Truth is much too complicated _{t}_{o} _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{a}_{n}_{y}_{t}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{b}_{u}_{t} _{a}_{p}_{\}_{o}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{!}
_{l}_{o}_{h}_{n} _{v}_{o}_{n} _{N}_{e}_{u}_{m}_{a}_{.}_{n} (190119s7).
CHAPTER
THREE
.
Shallow Water Systems and lsentropic
Coordinates
oNVENTToNALLY, 'TH E SHALLoW WATER EeUATIoNS describe _{a} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{n} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{f}_{f} _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y}
fluid in hydrostatic _{b}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} _{r}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{o}_{r} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{,} _{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{b}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{b}_{y} _{a} _{d}_{g}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} and ftom above by a free suface, above which _{w}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{€} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{o}_{f} negligibl€ inertia. Such a configuration _{c}_{a}_{n} _{b}_{€} generalized _{t}_{o} _{m}_{u}_{t}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{n}_{m}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e}
fluids lying one on top of anoth€r, forming a'stacked shallow water' _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s}
of svsrcms rs rhe main _{s}_{u}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{r}_{h}_{i}_{\} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{.} Th€ single{ayer model is one of the simplest _{u}_{s}_{e}_{f}_{u}_{l} _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l}_{s} _{i}_{n} geophysical _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{a}_{l}_{}}_{r}_{n}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{c}_{s}_{,} b€cause it allows for a consideration of the eff€cts of rotation _{i}_{n} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{f}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{w}_{o}_{r}_{k} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{t}
the complicating eff€cts of stratification. By _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{w}_{€} _{c}_{a}_{n} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} effects of stratification, _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} just _{t}_{w}_{o} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{o}_{r}_{i}_{l}_{y} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l} _{o}_{f}
a stratified fluid, it is _{a} _{s}_{u}_{D}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{y} good _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l} _{o}_{f} _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} phenomena _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{d}
aturcsphere. Indeed, _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{d}_{€}_{l}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{j}_{u}_{s}_{t} pedagogical _{t}_{o}_{o}_{l}_{s} _{w}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{r} therc is a close physical and mathematical anatogy between the shatlow water _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
and a description of the continuously statifi€d ocean or atmosphere $.ritten _{i}_{n} _{i}_{s}_{o}_{p}_{y}_{c}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{o}_{r} ismtropic coordinates, lyirh a meaning beyond a cohcid€ntal similarity in the equations. _{W}_{e}
begin with the single'lay€I _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{.}
1I DYNAIVICS OF A SINCLE, SHALLOW _{L}_{A}_{Y}_{E}_{R}
Shallow water dFamics apply, by definition, ro a fluid tayer _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{i}_{n} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e}
horizontal scale of rhe flow is _{m}_{u}_{c}_{h} grearer _{r}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{h}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{m}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
detemined by the momentum and mass contiluity equations, _{a}_{n}_{d} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{d}
is fully
t23
124
Chapter 3. ShallowWater Systems _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} _{C}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}
Fluid
l.
Topography
Fig. 3.1 A shallowwater _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{.} _{h} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{k}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{c}_{o}_{t}_{u}_{m}_{n}_{,} _{I}_{{} _{i}_{r}_{s} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}
thickness. 4 the height of rhe fre€ surfac€ and _{4}_{,} is the heisht ofthe _{t}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{r}_{i}_{q}_{i}_{d}_{,}
surface, above some arbitrary origin! typicalty (hosen _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{o}_{f} zero. A4 is the deviation free surface.height, _{s}_{o} _{w}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{4} _{=} _{n}_{b} _{+} _{h} _{=} _{E} _{+} _{A}_{n}_{.}
4, is
small asp€ct mtio the hydrostatic _{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{w}_{e}_{l}_{t} _{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{f}_{i}_{e}_{d}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{w}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{o}_{k}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m}
of negligibl€
^{d}^{€}^{n}^{s}^{i}^{t}^{y} ^{(}^{a}^{n}^{d} therefore negligible inertia) retative to the fluid of interest, as illustrated _{i}_{n}
t/j + xrk is the thee dimensional _{v}_{e}_{t}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}
the outset. Consider, then, fluid in a container above _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d}
Fig. 3.1. As usual, _{o}_{u}_{r} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{r} _{=} _{x}_{.}_{i} _{+}
and r, _{=} xri + ,j is the horizontal v€locity. _{I}_{!}_{(}_{r}_{,}_{J}_{r}_{'}_{)} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{k}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{c}_{o}_{h}_{j}_{r}_{n}_{n}_{,}
H is its mean height, and _{4} is the height of the free _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{_} _{I}_{n} _{a} _{f}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{}_{b}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{d} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{r}
_{4} _{=} ^{l}^{'}^{!}^{,} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}
_{i}_{n} ^{g}^{e}^{n}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{l} _{h} _{=} _{4}
3.1.1 Momentum _{€}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
_{4}_{r}_{,} where _{t}_{,} is the height of the floor of the container.
