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IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM

&

PROSPECTS FOR TOURISM IN NEPAL


An Internship Report

By: Bishwanath Parajuli 10080066/ 2009 Pokhara University

To:

Apex College, Internship Management Team In the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelors of Computer Information System

May 07, 2013

Copyright 2013

Bishwanath Parajuli

All Rights Reserved.

Neither this internship report nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author

email us : ktm_art_house@yahoo.com

KTM TRAVEL HOUSE


Date: 05/06/2013

This is to certify that Mr. Bishwanath Parajuli sucessfully completed 6 week long intern-

ship program from KTM Travel House. During his term, he was assigned to the following
projects: 1) Information Library Design - An IT based development task 2) The directory project - A research based task 3) Reservation system - An IT based development task 4) Promotional Campaign - A marketing operation While he was in this office as an intern, I found him to possess extremely pleasing personality with the willingness to learn. He also has good communication skills and he is a good team player. I wish him the best for his future endeavor and endorse him as an asset to any organization that looks ahead to hire him as its member. Sincerely,

Ashish Silwal Chief Information Officer

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Acknowledgement

First, I would like to thank Mr. Ashish Silwal, Chief Information Officer at KTM Travel House, for giving me the opportunity to do an internship within the organization. For me it was a unique experience to work in a startup project and to study an interesting industry. It also helped to get back my interest in research and development and to have new plans for my future career. I also would like all the people that worked in the office of KTM Travel House. With their patience and openness, they created an enjoyable working environment. Furthermore, I want to thank Somnath Thapa, Milan Rajbhandari, Paras Sitaula and all other advisors and students. We shared great ideas together. Without their help, this report would not have been a success for me. At last, I would like to thank the Internship Management Team at Apex College, especially Mr. B.R. Khanal and Mr. Sudan Sigdel, for allowing me to do this interesting internship.

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Table of Contents
Contents
Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................ i Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................. ii List of Abbreviation used ................................................................................................................ iv Abstract of the Report ..................................................................................................................... v Summary of my work ....................................................................................................................... 1 The Directory Project ................................................................................................................... 1 Information Library Design .......................................................................................................... 2 Reservation System...................................................................................................................... 2 Promotional Activities.................................................................................................................. 3 Chapter 1: Introduction to the internship ....................................................................................... 4 About the topic ............................................................................................................................ 4 Purpose and Objectives of the internship ................................................................................... 4 Methodology of the internship .................................................................................................... 5 Limitations of the internship........................................................................................................ 5 Chapter 2: Introduction to the organization.................................................................................... 7 Background .................................................................................................................................. 7 An industrial overview ................................................................................................................. 8 Its objectives ................................................................................................................................ 9 Its mission, vision and priorities .................................................................................................. 9 Services it renders ...................................................................................................................... 10 Its capital structure .................................................................................................................... 11 Its organizational structure ........................................................................................................ 11 Chapter 3: Internship Experience .................................................................................................. 12 Internship Activities and Achievements .................................................................................... 12 The Directory Project ............................................................................................................. 12 Information Library Design .................................................................................................... 14 Reservation System................................................................................................................ 16 ii

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal Promotional Activities ............................................................................................................ 18 Discussion and Evaluation of the industry ................................................................................. 19 SWOT Analysis of the organization ........................................................................................ 21 Chapter 4: Conclusion and Summary............................................................................................. 22 Highlights on my objectives ....................................................................................................... 23 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................... 25 Appendix I ...................................................................................................................................... 26 Weekly overview of the internship ............................................................................................ 26 Appendix II ..................................................................................................................................... 27 ERD of the information library ................................................................................................... 27 Research Template .................................................................................................................... 28 Promotional Activities................................................................................................................ 29

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List of Abbreviation used

KTH = KTM Travel House IATA = International Air Travel Association ICT = Information Communication and Technology GDP = Gross Domestic Product KPCB = Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers ASP = Active Server Page MS-SQL = Microsoft Standard Query Language NTB = Nepal Tourism Board PIN = Personal Identification Number PRN = Personal Reservation Number

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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Abstract of the Report


It is 2013. Although economies have recovered from the global economic crisis of 200708, volatility has remained a key risk to further development financially, economically, politically, and environmentally. As for Nepal, it has already been two years now, since the constitutional assembly of Nepal was dissolved in 2011. The political environment is full of turmoil. However, Nepal is developing gradually and in this scenario of ongoing development, tourism and ICT have emerged with promising prospects.

In the spring of 2013, the information system unit at KTM Travel House created an internship position for information system students. The internship, which ran from March 10 to April 16, was intended to provide students with first hand working experience at a tourism firm and to offer an opportunity to work with the firms staffs on a number of specialized information technology related projects.

