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Cost-Benefit and Sensitivity Analysis of Cut Flower Roses and Comparison with other Floricultural Crops

SUJATA MAJUMDAR* AND DEBABRATA LAHIRI**

Introduction: In West Bengal, Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts flower cultivation have taken a leading role in the commercialization of agriculture. Other states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Delhi and Haryana have also emerged as major flower growing centres in India. Due to flower cultivation, in past few years West Bengal has been taken a great commercial part in Indian economy. The present cut flower cultivation in West Bengal greatly satisfies the local demand which has been used for worshiping and occasions such as marriage etc. On the other hand flower produced from greenhouses satisfies the demand of corporate houses, hotels and restaurant etc. Most of the flowers have been cultivated in open filed and among them and according to area, rose has been the most important one, followed by hibiscus and jasmine. The paper intends to study the profitability, break-even cost of production and sensitivity of these flowers. So that proper planning could be done for growth and sustainability in this sector. In this view Katapukur, Heledwip-Vulgaria and Pakuria villages have been chosen purposively from Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts respectively for this study. Review of Literature : Several researchers and professionals have been worked on break-even and sensitivity of cut flowers among them Pawar et. al. (2011) worked on break even analysis (BEP) sensitivity analysis and assessment of sustainability in cut flower production for the states of Maharashtra. Kundu et. al. (1997) tried to show how export-import policy has been fruitful to export Indian cut flowers. They had shown a trend of floriculture export and import. Market pulse knowledge networks (P) Ltd. (2008) submitted a report of' export market or Mumbai, Surat, Baroda and Ahmedabad market. By this paper they had shown the demand and supply condition of the market of above purposive area. Kokate (2009) had shown about market channels of rose

and gave some suggestions for improvisation of cut flower industry of Maharashtra. They had shown Indian floriculture market has growing despite of no government regulations in the pricing and exports and suggest to government intervention in pricing policy has been the key the success of the Indian floriculture industry. Objectives : Objectives of the study have been as per following : (1) To determine the profitability of cut flower roses cultivated in open field and compare them with hibiscus, jasmine; (2) To study the breakeven quantity and sensitivity analysis of cut flower roses. Methodology : Sampling Technique : From house listing schedule it has been found that 71.00 per cent of the household have been in marginal farmer category representing 73.00 per cent of family member. The marginal farmers own 98.39 per cent, 1.68 per cent and 0.07 per cent of own land, leased-in land and leased-out land respectively among total operational holdings. Of the total operational holding 81.41 per cent land has been put to flower cultivation and of which 31.25 per cent is under rose cultivation. Only 36.16 per cent have rose cultivation among total number of household and among them 35.56, 0.40, 0.00 and 0.20 per cent are in marginal, small, medium and large farmer under rose cultivation respectively. Two Community Development Blocks namely Bagnan-II and Daspur from Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts has been selected respectively. From Bagnan-II Community Development Block Heledwip-Vulgaria, Katapukur (under Uluberia sub-division) villages in Howrah district have been purposively selected for the study. From Purba Medinipur distict Pakuria (Panskura subdivision) village have been selected.

* Junior Research Fellow, Rural Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. **Associate Professor and Corresponding Author, Rural Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

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TABLE 1DETAILS OF HOUSE LISTING Sl. District/SubNo. division/Name of the villages 1. Uluberia (Subdivision of Howrah) Heledwip-Vulgaria Katapukur Daspur (Subdivision of Purba Medinipur) Pakuria 110 43 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 43 (100.00) 163 222 54 (94.74) 79 (100.00) 2 (3.51) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.75) 0 (0.00) 57 (100.00) 79 (100.00) Total No. of Household Marginal Category of farm under rose cultivation (No.) (N) Small Medium Large Total

1.1 1.2 2.

2.1

(Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to total)

From Table 1 it has been clearly seen that 94.74, 100.00 and 100.00 per cent are marginal farmer under among total farm of rose cultivation of three villages Heledwip-Vulgaria, Katapukur (Uluberia sub-division) and Pakuria (Panskura) sub-division respectively. Only Heledwip-Vulgaria village has small and large farm of 3.51 and 1.75 per cent respectively of total number of rose cultivated household. A multistage sampling technique has been followed to select the 13.64 per cent sample farms in comparison of

farms; flower cultivation in these two districts has been due by marginal farms in three villages Heledwip-Vulgaria, Katapukur and Pakuria of two Community Development Block Bagnan-II and Daspur from Howrah and Purba Medinipur districts respectively. Side by side the sample farms also cultivated hibiscus and jasmine. According to operational holding the total number of household studied for rose, hibiscus and jasmine has been 24, 10 and 11 respectively.

TABLE 2SAMPLE OF THE HOUSEHOLDS CULTIVATING FLOWER Sl. District/SubNo. division 1.1 1.2 2. Howrah/Uluberia -DoPanskura Villages Marginal HeledwipVulgaria Katapukur Pakuria 9 7 8 No. of farm under rose cultivation Small Medium Large 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total 9 (37.50) 7 (29.17) 8 (33.33) 24 (l00.00)

Total
(Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to total)

Table 2 indicates that 37.50, 29. 17 and 33.33 per cent marginal farm has under rose cultivation of the three villages Heledwip-Vulgaria, Katapukur and Pakuria respectively Uluberia (Howrah district) and Panskura sub-division (Purba Medinipur district) respectively. 610