The vertical momentum equation is just the hydrostatic _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,}
ap
(3.1)
and, because density is assumed _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{,} _{w}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{$}_{a}_{t}_{€} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{t}_{o}
p(x,y.zl _{=} _{p}_{g}_{2} _{+} _{p}_{o}_{.}
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{2}_{)}
At the top of the fluid, _{z} : _{r}_{?}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{€} pressure _{i}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{t}_{€}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e}
and this is as$med to be negtigible. _{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,}
w€ighr of the overlying fluid
p _{=} _{0} _{a}_{t} _{z} :
_{r}_{} giving
p\x, y, _{z}_{)} _{=} pgh\x,y
_{)} _{} _{z}_{)}_{.}
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{3}_{)}
The consequenc€ of this is that rhe horizontal gradient _{o}_{f} plessule _{i}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{.} That is
_
.a
.a
(3.4)
(3.s)
_{3}_{.}_{1} Dynamics of a Single, Shallow Layer
I25
!
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} gradient _{o}_{p}_{e}_{m}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{z}_{.} (In _{t}_{h}_{e} rest of this chapter we will drop th€ subscript
2 ur ess that causes ambiguity. The threedimensional gradient operator will be denoted _{b}_{y} _{V}_{3}_{.} _{w}_{e} will _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} mostly use cartesian coordinates, but the shallow water equations may certainly be applied over a spherical planet _{} indeed, 'Laplace's tidal equations' are
_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} shallow water equations on a sph€re.) The horizontal mom€ntum equations
therefore become
DxI
_{w}_{=}
pvP=Svn
(3.6)
The nghthand side of this equation is independent of the verocal coordinate z. Thus, if the _{f}_{l}_{o}_{l}_{v} _{i}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} independent of z, it must stay so. (This z independence is unrelated to that
_{a}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{a}_{p}_{i}_{d} _{r}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} necessary for the Taylorhoudman eff€ct.) The velocities u
_{a}_{n}_{d} u _{a}_{r}_{e} functions of r., j'l and t on1y, and th€ horizontal momentum equation is therefore
t
Dx au
au
or=ai+ t+r/aw:.4v4.
au
(3.7)
_{T}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{h}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} velocity is ind€pendent of z is a consequence of tie hydrostatic equation,
which ensures that the horizontal pressure gradient is hdependent of height. (Another
_{s}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} point would be to take this independence of the honzontal motion with height as the defnihbn of shalow water flow. In real physical situations such independence does not hold _{e}_{x}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{l}_{y} for example, ftiction at the bottom may induce a vertical dependence ol the
_{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{i}_{n} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{y} layer.) ln the presence of rotation, (3.7) easily gen€ralizes to
^{D}^{u}^{,}
6l+r ^{/}^{u}^{:}
svn
(3.8)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{€} _{/} _{=} _{/}_{k}_{.} _{J}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{a}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} primitive _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} _{/} may be constant or may
Iatitude, so that on a spherical planet _{/} ^{:} 2r, sin
I
and on the rplane /
vary with
= /0 + ^{p}^{/}^{.}
3.1,2 Mass continuity €quation
_{F}_{r}_{o}_{n} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{t} pfinciples
The mass contained in a fluid column of height h and cross sectional area A is given by
_{I}_{a} p _{h} _{.}_{l}_{A} (see _{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{3}_{.}_{2}_{)}_{.} _{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{€}_{r}_{€} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{n}_{e}_{t} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{x} _{o}_{f} fllltd across the colunm boundary _{&}_{v} advection) th€n this must be balanced by a n€t increase in the mass in A, ard therefore a net increase
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} of th€ water colurnn. The mass converyence into th€ column is given by
l _{=} mass flux in _{=}
_{J} _{l}_{u}
^{.} dS,
^{(}^{3}^{.}^{9}^{)}
where _{S} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} area of the vertical boundary of the column. The strfac€ area of the column is romposed of elements of area ,xn 51, where d, is a line el€ment ctcumscribing the colulm _{a}_{n}_{d} _{n} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} _{v}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} perpendicular _{t}_{o} th€ boundary, pointing outwards. Thus (3.9) becomes
F^
_{} I Phu
dl'
(3.10)
Using the divergence theorem in two dimensions, (3.10) simplifies to
_{F}_{^} _{=} _{} Iav .(puhi _{M}_{,}
(3.11)
126
Chapt€r 3. Shallow _{W}_{a}_{r}_{e}_{r} _{S}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} _{C}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}
Fis.3.Z The mass budget for a col
umn of area A in a shallow wate. _{s}_{y}_{s}
tem. The fluid
{phu
^dI
leaving th€ column _{i}_{s}
is the unit vec,
\ hete r
tor normalto the boundary _{o}_{f}_{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d}
column. There is a nonzero venical
velocity at the rop ofthe column ifthe mass convergenc€ into _{r}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{m}_{n} _{i}_{s}
where the integral is over rhe crosss€ctional _{a}_{r}_{e}_{a} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{c}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{m}_{n} (tooking _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{f}_{t}_{o}_{m} above). This is balanced by the local increase _{i}_{n} _{h}_{€}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{€} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{c}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{n}_{n}_{,} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{b}_{y}
^{o}^{}^{=} ft1,a,: frl^,n* =J^,u**
^{(}^{3}^{.}^{r}^{2}^{)}
Because p is constant, the balaffe b€tlveen (3.11) _{a}_{n}_{d} (3.t2) _{t}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{s} _{t}_{o}
j^[ff., . _{o}_{u}_{]}_{a}_{o}_{=}_{o}_{,}
(3.13)
and because the area is a$itrary the integrand itselJ must vanish, _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,}
a!t,.o6=o
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{1}_{4}_{)}
or equivalently
Dh
);+hv. =0
^{(}^{3}^{.}^{1}^{s}^{)}
This dedvation holds whether or not the lower surface is flat. If it is,
h=4
then h _{=} _{4}_{,} and if not
4r. Equations ^{(}^{3}^{.}^{8}^{)} and ^{(}^{3}^{.}^{1}^{4}^{)} or (3.I 5) form a comptete set, surrunadzed _{i}_{n} _{r}_{h}_{e}
shaded _{b}_{o}_{x} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{e}_{x}_{t} page.