I was chosen as a successful applicant. In pursuit of fulfilling the partial requirement of the seventh semester, I completed my internship under the supervision of Mr. Bindu Raj Khanal and Mr. Sudan Sigdel, coordinators at Apex Career Services.

Author

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Summary of my work
The primary goal of information system unit at KTM Travel House is to enhance its knowledge base through identification of its market niches. I had to work under the supervision of Mr. Ashish Silwal, Chief Information Officer at KTM Travel House, with additional technical support from Milan Rajbhandari, IT Administrator at AT&T, United Kingdom, Somnath Thapa, business analyst at Bank of America, USA and Paras Sitaula, Senior ASP.NET web developer. My primary duty as information system intern was to assist on following projects of the unit.

The Directory Project


The Directory Project was a part of a research to create a reference that holds the information on most of the tourism location in Nepal .Intern Tenzin Sherpa initially conducted the research on Directory Project in the end of 2012 and annotated the theme for presenting the information. In March 2013, I met with Mr. Subash Nirola, Executing CEO at Nepal Tourism Board who acknowledged the need for online information directory in efficiently locating resources and services. I began the project by consulting and taking notes from the references put forward to me by Mr. Nirola. Thanks to the work of Intern Sherpa, it simplified the project because I only had to review his findings. The project also included a list of detailed itineraries that were provided in various websites, journals, eBooks, etc. related to tourism in Nepal. I digitized all the information, initially through Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. However, putting into consideration the verbose nature of textual information, Mr. Silwal decided to implement its graphical version. Therefore, the information had to be modified to incorporate the changes. The information was, then modified directly into the database that was to be created in the next phase.

The Directory Project was concerned with following activities:

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Dividing information into 3 categories pilgrimage, adventure and sightseeing Bundling related information together to improve website interactivity

Information Library Design


In addition to conducting the research, I was assigned with the responsibility of designing and developing system for the organization considering the financial and scheduled scope of the project. It was basically the core duty at the office. I normally spent 2-3 hours per day in designing the database, developing the layout and finally creating and populating the website. The website was developed using ASP.NET version 3.5. MS-SQL Server 2012 was used as the database for storing the information. The detailed list of my duties in the system design includes: Creating entities and establishing relations between them to neutralize conflicts Developing the algorithm and diagrams for the system Ensuring normalized database by considering the redundancies and dependencies Using stored procedure to safeguard the system from command injections Understanding the use of Business Intelligence module in MS-SQL Consulting list of designs available in the internet Creating labor and time saving layout designs to present the information Understanding various efficient programming tips to improve system performance Implementing object oriented programming model to produce robust system Developing a device independent system layout

Reservation System
In a routine meeting on April 4 2013, held to think upon unaddressed market needs, the information system decided that the new website would incorporate the feature of online air-ticket reservation with the vision of expanding the services to all possible forms of transportation.
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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

I was responsible for following activities in the Reservation System development:

Studying the global trend in online air-ticketing system Developing database for reservation system Sketching the flow diagram of the system Developing the business logic for handling the information

Promotional Activities
Towards the end of my period as intern at KTM Travel House, I was put in charge of planning and promoting the idea of a comprehensive online travel in Nepal guide. The activity in itself was very entertaining. I researched about various trends pertaining to reading behavior of a user. I also researched about the ways to present the information in such a way that the marketing techniques would create a positive impression on viewers /readers mind.

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Chapter 1: Introduction to the internship


About the topic
From the beginning of the 4-year academic ride in college, we are taught how to become managers. We understand the values of time management skills and communication skills. Nevertheless, there always happened to be a gap in building knowledge base and acquiring a real life work experience. Therefore, the primary purpose of my internship, however, but not limited to, was in bridging the gap between knowledge base and experience. Similarly, the reason I chose the topic, Implementation of Information System and Prospects for tourism in Nepal, was emerging market prospects that lies in concoction of information technology and tourism. According to a report, tourism now accounts for one in eleven jobs on the planet, a number that could even rise to one in ten jobs by 2022. Similarly, another white paper released by a research firm, KPCB, on the global technology trends of 2012 suggests that global internet growth rate is 8%. However, the population penetration percentage of technology is whooping 32%. What we can infer from these statistics is that the prospects presented to us by both travel and technology is tremendous. Yet, the inability to discover the proper market niche in Nepal has been hindering the interdependence between these two significant fields.

