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Suitable materials

Introduction to Materials
This section will provide a basic introduction to materials and material fabrication processing. It is important that NDT personnel have some background in material science for a couple of reasons. First, nondestructive testing almost always involves the interaction of energy of some type (mechanics, sound, electricity, magnetism or radiation) with a material. To understand how energy interacts with a material, it is necessary to know a little about the material. Secondly, NDT often involves detecting manufacturing defects and service induced damage and, therefore, it is necessary to understand how defects and damage occur. This section will begin with an introduction to the four common types of engineering materials. The structure of materials at the atomic level will then be considered, along with some atomic level features that give materials their characteristic properties. Some of the properties that are important for the structural performance of a material and methods for modifying these properties will also be covered. In the second half of this text, methods used to shape and form materials into useful shapes will be discussed. Some of the defects that can occur during the manufacturing process, as well as service induced damage will be highlighted. This section will conclude with a summary of the role that NDT plays in ensuring the structural integrity of a component.

General Material Classifications

There are thousands of materials available for use in engineering applications. Most materials fall into one of three classes that are based on the atomic bonding forces of a particular material. These three classifications are metallic, ceramic and

polymeric. Additionally, different materials can be combined to create a composite material. Within each of these classifications, materials are often further organized into groups based on their chemical composition or certain physical or mechanical properties. Composite materials are often grouped by the types of materials combined or the way the materials are arranged together. Below is a list of some of the commonly classification of materials within these four general groups of materials. Metals Ferrous metals and alloys (irons, carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, tool and die steels) Nonferrous metals and alloys (aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, precious metals, refractory metals, superalloys) Ceramics


Thermoplastics plastics Thermoset plastics Elastomers


Glasses Glass ceramics Graphite Diamond

Reinforced plastics Metal-matrix composites Ceramic-matrix composites Sandwich structures Concrete

Each of these general groups will be discussed in more detail in the following pages.

Metals account for about two thirds of all the elements and about 24% of the mass of the planet. Metals have useful properties including strength, ductility, high melting points, thermal and

electrical conductivity, and toughness. From the periodic table, it can be seen that a large number of the elements are classified as being a metal. A few of the common metals and their typical uses are presented below. Common Metallic Materials

Iron/Steel - Steel alloys are used for strength critical applications Aluminum - Aluminum and its alloys are used because they are easy to form, readily available, inexpensive, and recyclable. Copper - Copper and copper alloys have a number of properties that make them useful, including high electrical and thermal conductivity, high ductility, and good corrosion resistance. Titanium - Titanium alloys are used for strength in higher temperature (~1000 F) application, when component weight is a concern, or when good corrosion resistance is required Nickel - Nickel alloys are used for still higher temperatures (~1500-2000 F) applications or when good corrosion resistance is required. Refractory materials are used for the highest temperature (> 2000 F) applications.

The key feature that distinguishes metals from non-metals is their bonding. Metallic materials have free electrons that are free to move

easily from one atom to the next. The existence of these free electrons has a number of profound consequences for the properties of metallic materials. For example, metallic materials tend to be good electrical conductors because the free electrons can move around within the metal so freely. More on the structure of metals will be discussed later.

A ceramic has traditionally been defined as an inorganic, nonmetallic solid that is prepared from powdered materials, is fabricated into products through the application of heat, and displays such characteristic properties as hardness, strength, low electrical conductivity, and brittleness." The word ceramic comes the from Greek word "keramikos", which means "pottery." They are typically crystalline in nature and are compounds formed between metallic and nonmetallic elements such as aluminum and oxygen (alumina-Al2O3), calcium and oxygen (calcia - CaO), and silicon and nitrogen (silicon nitride-Si3N4). Depending on their method of formation, ceramics can be dense or lightweight. Typically, they will demonstrate excellent strength and hardness properties; however, they are often brittle in nature. Ceramics can also be formed to serve as electrically conductive materials or insulators. Some ceramics, like superconductors, also display magnetic properties. They are also more resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers. Due to ceramic materials wide range of properties, they are used for a multitude of applications. The broad categories or segments that make up the ceramic industry can be classified as:

Structural clay products (brick, sewer pipe, roofing and wall tile, flue linings, etc.) Whitewares (dinnerware, floor and wall tile, electrical porcelain, etc.)