Analytical Methods : Socio-economic status of households : For the socio-economic status of the sample households the indicators have taken such as age, Agricultural Situation in India

education, usual activities, type of employment and average employment man days (per year). The number of farm has been distributed due to percentages of area of flower cultivation in ascending order. Profitability : The measure of profitability of cut roses has been a very important measure in agriculture business to make a comparison between the floricultural crops with roses. To arrive at the profitability of cut flowers factors like area, yield (number of cut flowers), production cost (including fixed and variable cost), returns (gross income), benefit (net income) and B/C ratio etc. have been taken. The production cost has been the sum of input and output cost. Break-even analysis : Break-even analysis has been taken to find the quantity where a farm gets no loss no profit situation. Here breakeven quantity (BEP) of open field cultivation has been compared with greenhouse roses. BEP quantity measure done such as below : BEP (quantity) = F/ (P- V)---------------------------------( 1) Where : F = Per ha. Fixed investment (Rs.), P = Per flower average price (Rs.) and V = Average variable cost per flower (Rs.). In this methodology break-even quantity of production of rose, hibiscus and jasmine in open field cultivation have been done to find the no loss no profit or normal profit condition of the farmer. Sensitivity analysis : The sensitivity concept has been employed to examine the sensitivity of the average cut flower grower towards risk and uncertainty of increase in production cost, reduction in yield and reduction in price of flowers, under existing prices, cost and price structure. Sensitivity analysis has been done to find the difference between increase or decrease and actual cost, yield (number of flowers) and price respectively for the rose and another floricultural cultivation. This has been

another important measurement to check the market situation. The estimated cost, yield and price has been derived as per following : (i) Estimated cost = Actual yield Actual price (ii) Estimated yield = Actual cost/Actual price (iii) Estimated price = Actual cost/Actual yield Results and discussion : Socio-economic condition of the households : A comparison of the socio-economic condition of the sample household engaged in different types of flower cultivation reveals that maximum number of younger people group below 18 years engaged in rose cultivation (29.58 per cent). Whereas the highest percentage of people within age group of 18 to 60 years have been involved in hibiscus cultivation (69.56 per cent). Lowest percentages of people (11.59 per cent) in the age group 60 years and above years have been in hibiscus cultivation. Literacy rate has been highest among jasmine cultivation as (98.41 per cent) and illiteracy has been higher in hibiscus cultivators (13.04 per cent). Level of education depicted by below primary level and secondary education have 'been higher among jasmine cultivators (24.19 per cent and 61.29 per cent respectively). Below higher secondary education has been higher in hibiscus cultivation (20.00 per cent). The percentage of graduate and post graduate level education has been higher for roses (3.88 and 0.77 per cent respectively). Employment rate has been higher in the hibiscus production 8.33 per cent. Unemployment rate has been higher in rose production 1.41 per cent. The percentages of housewives have been higher in hibiscus production (27.54 per cent). The percentages of student have been higher in roses (25.35 per cent). The not students category has been higher in hibiscus production 7.25 per cent. Old or retired person has been higher in rose cultivation 14.79 per cent. Most of the farmer has been involved in primary employment in jasmine cultivation 100 per cent and secondary employment has been higher in hibiscus cultivation 33.33 per cent. The average man day for primary employment per year has been higher in rose cultivation 149 days and for secondary employment for roses 300 days. Details of the socioeconomic condition of sample households have been given in Table 3.

TABLE 3SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLD SI No. 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 Particulars Age Group Below 18 yrs I 860 yrs 60 yrs and above Rose (n= 24) 42 (29.58) 82 (57.75) 17 (11. 97) Hibiscus (n=10) 15 (21. 74) 48 (69.56) 8 (11.59) Jasmine (n= 11) 14 (22.22) 39 (61.90) 10 (15.87) 611

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TABLE 3SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLDContd. Sl. No. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4. 4.1 4.2 5. 5.1 5.2 Particulars Education Illiterate Literate Below Primary Below Secondary Below Higher Secondary Below Graduate Graduate and above Usual activities Employed Unemployed Housewife Student Non Student Old/Retired Type of employment Primary employment Secondary employment Average employment (man days/year) Primary Secondary 113 300 149 195 98 0 40 (93.02) 3 (6.98) 16 (66.67) 8 (33.33) 21 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 43 (30.28) 2 (1.41) 34 (23.94) 36 (25.35) 6 (4.23) 21 (14.79) 24 (34.78) 0 (0.00) 19 (27.54) 14 (20.29) 5 (7.25) 7 (10.14) 21 (33.33) 0 (0.00) 16 (25.40) 15 (23.81) 2 (3.17) 9 ( 14.29) 13 (9.15) 129 (90.85) 26 (20. 16) 73 (56.59) 24 (18.60) 5 (3.88) 1 (0.77) 9 (13.04) 60 (86.96) 9 (15.00) 34 (56.67) 12 (20.00) 5 (8.33) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.59) 62 (98.41) 15 (24.19) 38 (61.29) 9 (14.52) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Rose (n= 24) Hibiscus (n=l0) Jasmine (n= 11)

(Figures in parentheses indicates percentage to total number of households).

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Profitability of cut Flowers : Among the flower cultivators area under rose has been higher than other flowers. Per hectare production of rose, hibiscus and jasmine has been 4340207 (nos), 1809090 (Kgs) and 54935.06 (Kgs) respectively. Per hectare cost of production cost has been highest for rose (Rs. 27, 13,290.63 followed by jasmine of (Rs. 2029678.21) and hibiscus (11,56,498.78). Both gross and net income has been higher in hibiscus cultivation in comparison to rose and jasmine to the Rs. 8375087.72 and 7218588.94 respectively. While

gross income per hectare has been for hibiscus (Rs. 83,75,087.72) followed by rose (Rs. 54,27,835.05) and jasmine (Rs. 52,38,051.95). Net income from hibiscus has been highest (Rs.72, 18,588.94) followed by jasmine (Rs. 32,08,73.74) and rose (Rs. 27,14,544.42). Gross and net income for hibiscus has been higher than all other flowers because of low cost involved in procuring planting material, cost fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Moreover, hibiscus flower production has been available throughout the year: Benefit-cost been highest for hibiscus followed by jasmine and rose. Details have been given in Table 4.