Purpose and Objectives of the internship


The goal of my internship at KTM Travel House was to discover the factors affecting the implementation of technology in tourism in context of Nepal and measures to overcome their inadequacies. Following is the list of objectives of my internship: 1. To nurture emotional and technical intelligence : sine qua non for effective leadership 2. To study the working and business environment of Nepal
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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

3. To understand the common and specific players of tourism and technology 4. To discover market niches in the field pertaining to tourism and technology 5. To handle and manage a research and development project 6. To learn research methodologies and test my technical skills 7. To build a professional network

Methodology of the internship


In order to be selected for the internship, a candidate must first forward his/her rsum to the organization along with the letter of consent from the college itself. After the evaluation of the candidate based on the documents forwarded to the organization, the candidate must sit for a short interview with the representative of the organization. Now, since an intern is supposed to be learning rather than working, the representatives are looking for the keenness of the candidate. Nevertheless, the organization anticipate certain skills and expertise on the side of the candidate too in order to subordinate the job to the intern when required. In case of preparation of the report, however, I used those methodologies, which are very common to any kind of report. Face to face, interview. Discussion with the employee, friends and advisors Book reference Online references

Limitations of the internship


However, having my objectives figured out, my internship was bounded by scope and limitations of the placement itself. Since I was assigned to handle a project, it was mandatory for me to have project management skills. I had to make a critical study of the
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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

organization including analysis of human psychology, ongoing technology trends, operational & schedule feasibility and to some extent, technical feasibility of the project. To be more precise, I have listed out following limitations behind my internship and hence behind this report:

1. Unwillingness of the organization to give financial information by pointing out the sensitiveness of the issue 2. Being an intern does not mean that I am an assistant or employee of the organization. It limited my report to just observations. 3. Lack of formal communication structure, the major reason behind chaos in a startup project 4. Despite the availability of voluminous library, present online, on tourism, I had to face lack of information pertaining to startup tourism business in Nepal.

The following internship report contains my activities that have contributed to achieve a number of my stated goals. In the following chapter a description of the organization, KTM Travel House and the activities is given. After this a reflection on my functioning, the unexpected circumstances and the learning goals achieved during the internship are described. Finally, I give a conclusion on the internship experience according to my learning goals.

The internship continued for 6 weeks from 9 March 2013 to 16 April 2013.

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Chapter 2: Introduction to the organization


Background
KTM Travel House Pvt. Ltd. was filed for registration as a profit oriented organization on 2013. With the primary field of conduct set to tourism, KTM Travel House (KTH) envisioned a fully informed trip to Nepal. The organization, with its web based library, desires to simplify the cumbersome process of planning a trip to Nepal. The organization was a joint vision of two entrepreneurs Mr. Anuska Rauniyar and Mr. Ichhit Vats Jha. An interview with these two young businessperson made it quite clear that they wanted a sustainable approach to end a monopoly in information, the first world

SNAPSHOT OF ORGANIZATION:
Under registration process as of 5/7/13
Located at Anamnagar, Kathmandu, Nepal Managed by young entrepreneurs A sum total of 11 employees Field of conduct Tourism and Travel Contact @ ktm_art_house@yahoo.com

countries have in the developing countries. Pre-existing websites lonelyplanet.com, makemytrip.com and various other travel and tourism website, already have a vast

resources that is referred to by wide audience. However, the problem with these sites lies in failure to identify the traditional knowledge, said Mr. Jha quoting the need behind such an organization like KTM Travel House. The vision of KTH takes into account the aspect of neophyte trekker with respect for customary and traditional knowledge without endangering the natural and social ecosystem. Supporting this primary objective of the organization are additional features tied up to KTH, which include packaged travel solution, a provision for creating custom package and online domestic ticket reservation system.
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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

KTH handles the operation in the same way an ecommerce site operates. A visitor can freely go through the web based information library. The library contains information about the travel destination, travel plans and recommendations. Once the visitor is interested in the travel destination, s/he can sign up for or sign into his/her profile to buy the package or create a new package. The package contains the financial and physical information about the travel plan. The cost is debited to the visitor or customer in this case. The information department is still working to the date this report was prepared to figure out the best means of payment like premium membership vs. pay-per-package schemes, online payment vs. traditional payment and so on. In the reply to the question regarding the confusion in mode of payment, Mr. Silwal said that the web site is targeted for both foreign as well as domestic tourists so the organization had to consider the feasibility for domestic market too.