Refractories (brick and monolithic products used in metal, glass, cements, ceramics, energy conversion, petroleum, and chemicals industries) Glasses (flat glass (windows), container glass (bottles), pressed and blown glass (dinnerware), glass fibers (home insulation), and advanced/specialty glass (optical fibers)) Abrasives (natural (garnet, diamond, etc.) and synthetic (silicon carbide, diamond, fused alumina, etc.) abrasives are used for grinding, cutting, polishing, lapping, or pressure blasting of materials) Cements (for roads, bridges, buildings, dams, and etc.) Advanced ceramics o Structural (wear parts, bioceramics, cutting tools, and engine components) o Electrical (capacitors, insulators, substrates, integrated circuit packages, piezoelectrics, magnets and superconductors) o Coatings (engine components, cutting tools, and industrial wear parts) o Chemical and environmental (filters, membranes, catalysts, and catalyst supports)

The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond which will be discussed a bit later. Briefly though, the two most common chemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. Covalent and ionic bonds are much stronger than in metallic bonds and, generally speaking, this is why ceramics are brittle and metals are ductile.

A polymeric solid can be thought of as a material that contains many chemically bonded parts or units which themselves are bonded together to form a solid. The word polymer literally means "many parts." Two industrially important polymeric materials are plastics and elastomers. Plastics are a large and varied group of synthetic materials which are processed by forming or molding into shape. Just as there are many types of metals such as aluminum and copper, there are many types of plastics, such as polyethylene and nylon. Elastomers or rubbers can be elastically deformed a large amount when a force is applied to them and can return to their original shape (or almost) when the force is released.

Polymers have many properties that make them attractive to use in certain conditions. Many polymers:

are less dense than metals or ceramics, resist atmospheric and other forms of corrosion, offer good compatibility with human tissue, or exhibit excellent resistance to the conduction of electrical current.

The polymer plastics can be divided into two classes, thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics, depending on how they are structurally and chemically bonded. Thermoplastic polymers comprise the four most important commodity materials polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. There are also a number of specialized engineering polymers. The term thermoplastic indicates that these materials melt on heating and may be processed by a variety of molding and extrusion techniques. Alternately, thermosetting polymers can not be melted or remelted. Thermosetting polymers include alkyds, amino and phenolic resins, epoxies, polyurethanes, and unsaturated polyesters. Rubber is a natural occurring polymer. However, most polymers are created by engineering the combination of hydrogen and carbon atoms and the arrangement of the chains they form. The polymer molecule is a long chain of covalent-bonded atoms and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Polymers are primarily produced from petroleum or natural gas raw products but the use of organic substances is growing. The super-material known as Kevlar is a man-made polymer. Kevlar is used in bullet-proof vests, strong/lightweight frames, and underwater cables that are 20 times stronger than steel.

A composite is commonly defined as a combination of two or more distinct materials, each of which retains its own distinctive

properties, to create a new material with properties that cannot be achieved by any of the components acting alone. Using this definition, it can be determined that a wide range of engineering materials fall into this category. For example, concrete is a composite because it is a mixture of Portland cement and aggregate. Fiberglass sheet is a composite since it is made of glass fibers imbedded in a polymer. Composite materials are said to have two phases. The reinforcing phase is the fibers, sheets, or particles that are embedded in the matrix phase. The reinforcing material and the matrix material can be metal, ceramic, or polymer. Typically, reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the matrix is usually a ductile, or tough, material.

Some of the common classifications of composites are:

Reinforced plastics Metal-matrix composites Ceramic-matrix composites Sandwich structures Concrete

Composite materials can take many forms but they can be separated into three categories based on the strengthening mechanism. These categories are dispersion strengthened, particle reinforced and fiber reinforced. Dispersion strengthened composites have a fine distribution of secondary particles in the matrix of the material. These particles impede the mechanisms that allow a material to deform. (These mechanisms include dislocation movement and slip, which will be discussed later). Many metal-matrix composites would fall into the dispersion strengthened composite category. Particle

reinforced composites have a large volume fraction of particle dispersed in the matrix and the load is shared by the particles and the matrix. Most commercial ceramics and many filled polymers are particle-reinforced composites. In fiber-reinforced composites, the fiber is the primary load-bearing component. Fiberglass and carbon fiber composites are examples of fiber-reinforced composites. If the composite is designed and fabricated correctly, it combines the strength of the reinforcement with the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single conventional material. Some composites also offer the advantage of being tailorable so that properties, such as strength and stiffness, can easily be changed by changing amount or orientation of the reinforcement material. The downside is that such composites are often more expensive than conventional materials.

Structure of Materials
It should be clear that all matter is made of atoms. From the periodic table, it can be seen that there are only about 100 different kinds of atoms in the entire Universe. These same 100 atoms form thousands of different substances ranging from the air we breathe to the metal used to support tall buildings. Metals behave differently than ceramics, and ceramics behave differently than polymers. The properties of matter depend on which atoms are used and how they are bonded together.

