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AGROVISION PROJECT ROSE PLANTATIONS MURBAD

INTRODUCTION : Depending on the species and varieties, roses have various uses. They may be used as cut flowers, and garden plants. They may also be used in making rose oil, rose water and gulkhand. Model project is on production of roses for use as cut flowers, which have an important place in preparation of bouquets, floral arrangements, worship, social occasions and presentation of gifts. Measured in terms of volume of trade in the international market cut roses rank first in popularity. In India, according to a recent survey about 4330 ha. area, producing 874 million stems valued at Rs.44.00 crores, is under rose cultivation in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra and West Bengal. Rose cultivation is however followed under open field conditions. The variety grown here are not according to the international standards. The plant density obtained is very low (8000-15000/ha) as per field analysis. The use of scientific method of cultivation and post harvest processes are hardly followed here. Moreover there is a lack or marketing and product exports. This is since the cultivation is in hands of small growers who are unable to invest sizeable amount for proper production of the plant. In many countries like USA and Europe commercial cultivation of roses have been carried out keeping in consideration of all scientific processes and thus a high yield is obtained which is of high valued market standard. An opportunity for development of cut roses (and other cut flowers) arose in the countries of southern hemisphere, such as, Columbia, Mexico, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The prospects have further brightened by development of rose varieties which could be cultivated under high temperature. Thus, while the production of cut roses in the main market has remained static, new centres of rose production under low cost plastic green houses have developed in the countries of southern hemisphere for export to the countries of northern hemisphere, where demand for cut roses is increasing at the rate of 9% per annum. Due to the above developments and also on account of recent economic liberalization there has been an upsurge of interest in production of cut roses in plastic green houses in India also.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT : The primary objective of the project is commercial production of cut flowers and make it a profitable venture. AGRO-CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS : Plenty of light, humid and moderate temperature ranging from 15 0C to 28 0C may be considered as ideal conditions for roses in the tropical and subtropical climate of India. Well drained soil rich in organic matter and oxygen is good for roses. Organic matter as high as 30 per cent is preferred. The pH of the soil should be around 6 to 6.5. POTENTIAL GROWTH CENTRES : The selection of location for production of roses depends mainly on three factors : 1. Cost of Production 2. Quality 3. Cost of transportation Only the production of high quality flowers at low cost can stand upto international competition. Based on these considerations, the location should be decided. The floriculture expert committee set up by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, has identified the following growth centres for production of cut roses for export purposes. 1. Hyderabad and places around 2. Bangalore and places around 3. Nasik, Pune and places around . Based on the factors indicated above, the location which has been selected at Murbad is the most suitable location for AGROVISION PROJECT.

EXPORT ORIENTED TECHNOLOGY : An export oriented project has to adopt innovative technology as per requirement of the chosen overseas markets. The key elements of the export oriented innovative technology are suitable varieties, which are popular in overseas markets, ultrahigh planting density, cultivation in green house, maintenance of grades and quality innovative technology. PRE-HARVEST TECHNOLOGY : 1. TYPES OF ROSES AND VARIETIES : The major types of roses which are commercially important are as under:

HYBRID TEA Roses : These have large flowers (4 cm.) long stems (125 cm). Yield varies from 100-200 stems/sqm. Hybrid Teas fetch higher price than other types. A few well-known varieties of this group are SONIA, VIVALDI, TINEKE, MELODY, DARLING and ONLY LOVE. FLORIBUNDA Roses : These have small flowers (2.5 cm) and shorter stems (less than 60 cm), but yield much higher than other types. Examples of this type are FRISCO, MERCEDES, JAGUAR, KISS and FLORENCE. SPRAY Roses : A single stem of this type may carry 5-6 flowers, but stem yield per sqm is low. Important varieties belonging to the type are EVELIEN, JOY and NIKITA. 2. GREEN HOUSE :

Green house refer to structure covered with a transparent material which permits natural light for plant growth. It is essential for production of good quality cut roses without blemishes. 3. LAYOUT AND PLANTING : Two rows of plants per bed are planted. Roots are kept well aerated and kept clear of standing water. Plant density is 50,000 to 60,000 plants per hectare. Planting may be done from February to April and/or from July to November.