TABLE 4PROFITABILITY OF CUT FLOWERS (Per hectare) Sl. Particulars No. 1. Area (ha.) 2. Yield 3. Production Cost (Rs.) 4. Returns (Gross income) (Rs.) 5. Net income (Rs.) 6. B/C ratio Break even analysis : It has been found the break even quantity of roses 244644 numbers in terms of fixed investment of Rs. 139446.94 for per 100 flowers at a price of Rs. 116.87 and per unit variable cost Rs. 2489608.13. The break even quantity for hibiscus has been 3140 numbers in terms of fixed investment Rs. 59062.11 for 100 flowers at a price of Rs. 19.73 and per unit of variable cost Rs. 767018.46. Lastly, the break even Rose (no.) 1.94 4340207 27,13,290.63 54,27,835.05 27,14,544.42 1.00 Hibiscus (no.) 0.88 1809090 11,56,498.78 83,75,087.72 72,18,588.94 6.24 Jasmine (Kgs.) 0.77 54935.06 20,29,678.21 52,38,051.95 32,08,373.74 1.58

quantity of jasmine has been 895.83 kgs. for Rs. 62985.57 of fixed investment and a price of Rs. 96.66 per kg. of flowers and per unit of variable cost Rs. 1447384.86. By producing this quantity of flowers the farmer should face no profit no loss situation. It has been clear from that break even quantity of roses has been lower than hibiscus and price of roses has been higher than hibiscus. Details have been given in Table 5.

TABLE 5BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS OF CUT FLOWERS Sl. No. Type of cut flowers Annual flower production (no./kg of flowers) 4340207 (nos.) Total fixed investment (Rs.) Price received per unit (Rs.) 116.87/ 100 flowers 19.73/ 100 flowers 96.66/ Kg. Price per unit of flower variable cost (Rs.) 2489608.13 Break-even quantity (no./kg of flowers) 244644 (nos.) 3140 (nos.)

1.

Rose

139446.94

2.

Hibiscus

1809090 ( nos.) 54935.06 Kg.

59062.11

767018.46

3.

Jasmine

62985.57

1447384.86

895.83 Kg.

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Sensitivity Analysis : In this section analysis has been done to know how much cut flower growers have been satisfied in the above range of cost, yield and prices. Highest difference between actual and increase cost has been found for the jasmine Rs. 2507979.79. Yield differences have been higher in hibiscus 17079799. The difference between actual and increase of price among roses and hibiscus higher in roses

(Rs. 84.13/100 flowers and 5.27/100 flowers respectively) and for jasmine the same difference has been as Rs. 23.34 per kg. Thus sensitivity analysis has been clearly shown. In all type of flowers it has clearly observed that the farmer get positive results for increasing cost, yield and price as because they got the positive amount of production than break even quantity of production. Details have been given in Table 6.

TABLE 6SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF INCREASED COST AND REDUCED YIELD AND PRICES OF CUT FLOWERS Sl. No 1. Particulars Cost (Rs.) Actual Increased Difference 2. Yield (No. or unit) Actual Increased/ decreased Difference Actual Increased/ decreased Difference Rose 1562643.78 3255465.50 1692821.72 4340207 18624000 14283793 116.87/100 flowers 200.00/1 00 flowers 84.13/100 flowers Hibiscus 1156498.78 2060898.50 904399.72 1809090 18888889 17079799 19.73/100 flowers 25.00/ 100 flowers 5.27/100 flowers 23.34/Kg. Jasmine 2029678.21 4537658.00 2507979.79 54935.06 Kg. 8287500.00Kg. 8232564.94Kg. 96.66/Kg. 120.00/Kg.

3.

Price (Rs.)

Conclusions : In spite of the fact that rose has been the major floriculture crop in these two districts its cultivation has heen preferred mostly be members of the household below 18 years of age. But most of the farmers have taken rose cultivation as a secondary occupation. Area of roses has been higher than other floricultural crops and its production and net income have higher than others. But the benefitcost ratio of hibiscus has heen higher than rose and jasmine, thus its profitability has been higher than rose and jasmine. Break-even quantity and sensitivity analyses of cost, yield (production) and price have been positive for all crops. REFERENCES 1. Kokate, Pravin (2009): Marketing channels of rose and improvisation of present status of cut flowers Project report on marketing channels of rose, carnation and gerbera. 2. Kundu K. K., Singh Jai, Singh V. K. and Suhag K. S. (1997): Indians Floriculture Exports Growth, Status, Constraints and Export Strategies:

An Analysis Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol. l1 (1& 2): PP 1421. 3. Market pulse knowledge networks (P) Ltd. (2008): Towards floriculture: Understanding sector and Market (final project report submitted to Sajjata Sangh). 4. Pandey R. K., Bharadwaj S. P., Nirman K. P. S. and Mahajan V. K. (1996 ): Economic analysis of price behavior and marketing of egg Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol. 10 (2) PP 6669. 5. Pawar B. N. and Phalke Shweta (2011); Sustanability in cut flower production in Satara district of Maharashtra Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol. 25 (1): PP 1020. 6. Verma A. R., Rajput A. M. and Patidar R. S. (2004): Price spread, marketing efficiency and constraints in marketing of onion in Indore district of Madhya Pradesh Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol. 18 (2) PP 6676.

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C. Agro-Economic Research

Impact of Emerging Marketing Channels in Agriculture Marketing-Benefit to Producer-Sellers and Marketing Costs and Margins of Major Agricultural Commodities in Bihar and Jharkhand
Background In the 21st Century, when international trade barriers are being overcome through free trade agreements, Indian farmers from one notified area are not allowed to sell their agricultural produce in another notified area of the same state. It is due to the fact that there is a strong license raj in agricultural marketing. It we dig deeper into the issue of agricultural marketing, it would emerge that the government, by virtue of provisions in the Agriculture Produce market Regulation (APMR) Act, is responsible for hoarding by traders and the consequent spiraling prices. The APMR Act, more commonly known as Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Act, of the respective state governments, was formulated in the mid 1960s. It authorizes state governments to set up and regulate wholesale agricultural markets with the stated objective of ensuring the farmers get a fair price for their farm produce, and of protecting them from exploitation by the traders. Most APMCs limit the number of licenses issued to traders to deal in purchase/sale of agricultural produce in their respective markets. The farmers are only allowed to sell their. produce within the APMC market premises. Most markets lack the proper infrastructure to store perishables and as a result, farmers are forced to sell their perishables at the price quoted by traders (incentivizing traders). When a large number of farmers sell their produce in a mandi to a limited number of traders, the dice is loaded against the farmers and consumers. It is evident from various studies that there is considerable gap in facilities available in the market yards and creation of marketing monopolies, which are detrimental to the growth of agriculture and farmers. In view of this, the government has recognized the importance of liberalizing agriculture marketing in early years of this century resulted to constitution of an expert committee under the chairmanship of Shri S Guru. Subsequently on the basis of committee's report and thereof recommendations of Inter-Ministerial Task Force, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India formulated a model APMC Act, in 2003 and advised states to implement the Act. The amended act aims at complete transformation of agricultural marketing in India to make it more market and growth oriented. But states have resisted APMC reforms, as they fear a loss of mandi revenue. In fact the amended APMC Acts will allow varying degrees of flexibility and increasing role of private players
*AERC, T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, Bihar and Jharkhand.