From the 3D mass conservation _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
Since the fluid is incompressible, the threedimensionat _{m}_{a}_{s}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{j}_{u}_{s}_{t}
V ^{.} r _{=} 0. Writing this our in component _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}
Au
az
\ax _{a}_{y} ) :V
_{u}_{.}
(3.16)
_{3}_{.}_{1} Dynamics of a Single, Shallow Layer
127

The Shallow Water Equations
For a single'layff fluid, and ircluding the Coiolis terE, the inviscid ^{s}^{h}^{a}^{l}^{l}^{o}^{w} ^{w}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r}
Dn
momentum: _{6}_{t}_{+}_{J}_{/}
=gvn.
mass continuit'4
Dh
_{D}_{t} +lrv u0
or
(sw1)
#+v.(hr)=0, ^{(}^{s}^{w}^{.}^{2}^{)}
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{h}_{o} _{z}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} _{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{,} _{h} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} fluid thicloess, _{4} is the height
_{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} upper free surface and
topogaphy). Thus, h(t, y,t) _{=}
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} height of the lower surface ^{(}^{t}^{h}^{e} bottom
4,
_{n}_{\}_{x}_{,}_{y}_{,}_{t}_{)}
_{4}_{,} (x, _{v} _{)}_{.} The material derivative is
(sw.3)
J;=tu Daaaa
^{o}^{} at*uar*'av'
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{m}_{o}_{s}_{t} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} holding in Cartesian coordinat$.
_{I}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{$}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{o}_{m} of the flural (z _{=} r,r) to the top ^{(}^{z} = 4), noting that the
_{d}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{d} side is indep€ndent of z, to grve
tuh) u(4b): hv 'u.
^{(}^{3}^{.}^{1}^{7}^{)}
Ar the top _{t}_{h}_{e} v€rtical velocity is the material derivative of the ^{p}^{o}^{s}^{i}^{t}^{r}^{o}^{n} of a ^{p}^{a}^{r}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{r}^{l}^{a}^{r} ^{f}^{l}^{u}^{i}^{d}
el€ment.
_{B}_{u}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} position _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{o}_{p} is just r], and th€rcfore (see fig. 3 2)
^{w}^{r} ^{=}^{U}^{.}
Dt'
_{A}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{o}_{m} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{r}_{d} we have similarly
u\nbt
_{.}
Dnb
^{=} it
_{'}
(3.r8a)
(3.18b)
where, apart from ea hquakes and the like, Anrlaf = 0. Using ^{(}^{3}^{.}^{1}^{8}^{a}^{'}^{b}^{)}^{'} ^{(}^{3}^{.}^{1}^{7}^{)} ^{b}^{e}^{c}^{o}^{m}^{e}^{s}
or. as in (3.15),
_{!}_{{}_{o}
Dh
Dt
_{,}_{o}_{)} *no u=o
+hV.n=0.
(3.19)
(3.20)
_{3}_{,}_{1}_{.}_{3} A rigid lid
_{l}_{t}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{u}_{p}_{p}_{€}_{r} _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{h}_{e}_{l}_{d} _{f}_{l}_{a}_{t} _{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} a rigid lid is sometimes of
int€Iest. The ocean sugg€sts on€ such example, since the bath)T netry at the bottom of the _{o}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{n} prc!'rdes much Iarger vadations in fluid thclmess than do the small vaiiations in ttre
124
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{€}_{r} 3. Shallow Water Systems and lsentropic Coordinates
_{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{n} _{s}_{u}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{€}_{.} _{S}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} the upper surface is at a constant height II _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{,} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} (3.14) _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a}_{h}_{l}_{a}_{f} _{=} _{0}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{€} mass conservadon equation becomes
vh.(lthbi _{=}_{o}_{,}
(3.21)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{h}_{,} _{=} _{H} . _{n}_{r}_{.} _{N}_{o}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} (3.2r) _{a}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{s} _{u}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{n} incompressible mass'tlansport
_{A}_{l}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{u}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{f}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} pressur€ th€re is no longer constant because a
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{b}_{€} provided _{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} rigid lid to keep the surface flat. The horizontal momentum
equation is
Daa l
_{o}_{t} ^{=}
p"Pna'
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} pxd _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} pressure _{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{d}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{€} complet€ €quations of motion are then (3.2I) _{a}_{n}_{d} (3.22).1 If _{t}_{h}_{e} lower surface is flat, the trvodimensional flow itself is div€rgencefree,
_{a}_{n}_{d} the equations reduce to the tlvodjmensional incompressible Euler equations.
