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Most traditional method, in which the teacher simply conveys the knowledge t the student in a one-way channel of communication. Advantages Having specific period of time, it allows uniformity of knowledge to be learned for all students in class It is economical and cost effective It helps develop students listening abilities Disadvantages Few teachers are good lecturers who can deliver topics according to students level of understanding Lecture method lends to the teaching of facts with little emphasis on problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking and transfer of learning Not conducive to meeting the students individual learning needs since it is delivered only a single approach of delivering the topic Allows limited attention span of the learner

Retains some features of lecturing y This method gives opportunity to students to share insights or understanding to the topic. y Allows greater student-teacher interaction and/or student-student interaction.

Advantages 1. Help students learn the process of group-problem solving 2. Support student ways to develop and evaluate their beliefs and positions 3. Can foster attitude through understanding and allow freedom to assert their opinions or views.

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Disadvantages Student use more time to think and interact Effective only in small groups due to time constraints May not be an efficient way of communicating information Useful only if the participants come prepared with the needed background.

Question and answer technique

y y y y y

Initiates learning process by asking students about their insights and ideas. Places learners in active role Can be used to assess student competency and baseline knowledge Can increase motivation of learners as it brings about eagerness to learn answers to questions asked Can be used to guide learners thought process and direct them to a certain area of interest.

Factual questions Probing questions Multiple choice questions Open-ended questions Discussion-stimulating questions Questions that guide problem solving Rhetorical questions

Use of Audiovisual aids

Used as a supplement to a lecture, as a prelude to discussion or apart of questioning strategy. y Enhance teaching and add to students interest and facilitates understanding of the subject matter. y Types of Traditional audiovisuals:

Handouts or printed materials Chalkboards or whiteboards Overhead transparency Powerpoint slides Video tapes


Cooperative Learning
Students from one class are arranged into small groups y Based on the premise that learners help each other work and think together and responsible for not only their own learning but also for the learning of other group members.(brainstorming, demonstration and return demonstration, group projects) y eg. Jigsaw

Number heads together

Group members learn to function as part of the team Teachers or enhances social skills Inculcates the spirit of Team-building

Students who are fast learners may lag behind Learning gap may exist between the fast and slow learners

Writing to Learn
This actively influences students disposition toward thinking and takes active participation in learning y Writing serves as a stimulus of critical thinking by immersing students in the subject matter for cognitive utilization of knowledge and effective internalization of values and beliefs. y Activities:

Journal writing, journal papers, creative writing assignment, research article, paper critique

Concept mapping
Lends visual assistance to students when asked to demonstrate their thinking in a graphic manner to show interconnections of concept or ideas. y Helps students see their own thinking and reasoning of a topic to depict interrelationship among factor, causes and effects


Fosters critical thinking which requires in-depth recall of topics for supporting evidence and for developing ones position in a controversial issue

Are practical exercises representing controlled manipulation of reality y This engages learners to know the real world without the risk of harm or injury and make learning enjoyable y Types:

Simulation exercises Simulation game Role Playing Case study

Problem-based learning

Involves confronting students with real life problems which they are meant to solve on their own

Self learning Modules

Student is provided with the materials needed for the learning process without the intervention of the teacher y Called: Self directed learning modules, self paced learning module, self learning packets, individual learning activity y Components

Introduction Behavioral objectives Pretest Learning activities Self evaluations Post test


Computer assisted instructions Internet Virtual reality


This method includes computer learning and other ways of giving instruction to students without usual classroom setting


To improve and maintain a high standard of clinical instruction, the teacher in nursing should show academic excellence and clinical expertise, as well as concern and commitment to the nursing profession
Asses learning needs of students by pretesting for incoming knowledge y Develop learning experience based on desirable results y Implement teaching strategies to meet learning needs y Post-test student for outcome knowledge

y y y y y y

Diagnose students needs, interest and abilities Set objectives and select content Prepare areas for learning and select appropriate teaching strategies Plan instructional units and make lesson plans Motivate students in guided learning activities Tasks that relate to plans focus on measuring, evaluating, grading and reporting students performance and progress Put up plan for follow-up

Related Learning Experience(RLE) or Laboratory

Guides students in acquiring knowledge and learning nursing skills y Guides students in formulation of nursing care plans and expectations y Takes place in laboratory, hospital, community, school, etc