The structure of materials can be classified by the general magnitude of various features being considered. The three most common major classification of structural, listed generally in increasing size, are: Atomic structure, which includes features that cannot be seen, such as the types of bonding between the atoms, and the way the atoms are arranged. Microstructure, which includes features that can be seen using a microscope, but seldom with the naked eye. Macrostructure, which includes features that can be seen with the naked eye) The atomic structure primarily affects the chemical, physical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. The microstructure and macrostructure can also affect these properties but they generally have a larger effect on mechanical properties and on the rate of chemical reaction. The properties of a material offer clues as to the structure of the material. The strength of metals suggests that these atoms are held together by strong bonds. However, these bonds must also allow atoms to move since metals are also usually formable. To understand the structure of a material, the type of atoms present, and how the atoms are arranged and bonded must be known. Lets first look at atomic bonding.

Atomic Bonding (Metallic, Ionic, Covalent, and van der Waals Bonds)
From elementary chemistry it is known that the atomic structure of any element is made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons revolving around it. An elements atomic number indicates the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus. The atomic weight of an atom indicates how many protons and neutrons in the nucleus. To determine the number of neutrons in an atom, the atomic number is simply subtracted from the atomic weight. Atoms like to have a balanced electrical charge. Therefore, they usually have negatively charged electrons surrounding the nucleus in numbers equal to the number of protons. It is also known that electrons are present with different energies and it is convenient to consider these electrons surrounding the nucleus in energy shells. For example, magnesium, with an atomic number of 12, has two electrons in the inner shell, eight in the second shell and two in the outer shell. All chemical bonds involve electrons. Atoms will stay close together if they have a shared interest in one or more electrons. Atoms are at their most stable when they have no partially-filled electron shells. If an atom has only a few electrons in a shell, it will tend to lose them to empty the shell. These elements are metals. When metal atoms bond, a metallic bond occurs. When an atom has a nearly full electron shell, it will try to find electrons from another atom so that it can fill its outer shell. These elements are usually described as nonmetals. The bond between two nonmetal atoms is usually a covalent bond. Where metal and nonmetal atom come together an ionic bond occurs. There are also other, less common, types of bond but the details are beyond the scope of this material. On the next few pages, the Metallic, Covalent and Ionic bonds will be covered in more detail.

Primary Metallic Crystalline Structures (BCC, FCC, HCP)

As pointed out on the previous page, there are 14 different types of crystal unit cell structures or lattices are found in nature. However most metals and many other solids have unit cell structures described as body center cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc) or Hexagonal Close Packed (hcp). Since these structures are most common, they will be discussed in more detail. Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) Structure The body-centered cubic unit cell has atoms at each of the eight corners of a cube (like the cubic unit cell) plus one atom in the center of the cube (left image below). Each of the corner atoms is the corner of another cube so the corner atoms are shared among eight unit cells. It is said to have a coordination number of 8. The bcc unit cell consists of a net total of two atoms; one in the center and eight eighths from corners atoms as shown in the middle image below (middle image below). The image below highlights a unit cell in a larger section of the lattice.

The bcc arrangement does not allow the atoms to pack together as closely as the fcc or hcp arrangements. The bcc structure is often the high temperature form of metals that are close-packed at lower temperatures. The volume of atoms in a cell per the total volume of a cell is called the packing factor. The bcc unit cell has a packing factor of 0.68. Some of the materials that have a bcc structure include lithium, sodium, potassium, chromium, barium, vanadium, alpha-iron and

tungsten. Metals which have a bcc structure are usually harder and less malleable than close-packed metals such as gold. When the metal is deformed, the planes of atoms must slip over each other, and this is more difficult in the bcc structure. It should be noted that there are other important mechanisms for hardening materials, such as introducing impurities or defects which make slipping more difficult. These hardening mechanisms will be discussed latter. Face Centered Cubic (FCC) Structure The face centered cubic structure has atoms located at each of the corners and the centers of all the cubic faces (left image below). Each of the corner atoms is the corner of another cube so the corner atoms are shared among eight unit cells. Additionally, each of its six face centered atoms is shared with an adjacent atom. Since 12 of its atoms are shared, it is said to have a coordination number of 12. The fcc unit cell consists of a net total of four atoms; eight eighths from corners atoms and six halves of the face atoms as shown in the middle image above. The image below highlights a unit cell in a larger section of the lattice.

