Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

V S L S S I 2 0 0 0 S TAY CA B L E SY S T E M

DESIGN ENGINEERING SUPPLY INSTALLATION MONITORING

VSL MAINTAINS THE LEAD IN STAY CABLE TECHNOLOGY

Industrial Ring Road Bangkok, 2006 Stay cables installed strand-by-strand.

VSL: a worldwide network


VSLs organisation as a network of closelycooperating regional units allows it to provide a full range of solutions and services worldwide. Customers have access to a local presence, while benefiting from global resources, know-how and expertise as well as VSLs continuing development of specialist construction techniques. The VSL networks valueadded services are combined to provide fully-customised solutions, from concept to site works, using highly-trained and experienced staff working in close partnership with clients.

active management systems and high performance standards. VSL recognizes that employees are the key to competitiveness and effective working practices. The company is committed to safety first and strives for zero accident, with employees motivated to take the necessary responsibilities to achieve this goal. Clearly-defined measures are in place to promote sustainable development as part of VSLs contribution to environmental protection.

VSL: a commitment to Quality, Safety and the Environment


VSL pursues a strong QSE policy in keeping with its position as a technical leader in the industry. Local teams aim continuously to establish, maintain and improve their pro-

VSL: a specialist stay cable contractor


As leader in stay cable technology, VSL paves the way with new developments. The last 10 years in particular have seen a boom in stay cables, with a considerable increase in the span lengths that can now be achieved as

well as faster installation and erection cycles thanks to VSLs construction techniques. VSL has experience of more than 130 cable-stayed bridges, including 40 in the last eight years, and its close participation with clients and builders has resulted in a next-generation technical solution. The VSL SSI 2000 System described here combines the latest developments with VSLs best solutions, and has already been used for dozens of bridges. The system offers high fatigue resistance, excellent corrosion protection and cable-force monitoring, as well as allowing adjustment, inspection and replacement of the strands. It maintains stringent durability standards, whilst incorporating new features for greater flexibility and simpler, more slender cables and anchorages.

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Recent VSL developments in stay cable technology


VSL Saddle, a patented solution allowing much simpler pylon design resulting in enhanced bridge aesthetics; Compact anchorage, leading to simplified design and construction of the pylon and superstructure; Compact stay cable system, resulting in a tighter arrangement of the strands and hence a reduced cable diameter and a lower cable wind load; Cable protected by dehumidification techniques, a patented solution offering the lowest wind load on strand cables, with a permanent monitoring; A choice of cable-vibration damping systems, which permits optimum load adaptation for each structure.

Uddevalla Bridge Sweden, 1998 Stay cables installed strand-by-strand and equipped with anti-vibration friction dampers.

Modern engineering: stringent standards


Designers and regulators throughout the world are demanding: increased durability of stay cables, including corrosion protection of both cable and anchorage, leak-proofing of the anchorage assembly, good anchorage conditions, easy inspection and maintenance, cable replacement with minimal traffic interruption, cable vibration control and a compact stay bundle with a reduced wind drag-coefficient; outstanding fatigue and static load performance levels (200MPa and 300MPa stress range fatigue test for the SSI 2000 anchorage assembly and components); improved aesthetics arising from the availability of saddles, compact anchorages and coloured cables; incorporation of damping systems into the anchorage. Main contractors also look for optimal construction schedules such as: a design that takes into account the close relationship between deck erection and stay cable installation; lightweight installation equipment to enable easier operations and a more flexible erection programme. Clients benefit from: enhanced durability that is built in; easier long-term maintenance, providing substantial savings. The VSL SSI 2000 stay cable system is designed to meet all of these demanding requirements.

La Unidad Bridge Mexico, 2003 Full scope of bridge construction.

Liebrueti Bridge Switzerland, 1978 First VSL Stay cable bridge

Cable installation with VSL lightweight equipment

Las Glorias Footbridge - Spain, 1991 Supply of the stay cables and supervision at installation.

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

SSI 2000: VSL STAY CABLE TECHNOLOGY


Compact anchorage
Length of a fixed end anchorage for 127 strands is only 440mm.

Several complementary barriers


d) anchorage Adjustable (or fixed en
For anchorage water tightness system

High fatigue performance VSL strands


High fatigue performance over 300 MPa stress range at 2 millions cycles. Compatible with VSL SSI Saddle

Individual strand deviation device


Filtering cable bending stress at the anchorage device

High fatigue resistance VSL anchorage


Demonstrated by fib and PTI fatigue tests with combined tension and bending action.

Increased corrosion protection


Factory applied individual protection treatments, for a design life of 100 years in the most aggressive environments, without maintenance

Individual encapsulation
Each strand separately protected inside the anchorage

The SSI 2000 Stay Cable System is based on proven stay cable wedge/strand anchorage technology, which has been in use for more than 30 years. It meets the most stringent requirements and has been used on more than 120 stay cable projects. The system has successfully passed extensive full-scale fatigue testing, including the new leak-tightness tests required by the PTI and fib.
High fatigue performance
Anchorages include design features to filter out vibrations and bending stresses in the cable before they can reach the anchorage wedges. Sample stay cables have been subjected to fatigue testing with cable angular deviations as defined in the latest PTI and fib recommendations. Anchorages can be equipped with additional cable protection systems where unusual cable deviations need to be taken into account (see page 6). a new system that provides the best protection in the most aggressive environments. It enables 100 years of maintenance-free operation for non-accessible components. b) Individual encapsulation of each strand within the anchorage avoids the risk of corrosion migration between strands. Full encapsulation is achieved by providing each strand with its own protection system. c) Complementary barriers provide a degree of redundancy to ensure the leak-tightness of the anchorage. The sealing system has passed the various tests as defined by fib and PTI.

