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Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

Flipped Classroom Seminar Miles D. Henderson EDU623.90 Designing Learning Environments Dr. Linda Kaiser

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

Introduction The following paper will delve into the details of a flipped classroom seminar, and how it can impact how and what a student learns. The website Educause (2012) states that the flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Short video lectures are viewed by students at home before the class session, while in-class time is devoted to exercises, projects, or discussions (Educause, 2012). The desired outcome of the seminar will be that participants are proficient in understanding how flipped classroom pedagogy can enhance a students understanding of a subject by engaging them in higher order level thinking using supplemental materials and videos that they created, edited and uploaded. For this seminar, use of the ADDIE learning model will be implemented. The ADDIE model is a systematic instructional design model consisting of five phases: (1) Analysis, (2) Design, (3) Development, (4) Implementation, and (5) Evaluation (Learning-Theories, nd). Each of the 5 phases of the ADDIE model will also be explored in detail to establish a reliable connection between what should be learned from the seminar and how it should be conducted.

Analysis Phase The participants in this seminar will consist of twenty-five to fifty classroom teachers of varying backgrounds, grade levels, ages, disciplines, and learning styles. The seminar will take place in a round-table setting with several break-out sections of a large, network ready auditorium a private school in Woonsocket, Rhode Island.

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

The reason for this seminar is the schools desire to increase their technology integration within the existing curriculum and to help teachers create an environment where students are challenged to use higher level critical thinking skills. In order to remain competitive in the private school market, the school has decided that they need to focus heavily on technology integration and create a classroom where technology is utilized by the teachers to facilitate understanding of subject matter. The flipped classroom seminar is being used for that purpose. The activity is available for teachers of all content areas; however emphasis will be placed upon Common Core subject matter. It will be expected that the participants in the seminar have working knowledge of basic technology and Microsoft Office based products. This will be conducted using an entrance ticket in the form of a poll. Teachers working in the school will be polled to see if creating a flipped classroom seminar would work for the institution based off of technological knowledge and desire for improvement of this nature. The technology that will be utilized for this activity is multi-faceted in that to support the creation, editing and uploading of videos, that several forms of technology are necessary. In order to create the videos, movie cameras and tripods will be available for the teachers to use during the activity. The use of smart-phones, iPads and other video capable appliances are also encouraged and technical support for these will be present during the activity. Computers will be utilized by the participants also and participants will be encouraged to bring their personal laptops to the activity. Free or included applications such a screencast and Windows MovieMaker or iOS iMovie will be utilized.

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

In order to properly move forward, the first step of the project requires that the instructor identifies needs of the participants based on goals and learning outcomes desired. The action taken for the analysis portion of the project will take place in the form of an entrance ticket delivered before instruction begins. The survey will ask teachers to rate themselves on a scale of one to three based on their ability to create, edit and upload videos and will be used to determine groups for later discussions. Participants will also be asked to bring their personal laptops to the seminar and wireless access must be available for all sessions. Review of the Steps and Skills Needed In order to show mastery of the concepts, the participants will be able to complete the following tasks: 1) 2) 3) Participants will be able to create, edit, and upload videos pertinent to their flipped classroom, to YouTube or TeacherTube. Participants will be able to create supplemental materials to take the place of a traditional lecture. Participants will create their own PLC (Professional Learning Community) amongst their peers and content area teachers.

Situational Analysis In order for the training to be successful, the participants must have a vested interest in increasing their technology integration. They will need to view and review all of the materials submitted to them prior to the seminar in order to better understand not only the materials, but how those materials can help them with their goals. A potential pitfall for the seminar would be based on the technology. Because every aspect of the training revolves around technology, it is imperative that the network is fully functioning and that the Director of Technology be on hand if anything should go wrong.

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

Another possible negative would be the participants not fully embracing the concepts being taught and not making use of the materials presented to them. Another potential pitfall for the seminar would be based on each students prior knowledge. Based off of age, subject matter and experience; each participant may have a vastly different skill-set from another.