In the fcc structure (and the hcp structure) the atoms can pack closer together than they can in the bcc structure. The atoms from one layer nest themselves in the empty space between the atoms of the adjacent layer. To picture packing arrangement, imagine a box filled with a layer of balls that are aligned in columns and rows. When a few additional balls are tossed in the box, they will not balance directly on top of the balls in the first layer but instead will come to rest in the pocket created between four balls of the bottom layer. As more balls are added they will pack together to fill up all the pockets. The packing factor (the volume of atoms in a cell per the total volume of a cell) is 0.74 for fcc crystals. Some of the

metals that have the fcc structure include aluminum, copper, gold, iridium, lead, nickel, platinum and silver. Hexagonal Close Packed (HPC) Structure Another common close packed structure is the hexagonal close pack. The hexagonal structure of alternating layers is shifted so its atoms are aligned to the gaps of the preceding layer. The atoms from one layer nest themselves in the empty space between the atoms of the adjacent layer just like in the fcc structure. However, instead of being a cubic structure, the pattern is hexagonal. (See image below.) The difference between the HPC and FCC structure is discussed later in this section.

The hcp structure has three layers of atoms. In each the top and bottom layer, there are six atoms that arrange themselves in the shape of a hexagon and a seventh atom that sits in the middle of the hexagon. The middle layer has three atoms nestle in the triangular "grooves" of the top and bottom plane. Note that there are six of these "grooves" surrounding each atom in the hexagonal plane, but only three of them can be filled by atoms. As shown in the middle image above, there are six atoms in the hcp unit cell. Each of the 12 atoms in the corners of the top and bottom layers contribute 1/6 atom to the unit cell, the two atoms in the center of the hexagon of both the top and bottom layers each contribute atom and each of the three atom in the middle layer contribute 1 atom. The image on the right above attempts to show several hcp unit cells in a larger lattice. The coordination number of the atoms in this structure is 12. There are six nearest neighbors in the same close packed layer, three in

the layer above and three in the layer below. The packing factor is 0.74, which is the same as the fcc unit cell. The hcp structure is very common for elemental metals and some examples include beryllium, cadmium, magnesium, titanium, zinc and zirconium.

Ceramic Structures
As discussed in the introduction, ceramics and related materials cover a wide range of objects. Ceramics are a little more complex than metallic structures, which is why metals were covered first. A ceramic has traditionally been defined as an inorganic, nonmetallic solid that is prepared from powdered materials and is fabricated into products through the application of heat. Most ceramics are made up of two or more elements. This is called a compound. For example, alumina (Al2O3) is a compound made up of aluminum atoms and oxygen atoms. The two most common chemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in covalent and ionic bonding than in metallic. This is why ceramics generally have the following properties: high hardness, high compressive strength, and chemical inertness. This strong bonding also accounts for the less attractive properties of ceramics, such as low ductility and low tensile strength. The absence of free electrons is responsible for making most ceramics poor conductors of electricity and heat. However, it should be noted that the crystal structures of ceramics are many and varied and this results in a very wide range of properties. For example, while ceramics are perceived as electrical and thermal insulators, ceramic oxide (initially based on Y-Ba-Cu-O) is the basis for high temperature superconductivity. Diamond and silicon carbide have a higher thermal conductivity than aluminum or copper. Control of the microstructure can overcome inherent stiffness to allow the production of ceramic springs, and ceramic composites which have been produced with a fracture toughness about half that of steel. Also, the atomic structures are often of low symmetry that gives some ceramics interesting electromechanical

properties like piezoelectricity, which is used in sensors and transducers. The structure of most ceramics varies from relatively simple to very complex. The microstructure can be entirely glassy (glasses only); entirely crystalline; or a combination of crystalline and glassy. In the latter case, the glassy phase usually surrounds small crystals, bonding them together. The main compositional classes of engineering ceramics are the oxides, nitrides and carbides. Ceramic Glass Ceramics with an entirely glassy structure have certain properties that are quite different from those of metals. Recall that when metal in the liquid state is cooled, a crystalline solid precipitates when the melting freezing point is reached. However, with a glassy material, as the liquid is cooled it becomes more and more viscous. There is no sharp melting or freezing point. It goes from liquid to a soft plastic solid and finally becomes hard and brittle. Because of this unique property, it can be blown into shapes, in addition to being cast, rolled, drawn and otherwise processed like a metal. Glassy behavior is related to the atomic structure of the material. If pure silica (SiO2) is fused together, a glass called vitreous silica is formed on cooling. The basic unit structure of this glass is the silica tetrahedron, which is composed of a single silicon atom surrounded by four equidistant oxygen atoms. The silicon atoms occupy the openings (interstitials) between the oxygen atoms and share four valence electrons with the oxygen atoms through covalent bonding. The silica atom has four valence electrons and each of the oxygen atoms has two valence electrons so the silica tetrahedron has four extra valence electrons to share with adjacent tetrahedral. The silicate structures can link together by sharing the atoms in two corners of the SiO2 tetrahedrons, forming chain or ring structures. A network of silica tetrahedral chains form, and at high temperatures these chains easily slide past each other. As the melt cools, thermal vibrational energy decreases and the chains can not move as easily so the structure becomes more rigid. Silica is the most important constituent of glass, but other oxides are added to change certain physical characteristics or to lower the melting point. Ceramic Crystalline or Partially Crystalline Material Most ceramics usually contain both metallic and nonmetallic elements with ionic or covalent bonds. Therefore, the structure the metallic atoms, the structure of the nonmetallic atoms, and the