Cable replacement without traffic interruption


The very compact nature of the anchorages allows installation in confined spaces within box girders and pylons. The single strand installation method and stressing operations have been optimised to facilitate cable installation using very lightweight equipment for greater flexibility in construction.

Easy incorporation of a VSL internal damping system


The stay cable system can be designed with provision for later installation of a VSL vibration damping system, should it prove necessary (see page 14).

High durability and a new standard of protection


a) For the corrosion protection of the steel anchorage components, VSL has developed

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Y FOR BRIDGES
Versatility
Designed to accommodate a VSLs vibration damping system which can be installed retro-actively

Low drag coefficient


Measured in wind tunnel

Versatile tension ring


May be used as a guide deviator for increased cable angular deviations

Replaceable stay cable system


Each strand can be individually checked and at any time, replaced and re-installed. Complete cable is replaced with closure of only one traffic lane.

Reduced cable wind loads


The VSL stay pipes installed on the bridges are generally equipped with external helical ribs to suppress vibrations induced by rain and wind. Wind tunnel testing has demonstrated the efficiency of the VSL-designed helical ribs in reducing drag at wind speeds up to 70m/s.

cable diameter. Reduced wind loads result from its use in combination with the lower wind drag coefficient of the VSL stay pipe.

The VSL SSI 2000 Saddle allowing replacement of strand


VSL has developed a patented new pylon saddle for its SSI 2000 Stay Cable System, designed for use with the standard sheathed strand used on extradosed and cable-stayed bridges. The compact saddle allows strand by strand installation and replacement of each strand. Tests have demonstrated that the saddles fatigue performance is the same as for anchorages. High friction of the cable on the saddle allows its use in pylons subjected to significant unbalanced cable loads (see page 12).

The VSL SSI 2000-D: dry air system for lower wind loads
VSL SSI 2000-D is an adaptation of the standard system, using the same wedge/strand anchorage technology. Its main feature is a greatly-reduced cable diameter of about 30% less than standard, which results in significantly lower wind loading. SSI 2000-D cables are protected by dry air using the same technology as found in the protection of many steel bridge decks and suspended cables (see page 10).

The VSL compact system: SSI 2000-C for long cables


Wind load on the cables can be an important parameter for the structural design of bridges with very long cables. For these cables, VSL has developed SSI 2000-C, an adaptation of the standard SSI 2000. It uses the same anchorages and connections but features a 20% reduction in

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

VSL SSI 2000 MAIN DIMENSIONS


DECK CONNECTION
Designed with a tension ring or a guide deviator, and a VSL damping system if required.

Cable equipped with a tension ring Designed to accommodate a cable angular deviation of 25mrd (1.4 degrees) on entry to the anchorage, as per the PTI and fib recommendations.

ADJUSTABLE ANCHORAGE
L1 min i

F1

L1 mini

C1

B1

A1

E1

Guide pipe D1

Cable equipped with a guide deviator This provides the anchorage with a greater level of protection in case the cable is subjected to higher angular deviations such as seismic events. For long guide pipes the guide deviator protects the cable from contact, whatever the amplitude. It also allows for the guide pipe assembly to be installed with increased tolerances.

H1 mini

G1

DECK ANCHORAGE with adjustable or fixed end anchorages

L1 min i

Connection detail for subsequent installation of a VSL damping system The flange welded to the end of the guide pipe and the increased diameter of the antivandalism pipe are designed to allow for later installation of a VSL damping system, should cable vibrations need to be rectified. The cable can be equipped with a guide deviator (see figure) or, more generally, with a tension ring.

Cable equipped with the VSL friction damper In the event of unexpected cable vibrations, a choice of VSL damping systems - friction damper or Gensui damper - can be installed without modification to the cable assembly.

Distance between facing fixed end anchorages is 1.4m. Distance of approx. 3.5m is recommended when stressing jacks are used.
1.4m

L1 min i

PYLON ARRANGEMENT

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

L*

L1 min i

Stay cable equipped with a tension ring

PYLON CONNECTION
The pylon connection is similar to the deck connection and can be designed with either a tension ring or, in some cases, with a guide deviator.
L1 L1

Stay cable equipped with a guide deviator

FIXED END ANCHORAGE


L1 mini Cable diameter F2

Guide pipe D2

E2

H2 mini G2

DECK CONNECTION

STAY PIPE FREE LENGHT

PYLON CONNECTION

PYLON ANCHORAGE with adjustable or fixed end anchorages

CABLE DIAMETER (mm)


ANCHORAGE UNIT SSI 2000 SSI 2000-C* SSI 2000-D Anchorage Number unit of strands

ADJUSTABLE ANCHORAGE (at deck or pylon)


A1 mm B1 mm C1 mm D1 mm E1 mm F1 mm G1 mm H1 mini mm

FIXED END ANCHORAGE (at deck or pylon)


A2 mm C2 mm D2 mm E2 mm F2 mm G2 H2 mini mm mm

TENSION RING

L1 mini mm

6-12 6-19 6-22 6-31 6-37 6-43 6-55 6-61 6-73 6-85 6-91 6-109 6-127 6-175

125 140 160 160 180 200 200 225 250 250 280 315 315 355

95 110 125 135 150 170 175 185 200 210 220 235 265

85 95 105 115 130 145 150 160 170 180 190 200 225

6-12 6-19 6-22 6-31 6-37 6-43 6-55 6-61 6-73 6-85 6-91 6-109 6-127 6-175

12 19 22 31 37 43 55 61 73 85 91 109 127 175

190 235 255 285 310 350 385 385 440 440 490 505 560 640

230 285 310 350 380 425 470 470 530 540 590 610 670 770

290 219.1 / 6.3 196 355 267 / 6.3 241 385 298.5 / 7.1 261 440 323.9 / 7.1 291 485 355.6 / 8 316 540 406.4 / 8.8 356 585 600 680 710 419 / 10 419 / 10 508 / 11 508 / 11 391 391 446 446