3.1a4 Stretching and the vertical velocity
Berause thc hodzontal velocity is depth independent, the vertical velocity plays no role in
advectioL Howev€r, 1r/ is certaidy not zero for then the ftee surface would be unable to _{m}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{u}_{p} _{o}_{r} _{d}_{o}_{n}_{'}_{n}_{,} _{b}_{u}_{t} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} vertical independence of th€ hodzontal flow 1, does
have a simple vertical structurei to determine this we wrte the mass conseNation equatior
au
_{.}
_{} .v.
and integrat€ upwards ftom tle bottom to give
u _{=} wb _{} (v u)(z _{n}_{b}_{)}_{.}
(3.23)
13.24)
Thus, th€ vetical velocity is a linear function of height. Equation (3.24) can be written as
Dz
;;#
Dnh
,o.u\tz _{4}_{b}_{\}_{.}
(3.2s)
_{a}_{n}_{d} at the upper surfac€ 1r/ _{=} D4/Dt so that here we have
Dn Drl
,
DI
=
=:J:2 ^{t}^{v} ^{.} u\tn_ nb).
Dt
i3.26)
Eliminatirg the divergence telm ftom the last tlvo equations gives
which in turn gives
D
2n\D
Dtl, ^{n}^{o}^{t}^{=} n_;wt4nrt,
Dl'
nb\
D tznb\ ,' /*
^
ot\u*1Dt\
(3.27)
(3.28)
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} means _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{a} fluid parc€l above _{t}_{h}_{e} floor to the total depth of the column is fix€d; that is, the fluid st€tches udfo r y in a colunr\ and this is a kinematic prope(y of the shallow lrater system.
_{1}_{.}_{2} _{R}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{C}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} Equations
','
^{I} t_
h
t29
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{3} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} gravity shallowwa
_{t}_{e}_{r} _{s}_{Y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{,} _{A}_{n} active layer lies over a
_{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{d}_{€}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{,} quiescent _{l}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{.} ln a
_{€}_{o}_{m}_{m}_{o}_{n} variation the upper surfac€ k _{h}_{e}_{l}_{d} _{f}_{l}_{a}_{t} _{b}_{y}_{a} risid lid, and _{4}_{0} _{=} 0.
deep,
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{.}_{5} _{A}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{y} with compressible flow
Th€ shallow water equations ^{(}^{3}^{.}^{8}^{)} and ^{(}^{3} 14) are analogous ^{t}^{o} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{c}^{o}^{m}^{p}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{s}^{i}^{b}^{l}^{e} ^{g}^{a}^{s} ^{d}^{t}^{'}^{n}^{a}^{m}^{i}^{c} _{€}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} in two dimensions, namelv
_{P}_{!} _{=} !o"
Dtp
(3.29)
and
a{+v.tupt=o,
{3.30)
_{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} with an equation of
€quaiions (3.I4) and (3.30)
_{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{w}_{t}_{l}_{c}_{h} _{w}_{e} _{t}_{a}_{k}_{€} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{e} p _{=} _{f} (.p) _{T}_{h}_{e} mass conseffation
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{,} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} replacement p _{}
h lf p ^{:}
Cpv' then _{{}_{3} 29)
^{D}^{!} = L!!sp:
6ypt ^{z}^{s}^{p}^{.}
(3.3r)
_{I}_{f} _{y} _{=} _{2} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{u}_{m} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} (3 _{8}_{)} _{a}_{n}_{d} (3.31i _{b}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{e} equivalent' with p _{} h and
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{n} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{t} less than 2 (in air y _{=} 7/5);
_{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{v} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{c}_{t} _{f}_{o}_{r} all values of y' for
_{C}_{y} _{} _{g}_{.} _{I}_{n} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l} _{g}_{a}_{s} y _{=} _{c}_{p}_{l}_{.}_{!} _{a}_{n}_{d} vatues tlpicallv
_{h}_{;}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{;}_{r}_{,} _{i}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{€}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} are linearized, then the
_{l}_{h}_{e}_{n} (1.31)
wdrFr
_{b}_{F}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{t}
_{a}_{r} _{}
por.aVp' _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{F} I
_{m}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{u}_{m} cquar ion rs a lr /Al  H
I
ttgH'vh
dp dp
and lhe linearized shallo$
H and .a _{} _{9}_{H} Ihc
_{s}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} po _{}
_{s}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d} _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{o}_{u}_{s} to shallo$'water waves' which are
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{d} in section 3.7
_{3}_{.}_{2} _{R}_{E}_{D}_{U}_{C}_{E}_{D} _{C}_{R}_{A}_{V}_{I}_{T}_{Y} EQUATIONS
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r} _{n}_{o}_{w} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{m}_{o}_{M}_{n}_{g} _{l}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{o}_{p} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{d}_{e}_{e}_{p}_{,} quiescent _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} layel
(Fig. _{3}_{.}_{3}_{)}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{b}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{h} _{a} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} of negligible inertia This configuration is often ^{u}^{s}^{e}^{d} ^{a}^{s} ^{a}
mo(lel of the upper
mehes of the
_{o}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{:} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{u}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{r}_{c}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{s} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{i}_{n} perhaps _{t}_{h}_{e} upper few hmdred
_{o}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} _{b}_{€}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} near_stagnant abyss lf we turn the model
upside
_{a}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{w}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{a} perhaps _{s}_{l}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{l}_{y} less iealistic mod€l of the atmosphere: the lower
_{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{m}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{c}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{l}_{v}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{l}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{n} inactive stratosphere The
Iayer
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{m}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{a}_{r}_{e} virtually the same in both cascs.