balance of charges produced by the valence electrons must be considered. As with metals, the unit cell is used in describing the atomic structure of ceramics. The cubic and the hexagonal cells are most common. Additionally, the difference in radii between the metallic and nonmetallic ions plays an important role in the arrangement of the unit cell. In metals, the regular arrangement of atoms into densely packed planes led to the occurrence of slip under stress, which gives metal their characteristic ductility. In ceramics, brittle fracture rather than slip is common because both the arrangement of the atoms and the type of bonding is different. The fracture or cleavage planes of ceramics are the result of planes of regularly arranged atoms. The building criteria for the crystal structure are:

maintain neutrality charge balance dictates chemical formula achieve closest packing

A few of the different types of ceramic materials outside of the glass family are described below. Silicate Ceramics As mentioned previously, the silica structure is the basic structure for many ceramics, as well as glass. It has an internal arrangement consisting of pyramid (tetrahedral or four-sided) units. Four large oxygen (0) atoms surround each smaller silicon (Si) atom. When silica tetrahedrons share three corner atoms, they produce layered silicates (talc, kaolinite clay, mica). Clay is the basic raw material for many building products such as brick and tile. When silica tetrahedrons share four comer atoms, they produce framework silicates (quartz, tridymite). Quartz is formed when the tetrahedra in this material are arranged in a regular, orderly fashion. If silica in the molten state is cooled very slowly it crystallizes at the freezing point. But if molten silica is cooled more rapidly, the resulting solid is a disorderly arrangement which is glass.

Cement Cement (Portland cement) is one of the main ingredients of concrete. There are a number of different grades of cement but a typical Portland cement will contain 19 to 25% SiO2 , 5 to 9% Al2O3, 60 to 64% CaO and 2 to 4% FeO. Cements are prepared by grinding the clays and limestone in proper proportion, firing in a kiln, and regrinding. When water is added, the minerals either decompose or combine with water, and a new phase grows throughout the mass. The reaction is solution, recrystallization, and precipitation of a silicate structure. It is usually important to control the amount of water to prevent an excess that would not be part of the structure and would weaken it. The heat of hydration (heat of reaction in the adsorption of water) in setting of the cement can be large and can cause damage in large structures. Nitride Ceramics Nitrides combine the superior hardness of ceramics with high thermal and mechanical stability, making them suitable for applications as cutting tools, wearresistant parts and structural components at high temperatures. TiN has a cubic structure which is perhaps the simplest and best known of structure types. Cations and anions both lie at the nodes of separate fcc lattices. The structure is unchanged if the Ti and N atoms (lattices) are interchanged. Ferroelectric Ceramics Depending on the crystal structure, in some crystal lattices, the centers of the positive and negative charges do not coincide even without the application of external electric field. In this case, it is said that there exists spontaneous polarization in the crystal. When the polarization of the dielectric can be altered by an electric field, it is called ferroelectric. A typical ceramic ferroelectric is barium titanate, BaTiO3. Ferroelectric materials, especially polycrystalline ceramics, are very promising for varieties of application fields such as piezoelectric/electrostrictive transducers, and electrooptic.

Phase Diagram The phase diagram is important in understanding the formation and control of the microstructure of the microstructure of polyphase ceramics, just as it is with polyphase metallic materials. Also, nonequilibrium structures are even more prevalent in ceramics because the more complex crystal structures are more difficult to nucleate and to grow from the melt. Imperfections in Ceramics Imperfections in ceramic crystals include point defects and impurities like in metals. However, in ceramics defect formation is strongly affected by the condition of charge neutrality because the creation of areas of unbalanced charges requires an expenditure of a large amount of energy. In ionic crystals, charge neutrality often results in defects that come as pairs of ions with opposite charge or several nearby point defects in which the sum of all charges is zero. Charge neutral defects include the Frenkel and Schottky defects. A Frenkel-defect occurs when a host atom moves into a nearby interstitial position to create a vacancyinterstitial pair of cations. A Schottky-defect is a pair of nearby cation and anion vacancies. Schottky defect occurs when a host atom leaves its position and moves to the surface creating a vacancy-vacancy pair. Sometimes, the composition may alter slightly to arrive at a more balanced atomic charge. Solids such as SiO2, which have a welldefined chemical formula, are called stoichiometric compounds. When the composition of a solid deviates from the standard chemical formula, the resulting solid is said to be nonstoichiometric. Nonstoichiometry and the existence of point defects in a solid are often closely related. Anion vacancies are the source of the nonstoichiometry in SiO2-x, Introduction of impurity atoms in the lattice is likely in conditions where the charge is maintained. This is the case of electronegative impurities that substitute a lattice anion or electropositive substitutional impurities. This is more likely for similar ionic radii since this minimizes the energy required for lattice distortion. Defects will appear if the charge of the impurities is not balanced