Design Phase During the design phase of this project several lessons will be planned out in order for the participants in the seminar to fully understand and be able to develop lessons based off of Blooms Digital Taxonomy verbs that fit into a student centered, project based, learning environment. Blooms Digital Taxonomy On his website DocsFlippedClassroom Dr. Dan McDougall argues that the Flipped Classroom should provide experiences that provide for a formative learning experience and that students should be entering Blooms higher order action verbs that go beyond remembering and understanding. They should be analyzing, evaluating and creating (McDougall, nd). In order to create an environment where a true flipped classroom can take place, the instructor must be aware of what the environment entails and how to truly facilitate it in all aspects from inception to delivery to evaluation. The first concept that must be covered is how the participants learn the information. This project will utilize a digital version of Blooms Taxonomy. To summarize: Bloom broke down the cognitive domain of thinking into categories. These categories were expressed as verbs and bestowed the ability to quickly identify which category one was referencing. These verbs were

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

then arranged in a series from lower order thinking skills to higher order thinking skills. The original Taxonomy was as follows: (Lower Order Thinking Skills) o Knowledge o Comprehension o Application o Analysis o Synthesis o Evaluation (Higher Order Thinking Skills) (Churches, 2009) In 2001 Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl revised Blooms Taxonomy to fit a more technological world. It was their understanding that the verbs could be revisited and changed to better include todays digital lifestyle of learning (Churches, 2011). The verbs used in Blooms Digital Taxonomy that inspire higher-order thinking include: designing, constructing, planning, and producing (edorigami, nd) and are arranged as follows: (Lower Order Thinking Skills) o Remembering o Understanding o Applying o Analyzing o Evaluating o Creating (Higher Order Thinking Skills) (Churches, 2009) This learning process is important for this project because it creates an environment where the focus on higher order thinking skills is prevalent in that the participants of the class will be creating their videos and supplemental materials based off of their understanding and applying of the topics. Lesson Structure In order to best support the role of Blooms Digital Taxonomy, the lesson structure must be created that allows for the participants to first understand the concept, apply it, evaluate its

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

impact and create inspiring, and motivational lessons that are both student centered and facilitate a level of higher-order thinking (edorigami, nd). According to Gagnes 9 Events of Instruction, the lessons will follow each of the 9 steps that include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gaining attention Informing participants of objectives Stimulating the recall of prior learning Presenting the content Providing learning guidance Eliciting performance through practice Providing feedback Assessing performance both through formative and summative assessments Enhancing retention and transfer to the job (CITT, 2013)

The lessons will start with an overview of the history behind the flipped classroom environment. They will then go into detail regarding the software used to create the videos and how to edit those videos and upload them to YouTube and TeacherTube. The lessons will then go into detail regarding how to create and deliver supplemental classroom materials and lastly they will review what has been learned during the seminar and assess the participants understanding of the materials. During each of the lessons and modules formative assessments will be taking place in the form of interaction with the instructor and peers along with a review of the materials created and if they correctly follow the desired style of instruction. Following the reviews and evaluations, changes can be made to ensure the participants understanding of the subject matter. At the end of the seminar a summative assessment will take place in the form of a comprehensive summary written by the participant on what they learned and allow for the instructor to see who will need to be followed up with and who has mastery of the entire process.

