oo

eg

S eg

eg r^ TT

K S

=:? m hM

o-

s
n

oo

Us

S 3

S iJ
~oo r^

S _
?g

N rg ^ O eg * -

S (N
oo f^ eg

5
eg
s I **

^
-=

ts

rg

^
"
00

o^^i - -

I
.

OOO
3

CO

Tfi

10 10 D- 00

54

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

s 8

S S
S
o

8 8
S g 8
S

s
8

SS..
25
i S

I
C?)

S
a
*

3 S

i
2

SS..
8 S S
8: !*

s.

2.9

so

co

ro

0^

oo

oo

IS

m S

I
N

"-

I 5
1

S-S
2
c^
^

g
cA Ji

S
.

_ w
rr\
.

(sj

(N
f^\

r>,

8
mNO -

^. ^.
rg rg

I
S
-

a o

w
*v

rOTrirCD 2

sa
Pv]

-_

(VI

(VJ

s s

s
T>
s-

s *5
~

i-l

CM CO

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

55

S S
t3

1 5 5

1 3

*.-.*.

1
5

S
S

S S

(s)

rs)

&

S R
.

3-9 1-8

o %
S

g,

S-S S=

**.
S8

J5 >o >o
>e>

S
u-i

ON

r^

-iTsO^
ro

vooo
-

OO
r%

i 5
S

.1-9

I &
%
13

o s o a
<^

t^ o>

r>.

t^

oo oo

in

rN<Nit^f^

2
* ^ S
m
*

S S S S
cgr-l
<0

fVJ

a-S

,0

S
P
^i
<u

.|
o o o o o

56

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

O g

CS

& s

O
rs

CO

CO

& s

NO
.

ON

iT%

ITS.

T
_

U"\

r>.

CN

~.
2!2-

^S

"'l-s^

SS
S
I .i
i

00

~-

*^

S
cs

s s
*

oo

o
"*

!
o
>

oo t>

Us
S

T o, S 1

o
m
<

\o O

i
-?s
in

i
=~
vO

-.

^.

R -.

*.

'

o
*
xr

tn

o vo

ES

I
5 S
-.

rs

t<v

^ S

S O O

I -S

Hi

<~3

rH

C4

CO

lOCO^OO

ALTERNA TING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

57

58

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

(N

GO

_ 5

(VI

? 2

2 s
in

S g

ggg SR88.

m M
-i->

gigs
S S

g^.^ss,

od
tfl

8
S

a o

S
g

5 g

S g

31

SISi

.S

m
.a

.3
.

2 s

2 s

S
<S

I l-i

5.S
i

rQK^S

^CMiTiS

i-S
i^
-T

t?

s s

IT O

* M

oo <^

r^
"~>

* ^

rr\

ro CM ?J

OO 00

<N

^ O

O^Ov-^-OO <>&CMr^

US
I

r^

gS

2 2 a 8 S

OO

T^

SSS-K
CM r^

t^ GO fM

CO

I
.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

59

U^

NO O S 8

t*.

.?.

S
S

5
S
rN

1-

Ra.s.2.

S
vO

S
rA 5?

i -1
oo

-2
N

2
tr\

t^ 21

co

KJ

O S

I
10
(S

3
O

S
^T

i
s

SI
r^O^OO^

**

^
t>

oo

^*

oo

^*

o = 2 *S
=

8 K
8 S S
S

S S

2-S
S
S S

5-SS
1

S i

O X s

S S ? s s s i s 9 S [i it^o^K^^OOOiA^-mr-afA
?5
I

^ S

oo 2i

o S

fs

u*%

o-*

cvi

u^ f^

1*%

^-

r^ u^

rCoo

o o

.3-2
-S
3

5 5

I
j
OJ

2-S

Sa B5!!-IS

2 H

ctf

60

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

i
*

9
S

9
S

9
9

<
S

S
1

S
1

S'S-i

s-s
g
S.
CO
0>
:

NO m

r*
r-^

a O^ m 5

>O

OO

S 2 I

^T

(N

5Q

ir%

? O *

gj

S
ON

E mo*N~*

T
NO

OO
CN!