Polymer Structure
Engineering polymers include natural materials such as rubber and synthetic materials such as plastics and elastomers. Polymers are very useful materials because their structures can be altered and tailored to produce materials 1) with a range of mechanical properties 2) in a wide spectrum of colors and 3) with different transparent properties. Mers A polymer is composed of Mer The repeating unit in a polymer chain many simple molecules Monomer that are repeating A single mer unit (n=1) structural units called Polymer monomers. A single Many mer-units along a chain (n=103 or polymer molecule may more) Degree of Polymerization consist of hundreds to a The average number of mer-units in a million monomers and chain. may have a linear, branched, or network structure. Covalent bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers. Polymer Chains (Thermoplastics and Thermosets) A polymer is an organic material and the backbone of every organic material is a chain of carbon atoms. The carbon atom has four electrons in the outer shell. Each of these valence electrons can form a covalent bond to another carbon atom or to a foreign atom. The key to the polymer structure is that two carbon atoms can have up to three common bonds and still bond with other atoms. The elements found most frequently in polymers and their valence numbers are: H, F, Cl, Bf, and I with 1 valence electron; O and S with 2 valence electrons; n with 3 valence electrons and C and Si with 4 valence electrons. The ability for molecules to form long chains is a vital to producing polymers.

Consider the material polyethylene, which is made from ethane gas, C2H6. Ethane gas has a two carbon atoms in the chain and each of the two carbon atoms share two valence electrons with the other. If two molecules of ethane are brought together, one of the carbon bonds in each molecule can be broken and the two molecules can be joined with a carbon to carbon bond. After the two mers are joined, there are still two free valence electrons at each end of the chain for joining other mers or polymer chains. The process can continue liking more mers and polymers together until it is stopped by the addition of anther chemical (a terminator), that fills the available bond at each end of the molecule. This is called a linear polymer and is building block for thermoplastic polymers. The polymer chain is often shown in two dimensions, but it should be noted that they have a three dimensional structure. Each bond is at 109 to the next and, therefore, the carbon backbone extends through space like a twisted chain of TinkerToys. When stress is applied, these chains stretch and the elongation of polymers can be thousands of times greater than it is in crystalline structures. The length of the polymer chain is very important. As the number of carbon atoms in the chain is increased to beyond several hundred, the material will pass through the liquid state and become a waxy solid. When the number of carbon atoms in the chain is over 1,000, the solid material polyethylene, with its characteristics of strength, flexibility and toughness, is obtained. The change in state occurs because as the length of the molecules increases, the total binding forces between molecules also increases. It should also be noted that the molecules are not generally straight but are a tangled mass. Thermoplastic materials, such as polyethylene, can be pictured as a mass of intertwined worms randomly thrown into a pail. The binding forces are the result of van der Waals forces between molecules and mechanical entanglement between the chains. When thermoplastics are heated, there is more molecular movement and the bonds between molecules can be easily broken. This is why thermoplastic materials can be remelted. There is another group of polymers in which a single large network, instead of many molecules is formed during polymerization. Since polymerization is initially accomplished by heating the raw materials and brining them together, this group is called thermosetting

polymers or plastics. For this type of network structure to form, the mers must have more than two places for boning to occur; otherwise, only a linear structure is possible. These chains form jointed structures and rings, and may fold back and forth to take on a partially crystalline structure. Since these materials are essentially comprised of one giant molecule, there is no movement between molecules once the mass has set. Thermosetting polymers are more rigid and generally have higher strength than thermoplastic polymers. Also, since there is no opportunity for motion between molecules in a thermosetting polymer, they will not become plastic when heated.