An industrial overview
The tourism industry is one of the oldest and most profitable business sectors throughout the world. At a time when many countries are suffering from high unemployment, the role of this industry has becoming more demanding. The sector already accounts for 9 percent of Global GDP, a total of US$6 trillion, and it provides 120 million direct jobs and another 125 million indirect jobs in related industries. Here in Nepal, tourism has a significant importance in national economy. It has been advocated as a basic factor for poverty alleviation as well as the means of overall economic development. With the announcement of Tourism Policy in 1995, various plans and regulations have been formulated to address the dimensions of tourism development in the country. These dimensions include, but are not limited to, encouraging foreign exchange earnings, developing regional balance and emphasizing sustainable regional development. In a pursuit to attract investors in tourism sector, the government has also announced removal of value added tax (VAT) on tourism infrastructure like vehicles and initiated expansion of means of transportation.

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Yes! The potentials are high. However, tourism also suffers from problems stated below: Below standard quality of services Underdeveloped transportation infrastructure Safety and security of the tourists Absence of a constantly updated vision

Its objectives
With reference to KTHs company profile, I have listed out their objectives as it is. KTH aims at being a successful company so our policies are imperative to the success and long-term prosperity of our development are:

Develop as a knowledge driven company Maintain a consistent and positive attitude Project a strong image of commitment to exceptional service Enforce a decentralized management structure Provide the best possible quality of service at the most affordable price Develop strategies for sustainable exploitation, management and strengthening of responsible tourism

Its mission, vision and priorities


The primary mission of KTH is to provide information regarding tourism in Nepal. Nevertheless, I have listed out their missions and visions as they have presented it. The vision for the future of our company is to be an updated information provider and as well as a proficient corporation; constantly meeting and exceeding customers' expectations by providing a bespoke and quality service. We make every effort to become one of the most structured and matured organization of the country and hence beyond.

Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

As a result, we look forward to offer an efficient high quality service. Teamwork, planning, communication and commitment is our primary motto for reliable and quality working practices. Quality, workmanship and customer satisfaction are among our main priorities. Many of our existing clients are repeat customers with whom we have established a close working relationship. With our own team of experienced and committed workforce and with the help of many quality sub-contractors, we can ensure a professional business from start to finish.

Services it renders
As a service oriented company, KTHs primary service is providing free information about various travel destinations in Nepal. Besides that, KTH is inclined towards selling travel plans in forms of packages. These packages are nothing but an organized and managed travel plans. Furthermore, KTH also offers service - Create your own plan under which, the customer can create his own travel packages. Upon request, KTH would also provide porters and guide to facilitate convenient trekking. Similarly, KTH looks forward to provide online domestic air ticket reservation, which, is one of its kind in case of Nepal. The user can simply book air tickets for domestic air travel in Nepal. This service however requires the user to create a profile and obtain a PRN or Personal Reservation Number. However, KTH wants to expand this service from air to road transport system too. Hence, the services that KTH provide are: Free information library pertaining to tourism in Nepal Travel plans and packages with an option of creating custom plans Domestic air and road [proposed as a venture] ticket/transportation reservation

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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Its capital structure


One of major complications while working with private companies in Nepal is their unwillingness to give out the financial information. The preparation of this report was also affected by this unwillingness too. When approached about the financial information, the representatives of the organization would either ignore it or deny the request stating the sensitivity of the information. However, based on the interview with the founders of KTH, the total startup budget of the organization was found to be around Rs. 1,000,000. The firm is a registered as a partnership organization with Mr. A. Rauniyar and Mr. I.V. Jha as the two shareholders.

Its organizational structure


The organization has been employing 11 employee to this date. There is a clear-cut hierarchy set among them and the top-level managers directly report to the founders. Following is the hierarchy as given by the organization.

Founder/CEO
A. Rauniyar & I.V. Jha

Administrative Manager

Finance Controller

Marketing Manager

Information Manager

Technology Manager

Receptionist

Accountant

Business Analyst

Developer [ASP.NET]

Office Boy Designer [CSS3/ JS]

Quality Control

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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Chapter 3: Internship Experience


Internship Activities and Achievements
The Directory Project

The directory project was a part of the internship project. The objective of this activity was to increase the knowledge base on various travel destination, the threats involved for the traveler and current trends in travelling in Nepal. In Nepal, the trend of travelling is still in its early stages. This means that a knowledge database on this field has yet to be explored. Despite the voluminous library provided by various other international organization, the general knowledge of people has not been investigated. Governmental organization like Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) do possess in depth information about prospective travel locations. However, due to lackadaisical bureaucracy and unmanaged database, an information gap is created. It is also evident that local people have started to promote the individual travel locations by conveying message of natural beauty, conservation and greener peaceful society. Nevertheless, they too face the problem of lack of effective work force. The directory project was aimed at reducing the information gap created due to abovementioned circumstances by collecting relevant knowledge on the area. It was based on five key elements of an organized travel destination: The environment of the destination, Its attractions, The role and behavior of local people, The threats generated by and to travelers and The solutions or proposals of conservation.