4. MANURING : Organic manures are required to be added so that top 30 cms. of the soil has 30% organic matter content. 5. FERTILIZER APPLICATION : Application of nutrients should be based on analysis of soil and plant. Application of Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorous as needed alongwith other nutrients is applied. 6. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE : Rose plants require a lot of water, at least 6mm / day i.e. about 60 cum / ha / day. Design of the drip system to deliver above quantity of water should be present. Drip system can be designed as follows: Main Line along with Sub Main Line and a lateral line in between two rows. A drainage line may be laid below the beds for disposal of excess water. 7. PRUNING : Stems are cut back leaving 4-5 nodes on the basic stock frame, removing all weak shoots and redirecting the wayward ones. This may be practiced in a phased manner so that flowering takes place from September to March. Generally, flowering takes place 45 days after pruning.

8. PESTS AND DISEASES : The principal pests of roses are :


Red spider mite Leaf rollers White fly Thrips Aphids Nematode The principal diseases are :

Powdery mildew Downy mildew Botrytis Pruning die back Black leaf spot 9. CONTROL : The preventive spray programme with a volume of 1500 litres/spray at an average interval of once in a week is suggested. The chemicals could be as under: Dithane Metasystox Karathane.

HARVEST AND POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT : 1. HARVEST : The post-harvest management of roses starts with their harvest. Roses should attain the right stage for harvesting. As such, roses should be cut just as the buds are opening, after the sepals have almost fully curled up and the colour is fully visible. In small flowered varieties and Floribundas, the flowers are cut just when they begin to open the cluster. The cutting may be done in the evening or early morning with long stem. The lower end of cut stems are immediately placed in clean plastic buckets containing a preservative solution. Thereafter the roses are brought to the grading and packing hall. 2. HYDRATION : Ideally, roses immediately after harvest should be graded, packed, precooled and dispatched. In case of delay in grading and packaging flowers are shifted to the cold store. 3. PRESERVATIVES : After Hydrating flowers are shifted to preservative solution. Thereafter flowers are shifted to cold storage. Roses may be kept for 4-5 days in a preservative solution in cold store. The composition of floral preservative is as under :

Citric acid. HQC/captan. Sucrose. STS. Cytokinin.

4. GRADING : Flowers should be graded to different classes according to their qualities. Grading is done on a mechanical grader or by hand grading tables or work stations. 5. PACKING : Packing comprises three steps : bunching, wrapping and packing. The heads of roses are evened up and their stem tied with a rubber band into bunches in 10s, 20s, 25s, or 50s depending on the ultimate market. They are cut so that all the stems are of the same length. The bunches are placed in preservative solution and may be shifted to the cold store. They are brought back to the packing hall and the buds are wrapped and the bunches are sleeved in transport polyethylene. The wrap is a 15-20 cm. wide plastic strip which acts as a cushion for the buds. Many different cardboard boxes are used for packing. For long term transport it is best to use telescopic style boxes made of corrugated fibreboard. The size could be 100 cm x 45 cm x 22 cm. There may be 400 to 1000 stems per box and weight may vary from 14 to 18 kg/box. Depending on the market, the box is either filled with one variety, one grade, or mixed colour one grade.

6. STORAGE : The packed and graded roses can be stored into cold storage before marketing or export. The following table below shows the temperature and duration of storage that can be made before any further look outs. Type of storage Wet Storage Dry Storage 7. TRANSPORTATION : Cut roses from fields overnight is ideally transported as early as possible. Since many varieties of roses do not have a life span of more than 7 days. The transportation from field depends on the distance to the local market and if being exported, in either case must be loaded on to a refrigerated van. The desired temperature must be around 2 40 C. In case of any delay the use of cold storage must be considered. PROJECT COMPONENTS : The project may comprise of following major components: 1. LAND : The area at Murbad is a total of 27 acres out of which cultivation will start on an area of 5 acres in 2 batches in the 1st Phase. 2. GREEN HOUSE/POLYHOUSE : Plastic greenhouse on an area of 5 acres has been proposed. The steel frame will have long life, plastic cover may have a life of only 2-3 years. In the present project the plastic will have a thickness of 200 micron. It is expected that if properly maintained with some repairing it will have a life of 3 years. 3. PLANTING MATERIAL : 6 MONTH OLD Grafts of popular rose varieties are obtained from suppliers. Temperature 0.5 C to 20 C 0.5 C to 00 C Duration 4 5 Days 2 Weeks

4. IRRIGATION SYSTEM : Quality of Roses can be maintained only under assured irrigation. Following facilities have to be developed: Overhead tanks-1000 litres 4 units Drip irrigation system with pump set, pressure valves and piping. 5. DRAINAGE SYSTEM : Since Beds will receive heavy doses of irrigation quite frequently, proper drainage should be maintained with a surface drainage system. The plot on which the project is based is completely on budding system and hence drainage of excess water can be naturally made in to availability. 6. GRADING AND PACKING SHED : For grading and packing of harvested roses, shed with pucca cemented floor and roof of corrugated shed and open on three sides has been proposed to economize the cost. Since the principal production period is from September to March when rainfall is scanty, the proposed type of shed is justified. 7. AVAILAIBILITY OF MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENTS : All the materials and equipments can be locally procured and are easily available.