Types of polymers o Commodity plastics PE = Polyethylene PS = Polystyrene PP = Polypropylene PVC = Poly(vinyl chloride) PET = Poly(ethylene terephthalate) o Specialty or Engineering Plastics Teflon (PTFE) = Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PC = Polycarbonate (Lexan) Polyesters and Polyamides (Nylon)

Composite Structures
A composite material is basically a combination of two or more materials, each of which retains it own distinctive Components of Composite Materials Matrix phase: bulk materials such properties. Multiphase as: metals are composite Metals Ceramics Polymers materials on a micro Reinforcement: fibers and scale, but generally the particulates such as: term composite is applied Glass Carbon Kevlar to materials that are Silicon Boron Ceramic created by mechanically Carbide bonding two or more Ceramic Metallic Aggregate different materials Interface: area of mechanical together. The resulting material has characteristics that are not characteristic of the components in isolation. The concept of composite materials is ancient. An example is adding straw to mud for building stronger mud walls. Most commonly, composite materials have a bulk phase, which is continuous, called the matrix; and a dispersed, noncontinuous, phase called the reinforcement. Some other examples of basic composites include concrete (cement mixed with sand and aggregate), reinforced concrete (steel rebar in concrete), and fiberglass (glass strands in a resin matrix). In about the mid 1960s, a new group of composite materials, called advanced engineered composite materials (aka advanced composites), began to emerge. Advanced composites utilize a combination of resins and fibers, customarily carbon/graphite, kevlar, or fiberglass with an epoxy resin. The fibers provide the high stiffness, while the surrounding polymer resin matrix holds the structure together. The fundamental design concept of composites is that the bulk phase accepts the load over a large surface area, and transfers it to the reinforcement material, which can carry a greater load. The significance here lies in that there are numerous matrix materials and as many fiber types, which can be combined in countless ways to produce just the desired properties. These materials were first developed for use in the aerospace industry because for certain

application they have a higher stiffness to weight or strength-toweight ratio than metals. This means metal parts can be replaced with lighter weight parts manufactured from advanced composites. Generally, carbon-epoxy composites are two thirds the weight of aluminum, and two and a half times as stiff. Composites are resistant to fatigue damage and harsh environments, and are repairable. Composites meeting the criteria of having mechanical bonding can also be produced on a micro scale. For example, when tungsten carbide powder is mixed with cobalt powder, and then pressed and sintered together, the tungsten carbide retains its identity. The resulting material has a soft cobalt matrix with tough tungsten carbide particles inside. This material is used to produce carbide drill bits and is called a metal-matrix composite. A metal matrix composite is a type of metal that is reinforced with another material to improve strength, wear or some other characteristics.

Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity

It is well known that one of the subatomic particles of an atom is the electron. The electrons carry a negative electrostatic charge and under certain conditions can move from atom to atom. The direction of movement between atoms is random unless a force causes the electrons to move in one direction. This directional movement of electrons due to an electromotive force is what is known as electricity. Electrical Conductivity Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the movement of an electric charge. It is the ratio of the current density to the electric field strength. Its SI derived unit is the Siemens per meter, but conductivity values are often reported as percent IACS. IACS is an acronym for International Annealed Copper Standard or the material that was used to make traditional copper-wire . The conductivity of the annealed copper (5.8108 x 107S/m) is defined to be 100% IACS at 20C. All other conductivity values are related back to this conductivity of annealed copper. Therefore, iron with a conductivity value of 1.044 x 107 S/m, has a conductivity of approximately 18% of that of annealed copper and this is reported as 18% IACS. An interesting side note is that

commercially pure copper products now often have IACS conductivity values greater than 100% because processing techniques have improved since the adoption of the standard in 1913 and more impurities can now be removed from the metal. Conductivity values in Siemens/meter can be converted to % IACS by multiplying the conductivity value by 1.7241 x10-6. When conductivity values are reported in microSiemens/centimeter, the conductivity value is multiplied by 172.41 to convert to the % IACS value. Electrical conductivity is a very useful property since values are affected by such things as a substances chemical composition and the stress state of crystalline structures. Therefore, electrical conductivity information can be used for measuring the purity of water, sorting materials, checking for proper heat treatment of metals, and inspecting for heat damage in some materials. Electrical Resistivity Electrical resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity. It is the is the opposition of a body or substance to the flow of electrical current through it, resulting in a change of electrical energy into heat, light, or other forms of energy. The amount of resistance depends on the type of material. Materials with low resistivity are good conductors of electricity and materials with high resistivity are good insulators. The SI unit for electrical resistivity is the ohm meter. Resistivity values are more commonly reported in micro ohm centimeters units. As mentioned above resistivity values are simply the reciprocal of conductivity so conversion between the two is straightforward. For example, a material with two micro ohm centimeter of resistivity will have microSiemens/centimeter of conductivity. Resistivity values in microhm centimeters units can be converted to % IACS conductivity values with the following formula: 172.41 / resistivity = % IACS Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity As noted above, electrical conductivity values (and resistivity values) are typically reported at 20 oC. This is done because the conductivity and resistivity of material is temperature dependant. The conductivity of most materials decreases as temperature increases. Alternately, the resistivity of most material increases with increasing temperature. The amount of change is material