in improving the efficiency of the agricultural marketing value chain. Many states have amended their APMC Act and some states are yet to notify the relevant rules. The states where it amended, the agricultural marketing situations have tremendously changed and thus, the Marketing Division of the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India assigned its Agro-Economic Research Centres/units to undertake a study entitled IMPACT OF EMERGING MARKETING CHANNELS IN AGRICULTURE MARKETINGBENEFIT TO PRODUCER-SELLERS AND MARKETING COSTSAND MARGINS OF MAJOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES IN THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES. Accordingly, Agro-Economic Research Centre for Bihar & Jharkhand, T M Bhagalpur University has conducted the study in Bihar and Jharkhand States. Objectives of the Study The broad objective of the study is to assess the impact of emerging marketing channels in agricultural marketing and benefit to producer-sellers and marketing costs and margins of major agricultural commodities in the states. Research Questions (i) What has been the farmers share in the consumer rupee in emerging models vis-a.-vis the traditional marketing channels? (ii) What is the degree of market efficiency and incidence of post harvest losses in emerging marketing channels vis-a-vis traditional. marketing channels? (iii) What the market practices and services provided by different agencies in tlte emerging marketing channels vis-a-vis traditional marketing channels? (iv) What are the constraints faced by the farmers and different market functionaries in the emerging marketing Channel vis-a-vis traditional marketing channels? Methodology The study has been undertaken in Bihar and Jharkhand states. The reference crops for the study are mango among the fruits and cauliflower among the

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vegetables in Bihar and Jharkhand respectively. In Bihar among the fruits (290.71 thousand ha) nearly one third of mangoes is produced in five prominent districts. Out of these 5 districts, Bhagalpur is one, which has specialty in production of Jardalu variety of mangoes, known for decent flavor, juicy content and export potential, has been selected for the study. Keeping in view of crop prominence in the district Nathnagar and Sultanganj blocks have been selected for farm level enquiries. In Jharkhand, among the vegetables (57 lakh ha), cauliflower (27.30 thousand ha) is grown in 10.00 per cent of total vegetables area. Cauliflower is largely produced in Ranchi district, which account for more than 10.00 per cent of total cauliflower's area in the state. So for the purpose of study, Ranchi district has been selected and in the district for farm level enquiries Pithoria and its adjoining villages falling under Kanke block has been selected, as the Reliance Freshs

collection centre of vegetables is also operating extensively in these villages. The sample has been drawn from both the marketing channels viz., traditional (TMC) and emerging (EMC). Fifty farm households each from TMC and EMC in each state have been selected covering proportionately from small, medium and large farm categories. This way the size of the sample in each state is 100 households. Besides farm households, other market players and consumers have also from included in the sample. It constitutes buyers/ traders (05), retailers (15) and consumers (15) on TMC category in each State and buyers (05) and consumers (15) on EMC category in each state, taking together 30 and 20 on TMC and EMC group in each States. The agricultural marketing reforms status in the light of model APMC Act (2003) in Bihar and Jharkhand may be looked as below :

AGRICULTURAL MARKET REFORMS State(s) Bihar Jharkhand Reform Status BAPMC Act repealed w.e.f., 01-09-2006 Reforms to JAPMC Act have been done for Direct Marketing, Contract Farming and markets in Co-operative/Private Sectors w.e.f., 06-12-2008 BIHAR It was in the 1958 that the Government of Bihar took an important step in regard to market regulation of agricultural produce and a bill known as "Bihar Agricultural Produce Markets Act, was passed in 1960. With the enforcement of Act and until November 2000, the state had 122 agricultural produce market committees. Out of these, 95 fell in residual Bihar, after carving out Jharkhand State in November, 2000; and remaining 27 in Jharkhand State. Subsequently in 2006, Government of India suggested through its model Act (2003), to amend BAMPC Act (1960) so as to allow private players etc. in marketing of agricultural commodities. But the state government repealed the same w.e.f., 01-09-2006. After the repeal of Bihar Agricultural Produce marketing Committee Act (BAPMC act), agricultural market in the state is functioning without any formal institutional structure. However, the state government has made an ambitious market development scheme assisted Asian Development Bank under market infrastructure development project and NHM, with five modern terminal markets at the top, 54 marketing yards belonging to Bihar State Agricultural Marketing Board (BSAMB) being converted to Agri-business Centres in the middle tier, and 1500 rural haats with developed facilities at the grass not 616 Remarks Open/unregulated Agricultural Market Dialogues with the corporate bodies or individuals are taking place for contract farming etc.

level. These haats/ agri-business centres are proposed to be fed by 10,000 on farm primary processing centres (OFPPC) at farm gates. Traditionally in marketing of mangoes, the role of pre-harvest contractors is important, who are mostly local or of adjoining areas/ districts pay visit to the mango orchards at the flowering stage of fruit with a view to assess/ estimate the volume of production and accordingly they undergo agreements with the growers/ orchard owners for 1 to 3 years or 1 to 2 years usually. The agreement is made on per mango tree basis ranging between @ Rs. 1000/ tree to Rs. 3000/ tree. Since these pre-harvest contractors are mostly local keep close touch with the orchard owners and provide credit facility all around the years in lieu of making the contract of the orchards at the time of flowering. In fact they are less market intermediaries more mahajans in many cases. Exploitation of other intermediaries and sometimes by pre-harvest contractors when became, the order of the day, growers opted a chain i.e., 'traders,' who are mostly local or of adjoining areas rather from their own society for marketing the produce in distant urban market directly. These traders act as the representative of the producersellers. Traders after collecting the mangoes arrange the sorting, packaging and transporting to big city markets Agricultural Situation in India