130
Chapter 3. Shallow Water _{S}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} lsentropi( _{C}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}
3.2.1 Pressure gradient in the active layer
We will derive th€ equations for the oceanic case (active layer on top) in tlvo cases, whirh differ slightly in the assumption mad€ about th€ upper surfac€.
I Free upper surface
The pressur€ in the upp€r layer is given by inlegrating the hyahostatic equation down ftom I he upper suface. Thus, at a heighr z in rh€ upper ld)cr
pte) _{=} _{S}_{p}_{t}_{(}_{n}_{o} _{2}_{)}_{,}
(3.32)
wh€re _{4}_{0} is the height of the upper surfac€. H€nc€, ev€rywhere in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{u}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r}_{,}
_{*}_{'}_{,}_{,}
= "'no,
and the momentum _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s}
Du
Dt+f/u=
^{g}^{v}^{n}^{o}^{.}
(3.33)
(3.34)
In the lower Iayer the pressue is also giv€n by the weight of the fluid above it. Thus, at som€
level z in the lower layer,
p2e) _{=} pts\no _{n}_{t}_{)} _{+} pzs(h _{} _{z}_{)}_{.}
(3.3s)
But if this layer is motionless the hodzontal pressuie gradient _{i}_{n} _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{z}_{e}_{r}_{o} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{r}_{e}
ptsno ps 4r constant.
r't.?6r
whete g' : g@2 _{} pt) _{I} pt rs r}]'e reduced graviq,.'l}le momentum _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{€}_{s}
?1  r
Dt"
, _{} s'o,,,.
(3.37J
The equations are compl€ted by the usual mass _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{w}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,}
ff+nv.z:0,
(3.38)
where ,1 ^{:} _{n}_{o} _{} _{4}_{r}_{.} Because _{9} > g', (3.36) shows that surface displacements are much
smdiier than th€ displacements _{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} interior interface. _{W}_{e} _{s}_{e}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{a}_{l} _{o}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{n} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{€} the mean intedor isopycnal displac€ments may be seveml tens of metres _{b}_{u}_{t} _{v}_{a}_{d}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{i}_{n} the mean height of ocean suface are of the order of cenrimetres.
II The rigid lid approximation The smallness of the upper surface displacement _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{w}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{m}_{a}_{k}_{€} _{l}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{l}_{e} _{e}_{r}_{r}_{o}_{r} _{i}_{s}
we impose a rltid iid at the top of the fluid. Displac€ments ar€ no longer _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{d}_{,} _{b}_{u}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{d} will in g€n€ml impart a pressure force to the fluid. Suppose that this is P(r, _{/}_{,} f), th€n the _{h}_{o}_{d}_{z}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} pressure gradient _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{€} _{u}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{y}
vpr _{=} VP.
(3.39)
3.3 Multi Layer _{S}_{h}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} Water Equations
r3L
The pressue in rhe lower layer is again given by hydrostasy, and is
so that
p2= _{}_{h}_{S}_{n}_{1}_{+} pzg\nr _{} _{z}_{J} _{+}_{P} _{=} pgh
p28(h+z)+P,
9pz _{=} _{}_{S}_{l}_{p}_{z} pr)Vh + VP.
Then if Vp2 _{=} 0 we have
Sl?zPl)vh=9P'
(3.40)
(3.4r)
(312)
and the momenrum equation for ihe upperlayer rsjusl
D]+y"u=sivn.
(3.43)
whcre g' _{=} g\p2 _{} pt) _{I} p _{I} . Thes€ €quations differ from the usual shallow water equations
only in the us€ of _{a} r€duc€dgravityr'in plac€ of _{I} its€lf. lt is _{t}_{h}_{e} densiay _{d}_{r}_{'}_{f}_{r}_{e}_{r}_{€}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{b}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{e}_{n}
the two layers that is important. Similarly, if we tale a shallow water system, with the moving layer on the bottom, and we suppose that overlying it is a stationary fluid of finit€
density, then we would easily furd that the fluid equations for lhc moving layer are the same
as if the fluid on iop had zero ineltia, _{e}_{x}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t} that _{t} would be replaced _{b}_{y} an appmpriat€ _{r}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{g}_{m}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} (problem _{3}_{.}_{1}_{)}_{.}
3.3 MULTI.LAYER _{S}_{H}_{A}_{L}_{L}_{O}_{W} WATER EQUATIONS
we now consider the d).namics of multiple layers of fluid stacked on top of each other.
This is a crude representation of continuous statification, but it tums out to b€ a powerful model _{o}_{f} many geophysically interesting phenomena as well as being physically realizable in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{a}_{b}_{o}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{y}_{,} _{T}_{h}_{e} prcssurc is _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{o}_{u}_{s} across the interface, but _{t}_{h}_{e} density jumps discontiruously and this allows the horizontal velocity to have a corresponding discontinuity.