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

Authentic Assessments Mary Engstrom, senior instructional designer at the University of Montana, in an interview on EdTechTalk defined Authentic Assessments as an educative approach to teaching and assessing what a student knows. So rather than ending a typical course or chapter of learning with an audit of the students learning through a traditional multiple choice kind of assessment, authentic assessment really lets the student have to work with and use and apply knowledge, skills and dispositions that are critical to the content, critical to the discipline and it really mirrors the messy work of the real world (Engstrom, 2010). The seminar will have several places for assessments and most of them will be based off of authentic assessments. In order to show true mastery of the concepts in the seminar, the participants should be able to complete the following tasks by the end: 1) Participants will be able to create, edit and upload videos pertinent to their flipped classroom, to YouTube or TeacherTube Authentic assessment: Participant will be able to create, edit and upload videos to YouTube or TeacherTube this practice puts the real world into place where the participant starts to master the skills that were just taught 2) Participants will be able to create supplemental materials to take the place of a traditional lecture Authentic assessment: Participant will have created supplemental materials prior to the end of the seminar this practice puts the real world into place where the participant is physically creating their own supplemental materials to prepare themselves for their flip 3) Participants will create their own PLC (Professional Learning Community) amongst their peers and content area teachers Authentic assessment: Participants in their ongoing communication with their peers and helping them attain their flipped classroom goals this practice deals mainly with the interaction between peers and while still part of the authentic assessment, is much less so because there will not be any physical proof of a PLC creation Finally, once these steps have been completed the participants will be able to create individual lessons and evaluate not only if their own students have understood their material

Running head: Flipped Classroom Seminar

through their own authentic assessments, but also as according to the Edwards Learning Lab website, how much deeper their understanding of the topic goes based off of the flipped classroom environment due to higher order critical thinking (Edwards, 2012). Using formative assessments and an assessment inspired by Robert Marzano one can then classify the success of the seminar and training in four distinct levels: Level 1 At level 1, the student shows partial understanding of some simpler knowledge, skills, and processes, but may require more structure, scaffolding, and support to do independent work. Level 2 At level 2, the student has mastered simpler knowledge, skills and processes that serve as building blocks for the unit learning goals. Level 3 At level 3, the student demonstrates the knowledge and skills expected for the unit learning goals. At this level, the student is also considered proficient. Level 4 At level 4, the student demonstrates knowledge and application that goes beyond what was explicitly taught in this unit. (Marzano, 2009)

Course Outcomes and Objectives Module #1 introduction to the flipped classroom. Lesson #1 will deal with the history of the flipped classroom. Topics will include: Blooms Digital Taxonomy, and the Khan Academy. The best practices of a flipped classroom will also be discussed including topics such as how to create meaningful videos, how long the videos should last to keep student engagement and what to create for supplemental classwork materials to fully engage the students in the classroom. By the end of the lesson participants will be able to: implement Blooms Digital Taxonomy when teaching in a flipped classroom environment use the Khan Academy for ideas regarding their lessons outline which lessons will make for a successful flip execute the practices allow for the greatest success when attempting to flip a classroom

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Problems that may arise for participants in this session will be determined by their ability to engage their peers in the breakout session #1. The instructor will facilitate the success of the lesson by monitoring the conversations between groups and engaging participants by interacting directly and indirectly with them. Module #2 flipped classroom software. Lesson #2 will deal with the creation of the videos vital to the success of a flipped classroom environment. The lesson will mainly use the software called Screencast-O-Matic (ScreenCast) that participants will have downloaded prior to the seminar. The instructor will use hands-on learning techniques to engage the participants directly and allow for a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Participants will have brainstormed flipped classroom ideas prior to the seminar to discuss with their peers before creating a 2 minute ScreenCast capture based on their lesson. The assessment of the success of this lesson will be that the participant will be able to create a 2 minute ScreenCast capture based off of the best practices for a flipped classroom environment as previously discussed. Problems that may arise from this lesson are mostly technical in nature due to the unknown variable of the participants personal computers. To circumvent the possibility of this, the instructor will have several extra laptops for participant use and the school will provide several desktop computers for the teachers as well. Lesson #3 will deal with the creation, editing and uploading of the participants 2 minute ScreenCast capture. Topics that will be covered include: how to integrate the best practices in video editing how to use the software that the participants have on their computers (iMovie for Mac and Microsoft Movie Maker for PC) to produce videos how to upload, locate and link their videos on the YouTube or TeacherTube websites

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A possible problem that may arise is if participants were incomplete in their preparation, their ramp-up time will be extended. In order to lessen the amount of disruption that this might cause, the instructor will place participants in their groups of technical awareness, as established by the entrance ticket, but also within their teaching disciplines as well. Success of this lesson will allow the participants to locate and watch the videos of their peers in their groups. Module #3 supplemental classwork design. Lesson #4 will deal with a review of the best practices of a flipped classroom environment. Topics will include: creation of supplemental classwork materials judging of how the classroom environment should be organized for success how to execute the best practices for creation of student centered classroom materials