500 500 500 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700

30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 80 90 95 110

325 350 360 410 440 455 495 530 530 590 585 620 650 730

185 230 250 280 300 340 380 380 430 430 480 495 550 620

260 335 355 415 455 505 550 585 650 685 730 775 845 1000

177.8 / 4.5 219.1 / 6.3 219.1 / 6.3 244.5 / 6.3 273 / 6.3 323.9 / 7.1 323.9 / 7.1 355.6 / 8 406.4 / 8.8 406.4 / 8.8 457 / 10 457 / 10 508 / 11 711/14.3

150 190 205 230 255 285 310 330 370 370 420 420 475 530

300 300 300 300 250 250 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

35 50 50 60 70 75 75 85 95 110 110 120 130 150

210 225 225 250 275 280 300 320 335 365 375 385 435 460

800 1100 1250 1400 1600 1850 1950 2150 2300 2450 2650 2800 3200 3700

760 559 / 12.5 496 795 559 / 12.5 511 865 610 / 12.5 566 646

1000 711/14.2

*with PTI tightly extruded strand

Customized sizing can be provided for large cables on request.


Valid for nominal concrete strength at stressing to 45% of stay capacity: 45 MPa (cube), 36 MPa (cylinder). Dimension must be checked in case of other bearing conditions. Guide pipe to be checked if use of guide deviator or damping system. Minimum value allows on adjustability of 40 mm.

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

C2

A2

ENHANCED DURABILITY WITH SSI 2000


Durability and fatigue strength are the two most important requirements for stay cables designed to enable 100 years of maintenance-free operation for non-accessible components in the most aggressive environments. VSL has recently developed some new products and services, therefore offering complementary barriers providing new degrees of redundancy.
Accelerated ageing tests
Correct specification and manufacturing is important to avoid significant variations over time in the characteristics of the non-steel components such as the HDPE/PP used for the stay pipe and strand sheathing. UV radiation and/or pollution may cause the colour of the HDPE stay pipe to change over time. The fading of the colour is controlled such that it remains invisible to the naked eye. The evolution of the mechanical and colourimetric characteristics is verified during accelerated ageing tests of the VSLs coloured stay pipes. The SSI 2000 System is now offering new developments, all leading to enhance cable durability :

The VSL SSI 2000-D to reduced cable wind loads


VSL SSI 2000-D is an adaptation of the standard system, using the same wedge/strand anchorage technology. Its main feature is a greatly-reduced cable diameter of about 30% less than standard, which results in significantly lower wind loading. SSI 2000-D cables are protected by dry air using the same technology as found in the protection of many steel bridge decks and suspended cables (see page 10).

VSL colored stay pipe with helical ribs, tested in a wind tunnel

Durability of the VSL stay cable system


VSL stay cables are replaceable and have a design life of 100 years in the most aggressive environments, as defined by the C4 and C5 categories of the ISO 12944 standard. VSL specifications for the corrosion-protection system of steel components are much more stringent than the durability recommendations from PTI and CIP. The components which are nonaccessible are manufactured with a protection system that has a design life of 100 years without maintenance. The first maintenance operation on the accessible and replaceable components is scheduled after 25 years. Each component and the entire assembly of VSL anchorages have all been subjected to analysis, to determine the best materials, component geometries, assembly type and protection system to achieve the highest durability.

Anchorage leak-tightness test


The barriers that protect the cable along its free length are checked by appropriate component tests. It is important to have efficient measures in place to prevent ingress of water into the anchorage interfaces, particularly at the deck. The VSL anchorages sealing system is designed with a high degree of redundancy and the anchorage has passed the leak-tightness tests as defined by PTI and fib.

Durability at the construction stages


The durability of each component depends on its design and choice of material. However, the durability of the complete cable will also depend on the quality of the installation works and the provisions made for easy inspection and replacement. VSL has incorporated permanent control systems which allow for the detection during the strand installation of any defect that would reduce the stay cables durability. Any component can be easily replaced without critical delay to the installation schedule.

Adjustable anchorages are protected by a sprayed metallic coating.

Tensile test of a sample HDPE stay pipe which has been subjected to an ageing test.

Checking of a 6-37 anchorage after a PTI leak-tightness test. After being submitted to mechanical environmental constraints, the anchorages were placed in a chamber with 3m-head of dye solution to check the ingress.

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

SYSTEM & DEVELOPMENT


DURABLE BUT ALSO AESTHETIC

The VSL SSI 2000 Saddle allowing cable replacement


VSL has developed a patented new pylon saddle for its SSI 2000 Stay Cable System, designed for use with the standard sheathed strand used on extradosed and cable-stayed bridges. The compact saddle allows strand by strand installation and replacement of individual strands. Tests have demonstrated that the saddles fatigue performance is the same as for anchorages. High friction of the cable on the saddle allows its use in pylons subjected to significant unbalanced cable loads (see page 12).

Red color stay pipes (Sucharskiego Bridge, Poland)

White color stay pipes (Neva Bridge, Russia)

Gold color stay pipes (Industrial Ring Road, Bangkok)

VSL solutions for cable vibration


VSL is providing two types of internal damping systems: the VSL Damper and the Gensui Damper. The SSI Stay Cable System can be designed with provision for later installation of a VSL vibration damping system, should it prove necessary (see page 12).

Required durability of stay cables


Various durability requirements have been developed: PTI stay cable recommendations are for a 75-year design life. The CIP document says 50 years and 100 years for replaceable and non-replaceable cables respectively. fibs stay cable recommendations are 100 years protection against corrosion for steel components and a design life of 50 years for non-metallic components, with replaceability of components.