like Kolkata (West Bengal), Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and sometimes in Uttar Pradesh, where they sell the produce in urban mandies. After selling the produce, traders return to village(s) and pay the amount to the respective growers as per their sold volumes of the produce and the price realized in those markets on account of selling the produce. In fact, this new chain has emerged mainly after the development of road and connectivity and improvement in law and order in the state in post BAPMC Act repealed era. But this has not been emerging very prominently because of lack of proper trading rules and other marketing infrastructure. JHARKHAND The state agricultural produce market act is in existence in Jharkhand. After bifurcation from Bihar in November 2000 Jharkhand adopted APMC Act in toto as it was the then APMC Act in Bihar. Subsequently JAPMC Act amended in accordance with the APMC Model Act (2003) in 2007 and came into effective from 06/12/2008. Provisions for direct marketing, contract farming' and markets in co-operative/private sector have been made. But it is yet to be effected. However, dialogues are going on with corporate bodies for contract farming etc. Traditionally, the most prominent marketing agencies for marketing of vegetables in general are kutcha arhatiya or small commission agent or the agent of wholesaler who

buy vegetables from the farmers in the rural haat/periodical markets. During in course of survey, it has been found that vegetables are not being bought or sold in the market yards in Ranchi district (the study area). The co-operative institution as an marketing agency does not play important role in marketing of vegetables even if it still exists (VEGFED) in Jharkhand. It became non-functional in vegetables co-operative marketing; however, it is doing some other works. In fact, APMC Act prohibits transaction outside the regulated mandies. This Act does not allow direct marketing and direct procurement of agricultural produce from farmer's field. Moreover APMC Act restricts the setting-up of markets other than by the state governments. This act is coming in the way of a new private initiative in the modern retailing and upgrading of the supply chain especially in the field of fruits and vegetables. In view of this, government of Jharkhand amended APMC Act and allowed corporate like Reliance Fresh in retailing of vegetables. Now Reliance Fresh (RF) in Ranchi district has emerged as a new channel for retailing vegetables. At present RF have three retail outlets and two collection centres in Ranchi. A few thousand farmers have been hooked on to the Reliance Retail Supply chain in the district through its collection centres, which are linked with consortiums where grading and standardization takes place. Its supply chain is as below :

Producers/Local FarmersCollection CentresRF OutletsConsumers Comparison of the Benefits in TMC and EMC BIHAR Mango is grown for over hundreds of years and more than dozen of varieties in the district. The popular varieties are Dudhia Maldah, Zardalu, Bombay Gulabkhas, Bharatbhog, Fazli, Malikka, Amrapali, Biju etc. The cultivation of mangoes in the district is traditional and practice adopted for its maintenance is annual. The average age of mango orchard is reported to be 23 years 6 months in case of households enquired for the purpose of TMC and 30 years 4 months for EMC. On overall the average area under the crop is 0.80 ha on TMC households and 0.82 ha on EMC households. The total production cost has been estimated at Rs. 9503/ha in case of TMC households and Rs. 9037/ha in case of EMC households. Per hectare fixed cost is estimated at Rs. 13164 in case of TMC households and Rs 13308 in case of EMC households. Total marketing cost stands at Rs. 812/ha and Rs. 3415/ha on TMC and EMC farms respectively. The economics of mango production in terms of costs and net returns, the results indicate the overall cost of cultivation and gross return are Rs. 23479.05/ha and Rs. 59984/ha, resulting in net returns of Rs. 37316.95/ha on TMC farms whereas those are Rs. 25761.45/ha and Rs. 76682.50/ha, resulting in net February, 2012 returns of Rs. 54336.55/ha in case of EMC farms. The results further indicate that the cost-benefit ratios are 1:2.56 and 1:2.98 on TMC and EMC farms. It indicates that returns are higher on EMC farms over TMC farms. As regards the association of farmers with emerging marketing channel is concerned it is very interesting to note here that out of 58 small farmers, 21 medium farms, and 21 large farms, 21 (36.21 %), 12 (57.15%) and 17 (80.96%) respectively associated with EMC farms. It clearly indicates that large sized farms have greater association with the EMC. It is mainly because that they do not want to move outside the farm gate for marketing the produce as well as prefer to dispose larger volume of the produce to one buyer rather more than one buyers. Selling to one chain of intermediaries is beneficial in the sense that the responsibilities of all the marketing activities like sorting, grading, weightment, transportation etc. lie with him. So far as the facilities to the farm households from the buyers is concerned, it is not provided for cultivation of the mangoes as such, however, sometimes advances are given to the households mainly for purchase of the produce. In case of EMC, trader is the new intermediary who has taken the place of pre-harvest contractor of TMC so they may be called as post-harvest contractor. In marketing 617

of mangoes, the spread has not been reduced in EMC. We may simply say replacement of a intermediary by a new one, who sells the produce on behalf of the producer-sellers in urban mandies. In lieu of it he gets some margin like the margins of other intermediaries. JHARKHAND Cauliflower is the most popular vegetable among the Cole crops. It is a delicate crop and needs more care to grow successfully than most other vegetables. The cauliflower varieties are very responsible to temperature photoperiod. It is to be very important to choose right variety to be sown at the right time. Broadly, cauliflower varieties can be grouped as early, mid-season and late. Cauliflower producers best curds in a cool and moist climate. The climate of Ranchi district (study area) is very congenial for vegetables' production. The district produces vegetables in all round the year. So cauliflower is grown in the district in all the seasons. On overall the average area under the crop is 3.34 ha on TMC farms and 3.30 on EMC farms. The overall cost of production at TMC farms is estimated at Rs. 37050/ha whereas that of at EMC farms Rs. 36910/ha. Out of the total production costs, the proportion of the cost incurred on human labour (50.80%) is higher followed by mannuring (11.40%), seeds (9.78%), fertilizer (7.60%), irrigation (5.26%), field preparation (5.00%) and plant protection materials (4.82%) at TMC farms whereas that of 47.00 per cent on human labour, 12.21 per cent on mannuring, 9.62 per cent on seedlings, 7.97 per cent on fertilizers, 7.11 per cent on other paid out costs on EMC households. The gross return out of the sale of marketed surplus has been calculated at Rs. 79887.50/ha at TMC farms and Rs. 85280/ha at EMC farms. The results indicate that the Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) is 1:1.57 at TMC and 1:1.90 at EMC farms. It revealed that per ha return on EMC farms is higher over TMC farms. As regards the association of farmers with emerging marketing channel is concerned it is to note here that out of 45 small farmers, 36 medium farmers and 19 large farmers 18 (45.00%), 2 (61.12%) and 10 (52.64%) respectively are associated with EMC farms, which indicates that large sized farms have greater association with EMC farms. Moreover, in marketing of cauliflower on EMC, the number of intermediaries has been certainly reduced as the EMC in Jharkhand is Reliance Fresh Retails. Reliance Fresh Retail Supply chain for cauliflower or vegetables in general in the district is through its collection centre and retail outlets, the produce reaches to the consumers. So, the spread has been reduced but it has not increased the farmers share in consumer's rupee. The margin of intermediaries goes to RF retails in stead of facilitating the farmers in procuring the produce from the fields. Farmers Marketing Costs In Bihar, per hectare farmers marketing costs for marketing mangoes has been estimated at Rs. 812 and 618