Discussions will take place in breakout session #2 amongst the participants and their peers. The lessons success will be based on the participants abilities to create supplemental material that meets flipped classroom policies and facilitates higher level thinking in student centered work. Problems that could arise from this lesson stem from a lack of understanding of the environment; to combat this possible problem, the instructor will review the reasons behind the creation of this supplemental material and how to make their classwork successful. Module #4 completion exercises. Lesson #5 will be an overall assessment and evaluation of the participants understanding of the subject matter including: hypothesizing as to why to flip a classroom detecting when to flip a classroom for the greatest amount of success the ability to create, edit and upload YouTube & TeacherTube videos the ability to create supplemental materials that are student centered and facilitate higher-order thinking based off of Blooms Digital Taxonomy verbs

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By the end of this lesson the participants should be able to: create a fully flipped classroom including videos and supplemental classwork materials. The summative assessment for this lesson will be in the form of an exit summary where the instructor will ask the participants to complete an overall assessment in the form of an essay exam, based on what they learned during the seminar and their understanding of the materials covered. Problems that may arise from this lesson stem from the participants understanding of the materials covered; in order to lessen this possibility the instructor should be consistently evaluating the environment with personal interactions with every participant after each lesson. Media Specifications As stated in a previous section the participants and instructor will need the following technology available to them: laptop computer (iOS or Windows) with iMovie or Windows Movie Maker installed Microsoft Office suite for creation of supplemental classwork materials account set up for YouTube/TeacherTube access to ScreenCast software Wi-Fi and internet access instructor projector and screen

Development Phase Phase 3 of the ADDIE model talks about development and what that entails. It starts with the acronym of ABCD which stands for: Audience, Behavior, Condition and Degree. Each of these can be phrased in the form of a question for better results: Audience Who is the learner? Behavior What is the measureable (KEY word) behavior that you want the student to be able to do as a result of the training/lesson? Condition Under what circumstances should the learner be able to perform the behavior?

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Degree How well was the learners behavior performed under the conditions given?

The development of this seminar will be done through the lesson structure and further progress the participants understanding with more detail from the design phase which included several lessons planned out for the participants in the seminar to fully understand and be able to develop lessons based off of Blooms Digital Taxonomy verbs that fit into a student centered, project based, learning environment. Formative assessments will take place at every interval of the lessons and according to Judith Dodge of Scholastic.com, should be put in place as a marker to base the participants understanding of the subject matter. In fact, formative assessments help us differentiate instruction and thus improve student achievement (Dodge, nd). Videos will be created for the participants prior to the seminar to give participants a baseline understanding of what topics will be covered and what they should expect to learn when it is complete. Complications that will stem from this developmental phase will be in the form of student preparation and understanding of subject matter prior to entering the seminar. The participants will be asked to view the videos for a basic understanding of the subject matter of a flipped classroom and then will be asked to review their own classrooms and figure out which classes would benefit from a flip and lastly be expected to have some form of technology integration desire for their classrooms. To combat the complications from the student preparation situation, the participants will be asked to view the videos for a basic understanding of the subject matter of a flipped classroom, then will be asked to review their own classrooms and figure out which classes would benefit from a flip and lastly be expected to have some form of technology integration desire for

