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External Flow: Chapter 7 The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow

Summary

Physical Features

Physical Features

As with all external flows, the boundary layers develop freely without constraint. Boundary layer conditions may be entirely laminar, laminar and turbulent, or entirely turbulent. See text Section 7.2. To determine the conditions, compute Re L =

u L u L =

and compare with the critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulence, Re x , c .

Re L < Re x , c laminar flow throughout


Re L > Re x , c transition to turbulent flow at xc / L = Re x , c / Re L

Physical Features (cont.)

Value of Re x , c depends on free stream turbulence and surface roughness. Nominally,


Re x , c 5 105. If boundary layer is tripped at the leading edge
Re x , c = 0

and the flow is turbulent throughout. Surface thermal conditions are commonly idealized as being of uniform temperature Ts or uniform heat flux q s . Thermal boundary layer development may be delayed by an unheated starting length. See the Text, Section 7.2.4.

Equivalent surface and free stream temperatures for x < and uniform Ts x >. (or q s ) for

We see there are two important dimensionless similarity parameters associated with the heat transfer in this case. These are the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. The Reynolds number represents the ratio of the inertia to the viscous forces The Prandtl number is the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusivities. These are calculated as

VL VL = the Reynolds Number v c v Pr p = the Prandtl Number k


Re L These dimensionless parameters allow us to apply results obtained for a surface experiencing convective heat transfer conditions, to geometrically similar surfaces experiencing different conditions, e.g., those with different fluids and fluid velocities, or differences in size as described by the characteristic length. Therefore, as long as the similarity parameters and dimensionless boundary conditions are the same, the solution of the differential equations for non-dimension velocity and temperature will be the same.

Similarity Considerations (cont.)

thus, for a prescribed geometry, the temperature through the boundary layer is,
T* T Ts = f x* , y* , Re L , Pr T Ts

It can be shown that dimensionless local convection coefficient is then


Nu hL T * = * kf y = f x* , Re L , Pr
y* = 0

Nu local Nusselt number In effect this states that the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient is a function of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. The functional relationship is determined for various geometries by analytical, numerical or experimental means. For a flat plate the form of the expression is hx n Nu x = x = C Re m x Pr k The values of the coefficients C, m and n depend on the conditions of the problem, e.g., Laminar vs turbulent flow, constant surface temperature (Section 7.2.1 & 7.2.2) or constant heat flux (Section 7.2.5) and the range of Re and Pr.

Solution for Flow over a Flat Plate


Subject to prescribed boundary conditions, numerical solutions to the momentum and energy equations yield the following results for the local boundary layer parameters: e.g., friction coefficient C f ,x and for Pr > 0.6,

s, x u / 2
2

1/ 2 = 0.664 Re x

Nu x =

hx x 2 1/ 3 = 0.332 Re1/ x Pr k

and

= Pr1/3 t

Average Boundary Layer Parameters:


1/ 2 C f , x = 1.328 Re x

2 1/ 3 Nu x = 0.664 Re1/ x Pr

The effect of variable properties may be considered by evaluating all properties at the film temperature. Tf = Ts + T 2

Turbulent Flow

Turbulent Flow
Empirical Correlations
1/ 5 C f , x = 0.0592 Re x /5 1/ 3 Nu x = 0.0296 Re 4 x Pr

Local Parameters:

Average Parameters:

hL =

1 xc L h1am dx + xc hturb dx L 0

Substituting expressions for the local coefficients and assuming Re x ,c = 5 105 , 0.074 1742 C f , L = 1/ 5 /5 1/ 3 Nu L = 0.037 Re 4 Re L Re L L 871 Pr

For Re x , c = 0 or L  xc ( Re L  Re x , c ) ,
1/ 5 C f , L = 0.074 Re L /5 1/ 3 Nu L = 0.037 Re4 L Pr

Methodology for a Convection Calculation


To solve problems of this type (see Section 7.3): Determine the flow geometry Specify the reference temperatures & calculate fluid properties at that temperature, usually evaluate properties at the film T + T temperature T = s
f