Rs. 3415.50 on TMC and EMC farms respectively. The costs of marketing of per quintal of mangoes are Rs. 19.93 and Rs. 82.40 on TMC and EMC farms respectively. It revealed that the cost of marketing is higher on EMC farms. It is mainly due to selling the produce in distant urban big markets, which incur high cost of transportation of the produce. In Jharkhand, per hectare farmer's cost of marketing of cauliflower is estimated at Rs. 5416 on TMC farms. The cost of marketing of per quintal of cauliflower is Rs. 8.56 on TMC farms. It could not be estimated on EMC farms because the produce is procured from the farmer's field by the collection agents of RF. Prices at Retail end or Consumers Price In Bihar the analysis of the marketing pattern indicates the complex nature of marketing of mangoes particularly on account of its perishability. Farmers sell their mangoes as soon as it grows in proper size and the timing of the varieties of mangoes for harvesting. After harvesting and until reaching to the consumers these are being sold by different types of intermediaries. Sometimes the margins of these intermediaries are higher than the share of producers in consumers price. But the ultimate burden of margins goes to consumers. In case of the present study, the results indicate that the average consumers price for mangoes is Rs. 2250/qtl on TMC farms and Rs. 2845/qtl on EMC farms, which are 52.86 per cent and 53.79 per cent higher respectively than respective the selling price of the producer-sellers. In case of cauliflower in Jharkhand on an average the retail end prices are Rs. 810/ qtl and Rs. 830/qtl on TMC and EMC farms respectively. These prices are nearly 110.39 per cent.and 102.44 per cent on TMC and EMC farms respectively higher than the respective selling prices of producer-sellers. It clearly indicates that taking together the margins of various intermediaries more than 100.00 per cent than the selling prices of the producer-sellers. In other words the retail end prices are more than double the selling prices. Price Spread and Modified Measure of marketing Efficiency One of the most widely accepted component for the study of agricultural marketing system is the measurement of 'price-spread.' The general hypothesis is that larger the price-spread, greater the inefficiency in the marketing system and vice-versa. In Bihar, the price spread for mangoes, taking together all the sample farms the producer's share in consumer's rupee in case of TMC farms is Rs. 1472/qtl (65.42%) out of the consumer's rupee (Rs. 2250/ qt1.). The margins of pre-harvest contractors, wholesalers and retailers are Rs. 278/qt1 (12.36%), Rs. 140/qtl (6.22%) and Rs. 307.50/qtl (13.67%). The cost of marketing the produce is Rs. 52.50/qtl (2.33%). In case of EMC farms, the Agricultural Situation in India

producers share in consumer's rupee is Rs. 1850/qtl. (65.03%). The margins of traders, wholesalers and retailers are Rs. 376/ qtl (13.22%), Rs. 212.15/qtl (7.45%) and Rs. 321.50/qt1 (11.30%). The cost of marketing is Rs. 85.35%/ qt1. (3.00%). It indicates that the selling price of produce in case of mangoes is almost one and half times more than what the producer gets. There is almost no difference in the prices, which the producers receive on either channel. It is due to the fact that in Bihar there is no significant change in marketing of mangoes rather it is almost traditional but unregulated. As regards the MME is concerned it is 1.892 and 1.858 on TMC and EMC farms respectively, which corroborates the fact that there is almost traditional pattern of marketing of mangoes in Bihar. In Jharkhand, the price spread for cauliflower, taking together all the sample vegetable producers, the producer's share in consumer's rupee in case of TMC farmers is Rs. 385/qt1 (47.53%) out of the consumer's. rupee (Rs. 810/qtl). The margins between the producer-sellers and the consumers are Rs. 359/qt1 which are distributed to Rs. 135/ qtl (16.66%) for the kutcha arhatiya/itinerant trader, Rs. 105/qtl (12.96%) for the wholesalers and Rs. 119/qtl (14.70%) for the retailers. The cost of marketing is Rs. 66/qtl. (8.15%). In case of EMC farms, the producer's share in consumer's rupee is Rs. 410/qtl. (49.40%). The margins between the producer-sellers and consumers including the cost of marketing is Rs. 420/ qtl, which is 102.44 per cent higher the prices received by the producer sellers. It indicates that the selling price of the cauliflower in Jharkhand is more than double the price received by the producer-sellers on both the channels. As regards the MME is concerned, it is 0.91 and 0.98 on TMC and EMC farms respectively. The results of MME find that there is little difference in the marketing efficiency. However, it is a bit higher on EMC farms. But it is surprisingly very little, which corroborate the fact that RF is not doing justice either with the producers or consumers rather operating for the benefits of the corporate sectors. Policy Implications Improving and increasing the efficiency of fruits and vegetables marketing system is going to be an important agenda for 21 century. Fruits and vegetables both have vast potential for its production. To tape its potentiality maximal concerted efforts for production and marketing system are required. In the light of the findings and observations of the study some points for actions are suggested in following manner for policy implications : Bihar (For Mangoes) (i) The proposed marketing development programme should implemented at the earliest. (Attn: Dept of Agriculture, Government of lndia). (ii) There is need to create suitable number of fruits marketing zones in the state where fruits produced February, 2012