VSL loadcell

VSL structural monitoring services


VSL monitoring package is offered as an additional service to provide the client with long term cost savings. It can be applied to structures and to cables. In-house R&D has placed emphasis on durability method, measurement and sensor configurations to optimise maintenance; to detect damage and confirm diagnosis of deterioration; to validate and memorise know-how for future projects; to optimise life cycle cost of the structure.

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

SSI 2000 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

THE VSL SSI 2000-D SYSTEM


A stay cable system protected by dry air*
Reduced cost for any cable replacement
Non-sheathed VSL strands

Permanent visual control


of the cable corrosion at the anchorages, without dismantling. Bearing plate

Protection cap

No damage
Guide pipe of the cable protection during installation

Dry air protection


of the cable, the anchorages and the vibration damping system

Permanent monitoring
of the corrosion protection system of the cables: Temperature Humidity Air pressure The airtight HDPE stay pipe is connected at one end to the pylon and at the other to the deck anchorage. The cable is composed of non-sheathed strands manufactured with a protective coating such as galvanising. A dehumidifier unit, which is generally placed inside the pylon, is equipped with air-pushing fans to maintain a low but permanent pressure of dry air along the cable length. This permanent pressure prevents any ingress of water from the outside environment into the cable.
The dehumidifier unit placed within the pylon supplies dry air to the pylon anchorages.

Dry air supply pipe

Non-sheathed strands protected by dry air


The complete stay cable system is designed so that the strands are located within an airtight enclosure along their free length and along the two anchorage lengths. The cable, anchorages and any vibration damping system are all protected against corrosion.
* Patent pending

Stay cable

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

10

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Co-extruded HDPE stay pipe with helical rib Cable with 3 nested layers of protection Anti vandal pipe

Reduced cable diameters


Strand cable with the lowest outer diameter allowing reduced cable wind load

VSL friction damper

Sealing device
protected inside the anti vandal pipe

Increased layers of corrosion protection


The dehumidifier unit placed within the pylon supplies the dry air to the pylon anchorages. The dry air flows from the pylon anchorages to those at the deck. The space between the strands inside the HDPE pipe allows circulation of the dry air around the steel strands, with a pressure at the deck anchorage that is slightly above atmospheric pressure. The main tensile elements of standard stay cable systems are designed with two levels of protection whereas the SSI 2000-D offers three levels: - (continuous) steel coating of the strand - (continuous) dry air around the strands - an airtight enclosure provided by the stay pipe.

Anchorage protection cap allowing visual inspection of cable

Permanent monitoring of the cable corrosion protection system


Permanent monitoring of the cable protection is provided. A protection cap is installed at the deck anchorage and is designed for the connection of sensors to measure the humidity, air pressure and air temperature, as well as the dehumidification control system.

The anchorage protection cap can also be designed to allow permanent visual inspection of the strands and wedges without any need to interfere with the system. This significantly reduces the time and costs involved in the long-term maintenance of the cables.

Dry air: a proven solution


The use of dehumidification or dry air systems to protect steel decks and suspension cables was introduced in 1971 and it is now a wellunderstood and highly-regarded solution. The efficiency of dehumidification has also been demonstrated in the protection of the cables of several suspension bridges, including those of the Akashi Kaiko Bridges 1991m-long main span. The dehumidification equipment used by VSL for cable protection in the SSI 2000-D System is based on proven technology. Long-term experience on steel decks protection has confirmed the low maintenance costs of dehumidification systems and their great reliability. VSL can provide estimates of running costs if required.

Offering protection for the deck


The SSI 2000-D Dehumidification System can also be used to achieve complete protection of bridge decks that are designed as steel boxes. The dry air flowing along the cables can be fed into the compartments of the deck.

The dry air combined protection

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

11

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

SSI 2000 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

THE VSL SADDLE


VSL has developed a new concept in saddles that achieves the performance of stay cable anchorages. Moreover, each strand of the cable can also be replaced if required.

One of the great advantages of the VSL Saddle is that it allows designers to simplify the pylon structure and use very slender profiles to achieve an attractive appearance. The new VSL Saddle was developed in response to issues with existing saddle designs, relating to fatigue, fretting corrosion and replacement of the cables. CIP had considered these issues so serious that it had recommended abandoning saddles and using anchorages instead.

Two independent corrosion protection barriers


The compact saddle is composed of a rectangular steel box filled with a high-strength Ductal cement grout. The design ensures high friction between the cable and the saddle. Cables can be installed or replaced strand by strand, and the strands can be tensioned independently. Two separate corrosion protection barriers protect the cable inside the saddle: - a protective strand coating such as galvanising; - a special flexible filler injected around the strands, using the same material that protects the strands within VSL anchorages.

Saddle section, with the V shaped strand hole

Independent replaceable strands


Each strand of the cable is free and completely independent in the VSL Saddle. Instead of the usual design, the VSL Saddle has no corrosionsusceptible individual tubes. Each strand of the cable passes through the saddle in an independent hole in the cement grout. Special VSL formwork has been designed for this. The number of holes in the saddle will generally correspond to the number of cable strands. However, additional holes can be provided for extra strands, such as a reference strand for later inspection.

Transfer of high cable differential forces into the pylon


The cable passing through the saddle can be subjected to differential forces from opposite sides of the pylon. These forces could induce a sliding of the cable within the saddle but this is prevented by the friction of the individual strands inside the saddle. The laboratory tests measured the friction coefficient as varying from 0.4 to 0.7, depending mainly on the loading conditions.

Angular deviations of the cable at the saddle


On some cable-stayed bridges, the cable can be subjected to non-negligible angular deviations at the pylon. These deviations may gradually cause deterioration in the cable protection and in its mechanical strength. In order to withstand these angular deviations, the prefabricated VSL Saddle incorporates a special elastomeric casting resin where the cables exit the saddle.