O m
?;

t>t

rv

-a
I

?5

O a
pg

CN|

S? -^

in

o
NO

t^

oo

SS ..

<

81

;.s

g.g
i

1
a
S
O NO

S-S
S NO
^

S
O ON

S
O

lolS A f
u

in to

*
<X

O?

r^

S "*

? "A

t^

SinooS
__

fO m

<s
ro
oo

r^ooONON
NO

m o ....

|
.S-S
2

S 1

S-S
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.*

S N rATro ~ *

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION

61

62

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

CHAPTER
CABLES.
44.

IV.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND


The

Introduction.

calculations for

underground cables

are very similar to those for overhead lines. The main difference in results is due to the proximity of the wires, in consequence of which inductance effects are considerably reduced. However,

with commercial thickness of insulation such effects are not entirely eliminated for the larger wires at the higher frequencies.
difference may be ascertained by comparing the values of M- at 100 per cent power-factor in Tables 34 and 35 with the resistance per mile of the same wires in Table 3. As the conductors in underground cables are almost always copper, the results have been calculated for that metal alone. The calculations for 15 cycles per second have been omitted.

The

The

error of the

common assumption

that the resistance drop

equals the volt loss is indicated in Table 28 below for insulation inch thickness. of

Table 28.

Assuming Resistance Drop = Volt Loss.

Error in Per Cent of True Volt Loss,

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
than 20 per cent of the generated volts or 25 per cent of the As in the case of overhead lines the formulas voltage at load. are approximate, but the error in general is much reduced, even
less

without subdivision of the wire factors into sections. The maximum error in the calculation for the per cent volt loss is about 5 per cent near per cent and 20 per cent volt losses, but it gradually reduces to a zero error near 10 per cent loss. Thus
for a true volt loss of 5 per cent the extreme range of the calculated result is about 4.85 to 5.15 per cent. Under ordinary

conditions the error

is

immeasurably small.

The maximum errors of the formulas under the most severe conditions are shown in the following table.
Table
29.

Maximum

Error in Per Cent of True Values, at 20 Cent.

TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES


and three-conductor
cables.

65

determined only by the volt


is

In most cases the size of cable is loss, but in some problems the
it
is

Hence current-carrying capacity may be the ruling factor. advisable to note from Table 4 that the calculated wire
50.

capable of carrying the required current without undue heating.

Although underground lines are of Capacity Effects. short length, yet the closeness of the conductors comparatively

and the high values


insulation sometimes

make

of the specific inductive capacity of the it advisable to determine the capaloss

The city values. tion of volt loss,

method
power

of including capacity in the calculaand the power-factor at source is

exactly like that given for overhead lines in paragraph 42, page 38.

The capacity

factor, c, for underground cables is to be taken from Table 30 below. The specific inductive capacity was assumed to be 2.5, but for any other value, c in Table 30 should be multiThus c for a threeplied by the ratio of the given value to 2.5. No. 00 and a conductors cable having specific inductive phase

capacity of

3, is

0.0007X3
2.5

0.00084.

Table 30.

Values of c for Underground Cables,

Circular Mils, or

A.W.G.

66
source
in
is

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
specified.

term "source" is specified are Following typical examples illusparagraph 32, page on of formulas the the page 71 trating application 21. A one-phase underground cable 5 miles long is Example
of the
35.
.

The meaning

800 kw. at 98 per cent lagging power-factor and 60 second with a loss of 10 per cent of the 6600 generated cycles per with volts, copper of 100 per cent conductivity and a temperature of 40 cent. GIVEN ITEMS.
to deliver

TF=800kw.;
From Table From Table
32,

31,

# =6.6kv.; 7 = L = 5 miles; K = = 0.215. page 72, A = 9.0. page 72, 1Y"


REQUIRED ITEMS. From (66), (6.6)^X9 =

10 per cent; 0.98 lag.