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The directory project was a part of a bigger picture of creating an interactive travel database with a justification on the location still under development. During my term as an intern, I had to carry out several activities related to the five key elements in 8 days. As mentioned earlier, Intern Tenzin Sherpa initially conducted the research on Directory Project in the end of 2012 and annotated the theme for presenting the information. In March 2013, I met with Mr. Subash Nirola, Executing CEO at Nepal Tourism Board, who provided the resources and services in building the database. On the first five days, I had to review the accuracy of the information collected by prior intern. The next two days, I had to concentrate more on the possible additional information that could be bundled together with the reviewed information. The final day followed a short presentation on the information that I had collected in the last 7 days. This presentation was shared with the founders and top-level managers at KTM Travel House. My day at internship usually started by collecting the information resources made available by NTB. I primarily referred to Tourism Products in Nepal a brochure prepared by NTB itself to provide basic informational outline on the 75 districts in Nepal, their attractions and various other information like demographics and climate. Besides the brochure, I also contacted various other documents like online travel journal, tourism reports, travelers blog and pre-existing websites like lonelyplanet.com. By the time these activities were completed, I would have already spent around 4 hours. A one and half-hour break was available between two such 4-hour sessions. A positive atmosphere, rigorous inquisition and digitizing of data into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, these were the three most occurring event while working in the directory project. Things were usual for three days. However, on the fourth day while explaining to Mr. Ashish Silwal, the progress on the project, it was found that the textual information was quite verbose and not very interesting to go through. Therefore, Mr. Silwal requested me to adopt graphical means wherever possible [Here graphical means pictorial]. This increased the burden of my job. Nevertheless, considering the effort that I had already put on the project, he suggested me to skip the new implementation for the job already
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completed. The Directory Project then had to divide information into 3 categories pilgrimage, adventure and sightseeing too. Things went smoothly after the changes in the project. On the final day, I had to give a brief presentation to the members of KTM Travel House. This presentation was focused on the template of research {Appendix II} along with a short account on how the information could be understood easily.

Information Library Design

Information Library Design was another part of the internship. The objective of this activity was to build a database that would incorporate the information collected through the directory project and to build an interface through which the information could be accessed. I normally spent 2-3 hours per day in designing the database, developing the layout and finally creating and populating the website [still under development]. The website was developed using ASP.NET version 3.5. MS-SQL Server 2012 was used as the database for storing the information. After the successful completion of the directory project, I was reassigned to the information library design project. My first assignment under this project was creating a draft for entity relationship diagram {Appendix II}. With the list of attributes and entity identified by Mr. Silwal, it took me 5 hours to come up with the completed diagram. Mr. Silwal openly praised me for my performance and my achievement. Considering my performance, Mr. Silwal invited me to lunch too. Similarly, the next part was to normalize the database and implement the normalized database into stored procedure [stored procedure are functional implementations of tables commonly known as the backbone of object oriented database systems]. This task was both, tiresome and exciting. I had to seek for help from Mr. Milan Rajbhandari and Mr. Paras Sitaula along with the online reference available for understanding MS-SQL, its

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new business intelligence module and the best programming practices. It opened new insights in the ongoing trends in the development world. Yes! It was tiresome but fruitful. In brief, I learned how to use modules to extend database functionality, design table layouts using panels and blocks, create stored procedure, create custom types, use view functionality to create static lists of content and implement referential integrity commonly known as foreign key assignment. Work then began in earnest on the database. Through regular meetings with Mr. Silwal, I narrowed down the user requirements in my own terms and created the tables, views and procedure, and the necessary content types. I also researched and uploaded the resources, images, and other content to the database. Content included researched material from directory project (including videos and images). The database is still under improvement and is supposed to be used for website. The task was completed after pouring 3 hours of labor continuously for 10 days. I would spend most of the time without talking to anyone but concentrating on the reference material and surfing through web for online tutorials. Youtube.com, I must say, proved to be the greatest help of them all. Similarly, simultaneously running along with the database development was interface development task. Though I did not have to work much on the interface, I had to assist the development team by consulting list of designs available in the internet. However, I did suggest the team in creating a time saving and user-friendly system. Under the guidance of Mr. Silwal, I was responsible for researching the website. The design I proposed contained the following pages: Home, Blog, Info-brary, Packages, Reservation, Get Help, and Other Resources. Of particular interest is the Info-brary page, containing information collected during the directory project and Reservation page that was to be developed in the next stage, providing the ticket reservation option to the user.