V shaped holes for high friction


An important feature of the VSL Saddle is the shape of its strand holes. The holes are V shaped, instead of the circular ones used on saddles with individual tubes. This special hole geometry is the result of extensive testing carried out in VSLs laboratories to define the optimum shape to achieve high friction between the strand and the saddle while avoiding fretting and allowing easy strand installation.
Fatigue testing of the VSL saddle

No degradation of the cables fatigue performance


Fatigue tests were carried out on small cable units in order to determine any effect of the

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

12

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

saddle on the cables fatigue performance. The strands were tensioned to the cable-breaking load after two million fatigue cycles with a stress range of 200MPa and a maximum load of 45% of cable capacity. No wire breaks were observed in the saddle and subsequent dismantling of the strands showed that they were in very good condition and confirmed the feasibility of strand replacement.

Cost saving cable


The VSL Saddle uses the same standard tightly-extruded sheathed strand as for stay cables. No special treatment of the strand is required and cable replacement can be carried out with the same standard strand.

VSL Saddle design with cable connection

Manufactured saddle for SSI strand cable

Main dimensions (using VSL SSI 2000)


Cable unit 6-12 6-19 6-22 6-31 6-37 6-43 6-55 6-61 6-73 6-85 6-91 6-109 6-127 Saddle section A (mm) B (mm) 175 195 230 240 245 250 185 285 315 320 360 340 365 360 395 400 445 420 455 430 475 480 540 490 550 535
Woonam Bridge, Korea (2008) : installation of the VSL Saddle

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

13

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

SSI 2000 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

VSL SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE VIBRATION


VSLs experience in suspended structures and the development of damping systems enables it to assist the bridge designer in carrying out risk analysis of the cables vibration and in proposing the most appropriate solution.
As indicated in the PTI stay cable recommendations, the mechanisms of dynamic excitation are particularly complex and it is not easy to produce reliable predictions. The first difficulty for the designer is to assess the risk of cable vibrations. Various stability criteria are available to estimate this risk and to evaluate any damping that is required. The main approach used by VSL is the net damping criterion defined by I. Kovacs*. The design of the VSL SSI 2000 Stay Cable System allows implementation of additional measures (such as dampers or cross-ties) in case of unforeseen vibrations.

Key benefits of the VSL Friction Damper


Great durability: This great durability is due to the fact that the damper is designed to work only when necessary, only when the level of the cable vibrations is considered critical. At that stage, the friction damper immediately achieves its maximum damping effect to stabilise the cable. High efficiency: Several comparative tests on stay cables have demonstrated the efficiency of the VSL friction damper. For example, a friction damper installed at 6m from the deck anchorage on a 214m-long 97-strand cable achieved a measured damping (Log. decrement) of more than 9%. Aesthetics: Installation of damping systems on a cable-stayed bridge has to avoid any detrimental impact to the bridges appearance, as this is often a key feature. The efficiency and compact nature of friction dampers generally allows them to be installed near the deck anchorage, where they can be fully integrated. Other, less efficient, systems require installation externally on additional supports. Other advantages of the VSL friction damper include: easy access, simplifying inspection during maintenance operations; adjustment of the friction force without any need for dismantling; it can be installed on any type of cable on existing bridges where cables are subjected to unexpected vibrations; all components of the damper can be dismantled and/or replaced on site; damping characteristics are not affected by the temperature or vibration frequency.

VSL Friction Damper

The VSL damping solutions


1. Modifications to the cable surface Stay pipes can be manufactured with helical ribs. The rib dimensions have been optimised in wind tunnel testing for maximum efficiency in suppressing the risk of excitations from rain and wind while minimising the effect on drag. 2. Use of dampers to increase the structural damping of the cable Two different types of dampers are provided by VSL: the Friction Damper and the Gensui Damper. Key advantages of these dampers include their efficiency, their durability and their low maintenance costs. The two types complement each other, allowing implementation of the most suitable solution depending on the characteristics of the stay cables, the critical types of vibrations and the required performance. The Gensui Damper is optimised for extradosed bridges and for medium cable lengths on cable-stayed bridges. It is well-suited for use as an external damper. The VSL Friction Damper will be the most efficient solution for more critical cases including long cables or where there is a risk of parametric excitations.
* Dr. Ing. Imre Kovacs / Dynamic Consulting

VSL Friction Damper with anti-vandalism component

Cables with VSL Friction Damper

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

14

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Key benefits of the Gensui Damper


High-damping rubber: The Gensui damper is composed of several rubber pads and the cables vibration energy is absorbed by shear deformation of the pads. Each pad is made of a high-damping rubber manufactured by Sumitomo Rubber Industries. Great simplicity: The damper is modular, with the number of pads used depending on the cable characteristics. A main feature of this damper is its simplicity. It can be easily installed and configured on existing bridges. Great durability with minimal maintenance: The high-damping rubber pads provide for a long design life. Accelerated ageing tests have shown a life expectancy of 60 years. The damper requires only minimal maintenance during its lifetime. This allows dampers to be installed, if necessary, at the pylon, where maintenance access is difficult and expensive. Performance: The performance of the damper depends on the damping capacity of the rubber pad and can be adjusted by varying the number of pads. The dampers performance is ideal for short and medium cable lengths. Performance can be increased by moving the damper away from the deck anchorages and/or installing a second damper at the pylon. The performance does not depend on the cables mode of vibration and it is not sensitive to variations in temperature. An aesthetic solution: The Gensui Damper is installed around the cable and has compact dimensions, which ensures that it integrates well. The damper can be easily used as external damper, installed on an additional support.