Size of each wire.

M= 0.215
From Table
Per cent
35,
volt loss.

800

Q.456.

page 74, use No. 00, for which

M = 0.448.

From

(70),

v
From Table
Volt loss.

///

0.448

0.215
2

.8005 _

(6.6)

31,

page 72,

VQ =

Kilovolts at load.

From

9.84 per cent. = 6.6 (1 - 0.0984) (72), E

5.95 kv.
volts.

From

Per cent power

= 1000 (6.60 (73), 5.95) From Table 3, page 7, R = loss.

v=

650

0.411 ohm.

From

(75),

Kilowatts at source.

From

(76),

TF

800

(1

0.104)

Watt

loss.

From

(77),

= 883 kw. p = 1000 (883 33,

800)

Amperes

per wire.

From Table

page 72,

= 83,000 watts. B = 1.000.

From

(79),

Power-factor at source.

From
(1

(80),

K =
Q

(1

0.104)

0.0984)

0.98=

0.975.

TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES

67

A one-phase underground cable with No. 1 Example 22. copper conductors of 98 per cent conductivity and 10,000 feet long, delivers 150 kw. at 85 per cent lagging power-factor and 125 cycles per second. The generator voltage is 2200 and the temperature is assumed 50 cent.
GIVEN ITEMS.

W=

150 kw.;
35, 32,

# =

2.2 kv.;

L=
'

10,000 feet;

K= 0.85

lag.

From Table
From Table

page 74,

M=
A=

0.896.

Q 0423
\)

page

72,

0.0432.

yo

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Per cent
volt loss.
// ,

From

(70),

0.896

0.0432

150

10

1on

From Table

31,

page 72,

V =

14.0 per cent.

Kilovolts at load.

From

(72),

E=

2.2 (1

0.14)

1.89 kv.

A three-phase load of 3000 kw. and 25 cycles Example 23. per second is to be delivered to a receiver having a lagging powerfactor of 95 per cent, over 6 miles of underground cable of 97 per
cent conductivity with a loss of 5 per cent of the 11,000 volts

generated; temperature 20

cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W = 3000
From Table
31, 32,

kw.

# =11

kv.

L=
From Table
page 72,

6 miles;

7 = K =

5 per cent;

0.95 lag.

page 72, VJ"

4.8.

A = 5L122 =
0.97

Q.103.

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Size of each wire.

From
(ID*

(66),

Jf-

4.8

0.103

3000

68

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

From Table
Per cent

34,

page 73, use No. 0000, for which

M = 0.280.

volt loss.

From

(70),

V '" = 0-280 X
From Table
Volt loss.
31,

0.103

X
2

3000

4 30

(H)
page 72,
(73), v

VQ =

4.50 per cent.

From
loss.

10

4.5
3,

11

Per cent power

From Table

page
6

= 495 volts. = 0.258 ohm. 7, R

From

(75),

X 3000 X p _ 0.258 X 0.103 [11 (1 0.045) 0.95]


2

^
page 72,

cent

Amperes per

wire.

From Table
><

33,

B =

0.578.

From

(79),

=
4,

'

578

3QQQ

11 (1

0.045) 0.95
8, it is

174 amperes.

From Table
heat.

page

seen that the cable will not over-

Power-factor at source.

From

(80),

K =
Example
24.

(1

0.048) (1

0.045)

0.95=

0.95.

conductors of three-phase cable with No. kw. at 6000 delivers 2500 98 per cent conductivity volts, 95 and 60 cycles per second, to a per cent leading power-factor
receiver 3 miles from the generator, the temperature of the wires being 40 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.
1500 kw.; #=6kv.; From Table 35, page 74,

IF-

L=

M=
A =

5 miles; 0.475.

K= 0.95 lead.

From Table

32,

page

72,

-^ =
(J.9o

0.110.

Per cent

volt loss.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (69),

v _
# =

0.475

0.11
(6)

X
2

1500

1Q 9

cent

Kilovolts at source.

