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Data Word: Block of data bits to which redundant bits are added.

Hamming Distance: The number of disagreements between two code words. Weight : The number of 1s in a code word.

1. Content Error: Error in the content of a block of data. It can be bit error or burst error. Bit error is common in parallel transmission and burst error depends on data rate and noise duration. Flow Integrity Error: Missing block of data due to reasons like delivery to a wrong destination. 2. Parity Check : In parity check, at the sending end, a single redundant bit is added by counting the number of 1s in the data word, to make the parity either odd or even including the parity bit and at the receiver, the checking function detects the parity bit accordingly and finds out errors if any. CRC;Cyclic redundancy check : In CRC, for each protocol there is a pre-defined divisor in the form of a polynomial. The data to be sent is divided into manageable blocks and each block is divided by the pre-defined divisor. The remainder is appended to the data block and sent. At the receiver when the incoming codeword is divided by the same divisor, if no remainder is got, it is assumed that there is no error. CRC bits(Remainder) will be always one bit less than the divisor. Using XOR gate and Shift registers the circuit is implemented so that the division performed is Modulo 2. (shifting right, comparing) Checksum: This is an error detection mechanism employed by upper layers. Here the data word is arranged in the form of a matrix, each row containing n bits and modulo 2 addition is performed so that the sum is also having n bits (Ignoring the carry) . The sum is then complemented. This is the checksum field. This is appended to the data unit and sent. At the receiver, again the data after arranging in the form of a matrix,(including checksum bits) modulo 2 addition is performed. If the sum is all 1s, it is assumed that data is intact. 3. Hamming Code, Block Parity, Convolutional Code. 4. State Transition Diagram, Trellis Diagram. 5. Flow Control. 6. 127. 7. ACK 8. 8. Go Back n ARQ. 9. Media Access Control (Line Discipline), Flow Control, Error Control. 10. Go back n and Selective Reject. 11. Stop and Wait and Sliding Window. 12. HDLC: High Level Data Link Control SDLC: Synchronous Data Link Control ADCCP: Advanced Data Communication Control Procedure. BSC/Bisynch: Binary Synchronous Data Link Control Ethernet, Token Ring. PPP:Point to Point Protocol. LAP B :Link Access Procedure Balanced. 13. Bit stuffing.