North Arm Bridge, Canada (2008)

cables (by organisations including Shanghai Tongji University, Hong Kongs Highways Authorities and the Korean Highways Corporation). Friction dampers have been installed on a number of cable-stayed bridges, and to date no cable vibration has been observed and no damper has needed to be replaced. More than 40 cable-stayed bridges were equipped with the Gensui Damper in 2007. In 2008, 20 Gensui Dampers have been installed on the cables of the North Arm Bridge in Vancouver.

Installation of Gensui Damper

3. Installation of stabilising cables: This solution can be used where the other two approaches would not be efficient. The installation of stabilising cables onto the stay cables is not an easy operation. VSL has an impressive portfolio of reference projects. The VSL friction damper has been subjected to several comparative tests on stay

Gensui Damper on PWS cable

Gensui Damper protected with neoprene boot

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

15

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

STRAND BY STRAND METHOD FOR INSTA OR REPLACEMENT OF CABLES


The strand by strand method developed by VSL is well adapted for efficient use on any project, whatever the bridges environmental conditions are.
VSLs first experiences of cable installation were with fully-prefabricated cables which required transport and lifting of heavy components. A 500m prefabricated cable on its reel can weigh up to 80t. The strand by strand erection of cables requires only light equipment. It can be slightly more time consuming, but gives advantages when the plant required for installation is taken into account.

Operating with the strand by strand installation method


All the cable installation operations are carried out using VSL equipment, enabling any tower cranes used for pylon construction to be dismantled as soon as the pylon is complete. Strands supplied from strand coils placed on the deck are prepared on a working bench. All the stressing operations are carried out using the AMS monostrand jack. A compact VSL stay multistrand jack is only used when a final de-tensioning operation is unavoidable. The final operation is the power seating for each strand and anchorage to ensure that there is no risk of strand slippage at the wedges anchored at low tension forces.

Replacement of a 298m cable In May 2002, VSL mobilised a crew and light equipment to check some cables and replace a 298m cable on the Ching Chau Min Jiang Bridge. The stays had been damaged when a barge collided with the bridge during a typhoon. Site conditions did not allow access for a mobile crane and all the VSL equipment had to be man-handled into position. Strands were replaced strand by strand with the same light equipment used for cable installation. This benchmark operation demonstrated that long cables can be replaced without interrupting the traffic only one traffic lane needed to be closed.

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

16

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

TALLATION
Main advantages of the VSL strand by strand installation
There is total flexibility to adjust the cable length during installation. This length can be adjusted to cater for variations in the bridge geometry during construction. The light equipment induces only small construction loads. The maximum component weight is about 4t. On a composite deck, just one part of the cable can be installed as a first step to give support to part of the steel deck during its assembly. The use of light equipment fitted to the pylon allows the installation of the pylon anchorages while the pylon is under construction. The stressing anchorages can be installed in confined spaces inside the pylons as the installation equipment is small. The maximum weight of the monostrand jack tensioning equipment is 20kg. Heavier multistrand jacks are used only in special cases. Only light equipment is required for any future re-tensioning of the stays. The method is well-suited to pylons equipped with the VSL Saddle. The necessary equipment can be moved easily on site, giving greater flexibility in the installation schedule.
Jack clearance for the cable stressing operations
ini Am

720 870

PYLON
TENDON UNIT

Dimensions (mm) of monostrand jack.


6-12 6-31 to 6-22 to 6-55 6-61 6-91 to 6-85 to 6-109 6-127

The strands are tensioned one by one with a VSL monostrand jack connected to a VSL Automatic Monostrand Stressing system (AMS). The AMS processor controls and registers the parameters of the stressing operation to achieve either the required tension or the correct elongation of the strands.

A mini

1000

1050

1100

1150

1200

k Jac ir Cha

B
ini Am

Optimised solutions with the VSL Saddle


The use of independent strands permits the strand by strand installation of the cable. After installation of the two HDPE stay pipes on each side of the pylon, each strand of the cable is raised inside the stay pipe from the deck to the pylon. It is then threaded through one hole of the saddle and pulled down inside the other stay pipe for connection to the opposite deck anchorage. Installation of the strands is achieved through the use of three VSL winches.

PYLON
TENDON UNIT 6-12 6-19

Dimensions (mm) of multistrand jack and chair.


6-22 6-31 6-37 6-43 6-55 6-61 6-73 6-85 6-109 6-127 6-91

A mini B

1000 1000 1100 1200 1300 1350 1500 490 620 620 780 780 970 970

A typical cycle of five to seven days can be achieved for deck segment erection on cable-stayed bridges. VSL-trained staff and VSL tailor-made equipment can execute the simultaneous installation of two cables on the main span (or back span) in a single day with one shift on each cable. Demanding challenges can be met thanks to close cooperation between the partners, as on the Liz Bridge where 18 stays were installed in the record time of just one week.

VSL lifting winch

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

17

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Puente de la Unidad Bridge, Mexico (2003) In a 50/50 JV, VSL provided project management, complete technical and method support and part of the production management. VSL Mexico also supplied and installed the post-tensioning, and the SSI 2000 Stay Cable System

Badajoz Bridge, Spain (1994) Cables equipped with friction dampers

Ponte Europa Bridge, Portugal (2002) 186m main span length - 91 strand cables

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

18

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Batam Tonton Bridge, Indonesia (1997) Package: design, supply and installation of stay cables, deck form-travellers and pylon formwork. Construction engineering for the superstructure construction

Sungai Johor Bridge, Malaysia (2008) 85 strand cables with length up to 275m Papendorpse Bridge, Netherlands (2002) 120 strand cables

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

19

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Centenario Bridge, Spain (1991) 552m bridge length, with 264m for the main span

Sucharskiego Bridge, Poland (2001) Supply and installation of stay cables, with VSL Friction Dampers