From

(71),

(1

0.109)

6.65 kv.
3,

Per cent power

loss.

From Table

page

7,

R=

0.518 ohm.

TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES

69

From

(74),

= 0.518 X
.

0.11
.

1500
2

-5

cent

(6)

(0.95)
33,

Amperes per

wire.

From Table
1500

page 72,

B=

0.578.

From

(78),
7

0.578
6

0.95

From Table 4, page 8, this current is slightly in excess of the safe current-carrying capacity of the cable.
Power-factor at source.

From

(80),

g
There
is

d+0.132) 0.95 a Q97a 1 + 0.109

rent at the source

no indication from the above result whether the curIt then becomes is leading or lagging.

from which

necessary to construct a vector diagram similar to Fig. 2, page 30, it will be found that the current in the above case is
leading at the source.

three-phase load of 400 kw. at 95 per cent lagging power-factor and 125 cycles per second is to be transmitted 8 miles with a loss of 7.5 per cent of the generated voltage,

Example

25.

6600.

Include capacity effects and assume wires of 97 per cent conductivity and a temperature of 30 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W= 400
From Table
From Table

kw.;

EQ =
page 72,
page 72,

6.6 kv.;

7 =

7.5 per cent;


lag.

L=8
31, 32,

miles;
6.95.

=0.95

7 "'=

A - ^~- =
0.97

0.107

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Assuming that the required size Apparent power-factor of load. will be between Nos. 1 and 6, c= 0.0006 (from Table 30, page 65). From Table 14, page 39, the reactance factor for 95 per cent
of conductors

lagging power-factor

0.33.

70

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
(44),

From

0.0006 [6.6

(1

2 0.075)] 125

97

~400~~
interpolation in Table 14, page 39, the apparent factor of load, K', = 0.97 lag.

By

power

Size of each wire.

From
0.107

(66),

400

From Table

35,

page 74, use No. 2 cable, for which


approximately.
(70),

M = 0.925,
Per cent
volt loss.

From

"'

0-925

0.107
(6.6)

X
2

400

_7

97

From Table From


(75),

31,

page 72,
loss.

7 =

7.87 per cent.


3,

Per cent power

From Table

page

7,

R=

0.824 ohm.

Kilowatts at source.

From

(76),

400

(1

+0.081)

= 432 kw.
(80),

Power-factor at source (not including capacity).

From

K '=
Q

(1

0.081)
39,

(1
t

'

0.0727) 0.97
0.27.

0.97 lag.

From Table 14, page From (45), page 38,


t

n 97

0.0006 (6.6) 2 125

~~

8 _

ft

91

From Table

14,

page
),

39,

the 'true power-factor at load,

(corresponding to

0.98 lag.

TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES


Formulas
for A. C. Transmission

71

by Underground Cables.

Required Items.

72
Table

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
31.

Values of

F '" = F

(i-o.oi

).

FO

TRANSMISSION BY UNDERGROUND CABLES

73

74

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

CHAPTER

V.

INTERIOR WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION.


Interior wiring involves short runs of con52. Introduction. ductors; therefore the conductors are often determined by their current-carrying capacity rather than by conditions of maximum

drop.
for

It is generally advisable to note the required size of wire

both conditions. Table 4, page 8, gives the National Electric Code Standard for current-carrying capacity of interior wires. The formulas for interior wiring calculations are similar to

The the preceding ones for alternating-current transmission. units of power, voltage and distance have been changed in order
All the required items are expressed terms of the current per wire and the per cent volt loss is also given in terms of the power at load so that problems involving watts at load and voltage at source may be solved without

to facilitate calculation.

in

is considerably less than stated in paragraph 45 for underground conductors, on account of the smaller wires usually employed. The error at 20 cent,

preliminary approximation. The ordinary error of the calculation

of the

that the resistance drop equals the indicated in Table 36, page 76, for wires in conduits and on 3-inch centers.
volt loss
is

common assumption

It is apparent that results based on Table 36 may be much greater or much less even at power-factors near unity. The power-factor angles of the load and line. page 30.)