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their classrooms. This will be assessed using the same Marzano level progression grid listed previously. To address the concerns that Mr. Miller (and others) have regarding student engagement a small session using an inquiry-based period (edweek, 2012) will take place where the learners will be given basic instructions and materials to help engage them on a deeper level. This can be done without the use of the lead instructor and can be held either in person or using a program such as Vsee (vsee.com) where multiple connections can be made in a Skype (skype.com) type setting. Along with these items there will also be several handouts given during the entire seminar in order to help students understand the materials. The first handout will be print-outs of each of the PowerPoint slides shown in order to allow the students to take notes directly on the slides themselves. During a discussion regarding Blooms Digital Taxonomy a one page breakdown of the taxonomy will be given to the participants along with the verbs included and how it relates to a flipped classroom environment. The next two hand-outs will deal with short-cuts, hotkeys and procedures for the software being used in the seminar for iMovie/Movie Maker and Screencast-o-matic. The final hand-out will be one based off of supplemental documentation that could potentially be used in a classroom environment where the students are learning simple math (2+2) after having watched a video on the same concept. Implementation Phase The seminar will take place in the auditorium of the school and be delivered by Miles Henderson who has successfully flipped several classrooms and understands the dynamics necessary for its implementation. The auditorium will provide an area for small groups to

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congregate and discuss the seminar material. The auditorium will provide Wi-Fi and internet access to all participants and instructors who will provide their own technology in the form of laptops and personal computers. The team of instructors that will be aiding Mr. Henderson are current teachers of varying disciplines, ages, levels of technology implementation (LOTI), and degree of success in flipping a classroom of their own. Evaluation Phase Formative assessment will take place during each module of the seminar along with after each lesson. This assessment will take place in the form of interpersonal communication between the instructor and the participants and will be reviewed based on intermittent assessments and checkpoints taking place during the seminar. According to businessballs.com(nd), Donald Kirkpatrick defines the four levels of evaluation as: reaction of student - what they thought and felt about the training learning - the resulting increase in knowledge or capability behaviour - extent of behaviour and capability improvement and implementation/application results - the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee's performance (businessballs.com, nd)

The first two, reaction and learning, can be described as easy to create, offer almost immediate feedback and can be very cost effective. For this seminar, the reaction level of evaluation will be implemented in various stages through the seminar because the instructors will need to make sure that every student understands the training before moving on and so will be constantly seeking feedback (positive and negative) from the students in the class.

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In 1994, Dr. Christopher Moersch developed the Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) scale in an effort to accurately measure authentic classroom technology use. This scale focuses on the use of technology as an interactive learning medium because this particular component has the greatest and lasting impact on classroom pedagogy and is the most difficult to implement and assess. The challenge is not merely to use technology to achieve isolated tasks (e.g., word processing a research paper, creating a multimedia slide show, browsing the Internet), but rather to integrate technology in an exemplary manner that supports purposeful problemsolving, performance-based assessment practices, and experiential learning (dcet.k12.de.us, nd). Learning as a level of evaluation will also be utilized in the form of entrance and exit tickets to be used to judge the LOTI (Level of Technology Implementation) that each teacher enters and leaves with in regards to the training received. For this seminar and the behavior level of evaluation, the instructors will be conducting post-training follow-up interviews with the participants individually through emails and face-toface planning. These interviews will be scheduled to allow for the teachers to follow-through with their planning and training of the flipped classroom and give them time for appropriate adjustments. The final level of evaluation is in the results portion of the evaluation and while this will be evident not in the teachers themselves, it will instead be seen in the students understanding of the subject matter based off of grade improvements and deeper knowledge discussions held in the classrooms. This seminar and training will not be useful if it does not impact students directly and in a positive manner. In order to properly measure the results level of evaluation outcomes, the teachers grade-books become a testament to see improvement in student aptitude

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along with their personal prior knowledge of how well a student grasped the concepts they are teaching. The second part of the results portion of this training will be conducted through the LOTI evaluations and personal reflections of the teachers after 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 month intervals. How far have the teachers increased their LOTI and how well have the concepts been put into place based off of the LOTI assessments. Behavior and results differ from the first two levels of evaluation because they are both done over the course of time and require more thorough evaluation levels and standards in order to facilitate how well the student understood the concepts rather than what they learned. To follow-up with all of the evaluation that is going on this researcher would say that the plan to ensure comprehension on the part of the teachers is to meet with them individually just before they put their flip into place. Make sure that they understand the concepts through a formative assessment test and find out if they made any improvements based off of the evaluation at the end of the seminar. Because of the way that this seminar is set-up and facilitated, it is thought that it will be difficult for the participants to fall behind and not meet their objectives. The evaluations in place along with the hands-on application training should allow for any problems that arise to be fixed through the first level of evaluation (reaction). A summative assessment will take place during the final module of the seminar and will be a complete assessment of not only what the participant learned, but also if they are capable of implementation of a flipped classroom on their own based on their answers on the summative essay exam at the end of the seminar.