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Reservation System

Reservation system was an extension to the internship. In a routine meeting on April 4 2013, held to think upon unaddressed market needs, the information system unit came up with the idea of online air-ticket reservation system. The concept is new in the context of Nepal. Although, some airlines have already implemented in-house-booking system through their website, a single platform for choosing services from the wide array of domestic airline companies still seems to be unavailable. Hence, the meeting decided that the new website would incorporate the feature of online air-ticket reservation with the vision of expanding the services to all possible forms of transportation. I would recall this meeting as important to me being an intern because the unit decided to second my idea on PRN (Personal Reservation Number, quite similar to PIN). According to this idea, every user that uses the online reservation service would be assigned a PRN. This PRN gives the user, access to his or her profile quite similar to that of social networking sites. The profile would hold information about the users basic details, flight history and personalized view (things like recommendation, suggestions, when needed) to primary information library. I was responsible for following activities in the reservation system development: Studying the global trend in online air-ticketing system Developing tables for reservation system Sketching the flow diagram and entity relation of the system Developing the business logic for handling the information

This project was initiated just after the completion of information library design. As I have mentioned above, after KTH approved my idea of PRN, it was obvious that I would have to play an important role in creating the reservation system. The online study and development of tables were one of the few tasks that were assigned to me with respect to this system. Furthermore, I also had to look for the ways to integrate the new sub system into the main library module.

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It was a project starting from scratch because it was a new of its kind in context of Nepal. There were no guidelines, no laws and nothing in sight that could suggest us about how such system should or could operate in Nepal. Although administrative nuisances did not bother the development team, I along with Mr. Kaushal Thapa, the business analyst at KTH had to work on ways to make the system more engaging and easy. Most importantly, we had to work on ways to reduce the cost associated with the new system. We prepared a feasibility analysis staying within the scope of the project. Following conclusion was drawn from the analysis: Technically, the system would be drawn using ASP.NET as backend and MSSQL as backend. There should be a provision for 24 hours server. There also need to be an effective digital channel between the airline companies and KTH. This feature is required because any request by the user of the website to book a ticket should immediately be send to the airline companies in order to synchronize the transactions.

Economically, the system would require the cost of the server along with the additional cost of technical operators who have to monitor the website rigorously. Similarly, the cost of updating the software system and the hardware system were also considered. It is imperative that the capacity of the system must increase in order to address the regularly increasing capacity of the system (Moores Law).

Operationally, the system should be easily operable. KTH did possess enough work force that could operate the system when needed. However, since the targeted user of the system was not limited to the organization, it was crucial that the system be responsive and interactive to the greatest possible extent. Furthermore, the system had to comply with the international standards of ticket reservation not just to improve its security but also to gain the trust of the users abroad and within the country.

Legally, there still are no rules and regulations to monitor such reservation system. However, based on the standards set by IATA [International Air
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Transport Association], the organization had to make around 200 early ticket reservations in order pursue online reservation. Similarly, the organization also needed a deposit of US$ 15, 000 and had to go through a monitoring period of 6 months to one year after a temporary license was issued, in order to be considered as an official agent.

Promotional Activities

Towards the end of my period as intern at KTM Travel House, I was put in charge of planning and promoting the idea of a comprehensive online travel in Nepal guide. The activity in itself was very entertaining. I researched about various trends pertaining to reading behavior of a user. I also researched about the ways to present the information in such a way that the marketing techniques would create a positive impression on viewers /readers mind. I also attended a webinar on topic Blogging for Beginners, read info-graphics and studied the dos/donts of social media marketing. I decided to choose facebook for promoting information in social networking site. Similarly, I opted for wordpress for creating blogs about travel experience of various trekkers, both Nepali and foreigner. However, the idea of documenting these experiences did not seem to gain attention from the online audience due to which blogging was postponed for time being. In the same way, besides online marketing, I was assigned the responsibility of low scale guerrilla marketing too. With the help of online references on low scale marketing techniques along with the ideas that I devised from my own experiences, I conducted a marketing campaign around the office location. These campaigns included ideas like gluing A4 sized publicity posters on the electricity poles surrounding the location, distributing business cards to people, etc. Mr. Indra Bahadur Rai, a staff at KTM Travel House, assisted the campaign by directly putting physical labor in its implementation. I have attached some of my designs related to the promotion, in Appendix II.