8. ESTIMATED CAPITAL COSTS :

A. CIVIL STRUCTURES AND WORKS : GRADING/PACKING SHED GREENHOUSE FENCING DRAINAGE TOTAL B. EQUIPMENTS AND SYSTEMS : DRIP IRRIGATION GENSET TELEPHONE AND MACHINERY MISCELLANEOUS OTHER FURNITURE AND STATIONERY TOTAL C. PLANTING MATERIAL : 6 MONTH OLD POPULAR VARIETY ROSE GRAFTS( 50,000 NOS) RS. 5000 RS. 2,50,000 RS. 25,000 RS. 20,000 RS. 3,00,000

RS. 50,000 RS. 5,000 RS. 5,000 RS. 5,000 RS. 10,000 RS. 75,000

RS. 5,00,000

D.MANAGEMENT EXPENSES : OFFICE SETUP VEHICLES FOR TRANSPORTATION SUPERVISORY CHARGES MARKETING EXPENSES TOTAL D. CULTIVATION EXPENSES : LAND PREPARATION AND LAYOUT MANURES FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES ELECTRICITY LABOUR TOTAL E. POST HARVEST EXPENSES : CHEMICALS AND PRESERVATIVES COLD STORAGE PACKING MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION COSTS TOTAL RS. 30,000 RS. 20,000 RS. 60,000 RS. 65,000 RS. 10,000 RS. 30,000 RS. 2,15,000 RS. 2,00,000 RS. 2,00,000 RS. 2,50,000 RS. 2,50,000 RS. 9,00,000

RS. 20,000 RS. 25,000 RS. 5,000 RS. 70,000 RS. 1,20,000

F.OVERHEADS : INSURANCE REPAIRS AND MAINTAINANCE TOTAL RS. 1,00,000 RS. 50,000 RS. 1,50,000

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST OF THE PROJECT

RS 22,60,000

9. PROJECTED PRODUCTION AND INCOME : PARTICULARS NUMBER OF FLOWERING STEMS/PLANT/YEA R NUMBER OF FLOWERING STEMS/SQ. METER/YEAR NUMBER OF FLOWERING STEMS/5 ACRES/YEAR 1ST YEAR 4 2ND YEAR 15 3-5 YEARS 20

30

120

140

10,20,000

14,40,000

43,20,000

INCOME EXPORT@ RS 5 DOMESTIC@ RS 5 RS.40,60,00 0 RS.64,01,00 0 RS.1,92,03,00 0

10. RECURRING COSTS : PARTICULARS CULTIVATION EXPENSES POST HARVEST EXPENSES INSURANCE REPAIRS AND MAINTAINANCE 2ND YEAR RS.2,15,0 00 RS.1,20,0 00 RS.1,00,0 00 RS.1,50,0 00 3RD YEAR RS.2,15,0 00 RS.1,20,0 00 RS.1,00,0 00 RS.1,50,0 00 RS.1,25,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS12,10,0 00 4TH YEAR RS.2,15,0 00 RS.1,20,0 00 RS.1,00,0 00 RS.1,50,0 00 RS.1,25,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS12,10,0 00 5TH YEAR RS.2,15,0 00 RS.1,20,0 00 RS.1,00,0 00 RS.1,50,0 00 RS.1,25,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS12,10,0 00

TRANSPORTATI RS.1,25,0 ON COSTS 00 SUPERVISORY CHARGES MARKETING EXPENSES TOTAL RS.2,50,0 00 RS.2,50,0 00 RS12,10,0 00

10.

COST OF LAND :

15% OF THE TOTAL INCOME IS TO BE GIVEN TO THE OWNERS OF THE PROPERTY AT MURBAD FROM WHOM WE HAVE OBTAINED THE NO-OBJECTION CERTIFICATE FOR WORKING AND CONSTRUCTING AGROVISION PROJECT FOR A PERIOD OF 5 YEARS. 11. INTEREST RATE :

Negotiable. 12. REPAYMENT :

The principal and interest will be repayable in a period of 5 years.