Second Vivekananda Bridge, India (2007) Extradossed bridge with pylon saddles and grouted stay cables

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

20

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Wadi Abdoun Bridge, Jordan (2006) Curved deck with inclined pylon Yichong Yiling Bridge, China (2001) Supply of stay cable system, erection equipment, stay cable engineering, site management and site supervision

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

21

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Neva 1 Bridge, Russia (2002) All cables equipped with VSL Friction Dampers

Houston Ship Channel Bridge, USA (1995) Supply of stay cables and supervision at installation

Koshiki Daimyojin Bridge, Japan (1993) Technical consultation and supply of the prefabricated stay cables

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

22

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Pakse Bridge, Laos (2000) Production and erection of the precast segmental deck, including: design, supply and operation of casting cells and launching gantry; construction of cast-in-situ pier tables; geometry control; supply and installation of post-tensioning and stay cables

Merida Arch Bridge, Spain (1991) Supply and installation of the stay cables

Sunshine Skyway Bridge, USA (1986) Supply of post-tensioning and stay cables. Cables anchored to the pylon by saddles and equipped with hydraulic dampers

Neva 2 Bridge, Russia (2007) Supply and installation of stay cables with VSL Friction Dampers

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

23

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Zizkova Footbridge, Czech Republic (2007) Installation of stays and post-tensioning

Pastaza Bridge, Ecuador (2005) Supply and installation of the stay cables

Rades-la-Goulette Bridge, Tunisia (2007) Extensive equipment and services

Kien Hai Phong Bridge, Vietnam (2003) Supply and installation of bearings and stay cables

Unimas-Sarawak Bridge, Malaysia (2007) Supply and installation of cables

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

24

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

Jose Cartellone Construct

Woonam Bridge, South Korea (2008) VSL pylon saddles designed to allow cable replacement

Safti Bridge, Singapore (1995) An inclined pylon is stabilised by back-stay cables

Peldar Bridge, Columbia (2002) VSL Saddle and monitoring services

Liz Bridge, Portugal (2004) 18 stay cables installed in one week

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

25

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

VSL SERVICES FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUC


MONITORING
Relevant information is sent straight back to the users desk. The system works with any IT and measurement solution.
VSL

Wind speed measured in 3 directions expressed in m/s Temperature of cables, concrete expressed in C

Humidity expressed in %
Rain intensity expressed in mm Sun intensity expressed in W/m2 Traffic expressed in km/h, veh./h, t, type... Air quality expressed in CO, NOX, O3, SO2... Cable force expressed in kN Structural vibration acceleration expressed in g vibration modes expressed in Hz

Remote server

www

.vsl

ni -mo

tor

ing

co

Angular movement two directions expressed in Stress and deformation expressed in m/m and in mm Material ageing expressed in Cl-, mV Inspection and investigation paper and multimedia reports laboratory or in situ tests

OPERATING COST

MAINTENANCE COST

MY BRIDGE

The Consultant

The Owner

DeMon system allows wireless connection from clients office to any type of sensors on site through internet and wireless devices.

LAUNCHING GANTRIES

HEAVY LIFTING

Taiwan High Speed Rail - Taiwan

Shenzhen Western Corridor - Hong Kong

Nanjing Bridge Heavy Lifting - China

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

26

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

CTION
FORM TRAVELLERS & LIFTING FRAMES

Angara Bridge - Russia

West Tsing Yi - Hong Kong

Deep Bay Link - Hong Kong

BEARINGS

REPAIR
VSL products and services
As a specialist stay cable contractor, VSL provides comprehensive technical assistance from the earliest stage of the preliminary studies right through to the detailed design and construction phases:
consulting services to owners, engineers and contractors; static analysis of the structure (in cooperation with the Engineer); assistance in the dynamic analysis of cable vibrations and the recommendation of solutions; construction engineering; geometry control during construction and final adjustment of cable forces; method statements for the construction of the structure and cable installation; supply and installation of stay cables, including anti-vibration systems; design and supply of specialist equipment such as formwork, launching trusses, climbing forms, etc; products and services for monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair works.

Figueira Da Foz Bridge repair - Portugal

Pot Bearing

DUCTAL
Seonyu Footbridge - Korea

Preloaded seismic bearing

V S L

S S I

2 0 0 0

27

S T AY C A B L E S Y S T E M

VSL LOCATIONS
www.vsl.com

HEADQUARTERS
VSL International Ltd. Scheibenstrasse 70 Bern CH-3014 Switzerland Phone: +41 58 456 30 30 Fax: +41 58 456 30 35

Americas
ARGENTINA
VSL Sistemas Especiales de Construccin Argentina SA BUENOS AIRES Phone: +54 11 4326 06 09 Fax: +54 11 4326 26 50

Europe
AUSTRIA
Grund-Pfahl- und Sonderbau GmbH HIMBERG Phone: +43 2235 87 777 Fax: +43 2235 86 561

Asia
SPAIN
CTT Stronghold BARCELONA Phone: +34 93 289 23 30 Fax: +34 93 289 23 31 VSL-SPAM, S.A. BARCELONA Phone: +34 93 846 70 07 Fax: +34 93 846 51 97

BRUNEI
VSL Systems (B) Sdn. Bhd. BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Phone: +673 2 380 153 / 381 827 Fax: +673 2 381 954

THAILAND
VSL (Thailand) Co. Ltd. BANGKOK Phone: +66 2 679 76 15 - 19 Fax: +66 2 679 76 45

CZECH REPUBLIC
VSL Systems (CZ) Ltd. PRAGUE Phone: +420 2 51 09 16 80 Fax: +420 2 51 09 16 99

CHINA PRC
VSL (China) Engineering Corp., Ltd. HEFEI Phone: +86 551 382 29 18 Fax: +86 551 382 28 78