the assumptions of than the true values, error is due to the


(See Figs.
1

and

2,

have been The values of 53. Properties of Conductors. calculated for wires of 100 per cent Matthiessen's Standard at a temperature of 20 cent, or 68 fahr. However, the effects of
in Table 37,

temperature and conductivity are introduced by means of a and b page 82. Table 39, page 83, gives the values of 54. Spacing of Wires. for wires with a thickness of insulation of inch, while

75

76

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
is

Table 40, page 84,

calculated for conductors on 3-inch centers,

Any slight variation from either of these spacings will not appreciably alter the results, even for the largest wires at the highest
commercial frequency. Table 39 is to be used for wires in conduit, duplex cables, multi-conductor cables or twisted wires. Table 40 is for wires in molding, or for open work such as wires on cleats or knobs. A simple method of dealing with dis55. Ampere-Feet. tributed lamps is by use of formula (84) on page 8L The term
II is
is equal to the sum of the products / each load, given by multiplied by its distance I.

the ampere-feet and

Table 36.

Error in Per Cent of True Volt Loss, Assuming Resistance Drop = Volt Loss.

Size

of

Wire.

A.W.G.

WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION

77

A group of lamps having a power-factor of Example 26. 95 per cent lag is to be supplied with 20 amperes at 60 cycles per second over a single-phase copper cable 150 feet long. Calculate the size of wire for 2 volts drop at 30
of 97 per cent conductivity.
cent, for copper

GIVEN ITEMS.
/=

2 volts; I 20 amperes; From Table 37, page 82, a = 963

v=

= X

150 feet;
0.97 =

K = 0.95 lag.

934.

Size of each wire,

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (84),


934 x 2 20 X 150
0.623.

From Table
Example

0.623. 39, page 83, use No. 5, for which a cable with At 40 cent, No. 8 27. single-phase

conductors of 97 per cent conductivity and 200 feet long, delivers 25 amperes at 98 per cent lagging power-factor from a trans-

former which gives 100 volts at 125 cycles per second.

GIVEN ITEMS.
/

25 amperes;
37,

From Table From Table

39, page 83, M

100 volts;

200

feet;

K = 0.98

lag.

1.27,

page 82,

a = 928

0.97

900;

= 222. -^ y
\j
*

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Volt loss.

From

(85),

1.27

xsx 200 = 70voltg


100

Volts at load.

Per cent

volt loss.

From (89), e = From (86),

93 volts.

Per cent power

loss.

From Table

3,

page

7, r

0.000627.

78

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

From

(90),

p _ 0.000627 X
Watts
at load.

222

X
X^25
38,
'

200

From Table

page 82,
98

B=

1.000.

From
Watt

(94),
loss.

w=
From

25

93
1

2280 watts.
2280== 173 watts.

.00

(92),

p=

0.076

Power-factor at source.

From

(96),

Example

28.

60-cycle

step-down transformer with 120

volts at its secondary terminals is connected to a load of 2000 watts at 90 per cent lagging power-factor over 200 feet of singlephase circuit on cleats. Determine the size of wire for 5 per cent

drop at 20 cent, and copper of 98 per cent conductivity.

GIVEN ITEMS.

w=

2000 watts;

120 volts;
feet;

1= 200

7 = K=

5 per cent;
0.90 lag.

From Table 31, page 72, 7 ///= 4 -8v= 0.05 X 120 = 6 volts. From (98), From Table 37, page 82, a = 1000 X 0.98 - 980. B from Table 38, page 82, = From (95), (in which
2000
120
(1

1.000),

0.05) 0.90

Size of each wire.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (84),

98QX6 =1.51. M= 19.5 X 200


From Table
Per cent
40,

page

84, use

No.

8, for

which

M= 1.20.

volt loss.

From

(87),

v '" = L2Q X 0.01 X

200 980

X 20 X (120)

m 3 40
2

WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION

79

From Table
Amperes

31,

Volts at load.