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Conclusion Flipped classrooms do not work for every class and every classroom. Participants and instructors need to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of each discipline when dealing with an environment such as the flipped classroom. The conclusion of this one-day seminar should allow for a strong background for any teacher to be able to have the skill-set to flip their classroom and provide higher-order thinking in a different light for their students; however it is up to the participant themselves to decide the best course of action regarding their classrooms and their flips. This researcher must say that the amount they have learned quite a bit from going through these exercises and have developed a keen awareness of the sheer amount of planning that is necessary to conduct a workshop/seminar or new class. They understand their teaching methodology and their planning; however they have come to realize that they were not doing the planning aspect correctly. An example of this is when they taught a class on flipped classrooms and had an incredible turnout and incredible amount of information that they wanted to give out. Because they did not fully understand the ADDIE model this researcher doesnt think that his message was as clear as it could have been based entirely on human error; people came to the class either unprepared, with a lack of understanding, or just could not keep up with the pace with which the instructor moved. One of the biggest pieces that this researcher will take away from this class is no matter how much of a good idea they might have of something that they want to implement, there are so many factors to consider when following the ADDIE model of Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement and in their eyes, the most important aspect: Evaluate. This researcher believes that

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this is the most important piece of the puzzle because it is not only about the project, the students and the lesson, but it is about the instructor as well. A good project will allow for formative evaluations several times, a great one will allow for those evaluations at every critical juncture and be used to decide if the class is ready to move forward with the next piece of their understanding.

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References DocsFlippedClassroom. (nd). Higher level thinking skills two way interaction. formative learning. Retrieved on May 23, 2013 from http://docsflippedclassroom.weebly.com/higher-order-thinkingreal-worldconnections.html

Learning-Theories. (nd). ADDIE model. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.learning-theories.com/addie-model.html

Educause. (2012). 7 things you should know about flipped classrooms. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7081.pdf

Churches, A. (2011). Blooms digital taxonomy. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Blooms+Digital+Taxonomy

Bellard, F. (2009). Screencast-O-Matic (Version 1.4). [Computer Software]. Available from http://www.screencast-o-matic.com

Center for Instructional Technology & Training. (2013). Gagnes 9 events of instruction. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://citt.ufl.edu/tools/gagnes-9-events-of-instruction/

Dodge, J. (nd). What are formative assessments and why should we use them?. Retrieved on May 30, 2013 from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/what-are-formative-assessmentsand-why-should-we-use-them

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Businessballs.com, (nd). Kirkpatrick's learning and training evaluation theory. Retrieved on June 19, 2013 from http://www.businessballs.com/kirkpatricklearningevaluationmodel.htm

Dcet.k12.de.us, (nd). Levels of technology integration. Retrieved on June 13, 2013 from http://www.dcet.k12.de.us/instructional/loti/

Engstrom, M. (2010, May 22). Instructional-Design-Live#19 2010-05-21 Authentic Assessment. Podcast retrieved from http://edtechtalk.com/node/4769

Edwards, A. (2012). Teaching higher-order thinking skills in a flipped classroom. Retrieved on June 6, 2013 from http://edwardslearninglab.blogspot.com/2012/02/teaching-higher-orderthinking-skills.html

Marzano, R. (2009). Formative assessment lesson planning, learning progression. Handbook for the Art and Science of Teaching

Ash, K. (2012). Educators evaluate flipped classrooms. Retrieved on June 2, 2013 from http://216.78.200.159/Documents/RandD/Education%20Week/Flipped%20Classrooms.pdf