dependant but has been established for many elements and engineering materials. The reason that resistivity increases with increasing temperature is that the number of imperfection in the atomic lattice structure increases with temperature and this hampers electron movement. These imperfections include dislocations, vacancies, interstitial defects and impurity atoms. Additionally, above absolute zero, even the lattice atoms participate in the interference of directional electron movement as they are not always found at their ideal lattice sites. Thermal energy causes the atoms to vibrate about their equilibrium positions. At any moment in time many individual lattice atoms will be away from their perfect lattice sites and this interferes with electron movement. When the temperature coefficient is known, an adjusted resistivity value can be computed using the following formula: R1 = R2 * [1 + a * (T1T2)] Where: R1 = resistivity value adjusted to T1 R2 = resistivity value known or measured at temperature T2 a = Temperature Coefficient T1 = Temperature at which resistivity value needs to be known T2 = Temperature at which known or measured value was obtained For example, suppose that resistivity measurements were being made on a hot piece of aluminum. Normally when measuring resistivity or conductivity, the instrument is calibrated using standards that are at the same temperature as the material being measured, and then no correction for temperature will be required. However, if the calibration standard and the test material are at different temperatures, a correction to the measured value must be made. Presume that the instrument was calibrated at 20oC (68oF) but the measurement was made at 25oC (77oF) and the resistivity value obtained was 2.706 x 10-8 ohm meters. Using the above equation and the following temperature coefficient value, the resistivity value corrected for temperature can be calculated. R1 = R2 * [1 + a * (T1T2)]

Where: R1 = ? R2 = 2.706 x 10-8 ohm meters (measured resistivity at 25 oC) a = 0.0043/ oC T1 = 20 oC T2 = 25 oC R1 = 2.706 x 10-8ohm meters * [1 + 0.0043/ oC * (20 oC 25 oC)] R1 = 2.648 x 10-8ohm meters Note that the resistivity value was adjusted downward since this example involved calculating the resistivity for a lower temperature. Since conductivity is simply the inverse of resistivity, the temperature coefficient is the same for conductivity and the equation requires only slight modification. The equation becomes: s1 = s2 / [1 + a * (T1T2)] Where: s1 = conductivity value adjusted to T1 s2 = conductivity value known or measured at temperature T2 a = Temperature Coefficient T1 = Temperature at which conductivity value needs to be known T2 = Temperature at which known or measured value was obtained In this example lets consider the same aluminum alloy with a temperature coefficient of 0.0043 per degree centigrade and a conductivity of 63.6% IACS at 25 oC. What will the conductivity be when adjusted to 20 oC? s1= 63.6% IACS / [1 + 0.0043 * (20 oC 25 oC)] s1= 65.0% IASC The temperature coefficient for a few metallic elements is shown below. Material Nickel Iron Temperature Coefficient (/ oC) 0.0059 0.0060

Molybden um Tungsten Aluminum Copper Silver Platinum Gold Zinc

0.0046 0.0044 0.0043 0.0040 0.0038 0.0038 0.0037 0.0038

Magnetic Permeability
Magnetic permeability or simply permeability is the ease with which a material can be magnetized. It is a constant of proportionality that exists between magnetic induction and magnetic field intensity. This constant is equal to approximately 1.257 x 10-6 Henry per meter (H/m) in free space (a vacuum). In other materials it can be much different, often substantially greater than the free-space value, which is symbolized 0. Materials that cause the lines of flux to move farther apart, resulting in a decrease in magnetic flux density compared with a vacuum, are called diamagnetic. Materials that concentrate magnetic flux by a factor of more than one but less than or equal to ten are called paramagnetic; materials that concentrate the flux by a factor of more than ten are called ferromagnetic. The permeability factors of some substances change with rising or falling temperature, or with the intensity of the applied magnetic field. In engineering applications, permeability is often expressed in relative, rather than in absolute, terms. If o represents the permeability of free space (that is, 4p X10-7H/m or 1.257 x 10-6 H/m) and represents the permeability of the substance in question (also specified in henrys per meter), then the relative permeability, r, is given by: r = / 0

For non-ferrous metals such as copper, brass, aluminum etc., the permeability is the same as that of "free space", i.e. the relative permeability is one. For ferrous metals however the value of r may be several hundred. Certain ferromagnetic materials, especially powdered or laminated iron, steel, or nickel alloys, have r that can range up to about 1,000,000. Diamagnetic materials have r less than one, but no known substance has relative permeability much less than one. In addition, permeability can vary greatly within a metal part due to localized stresses, heating effects, etc. When a paramagnetic or ferromagnetic core is inserted into a coil, the inductance is multiplied by r compared with the inductance of the same coil with an air core. This effect is useful in the design of transformers and eddy current probes.