V = From (89), e=
page
72,

3.50 per cent.

120

(1

0.035)

116 volts.

per wire.

From
116

(94),

=
X
0.90

19.2 amperes.

From Table
carried

4,

page

8, it is

seen that the current will be safely

by No. 8

wires.

A load of 1500 watts at 110 volts, 85 per cent Example 29. lagging power-factor and 60 cycles per second is to be delivered 250 feet over a two-phase four- wire circuit on cleats, with a loss of 2 per cent of the generated volts. Calculate the size of wire of
98 per cent conductivity for a temperature of 30 cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.

W=
From

1500 watts;

1= 250 feet;
(98),

= 110 volts; K=0.85 lag.


e
-

V =

2 per cent;

02
~

11Q

2.25 volts.
^

JL

U.U^

From Table 37, page 82, a = 963 X 0.98 = 944. From (94) (in which B from Table 38, page 82, =

0.500),

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Size of each wire.

From

(84),

X 2.25 M = 944 8 X 250


From Table
Per cent
40,

page

84, use

No.

8, for

which

M = 1.18.

volt loss.

From

(86),

Volts at source.

From

(88), e

110

(1

0.0227)

113 volts.

80

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
30.

A 125 volt, 125 cycle generator is to supply a of load 100 amperes per wire at 100 per cent powerthree-phase factor over 225 feet of cable, with a loss of 3 per cent of the generated volts. The wires are to have a conductivity of 99 per cent
Example
and a temperature
of 30
cent.

GIVEN ITEMS.
7

100 amperes;

125 volts;

F =

3 per cent

/= 225 feet;
From (98), v=0.03 X 125=3.75 From Table 37, page 82,
a

K=

LOO.

volts.

1110

X 0.99=

1100;

&

-=181.

REQUIRED ITEMS.
Size of each wire.

From

(84),
'

,.1100 X 3.75_ 100 X 225


From Table
Volt toss.
39,

ft100

page 77, use No. 00, for which


(85),

M = 0.163.

From

Per cent

volt loss.

From

(98),

Volts at toad

From

(89),

e=

125

- 3.3=

121.7 volts.

WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION


Formulas for A.C. Interior Wiring.
Required Items.

81

82
Table 37.

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Values of a and b for Balanced Loads.

Temperature
in

Degrees.

WIRES FOR ALTERNATING-CURRENT DISTRIBUTION

83

S S - _
08 5r **

S 3 9 N V o 2

S -

S
cs

288:

to t-

3
.

<

So fn ?R <s cs t^

S o 3 ? in >o

!n

S :<=>

""

S8S5 SS.R
.s
CA

i^2

SSSi 58 5.8.
8 5 s
2.s
u-v

2^E

2 5-2-2

----

as
i
!z

2 5

S 1

s 1

i orsu^^
ONOr^

TOOOOO fsAmT

oor^o^ -o ix

SS3
T*^GO

3S
s

ssss

84

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

tApr,

o^CMf^cs

oo-

a
-IT
<sM

OO

s S

5?

r^O^
S
".
.

O^r^\t>
-.
.

".

S S S

--

ssss

OO

O ^I^O

OOO <NOO

"r
oo

fs,

SSS
in ^O

o
fei

s
so

=3.8.-.

I
I

<M o m = 2 2 2

oo <s

a a s
<NOrit^
TT<N\O-^-

r^r^o

552
& S

s
s

228

r-rtn

55

-.

<NOO\O ^fo^ *

O^OO^T

"

02

tOCOOOO

IM

CHAPTER

VI.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS.


57.

