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Number System Conversion

Decimal To Binary:-The method to convert to a decimal number to its binary equivalent is called double dabble method.

The steps to perform the decimal to binary conversion areStep1. Divide the decimal no. successively by 2 and note the reminder each. Step2.The division process is stopped when the quotient is less than 2. Step3. Read the remainder bottom to top to get the binary equivalent of the decimal number.

Q. Convert 27 into binary number. 2 2 2 2 2 27 13 6 3 1 0 1 1 0 1 1

Hence,

( 27)10 = (11011)2

Binary to Decimal:- The method to convert a binary no. to decimal no.

is called dibble dabble method.

The steps to convert a binary no. to decimals areStep1. Write the weights for each binary digit string from the right most bits and the first weight (deposition) starts from 0. For fractional parts we writes from left to right and the weight is -1 Step2. Multiple each bit of binary by 2 and use weights as power to the base 2 Step3. Add the multiple product of each bit .The addition of multiple product will be equivalent to decimal number.

Q. Convert (10111)2 into decimal number. 1 1 0 1 1

1 x 24=16

1 x 23=8

0 x 22=0

1 x 21=2

1 x 20=1

16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 27

Hence, (11011)2 = (27)10

Decimal to Octal:-The steps to convert Decimal to Octal areStep1. Divide the decimal no. successively by 8 and note the remainder. Step2. The division process is stop when the quotient is less than 8. Step3. Read the remainder bottom to top to get the octal equivalent of the decimal number.

8 8

25 3 0

1 3

Hence, (25)10 = (31)8

Decimal to Hexadecimal:-Steps to convert decimal to Hexadecimal are:Step1. Divide the decimal no. successively by 16 and note down the remainder each. Step2. The division process is stop when the quotient is less than 16. Step3. Read the remainder bottom to top to get the Hexadecimal no. equivalent to Decimal.

Note

Q. Convert 76 in Hexadecimal number.

16 16 76 4 0 12=C 4

7=7

8=8
9=9

Q. Convert (100.4) 10 in Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal.

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 100 50 25 12 6 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 4 X 2 8

X 2
6 X2 2

Hence, (100.4)10 = (1100100.011)2

Same above process is for covert into Octal no. and Hexadecimal no. In Octal divide by 8, and multiply by 8 two times only. In Hexadecimal divide by 16, and multiply by 16 one times.

Q. Converts (111100.001)2 into decimal. Soln:1 1 1 1 0 0 . 0 0 1

1 x 2-3 = 1/8 0 x 2-2 = 0 0 x 2-1 = 0 =0 =0 1 x 22 = 4 1 x 23 = 8 1 x 24 = 16 1 x 25 = 32 0+0+4+8+16+32 = 60 1/8+0+0 = 1/8 = .125

Hence, (111100.001)2 = 60.125 = 60.1

Compliments of a number
9s compliments:- To obtain 9s compliment (reverse) of a decimal number ,we subtract the decimal number by the largest decimal number of same digits which to be found 9s compliment. 10s compliment:- To obtain 10s compliment we add 1 in 9s compliment of a number.

Q. Obtain 9s and 10s compliment of 123. Soln:123 is of 3 digits so the largest no. of 3 digits = 999 Now, 9s compliment = 999 123 = 876 10s compliment = 876 + 1 = 877 1s compliment:- The method of obtaining 1s compliment is similar to 9s compliment but we subtract the binary no. by a largest binary no of same digits. 2s compliment:- To obtain 2s compliment just we add 1 in 1s compliment.

Q. Obtain the 1s and 2s compliment of (000)2 .

Soln:000 is of 3 digits so the largest binary no 3 digits = 111. Now, 1s compliment = 111 000 = 111 2s compliment = 111 + 1 = 1000

Note:-

eg :- 1s compliment of 10110 = 01001.

Binary Airthematic
Addition:Carry Augend Addened Sum 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

Q. (10110)2 + (11011)2 =?
1 1 1

1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 Subtraction:Borrow Minuend Subtrahend Difference 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

Q. (11001)2 (10110) 2 =?

10=2 ,10=2

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

Subtraction using 1s compliment

We can subtract binary numbers using 1scompliment, the Steps are following:Step1:- Find 1s compliment of Subtrahend. Step2:- Add the Minuend with 1s compliment of Subtrahend. Step3:- If obtain carry at most left add the carry to the sum. The final value will be +ve . Else not obtain carry then once again find the 1s compliment of the sum. The final result will be -ve .

Q. Subtract (101)2 from (1010)2 using 1s compliment. i.e (1010)2 (101)2 =?

Step1. The 1s compliment of Subtrahend 0101 is 1010. Step2. Add the Minuend with 1s compliment of Subtrahend. 1 0 1 0 + 1 0 1 0 Carry 1 0 1 0 0 (Here carry is 1 ,So add 1 to the sum itself.)

Thus, Answer = 0100+1= (0101)2 = (101)2

Q. (101)2 (1010)2=?
Step1. 1 s compliment of Subtrahend 1010 = 0101. Step2. Add the minuend with the 1s compliment of subtrahend. 0 1 0 1 + 0 1 0 1=1 0 1 0 Here there is no any carry is obtained so again find 1s compliment of the Sum. And the Ans. will be in ve. Thus, 1s compliment of the sum = 0101. Ans. = - (0101)2 = - (101)2

Subtraction using 2s Compliment

We can Subtract Binary numbers using 2s compliment, Steps are:Step1:- Find 2s compliment of Subtrahend. Step2:- Add the Minuend with 2s compliment of Subtrahend. Step3:- If obtain carry at most left in sum ignore the carry. The final value will be +ve. Else not obtain carry then once again find the 2s compliment of the sum. The final result will be - ve .

Q. Subtract (101)2 from (1010)2 using 2s compliment. i.e (1010)2 (101)2 =?

Step1. The 2s compliment of Subtrahend 0101 is 1010 + 1 = 1011. Step2. Add the Minuend with 2s compliment of Subtrahend. 1 0 1 0 + 1 0 1 1 Carry 1 0 1 0 1 (Here carry is 1 ,So ignore the carry)

Thus, Answer = (0101)2 = (101)2

Q. (101)2 (1010)2=?
Step1. 2s compliment of Subtrahend 1010 = 0101 + 1 = 0110 Step2. Add the minuend with the 2s compliment of subtrahend. 0 1 0 1 + 0 1 1 0 = 1 0 1 1 (Here there is no carry) So, 2s compliment of the sum = 0100+1 = 0101. Thus, Ans. = - (0101)2 = - (101)2

Multiplication of Binary Numbers

1x1=1 1x0=0 0x1=0 0x0=0

Q. (1010)2 x (101)2 =?
1 0 1 0 X 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

Ans. = (110010)2

Division of Binary Numbers

The method of binary division is similar to decimal division.

Q. (1010)2 / (101)2 =?

101 ) 1 1 0 1 0 1 ( 1 0 1 0 101 00110 101 0011

- : Keep in Your Mind : Binary Decimal 1=1 10=2 11=3 100=4 101=5 110=6 111=7 1000=8 1001=9 1010=10 1011=11 1100=12 1101=13 1110=14 1111=15