Thc _{s}_{e}_{t} up is illustrated in Fig. _{3}_{.}_{4}_{.}
In cach lay€I pressure is given by the hyabostatic approximatioq and so an)ryhere in the
interlorwe can ffnd the pressure by integrating dolvn from the top. Thus, at a height z in
t}le first layer we have
pt=plg(nozJ,
13.44)
and in the second layer,
p2 _{=} pfiho _{} _{4}_{t}_{)} _{+} p?gh) _{} _{z}_{)} _{=} plsno _{+} _{h}_{s}_{\}_{n}_{r}
pzgz,
(3.4s)
whete gi _{=} g@2 _{} pt) _{l}_{p}_{r}_{,} and so on. The term involving z is irrelevant for the dynamics, because _{o}_{r}_{i}_{l}_{y} the _{h}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} _{d}_{e} vative _{c}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s} the equation of motion. Omitting this tetur,
for the nth layer the dFamlcal prcssure is given by the sum from the top do$'n:
P^=Pr ZStth'
(3.46)
where _{9}_{;} _{=}_{9}_{(}_{p}_{i}_{+}_{r} p)lh(bDrgo _{=} g).The interface displacements may b€ expressedin
terms of the layer _{t}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{b}_{y} sumrling from _{t}_{h}_{e} bottom up:
4^=4y+ _{\}
ht
13.47)
132
Fig. 3.4 The multilayer shal
low water system. The layers
are number€d from the top
down. _{T}_{h}_{e} coordinat€s _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{€}
interfa.es are denoted by _{4}_{,}
and the layer thicknesses by
h, so that hi _{=} _{4}_{r} _{} _{4}_{i} _{r}_{.}
Chapter _{3}_{.} ShallowWater _{S}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} ls€ntropic _{C}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{€}_{s}
no
4r'
n2
nF1,
4i
The momentum _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{l}_{o}_{r} each _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} may _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{b}_{e} wdtten, _{i}_{n} general,
Du"
i+J\uh=
_{}
_{1}_{}
^{v}^{p}^{n}^{,}
(3.48)
where the pressure is given by (3.46) and in terms of _{t}_{h}_{e} layer _{d}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{h}_{s} usinC (3.a8). _{I}_{f} we male the Boussinesq approximation then pn on the righthand side of (3.48)is replaced by
Finally, the mass conservadon _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} for _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} layer has _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{} layer case, and is
_{D}_{!}_{*}_{n}_{"}_{v}_{,}_{u}_{.}_{=}_{o}_{.}
(3.49)
The two and threeJayer cases
The two.layer model (Fig. 3,5) is the simplest model to captwe the effects of stratification.
_{E}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} presswes _{u}_{s}_{t}_{n}_{g} (3.46) _{a}_{n}_{d} (3.47) _{w}_{e} _{f}_{f}_{n}_{d}_{:}
Pt = Prgno = PP(111+ h2 + nb)
^{p}^{2} = ^{p} tts no ^{+} slntl = ^{p}^{t} lg lh t ^{+} h2 + nb) + ^{g}^{i}^{h}^{z} + nb\1.
(3,s0a)
(3.50b)
The momentum _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} for the _{E}_{v}_{o} layers _{a}_{r}_{c} then
Dr.'
fi'

I
and in the bottom layer
zut =. gV no 
^{.}^{g}^{v}^{t}^{h}^{r}  h2 + nbt.
^{D}^{f}^{f} r 1*u, = _{f}_{i}_{b}_{v}_{n}_{o} + e\vn,) ^{:}  ^{P}^{j}^{[}^{o}^{v} tnt + n, + n) + siv (h2 + n,,l .
(3.51a)
(3,51b)
3.3 MuklLayer Shallow Water Equations
z
Fig.3.5 The two.layer shallowwater system. A fluid ofdensity p, lies over a denser fluid of density pr. ln the.educed qravity case the lower layer may be arbitrarily thick and i5 ass!med stataonary and so has no horizontal pressLrre gradient. ln the
'rigid lid' approximation the top surface displa<enent is negleded, but there is then a nonzero pressure _{s}_{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t} induced by the lid.
In the Boussinesq approximation prlp, is replaced by unity. In a thrcelayer model the dynamical prcssures are found to be
P1 = PPh
p2 _{=} pllgh _{+} gi(hz _{+} _{b}
_{+} _{r}_{t}_{b}_{)}_{l}
pr = pt _{I}_{s}_{h} + gilhz + h3 + nb) + sih3 + nb,l,
(3.s2a)
(3.52b)
(3.52c)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{h} _{=} _{n}_{o} _{=} _{r}_{,}_{D} _{+} _{h}_{r} _{+}_{h}_{z}_{+}_{h} _{a}_{\}_{d}_{.}_{g}_{i}_{=} g\p3 pz)/pt.Morelay€rscanobviouslybe
added in a systematic fashion.