Introduction.

trolley circuit consists primarily of


single,

overhead trolley wire suspended from

an double or multiple

catenary construction, and the track rails. The trolley wire may be in parallel with an auxiliary feeder or " by-pass." However, the installation of auxiliary feeders is the exception rather than the rule, and since their position with respect to the trolley wire

and

rails is of

has been

much importance but made to include them in

the results.

of wide variation, no attempt The table of

has been calculated for 15 and 25-cycle systems with one and two bonded rails per track. The rails have a relative resistance of
steel to

copper of 12, while the trolley wires are taken at 100 per cent conductivity and 20 cent. The value of is based on the 58. Method of Calculation. " " and on isolated Report of Electric Railway Test Commission

calculations published in various places. General laws have been deduced for the grounded portion of the circuit, and they have been found to agree sufficiently well with the experimental results. The properties of the trolley and catenary construction have been calculated and the results have been combined with

those for the

rails to

The formulas on page 92


of

obtain the values of the complete circuit. are similar to those for overhead trans-

mission lines except that the former have been expressed in terms amperes in order to facilitate computation. The per cent volt loss is also given in terms of the kilowatts at load in order to

avoid approximation when the voltage


source.

is

known only

at

the

Due to skin effect, an alternating cur59. Impedance of Rail. rent flowing through a steel rail has a diminishing density toward the center, thereby increasing the effective resistance of the rail.

Eddy currents and hysteresis losses produce a further increase in the effective resistance, resulting in an impedance to alternating current considerably greater than the resistance of the
85

86
rail to direct

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
current.

impedance divided by the impedance ratio. The impedance of a complete track depends upon the frequency of the system, on the height of the trolley wire, on the shape, size, permeability and specific resistance of the rail, and on the character of bonds and roadbed. It is evidently a complex quantity and can be determined only by tests of installed track under normal conditions of operation.
ratio of

The

resistance to direct current

is

called the

The permeability of a given rail Permeability of Rail. of the current. The method of variation depends upon density
60.
is

irregular but an average value of the permeability can be assumed without causing much error in the final result. 61. Impedance and Weight of Rail. The impedance depends on the size and shape of rail and differs in the standard bullhead It section of foreign practice from the T-rail of this country.
installed.

changes very slightly with the weight of the rail commonly In any case the impedance has-been found by experiment to vary inversely with the perimeter of the section. 62. Impedance of Rail and Frequency. Experiment shows, at least at lower frequencies, that the impedance of rails varies
directly as the square root of the cycles per second.

Thus

at

25 cycles per second the impedance is about 1.3 times the corresponding value at a frequency of 15. It has been concluded 63. Formula for Rail Impedance. from experiments that the impedance of rails varies directly
as

the square root of

the frequency and the

inversely

as

the

perimeter.

However, perimeter of standard T-rails is approximately proportional to the square root of their weight

per yard. The author has developed the following formula and has found that it agrees sufficiently well with tests to serve
for purposes of practical calculation. Impedance per mile of one T-rail,

bonded and

installed,

-"v/i Pounds per yard

'Cycles per second

The constant 0.8 is based on an impedance ratio of 6.6 at 25 cycles per second for a 75-pound bonded rail of a relative resistance of steel to copper of about 12, with the trolley wire about 20 feet above the track.*
* General Electric Co.'s Bulletin, No. 4392, 1904.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS

87

The power-factor increases with 64. Power-Factor of Track. the current, but at the lower frequencies this variation is small for normal current densities. Tests of the Electric Railway
Commission show a
weight of rail
slight increase of power-factor with the but other experiments indicate practically no change.* The power-factor of the track has been assumed constant for all rail weights, at 65 per cent for 15 cycles and 55 per cent for 25 cycles per second.

Height of Trolley. Trolley wires for single-phase in from about 18 to 22 feet above rails. height systems range The height assumed in the calculations of is 22 feet, but any variation within standard limits will have small effect on the impedance of the trolley, and almost no effect on the impedance
65.

of the track.
of Catenary Construction. The trolley wire is from a or from two wires arranged supported single catenary wire,
66.

Effect

either horizontally or vertically. In almost every case the trolley and catenary wires are electrically connected. However, since

the catenary wires are steel, their skin effect prevents them from carrying more than a small part of the current, which for single catenary construction has been determined by calculation to

be equivalent to about 10 per cent.f In double or multiple catenary construction the proportional part of the current carried

by the

trolley

is

somewhat reduced, but

in order to be safe in

calculation for either type of overhead construction, the above result has been used.