in and around the districts could be marketed (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture and Dept. of Industries, Government of Bihar). (iii) To minimize the wastages at the different levels in marketing of the produce regular training programmes for post-harvest management for all the stakeholders should be organized. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture, Government of Bihar and Agricultural Universities in Bihar). (iv) To develop the resource base of fruit growers, linkages between the marketing and credit should be made so that producers dependence on traders for credit, which puts them in a highly unequal trading relationship with the produce, could be steadily eliminated. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture, Dept. of Industries, Government of Bihar and State level Bankers Committee, Bihar). (v) A multi-pronged implementation strategy for developing well integrated system of production and marketing should be formulated. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture, Government of Bihar). Jharkhand (For Vegetables) (i) Modernization of marketing linkage between the farmers and consumers is absolutely vital for which APMC Act need to be amended wherein vegetables and horticulture should be exempted from the APMC Act. This will enable the farmers to establish direct connection with the markets. (Attn: Jharkhand State Agricultural Marketing Board and Dept. of Agriculture, Government of Jharkhand). (ii) Vegetables marketing system in Jharkhand is outmoded, inadequate and devoid of infrastructural facilities. So it is necessary for all the three set of marketing institutions viz., public, co-operatives and private trade be continuously evaluated and on the basis of the identification of areas for improvement the appropriate policies and programmes be devised. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture and Dept. of Co-operative, Government of Jharkhand). (iii) In Jharkhand, the district of Ranchi and its adjoining districts have advantages for cultivation of vegetables. In view of this it can be suggested of a multi-pronged strategy for developing well integrated system of production and marketing. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture, Government of Bihar). (iv) The study suggests that the development of rural markets should be given due priority from the point of view of creation of market infrastructure such as grading, transportation, storage etc. If 619

these facilities are provided at the centralized wholesale markets, the scale of operations will be high and the locations highly centralized with moot chance of benefits percolating to the farmers especially small farmers participating in small markets. The support to these farmers should receive priority in the future market reform policy. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture and Jharkhand State Agricultural Marketing Board, Government of Jharkhand). (v) Being arriving at the conclusion that small and marginal farmers need credit thus, it is suggested to develop linkages between marketing and credit.

(Attn: Dept. of Agriculture and State Level Bankers Committee, Government of Jharkhand). (vi) Vegetables processing units should be established and allow them special package for operating in the sector. (Attn: Dept. of Industries, Government of Jharkhand) . (vii) To minimize the wastages at the different levels in marketing the vegetables, regular training programme for post-harvest management should be organized. (Attn: Dept. of Agriculture, Government of Jharkhand and Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi).

620

Agricultural Situation in India

D. Commodity Reviews (i) Foodgrains


During the month of January 2012, the Wholesale Prices of Foodgrains displayed a rising trend. Wholesale Price Index (Base 2004-05=100) of Foodgrains, and Cereals rose by 0.66 per cent and 1.02 per cent but pulses fell by 0.56 per cent over the previous month.

ALL INDIA INDEX NUMBER OF WHOLESALE PRICES (Base : 2004-2005=100) Commodity Weight (%) WPI for the Month of January 2012 (3) 172.9 WPI for the Month of December 2011 (4) 173.8 WPI A year ago Percentage change during A month (5) 170.6 (6) 0.52 A year (7) 1.35

(1 ) Rice

(2) 1.793

Wheat Jowar Baira Maize Barley Ragi Cereals Pulses Foodgrains


Behaviour of Wholesale Prices

1.116 0.096 0.115 0.217 0.017 0.019 3.373 0.717 4.09

169.1 259.4 200.1 210.1 182.7 207.1 177.7 211.5 183.6

166.7 247.1 187.7 200.4 174.0 208.4 175.9 212.7 182.4

175.2 200.9 177.2 174.7 179.3 172.9 173.5 189.9 176.4

1.44 4.98 6.61 4.84 5.00 -0.62 1.02 -0.56 0.66

3.48 29.12 12.92 20.26 1.90 19.78 2.42 11.37 4.08

Source : Office of the Economic Adviser, M/O Commerce and Industry.

The following Table indicates the State wise trend


Commodity

of Wholesale Prices of Cereals during the month of January, 2012. Mixed Kerala Haryana Karnataka Haryana Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan A.P. Karnataka Maharashtra Gujarat Steady Assam Tamil Nadu West Bengal Punjab

Rice

Main Trend Mixed

Rising Gujarat Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra

Falling Delhi Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Madhya Pradesh

Wheat

Mixed

Jowar

Mixed

Bajra

Mixed

Maize

Mixed

Jharkhand Delhi Tamil Nadu U.P. Gujarat Delhi Haryana Maharashtra Rajasthan Delhi A.P. Karnataka Haryana

Karnataka A.P.

Gujarat M. Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan

Jharkhand

February, 2012

621

Procurement of Rice 5093 thousand tonnes of Rice (including paddy converted into rice) was procured during January 2012, as against 4931thousand tonnes of Rice (including paddy converted into rice) procured during January, 2011.The

total procurement of Rice in the current marketing season i.e 2011-2012, upto 31-01-2012 stood at 21358 thousand tonnes, as against 18803 thousand tonnes of rice procured, during the corresponding period of last year. The details are given in the following table:

PROCUREMENT OF RICE (in thousand tonnes) State Marketing Season Corresponding Marketing Year 2011-12 Period of last Year (October-September) (up to 31-01-12) (2010-11) 2010-11 2009 -10 Procure- Percentage Procure- Percentage Procure- Percentage Procure- Percentage ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

(1)

Andhra Pradesh Chhatisgarh Haryana Maharashtra Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Others Total

2945 3377 1970 95 7731 455 2085 204 2496 21358

13.79 15.81 9.22 0.44 36.20 2.13 9.76 0.96 11.69 100.00

2015 2979 1652 79 8634 223 1382 219 1620 18803

10.72 15.84 8.79 0.42 45.92 1.19 7.35 1.16 8.62 100.00

9610 3743 1687 308 8635 1543 2554 422 5695 34197

28.10 10.95 4.93 0.90 25.25 4.51 7.47 1.23 16.65 100.00

7555 3357 1819 229 9275 1241 2901 375 5282 32034

23.58 10.48 5.68 0.71 28.95 3.87 9.06 1.17 16.49 100.00

Source: Department of Food & Public Distribution.