3.3.1 Reduced'gravity multilayer€quation
As with _{a} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} active layer, we _{m}_{a}_{y} envision multipl€ laycrs of fluid _{o}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{l}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} a dceper stationary layer This is a useful model of thc stratified upper ocean ove ying a nearly
stationary and nearly unshatified abyss. hdeed se use such a modei to study the 'vcntilated
thermocline' in chapter 16 and a detailed treatment may be found there. If we supposc there is a lid at the top, then thc rnodel is almost the same _{a}_{s} that of the previous scction. However, now the horizontal pressure gradient _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} lowest _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{l} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} _{i}_{s} _{z}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{o} we may obtain th€ pressures m all the active layers by integrating the hydrostatic equation
upwards from this layer. Suppose we have N moving layers, _{l}_{h}_{e}_{n} th€ reader _{m}_{a}_{y} verify _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} th€ d),nami€ pressure in th€ rL th layer is given _{b}_{y}
P^ ^{:}
_{L} Ptg,nt,
(3.s3)
134
Chapter 3. Shallowwater Systems and lsentropic _{C}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}
Fiuid velocity, into page
Fis. 3.6 Geostrophic flow in a shallow water system, with _{a} positive _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}
Coriolis paramet€r _{/}_{,} as in the Northern Hemisphere. The pr€ssure _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d}
can be balanced by the Coiolis force
down the gradient ofthe height field, and this
ifthe fluid velocity is at right
angles to it. lf/ were nesative, the geostrophic _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{.}
would be rcversed.
whereasbeforeg;
=g(p,+r
pj)/pr.Ifwehavealidatthetop,andtaketo=0,thenthe
inte ace displacements are related to th€ Iayer thicknesses _{b}_{y}
_{\}_{"} _{=} _{>}_{h}_{t}_{.}
(3.s4)
Irom th€se er?ressions the momentum equation in each layer is easily _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{,}
3.4 CEOSTROPHIC BALANCE _{A}_{N}_{D} _{T}_{H}_{E}_{R}_{M}_{A}_{L}_{W}_{I}_{N}_{D}
Geostrophic balance occus in the shallow water equations,
iust as in the continuously
stratified equations, wh€n the Rossby number _{U}_{/}_{f}_{l} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{€} _{C}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{s} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m} _{d}_{o}_{m}_{h}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}
the advective t€Ims in the momentum equation, In the singte layer _{s}_{h}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} water _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} geostrophic _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{i}_{s}_{:}
(3.ss)
fxus=gVn.
Thus, the geostrophic velocity is proportional to the alope of the surface, as skerched in
Iig. 3.6. (For the rest of this s€ction, we will drop _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{c} ptr, _{a}_{n}_{d} _{r}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{.}_{a}_{l}_{l} _{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{e} geostrophic.)
h both the singlelayu and multilay€I cases, th€ slope _{o}_{f} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{s}_{u}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{d}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{r}_{l}_{y}
related to the aliffer€nce in pressure gradient _{o}_{n} _{e}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{i} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{o}_{,} _{b}_{y} geostrophic _{b}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} to the shear of the flow. This is the shalow water analoglle _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{l} _{w}_{t}_{u}_{d} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} _{T}_{o} obtain an expr€ssion for this, consider the inteface, _{,}_{,} betw€en two laye$ _{I}_{a}_{b}_{e}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{I} _{a}_{r}_{l}_{d} _{2}_{,} The prcssure in two layers is given by the hydrostatic relation _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{o}_{,}
h=A(x,y)p\gz
p2: A(x,y) p$4 _{+} pzsln _{} _{z}_{J}
(at some z in layer l)
(3.56a)
_{=} Alx,y) + prg'rn p2gz
(at som€ 2 in lay€I 2)
(3.s6b)
3.5 Form Drag
i\p : pzg Lz
Fig.3.7 Margules' relation: using hy'
drostasy, the difference in the horlzon talpressure gradient b€tween the upper _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} lower layer ie given by g'prr,
where r _{=} Iand _{=} AzlA! is the in
terface slope and g' _{=} _{\}_{p}_{,}
pt)lpt.
ceostrophic balance then
sives /(u, 
,r) _{=} _{9}_{'}_{J}_{,} which is a special case of
(3.60).
where A(x, y) is a function ofintesration. Thus we find
_{*}_{'}_{o}_{,}
,,t = n'''n'
(3.s7)
If the flow is gcostrophically balanced and Boussinesq then, ln each layer, the velocity obeys
Using (3.57) thcn gives
_{o}_{r} _{i}_{n} general
_{f}_{t}_{,} _{=} lxxvp,.
_{/}_{(}_{r}_{.}_{r}_{r} r.rr r _{=} k\siv4,
_{f} (u" u") _{=} kxs;v4.
(3.s8)
(3.s9)
(3.60)
Tbis is the thermal wind equation for the shallow water system. It applies at any interface,
and it implies the slear rs proportional to the interface slope, a result known as the 'Margules
rclation' (Fig. 3.7).'?