The ohmic resistance 67. Impedance of Complete Circuit. and the reactance of the track and trolley having been calculated, the two were combined to obtain the total impedance.
Table 42, page 93, gives the values of M. It will be observed that the effect of varying the rail weight is less pronounced than of varying the size of trolley, or, in other words, that the greater part of the total impedance is due to the trolley. Since the impedance of the overhead system is susceptible of fairly accurate
calculation, it follows that any error and variation in the assumed value of the track impedance will have a small effect on the final
result.

This conclusion
is

is

corroborated by

tests.

Following

a comparison between the calculated impedance

* Foster's "Electrical Engineer's Pocketbook," 1908, page 795. t J, B. Whitehead, Proceedings of A.I.E.E., May, 1908, page 627.

88

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS

per mile and the published results of tests on installed lines. The values of the Electric Railway Test Commission are not included, as their test track is not similar to modern construction.

Table 41.

Test and Calculated Values of Impedance Per Mile at 25 Cycles Per Second.

Rails.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS

89

From

(107)

and Table

42,

page

93, the following results are

obtained:

90

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
33.
rails

trolleys supplies each of three cars with 50 amperes at 85 per cent power-factor when located at 3, 5, and 10 miles away, respectively, the power station
Ib.

Example bonded

25-cycle single-phase road with four 80-

and two No. 000

voltage being 11,000. Owing to the power-factor at the


solution
is

first

two

cars, the following

slightly in error.

GIVEN ITEMS.

IL = 50

(3

10)

900 ampere-miles.

From Table

42,

page 93,

M=

0.0315.

Per cent

volt loss to

REQUIRED ITEMS. last car. From (103),

FQ=

0.0315

900

=26pe
#=11
(1-0.026) =10.7 kv.

Kilovolts at last car.

From

(106),

A 25-cycle single-phase car starting 8 miles Example 34. from a transformer station generating 6600 volts takes 500 kw. at 80 per cent power-factor from a circuit consisting of two 70Ib. rails and one No. 000 trolley.
GIVEN ITEMS.

TF=500kw.; # =6.6kv.; L= 8 miles; From Table 42, page 93, M = 0.066.


REQUIRED ITEMS. From (104),

K= 0.80 lag.

Per cent

volt loss.

v
From Table
Amperes.
31,

0.066

X
2

500

fi

(6.6) 0.80

page

72,

7 =

8.3 per cent.

Kilovolts at load.

From
(112),

(106),

E=

6.6 (1

0.083)

6.05 kv.

From

6.05

0.80

103 amperes

Per cent power

loss.

From Table

42,

page 93,

R = 0.425 ohm.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS

91

Kilowatts at source.

From

(111),

500

(1

0.072)

536 kw.

Power-factor at source.

From

(114),

K =
Example
35.

(1

0.072) (1

0.083) 0.80

0.79 lag.

Two 15-cycle single-phase locomotives start miles from a power station generating 11,000 10 simultaneously Determine the line voltage at the locomotives if each volts. takes 3000 kv.-amp. (kilo volt-amperes) at 75 per cent powerfactor, over a circuit consisting of eight 100-lb. rails

and four

No. 0000 trolley.

GIVEN ITEMS.
IF'

= 6000

kv.-amp.;
42,

# =llkv.;
93,

L= 10 miles; K = 0.75 lag.

From Table

page

M=
W
Per cent
volt loss.

46
4

=
X

0.0115.

6000

0.75

4500 kw.

REQUIRED ITEMS. From (104),


4500
0.75

T/

_ 0.0115 X
page 72,

10

From Table

31,

7 =

6.1 per cent.

Kilovolts at locomotives.

From

(106),

tf=ll(l -

0.061)=

10.3 kv.

92

TRANSMISSION CALCULATIONS
Formulas
Required Items.

for Single-Phase

Railway

Circuits.

DISTRIBUTION FOR SINGLE-PHASE RAILWAYS

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