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Discussion and Evaluation of the industry


It would be a clich to say that Nepali Business environment is the direct victim of political instability. It seems like everyone is fond of the phrase but very few people are actually concerned about overcoming the problem. Nevertheless, at such time of crisis, ICT has emerged as an important and easier alternative. Given the increasing importance of the online environment for planning itineraries and purchasing travel and accommodations, the extent of ICT use has been widespread. Like other types of infrastructure, ICT has benefits that extend well beyond the T&T sector.

Here in Nepal, the tourist arrival rate as per the data of 2011 is 735.9 thousands giving a receipt of US$ 386.3 millions. This receipt account to 8.9% of the total GDP of the country. The above data shows in scale the prospect of tourism. However, the relevance of the data on account of this report lies in the type of tourist. Most of the tourist that come to Nepal are usually from technologically advanced countries like USA, India, China, Germany and Japan to name a few. They usually prefer online information medium to obtain knowledge about the travel destination. But, due to lack of well managed ICT systems, most of these tourist complain about the technical limitations of Nepal. Technologically speaking, Nepal has yet to make a lots of changes. But the problem doesnt lie in the advancement of technology. Instead, the problem lies in the lack of interest shown by the people to adopt technology. For example, before I came here to Nepal, I used to send emails to my tour operator to explain the itenaries and even the tour details. But, there were no replies. When I called them, they apologized for inconvenice stating a hilarious excuse we dont check emails
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here in Nepal, said Michael Thales, a french tourist. This example presents to us the current status of ICT and its implementation. Nepal ranks 127th on ICT infrastructure, globally but 110th on ICT use for Business to consumer transactions in a scale of 140. The results are not good but they are promising. The prospects for business to consumer transactions is rapidly increasing as a result of technological whim that has already engulfed the entire world. Despite high cost and slow speeds remain significant obstacles to widespread adoption of internet in most part of the nation, people are opting for online means of transactions and assisting in this race of technology is mobile telephony and internet. So, what is the problem? Poor digital connectivity prevents businesses, individuals, and governments from reaping the benefits of ICT, such as new business opportunities, enhanced productivity, improved access to basic services, and better governance. In addition, the digital dividethe wide and persisting disparities in ICT usewithin and across countries exacerbates the differences in investment attractiveness. As all sectors do, T&T has much to gain from improved ICT connectivity in Nepal. What about the prospects? As elsewhere, growth in mobile telephony penetration has been exponential. Out of 100 people, around 43 people already have access to the mobile service. This presents the best prospect for any industry that rely on internet usage. In a country where only 9% of the total population use internet, the mobile telephone penetration can have significant impact in improving the situation of ICT throughout the country. Large organizations already have access to faster broadband connections and they rely extensively on ICT. Still, many businesses in the tourism sector are small or micro enterprises. For this reason, the penetration of mobile telephony can be taken as a giant step towards educating people about the use of internet or ICT in terms of tourism industry. Furthermore, a recent data suggested that the total Indian e-commerce market boomed to around IRs. 630 Billions. Out of it, travel and tourism accounted for 47% of the sum making it the largest sector. Now as the prevalent trend in India is contiguous in our country too, it is obvious to figure out that Nepali e-commerce market bears similar prospects.
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SWOT Analysis of the organization

Strength

information database technologically robust qualified workforce provision of ticket reservation system can create own plan hire guides newly established lack of financial resources lack of physical construction ineffective communication channel

Weakness

Opportunity

first of its kind possibility of expansion

Threats

competition from other websites small domestic market

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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Chapter 4: Conclusion and Summary


Overall, this internship was a useful experience. I have gained new knowledge, skills and met many new people. I achieved several of my learning goals, however for some the conditions did not permit.

I got insight into professional practice. I learned the different facets of working within a private organization. I experienced that financing, as in many organizations, is an important factor for the progress of projects. Related to my study I learned more about the business environment in Nepal. There is still a lot to discover and to improve. The methods used now are still not standardized and a consistent method is in development.

In Nepal, education is an important aspect for promoting culture and tradition. I have seen that local people can contribute to conservation, for example with their knowledge. Furthermore, I experienced that it is of importance that the education is objective and that you have to be aware of the view of other people.

The internship was also good to find out what my strengths and weaknesses are. This helped me to define what skills and knowledge I have to improve in the coming time. It would be better that the knowledge level of the language is sufficient to contribute fully to projects. After my under graduate degree, I think that I could start my working career. However, I could perform certain tasks in research better if I practice/know more the research methodologies applied in human behavior/psychology studies. It would also be better if I can present and express myself more elegantly.

At last, this internship has given me new insights and motivation to pursue a career in research here in Nepal.