TURKEY
Mega Yapi Construction & Trade Co. Ltd ANKARA Phone: +90 312 490 90 66 Fax: +90 312 490 90 55

BOLIVIA
Postensados de Bolivia San Miguel, LA PAZ Phone: +591 2 27 70 338 Fax: +591 2 27 96 183

SWEDEN
Internordisk Spnnarmering AB VSTERHANINGE Phone: +46 8 5007 3820 Fax: +46 8 753 49 73

FRANCE
VSL France S.A. LABGE Phone: +33 05 61 00 96 59 Fax: +33 05 61 00 96 62

HONG KONG
VSL Hong Kong Ltd. CHAI WAN Phone : +852 2590 22 88 Fax : +852 2590 02 90 Intrafor Hong Kong Ltd. CHAI WAN Phone : +852 2836 31 12 Fax : +852 2591 61 39 FT Laboratories Ltd. PING CHE Phone: +852 2758 48 61 Fax: +852 2758 89 62

VIETNAM
VSL Vietnam Ltd. HANOI Phone: +84 4 976 50 88 Fax: +84 4 976 50 89 Ho Chi Minh City Phone: +84 8 8106 817 Fax: +84 8 8106 818

CHILE
VSL Sistemas Especiales de Construccin S.A. SANTIAGO Phone: +56 2 571 67 00 Fax: +56 2 233 67 39

SWITZERLAND
VSL (Switzerland) Ltd. SUBINGEN Phone: +41 58 456 30 30 Fax: +41 58 456 30 35 VSL (Suisse) SA SAINT LEGIER Phone: +41 58 456 30 00 Fax: +41 58 456 30 95

GERMANY
VSL Systems GmbH BERLIN Phone: +49 30 53 01 35 32 Fax: +49 30 53 01 35 34

COLOMBIA
Sistemas Especiales de Construccin Ltda. BOGOTA Phone: +57 1 620 96 34 Fax: +57 1 620 58 16

GREAT BRITAIN
VSL Systems (UK) Ltd. BEDFORDSHIRE Phone: +41 58 456 30 30 Fax: +41 58 456 30 35

MEXICO
VSL Corporation Mexico S.A de C.V MEXICO Phone: +52 5 511 20 36 Fax: +52 5 511 40 03

Australia
VSL Australia Pty. Ltd.
NEW SOUTH WALES Phone: +61 2 9 484 59 44 Fax: +61 2 9 875 38 94 QUEENSLAND Phone: +61 7 3265 64 00 Fax: +61 7 3265 75 34 VICTORIA Phone: +61 3 979 503 66 Fax: +61 3 979 505 47

INDIA
VSL India PVT Ltd. CHENNAI Phone: +91 44 4225 11 11 Fax: +91 44 4225 10 10

NETHERLANDS
Heijmans Beton en Waterbouw B.V. ROSMALEN Phone: +31 73 543 66 02 Fax: +31 73 543 66 11

UNITED STATES
VStructural LLC BALTIMORE, MD Phone: +1 410 850 7000 Fax: +1 410 850 4111

Middle East
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
VSL Middle East LLC DUBAI, UAE Phone: +971 4 333 6262 Fax: +971 4 333 0008

INDONESIA
PT VSL Indonesia JAKARTA Phone: +62 21 570 07 86 Fax: +62 21 573 12 17

NORWAY
VSL Norge A/S STAVANGER Phone : +47 51 52 50 20 Fax : +47 51 56 27 21

VENEZUELA
Gestin de Obras y Construcciones C.A. CARACAS Phone: +58 212 941 86 75 Fax: +58 212 941 86 75

JAPAN
VSL Japan Corporation TOKYO Phone: +81 3 3346 8913 Fax: +81 3 3345 9153

PORTUGAL
VSL Sistemas Portugal Pre-Esforo, Equipamento e Montagens S.A. S. DOMINGOS DE RANA Phone: +351 21 445 83 10 Fax: +351 21 444 63 77 VSL GEO Sistemas de Aplicao em Geotecnia SA S. DOMINGOS DE RANA Phone: + 351 21 445 83 10 Fax: + 351 21 445 83 28

KOREA
VSL Korea Co. Ltd. SEOUL Phone: +82 2 553 8200 Fax: +82 2 553 8255

Africa
EGYPT
Matrix Engineering Company CAIRO Phone: +20 2 344 19 00 Fax: +20 2 346 04 57

MALAYSIA
VSL Engineers (M) Sdn. Bhd. KUALA LUMPUR Phone: +603 7981 47 42 Fax: +603 7981 84 22

MOROCCO
Renfor-Bat TANGIER Phone: +212 39 95 80 87 Fax: +212 39 95 80 85

PHILIPPINES
VSL Philippines Inc. PASIG CITY Phone: +632 672 17 03 Fax: +632 672 13 95

SOUTH AFRICA
Tsala-RMS Construction Solutions (Pty) Ltd Johannesburg Phone: +27 11 878 6820 Fax: +27 11 878 6821

SINGAPORE
VSL Singapore Pte. Ltd. SINGAPORE Phone: +65 6559 12 22 Fax: +65 6257 77 51

TAIWAN
VSL Taiwan Ltd. TAIPEI Phone: +886 2 2759 6819 Fax: +886 2 2759 6821

Copyright 2008, VSL International Ltd. Printed in France patented. The information set forth in this brochure including technical and engineering data is presented for general information only. While every effort has been made to insure its accuracy, this information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without independent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability and applicability. Anyone using this material assumes any and all liability resulting from such use. VSL disclaims any and all express or implied warranties of merchantability fitness for any general or particular purpose or freedom from infringement of any patent, trademark, or copyright in regard to the information or products contained or referred to herein. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as granting a license, express or implied under any patents.