Procurement of Wheat The total procurement of wheat in the current marketing season i.e 2011-2012 upto Aug. 2011 is 28144

thousand tonnes against a total of 22462 thousand tonnes of wheat procured during last year. The details are given in the following table :

PROCUREMENT OF WHEAT (in thousand tonnes) State Marketing Season Corresponding Marketing Year 2011-12 Period of last Year (April-March) (up to 1-08-2011) (2010-11) 2010-11 2009-10 Procure- Percentage Procure- Percentage Procure- Percentage Procure- Percentage ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total ment to Total (2) 6891 (3) 24.48 (4) 6347 (5) 28.26 (6) 6347 (7) 28.19 (8) 5237 (9) 23.08

(1 ) Haryana

Madhya Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Others Total

4894 10957 1302 3460 640 28144

17.39 38.93 4.63 12.29 2.27 100.00

3538 10166 476 1645 290 22462

15.75 45.26 2.12 7.32 1.29 100.00

3539 10209 476 1645 298 22514

15.72 45.35 2.11 7.31 1.32 100.00

2410 9941 935 3137 1029 22689

10.62 43.81 4.12 13.83 4.54 100.00

Source : Department of Food and Public Distribution.

622

Agricultural Situation in India

(ii) Commercial Crops


OIL SEEDS AND EDIBLE OILS The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of nine major oilseeds as a group stood at 163.2 in January, 2012 showing a rise of 4.0 per cent and 12.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year. 23.2 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year. ONION The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Onion stood at 151.3 in January, 2012 showing a fall of 16.0 per cent and 75.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year. CONDIMENTS AND SPICES The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Condiments & Spices (Group) stood at 226.0 in January, 2012 showing a fall of 4.9 per cent and 20.6 per cent over the previous month and year respectively. The Wholesale Price Index of Black Pepper, Chillies (Dry) and Turmeric decreased by 3.8 per cent, 5.7 per cent and 3.5 per cent over the previous month. RAW COTTON The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Raw Cotton stood at 204.4 in January, 2012 showing a fall of 2.7 per cent and 13.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year respectively. RAW JUTE The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Raw Jute stood at 205.8 in January, 2012 showing an increase of 5.8 per cent over the previous month. However, it decreased by 9.6 per cent over the previous year.

The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of all individual oilseeds showed an increasing trend except of Copra (3.9 per cent) and Sunflower Seed (0.7 per cent) decreased over the previous month. The WPI Groundnut seed (7.6 per cent), Rape and Mustard (4.2 per cent), Cottonseed (0.1 per cent), Gingelly seed (2.5 per cent), Niger seed (3.1 per cent), Safflower seed (1.4 per cent) and Soyabean (8.5 per cent) increased over the previous month. The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Edible Oils as a group stood 139.4 in January, 2012 showing a rise of 1.8 per cent and 9.6 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year. The WPI of Groundnut Oil (4.1 per cent), Cottonseed Oil (1.0 per cent), Mustard Oil (2.8 per cent), Soyabean Oil (3.1 per cent), Sunflower Oil (0.3 per cent) and Gingelly Oil (1.1 per cent) increased compared to the previous month. However, the WPI of Copra oil (0.1 per cent) decreased over the previous month.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Fruits & Vegetables as a group stood at 161.5 in January, 2012 showing a decline of 2.8 per cent and 38.1 per cent over the previous month and over the previous year. POTATO The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Potato stood at 98.9 in January, 2012 showing a decline of 10.7 per cent and

February, 2012

623

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX OF COMMERCIAL CROPS FOR THE MONTH OF JANUARY, 2012 (Base Year : 2004-05=100) Commodity Latest Jan., 2012 Oil Seeds Month Dec., 2011 Year Jan., 2011 Percentage Variation over the Month Year

163.2 207.1 164.6 140.2 105.1 220.2 177.1 130.9 160.4 148.8 139.4 169.2 150.8 145.6 151.6 120.4 135.3 152.0 161.5 98.9 151.3 226.0 424.9 266.2 161.6 204.4 205.8

156.9 192.4 157.9 140.0 109.4 214.9 171.7 129.1 161.6 137.2 137.0 162.6 149.3 141.7 147.1 120.5 134.9 150.4 166.2 110.8 180.1 237.6 441.6 282.4 167.4 210.0 194.5

144.9 154.3 136.9 133.4 118.7 247.4 148.1 144.7 166.1 128.1 127.2 148.1 131.7 121.5 134.5 108.5 128.7 139.6 261.1 128.7 619.4 284.6 274.4 230.9 453.2 236.6 227.6

4.0 7.6 4.2 0.1 3.9 2.5 3.1 1.4 0.7 8.5 1.8 4.1 1.0 2.8 3.1 0.1 0.3 1.1 2.8 10.7 16.0 4.9 3.8 5.7 3.5 2.7 5.8

12.6 34.2 20.2 5.1 11.5 11.0 19.6 9.5 3.4 16.2 9.6 14.2 14.5 19.8 12.7 11.0 5.1 8.9 38.1 23.2 75.6 20.6 54.8 15.3 64.3 13.6 9.6

Groundnut Seed Rape & Mustard Seed Cotton Seed Copra (Coconut) Gingelly Seed (Sesamum) Niger Seed Safflower (Kardi Seed) Sunflower Soyabean Edible Oils Groundnut Oil Cotton Seed Oil Mustard & Rapeseed Oil Soyabean Oil Copra Oil Sunflower Oil Gingelly Oil Fruits and Vegetables Potato Onion Condiments and Spices Black Pepper Chillies(Dry) Turmeric Raw Cotton Raw Jute
624

Agricultural Situation in India