Suppose that we repr€sent _{l}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{t}_{m}_{o}_{s}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{b}_{y} _{t}_{w}_{o} layers of fluid; _{a} me _{d}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} decreas
itrg temperature may ther bc represented by an intedace that slopcs upwards toward the
pole Then, in cither h€misphere, !,"e have
_{'}
,,
s.' _{Y} o,
, r.br,
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{€} _{t}_{€}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} gradient js _{a}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a} positive _{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r} (se€ problem _{3}_{.}_{2}_{)}_{.}
].5 FORM DRAG
\lhen the hterface between two layers varies with position that is, when it is $,avy the
layers exert a prcssurc forcc on each other. Similarly, if the bottom of thc fluid is not flat
then the topography and the bottom layer will in general exert forces _{o}_{n} _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.} This
kind of force is known as _{/}_{o}_{n}_{n} drdt and it is an important mcans whcreby momentum can
be added
_{4}_{r} (x,l) and _{4}_{r}_{(}_{,}_{.}_{,}_{j}_{'}_{,}_{)}_{.} Then _{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{s}_{o}_{m}_{e} zonal interval I
to or cxtracted from a flow3 Consider a layer confin€d between two intedaces,
the average zonal pressure for€c
on that fluid layer is giten _{b}_{y}
ir: _{r}_{,}
^{a}^{n} u, o'.
(3.62)
r36
Chapt€r 3. Shallow
Water Systems and lsentropic Coordinates
Integrating by parts ffst in z and then in x, and noting that by hydrostasy ap _{l}_{A}_{z} does nor
dep€nd on horizontal position within the layer, we obtain
'r= if,
l*4'":.
4fl.
dx _{=} (ila;
+ n,i
an.
= +p j;
an.
An'
^{p}^{,} r;,
(3.63)
where pr is the pressue at _{4}_{r}_{,} and similarly for pr, and to obtain the second line ive suppos€
that the integral is _{a}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d} a closed path, such as a cfcle of latitude, and the average is denoted with an overbar. These tems represent the tmnsfer of momentum from one layer to the next, and at a particular intedace, ;, we may define the folm drag, Tr, by
T,=lt,=n, an.
ap,
(3.64)
The form dmg is a str€ss and as the layer depth shrinks to z€ro its vertical d€fvative, aTlaz,
is the force (per unit volume) on the fluid, FoIm dlag is a particularly important means for the vertical transfer of mom€ntum and its ultimate removal in an €ddying fluid, and is one
of the main mechanisms whereby the wind sffess at the top of the ocean is cornmunicated
to th€ ocean bottom. At the fluid bottom the form drag is _{F}_{t}_{t}
wher€ _{4}_{,} is the bottom
topography, and this is propoflional to the momentum exchange with the solid Ea h. This
is a significant mechanism for th€ ultimat€ removal of momentum in th€ ocean, especially
in the Antarctic _{C}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{C}_{u}_{l}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t} where it is likely to b€ much larger than bonom (or
Ekman) drag arising from smallscale turbulence and friction. In the twolayer, flatbottomed
case the only folm drag occurrjng is that at the int€face, and the momentum transfer
between rhe larers is just p.ArnAx or _{}_{n}_{t}_{a} pjdi: then. the force on each Ia)€r due ro lhe
_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{,} _{a}_{s} we would e).pect from mom€ntum consenation, (Form drag
is discussed more in an oceanographic context in sections 14.6.3 and 16.6.2.)
_{F}_{o}_{r} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{s} _{i}_{n} geostrophic _{b}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} folm drag is related to the meddional heat flux.
p/r' :
_{a}_{p}_{'}_{l}_{a}_{x} and the interfacial
The pressure gradient and velocity are related by
displacement is proportional
_{n} . _{}_{b} I'ablAzl.Thus _{}_{a}_{n}_{p}_{'}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{x}
to the temperatue perturbation, ,' _{l}_{i}_{n} fact one may show that
*
u,. a.orresponden.e t}lar will rc ocrur$henhe
consido the _{}_{E}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{n} PaIn _{f}_{u}_{x} in chapter 7.
_{3}_{.}_{6} _{C}_{O}_{N}_{S}_{E}_{R}_{V}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N} PROPERTIES OF SHALLOW WATER SYSTEMS
There are l!\o cornmon
iii)
M)es
_{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{o}_{n} properly m tluds: {i, material in\arjanrs and
integal invariants. Matedal invariance occurs wh€n a property (4 say) is conserved on
_{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} fluid d€mmt, and so ob€ys th€ equation D+lDf : 0. An integral invariant is on€ that is
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{N}_{e}_{d} _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{h}_{g} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} some, usually closed, volume; energy is an example.
_{3}_{}_{6}_{.}_{1} Potential vo(icity: _{a} material invariant
_{T}_{h}_{e} vorticity _{o}_{f} _{a} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} (considered _{a}_{t} greater length in _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{r} 4), denoted ur, is d€fin€d to be the curl of the velocity fidd. Let us also define the shallow water vorticity, ur* _{,} as the curl
of th€ hodzontal velocity. We therefore havel
_{s}_{r}_{=}_{V}_{x}_{l}_{,}_{,}
(tr*=Vx!r.
(3.6s)
r (o);i _{=}_{;}_{F}_{(}_{a}_{)} =0.
13.74)
since F is arbitrary there are an infilte number of materlal ^{i}^{n}^{v}^{a}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{n}^{t}^{s} ^{c}^{o}^{r}^{r}^{€}^{s}^{p}^{o}^{n}^{d}^{r}^{n}^{g} ^{t}^{o}
different choices of F.
,t"J
not
63)
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64)
az,
for
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