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The Meaning Of Fraction A fraction (from the Latin fractus, broken) is a number that can represent part of a whole. If a certain quantity is divided into a number of equal parts, one or more of these parts is called a fraction of that quantity. In any fraction, the number on the top is called the numerator and the number below is called the denominator. The denominator indicates the number of parts of the whole into which it has been divided equally. The numerator indicates the number of equal parts taken from the whole. For example, in the fraction 3/4, the whole has been divided into 4 equal parts and 3 of these parts have been taken.

Represent fractions with diagrams

A fraction can be represented with a diagram. A fraction can also be represented by a 5 out of 8 equal parts are shaded. It represented .

Writing Fractions A common or vulgar fraction is usually written as a pair of numbers, the number on the top is called the numerator and the number below is called the denominator. A line usually separates the numerator and denominator. If the line is slanting it is called a solidus or forward slash. For example, .

Reading fractions Fractions are usually read or spoken either by reading the solidus or vinculum as "over", thus 3/4 may be read "three over four", "three on four" or "three divided by four". If, however, the denominator is a small whole number, the ordinal name of that number is often used: "three fourths".

Forms of fractions - Vulgar, proper, and improper fractions A vulgar fraction (or common fraction) is a rational number written as one integer (the numerator) divided by a non-zero integer (the denominator). A vulgar fraction is said to be a proper fraction if the absolute value of the numerator is less than the absolute value of the denominatorthat is, if the absolute value of the entire fraction is less than 1; a vulgar fraction is said to be an improper fraction (US, British or Australian) or top-heavy fraction (British, occasionally North America) if the absolute value of the numerator is greater than or equal to the absolute value of the denominator (e.g. 97). Mixed numbers A mixed number is the sum of a whole number and a proper fraction. This sum is implied without the use of any visible operator such as "+". For example, . An improper fraction can be thought of as another way to write a mixed number. For example, is another way of writing .

A mixed number can be converted to an improper fraction in three steps: Multiply the whole part by the denominator of the fractional part. Add the numerator of the fractional part to that product. The resulting sum is the numerator of the new (improper) fraction, with the 'new' denominator remaining precisely the same as for the original fractional part of the mixed number.

Similarly, an improper fraction can be converted to a mixed number: Divide the numerator by the denominator. The quotient (without remainder) becomes the whole part and the remainder becomes the numerator of the fractional part. The new denominator is the same as that of the original improper fraction.

Equivalent fractions Multiplying the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the same (non-zero) number, the results of the new fraction is said to be equivalent to the original fraction. The word equivalent means that the two fractions have the same value.

For example,

In the diagrams, the shaded areas are of equal size. Therefore,

equal to

The value of a fraction remains the same if both the numerator and the denominator are multiplied or divided by the same number. (a 1 = 1 x 5 = 3 (b 3 x 5 5 15

10 = 10 2 = 5 12 12 2 6

We can determine if two fractions are equivalent by multiplying the numerator of one fraction with the denominator of the other fraction. For example, (a) 1 4 Solution : 1 4 Thus, 1 4 3 12 and 3 * 4 x 3 = 12 1 x 12 = 12 are equivalent fractions because their product and 3 12

12 are the same.

Complex fractions A complex fraction (or compound fraction) is a fraction in which the numerator or denominator contains a fraction. Thus, the simplify of a complex fraction is needed, divide the numerator by the denominator, as with any other fraction. (a) (b)

Comparing the values of two fractions When comparing two fractions having the same denominator, the fraction with the greater numerator is greater in value. For example, 5 > 9 4. (5 > 4) 9

Same Denominator

When comparing two fractions having the same numerator, the fractions with the smaller denominator is greater in value.
Same Numerator

13 6


13. 7 (6 < 7)

When comparing two fractions having different numerators and denominators, the following method can be used. Step 1 Find the LCM of the two denominator. Step 2 Convert each of the given fractions to a fraction equivalent to it with the LCM as its denominator. Step 3 Compare the fractions to see which is larger.

Arrange fractions in order To arrange fractions in order, follow the steps below: Step 1 Change all the fractions into equivalent fractions with a common denominator. Step 2 Compare the values of the numerator and arrange them accordingly. For example, , , , . Solution : LCM of the denominators 2 and 3 is 6. Multiply the denominator to 6 ( 3 x 2 ) , , , is the ascending order of the fraction.

Simplify fractions to the lowest terms There are two ways to reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. a) Divide both the numerator and denominator by their HCF. b) Divide both the numerator and denominator by their common factors.

Addition and Subtraction of fractions When adding or subtracting two or more fractions having the same denominator, just add or substrate the numerators. (a) (b)

When the denominators are different, we can find the LCM of all the denominators before adding or subtracting.kenny (a) (b)

When adding or subtracting a fraction and a whole number, we have to express the whole number as an improper fraction having the same denominator as the fraction.

When adding or subtracting a fraction and mixed number, change the mixed number into improper fraction.

Multiplication of fractions Multiplying a whole number by a fraction is the same as multiplying fraction by a whole number. Note that of 30 mean X 35.

When multiplying two fractions, multiply the numerators and the denominators separately.

In the multiplication of fractions involving mixed numbers, the mixed numbers must be converted into improper fractions before multiplying.

Division of Fractions In division of a whole number by a fraction, multiplying the fraction by the reciprocal of the whole number.

In the division of two fractions, change the operation from the division to multiplication and replace the second fraction by its reciprocal.

In the division of mixed numbers, convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. After that, change the operation from division to multiplication and replace the second fraction by its reciprocal.

Combined operation of fractions In combined operations involving +, - , x and , follow the steps below. Step 1 Do the operations in brackets first. Step 2 Do multiplication and division from left to right. Step 3 Do addition and subtraction from left to right.

Converting repeating decimals to fractions For repeating patterns where the repeating pattern begins immediately after the decimal point, a simple division of the pattern by the same number of nines as numbers it has will suffice. For example (the pattern is highlighted in bold): 0.555555555555 = 5/9 0.629162916291 = 6291/9999 In case zeros precede the pattern, the nines are suffixed by the same number of zeros: 0.0555 = 5/90 0.000392392392 = 392/999000 In case a non-repeating set of decimals precede the pattern (such as 0.1523987987987), we must equate it as the sum of the non-repeating and repeating parts: 0.1523 + 0.0000987987987 = 1523/10000 + 987/9990000 = 1522464/9990000 = 31718/208125