Calculate the Re Number and Pr Number Determine if you are looking for the local or average coefficient Select the appropriate Nusselt number correlation (See Table 7.9) Calculate Nusselt number and for the characteristic length scale, Determine the h value from the Nu, kf and the characteristic length Substitute the h value in Newtons Law of cooling and determine the heat transfer rate

Problem: Orientation of Heated Surface

Problem 7.21: Preferred orientation (corresponding to lower heat loss) and the corresponding heat rate for a surface with adjoining smooth and roughened sections.
smooth rough

Case 1

rough smooth

Case 2

ASSUMPTIONS: (a) Surface B is sufficiently rough to trip the boundary layer when in the upstream position (Configuration 2); (b) Re x,c = 5 105 for flow over A in Configuration 1.

Orientation of Heated Surface (cont.)

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Air (Tf = 333K, 1 atm): = 19.2 10 m /s, k = 28.7 10 W/mK, Pr = 0.7.
ANALYSIS: For Configuration 1 with u L 20 m/s 1m Re L = = = 1.04 106. -6 2 19.2 10 m / s

-6

-3

transition will occur just before the rough surface (xc = 0.48m) for Configuration 1. Hence,
4/5 Nu L,1 = 0.037 1.04 106 871 0.71/3 = 1366 Eq. 7.38

4/5 Since Nu L,2 = 0.037 1.04 106 ( 0.7 )1/3 = 2139 > Nu L,1 , it follows that the lowest heat

transfer is associated with Configuration 1. (see Eq. 7.36)

For Configuration 1:

h L,1L k

= Nu L,1 = 1366.

Hence

h L,1 = 1366 28.7 103 W/m K /1m = 39.2 W/m 2 K


q1 = h L,1A ( Ts T ) = 39.2 W/m 2 K ( 0.5m 1m )(100 20 ) K = 1568 W

<

Comment: For a very short plate, a lower heat loss may be associated with Configuration 2. In fact, parametric calculations reveal that for L< 30 mm, this configuration provides the preferred orientation.

Problem: Conveyor Belt

Problem 7.24: Convection cooling of steel plates on a conveyor by air in parallel flow.

KNOWN: Plate dimensions and initial temperature. Velocity and temperature of air in parallel flow over plates.

FIND: Initial rate of heat transfer from plate. Rate of change of plate temperature.

Problem: Conveyor Belt (cont.)

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible radiation, (2) Negligible effect of conveyor velocity on boundary layer development, (3) Plates are isothermal, (4) Negligible heat transfer from edges of plate, (5)
Re x,c = 5 10
5

, (6) Constant properties.

PROPERTIES: Table A-1, AISI 1010 steel (573K): kp = 49.2 W/mK, c = 549 J/kgK, = 7832 3 -6 2 kg/m . Table A-4, Air (p = 1 atm, Tf = 433K): = 30.4 10 m /s, k = 0.0361 W/mK, Pr = 0.688.

ANALYSIS: The initial rate of heat transfer from a plate is q = 2 h As ( Ti T ) = 2 h L2 ( Ti T ) With Re L = u L / = 10 m / s 1m / 30.4 10 6 m 2 / s = 3.29 105 , flow is laminar over the entire surface.
Hence,
2 1/ 3 = 0.664 3.29 105 Nu L = 0.664 Re1/ L Pr

1/ 2

( 0.688)1/ 3 = 336

h = ( k / L ) Nu L = ( 0.0361W / m K /1m ) 336 = 12.1W / m 2 K

q = 2 12.1W / m 2 K (1m )

( 300 20 ) C = 6780 W

Problem: Conveyor Belt (cont.)

  Performing an energy balance at an instant of time for a control surface about the plate, E out = E st ,

L2c

2 12.1W / m 2 K ( 300 20 ) C dT = = 0.26C / s dt i 7832 kg / m3 0.006m 549 J / kg K

dT = h 2L2 ( Ti T ) dt i

4 COMMENTS: (1) With Bi = h ( / 2 ) / k p = 7.4 10 , use of the lumped capacitance method is

appropriate.
(2) Despite the large plate temperature and the small convection coefficient, if adjoining plates are in close proximity, radiation exchange with the surroundings will be small and the assumption of negligible radiation is justifiable.

e_07_03_01

fig_07_01

fig_07_02