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Highlights on my objectives
1. To nurture emotional and technical intelligence At the beginning, I did not have any experience of working with a tourism enterprise. Although I had been with other organizations, I then, understood the functioning of startup projects. Trying to operate an organization polishes the importance of financial support. However, more than that, it develops the overall understanding of the business, its environment and its stakeholders, emotionally and technically. There was often uncertainty whether and when projects could start, forcing me to be flexible and to see what other things I could do. 2. To study the working and business environment of Nepal I was quite unclear about the present scenario of the business environment prevalent in the country before the internship. I had heard that business environment, now, is full of political turmoil. However, after the internship I became a firm believer that it was not just the politics that had been affecting the country but the inability of the people to trust in their environment. The situations were tough but steps can and should be taken to mitigate these problems both individually and nationally. 3. To understand the common and specific players of tourism and technology In the management courses I have taken in the university, I was taught about the role of the stakeholders in any environment. Furthermore, I have learned that identifying and categorizing these stakeholders improves the decision making process. Though it is difficult to say what skills and knowledge gained in my study I could put in practice in my internship, I can say for sure that tourism and technology share some common environment variables dependent to each other. 4. To learn research methodologies and test my technical skills I increased my knowledge on methodologies used to interpret and to present information in way that is more useful. Within the internship, I studied a lot.
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Implementation of Information System and Prospects for Tourism in Nepal

Because of it, I saw what aspects you have to think while presenting an information in more entertaining way. Before internship, I was quite unclear about refining my codes but now I understand how the codes can be more discernable. Furthermore, I learned about the best practices in programming. 5. To build a professional network The internship was an opportunity to be immersed on a different level in another circle. Working in an organization requires us to enhance our communication and hence our network but as a student, there always exist loopholes in our practices despite how hard we try. Therefore, experiencing how different people react to the same situation can provide us a deeper insight into the functioning of an organization and its culture. Working in KTH not only allowed me to fulfil my university requirement but also allowed me to expand to a professional circle.

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Bibliography

Atkinson, P., & Vieira, R. (2012). Beginning Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Programming. Indianapolis: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Blanke, J., & Chiesa, T. (2013). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report : Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job Creation. World Economic Forum. Bloch, M., Pigneur, Y., & Steiner, T. (1995, June). The IT-enabled extended enterprise: applications in the tourism industry. Retrieved from Universit de Lausanne: http://www.hec.unil.ch/yp/Pub/96-enter.htm Contagium Media. (2009, Feburary 13). 50 Guerrilla Marketing Tactics You Should Be Using. Retrieved from http://www.bootstrappingblog.com/: http://www.bootstrappingblog.com/50-guerrilla-marketing-tactics-you-should-beusing/ Hill, C. W. (2006). Internation Business : Competing in the Global Marketplace. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Meeker, M. (2012, May 30). Internet Trends. D10 Conference (pp. 4-25; 49-112). KPCB. Mistry, R., & Misner, S. (2012). Introducing Microsoft SQL Server 2012. Redmond, Washington, USA: Microsoft Press. Pant, P. (2005). Business Environment in Nepal. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers. Silberschatz, A., Korth, H. F., & Sudarshan, S. (2002). Database System Concepts. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Snell, M., Johnson, G., Northrup, T., & Grandmasters. (2009). Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 ASP.NET Application Development. Redmond: Microsoft Press. World Economic Forum. (2012). The ASEAN Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2012 : Fostering Prosperity and Regional Integration Through Travel and Tourism. World Economic Forum.

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Appendix I
Weekly overview of the internship
Week 1 (09-03-2013) - Literature study: study area, technical report of previous collection, data classification, design and field methods for pooling - Discussion about the method with supervisor Week 2 - Meeting with participants of directory project: discussion about objectives, methods and changes to be incorporated - Working on the information library project Week 3 - Working on the information library project - Design database and enforce integrity - Implement stored procedure - Identifying the effective designs - Literature study: database concepts, best practices Week 4 - Literature study: methods of reservation system - Discussion about the feasibility of the system - Writing internship report Week 5 - Literature study: color psychology, techniques of guerilla marketing - Discussion about the marketing strategy and cost formulation - Writing internship report Week 6 (16-04-2013) - Implementing marketing strategies - Working on the final touch to the database - Writing internship report

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Appendix II
ERD of the information library

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Research Template

Heading
Place Name District Accessibility Climate Type Climate Average Climate Minimum Climate Maximum Geography Altitude Adventure Level Place Isolation Degree Place Rating Attractions

Details

Terai

Hill

Himalaya

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

(separate names by comma)

Accommodations

(separate names by comma)

Category Adventure (check those that applies) Sightseeing Pilgrimage

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Promotional Activities

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