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Designing of Printed Circuit Board

-SUMAN BASAK (09MS094) A printed mechanically circuit board, and or PCB, It is is used to



connect basically

components using conductive pathways.

constructed by printing, i.e. creating conducting paths instead of the required wiring of circuit on a piece of non-conducting material. PCBs are a convenient way for compressing an electronic circuit. It removes any wires required and places the components on a hard surface and provides mechanical support. This helps in creating a large circuit on a small area neatly. They comprise of multi-layers printing and extremely small components. PCBs are inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort and higher initial cost than either wire wrap or point-to-point construction, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production. PCBs are used in computers, cell phones, televisions, etc. But the circuits used in these gadgets are far more complex and advanced. In our experiment we designed a simple printed circuit board where the circuit was such that it lead to the blinking of an LED using an IC (555). But first let me explain the process of Soldering involved during our experiment.

Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece. Soldering differs from welding in that soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. The solder is an alloy of 63% tin and 37 % lead or 60% tin and 40% lead, both are equal in performance. Apart from the alloy an adhesive material is also required for soldering. Soldering wire is essentially a wire of the alloy with the centre filled with the adhesive. Soldering is done with the help of a soldering iron, a pointed metal rod which is highly heated before soldering. One can even de-solder i.e. rip off the joint by removing the molten metal alloy from it, simply by heating at the joint and sucking in the molten mass using a solder suckers.

Circuit to be prepared

By adjusting R1, R2, and C1 we can change the frequency of blinking. R3 is provided to protect the LED from high currents. Tm = 0.7 (R1 + R2) C1 Ts = 0.7 R2 C1

The following combination of components will give the frequency of 6.8 Hz.

In our experiment we used the second combination with C2 = 0.1 F.

Steps for making of PCB

First connect all the components on a bread board to test their working. Next connect them on a general PCB by soldering which consists of an array of holes surrounded copper. But each hole is disjoint from its adjacent holes. This gives an estimate of the structure on a PCB. Then prepare a diagram of the PCB on a piece of paper, keeping the following things in mind: a. Smaller the PCB better it is b. Number of jumpers must be least c. Make sure to draw the mirror diagram of the actual circuit as it would be printed on the back side.

Place the diagram on a plastic plate coated with copper on one side and copy it on to the plate. Make dark lines with a permanent marker where there should be a connection. To make the PCB remove the unnecessary copper by etching.

Process of etching:
a. Dissolve 2g of ammonium per sulphate in 40mL distilled water. b. Put the circuit in a petridish and fill it with the solution. c. Heat the petridish on heater or hot plate to 40 50 0C. d. The exposed copper of the plate is removed by the following reaction:

e. After the reaction clean the PCB with excess water and remove the marked lines with acetone. f. Next drill holes where the components are to be attached. Finally connect all the components on to the PCB and solder them into place. Test the circuit and make sure it is working. The final PCB prepared

Mirror image

The PCB of blinking LED