CLASS XII
By:
DR. VIKRAM SINGH TANUSHREE SINGH
YEAR OF PUBLICATION2010
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means Electronic, Mechanical, Photocopying, Recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the Authors and Publisher
TM
SAVANT INSTITUTE
Mathematics
Relations and Functions
1
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{2}
A
=
{a,
b,
c,
d},
B
{p,
q,
r,
Slide 3 Now we know that the relation is a subset of the Cartesian product of the two sets so if we take the subset speed of particular vehicle then we will get
= {(bus, 40 km/hr), (car, 80 km/hr), (Jet plane, 500 km /hr),
Thus S will form a relation because it relates the elements
set A with the corresponding elements of set B
Note: Relation can exists between two same sets also
is not necessary that the two sets must be different.
For example if we say relation on set A that means we
are relating elements of set A with the elements of set
A only.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{4}
Solved Example:
If
following are relation from A to B: Give Reasons?
=
s}, then which of the
(a) 
R _{1} = {(a, p), (b, r) (c, s)} 
(b) 
R _{2} = {(q, b), (c, s), (d, r)} 
(c) 
R _{3} = {(a, p), (a, q), (d, p), (c, r), (b, r)} 
Solution:
(a) 
Clearly: R _{1} ⊆ A × B. So R _{1} is a relation from A to B. 
(b) 
Since (q, b) ∈ R _{2} but (q, b) ∈ A × B so R ⊄ A × B Thus R _{2} is not a relation from A to B. 
(c) 
Clearly R _{3} ⊆ A × B So R _{3} is a relation from A to B. 
Relations:
Two objects are said to related if there exists a recognizable connection or link between the two objects or quantities. The concept of relation can be applied to sets in which we relate the elements of one set with the corresponding elements of the other set. Let A and B be two sets. Then a Relation R from A to B is a subset of A × B. Where A × B represents the Cartesian product of the two sets A and B. Thus, if R is a relation from A to B then R ⊆ A × B
Lets try to understand relation with help of a example suppose I have two sets A and B shown below in which the set A represents the collection of different vehicles and set B represents the collection of the values of speed of different vehicles. There exists a link or connection between the elements of the two sets this link is mathematically termed as relation.
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6
Relations and Functions
Mathematics
Slide 5
Illustration:
If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {a, b, c} then whether R = {(1, b), (2, c) (1, a) (3, a)} is a relation or not?
Either (T _{1} , T _{2} ) ∈ R ⇒ T _{1} is congruent to T _{2}
⇒ T _{2} is congruent to T _{1} ⇒
Hence R is symmetric Moreover (T _{1} , T _{2} ), (T _{2} , T _{3} ,) ∈ R which implies that T _{1} is congruent to T _{2} and T _{2} is congruent to T _{3} which implies. T _{1} is congruent to T _{3} ⇒ (T _{1} , T _{3} ) ∈ R Therefore R is transitive Since R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive thus R is a equivalence relation.
(T _{2} ,T _{1} ) ∈ R
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{6}
Various Types of relation
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{7}
Empty relation:
A relation
element of A is related two any element of A
i.e. R = φ ⊂ A × A. Universal relation:
A
element of A is related to every element of A i.e. R = A × A. Both empty and universal relation are sometimes called trivial relations.
relation R in a set A is called a universal relation if each
R
in
a
set
A is called empty relation
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{8}
Reflexive relation:
A
every a ∈ A. Symmetric Relation: A relation R in a set A is called symmetric if (a _{1} , a _{2} ) ∈ R implies that (a _{2} , a _{1} ) ∈ R,
for all a _{1} , a _{2} ∈ A.
Transitive relation:
transitive if (a _{1} , a _{2} ) ∈ R and (a _{2} , a _{3} ) ∈ R implies that (a _{1} , a _{3} ) ∈ R for all a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} ∈ A.
A relation
relation if R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
an equivalence
relation R in a set A is called reflexive if (a, a) ∈ R for
A
relation
A is
R
R
is
in
a set
said to be
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{9}
Solved Example:
Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R a relation
in T given by R = {(T _{1} , T _{2} ): T _{1} is congruent to T _{2} }
Show that R is an equivalence relation?
Solution:
R is reflexive since every triangle is congruent to itself.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{0}
in
Illustration:
Show that
the
relation R
the set {1,
2,
3}
given by
R 
= {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3)} 
Is 
reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive? 
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{1}
in
Show that the relation R in the set Z on integers given by
{(a, b): 2 divides a − b} is an equivalence relation?
Let X and Y be two nonempty sets of real numbers. A function from X into Y is a rule or a correspondence that associates with each element of X a unique element of Y. The set X is called the domain of the function. For each element x in X, the corresponding element y in Y is called the image of x. The set of all images of the elements of the domain is called the range of the function.
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Mathematics
Relations and Functions
7
Slide 13
Activity: For the function f below, evaluate f at the indicated values and find the domain and range of f
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{4}
Slide 16
We observe that f _{1} is not a function from set A to set B, since here is an element 3 ∈ A which is not associated to any elements of B. Also f _{2} is not a function from A to B because an element 4 ∈ A is associated to two elements d and e. f _{3} is a function since each element of A is associated to a unique element in B. f _{4} is a function since each element in set A is associated to a unique element in set B.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{7}
Domain, codomain and range of a function Let f: A → B be a function defined for two sets A and B Then, the set A is known as the domain of function f. The set B is known as the codomain of f. The set of all fimages of elements of A is known as the range of f.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{8}
Mathematical definition of function
Let A and B be two nonempty sets. Then a function ‘f’ from set A to set B is a rule or method which associates elements of set A to elements of set B such that.
(i)
(ii)
in set B. In other words, a function ‘f’ from a set A to set B associates each element of set A to a unique element of set B. If f is a function from a set A to a set B then we write
f (−2) = (−2) ^{2} = 4 f(−1) = (−1) ^{2} = 1
1.
All elements of set A are associated to element in set B.
An element of set A is associated to a unique element
Let A = {−2, −1, 0, 1, 2} and B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} be two sets and we define a function f: A → B such that f(x) = x ^{2} . Determine the domain, codomain and range of function f(x) = x ^{2} . Solution:
Now the domain of function f will be domain (f) = A = {−2, −1, 0, 1, 2} Codomain of function f will be codomain (f) = B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
f : A → B which is read as f is a function from A to B.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{5}
For Example
Let A {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {a, b, c, d, e} be two sets and let f _{1} , f _{2} , f _{3} , and f _{4} be rules associating elements (A to elements of) B as shown is the following figures:
f(2) = 2 ^{2} = 4 thus the range of f is range (f) = {0, 1, 4}
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{1}_{9}
Injective or one to one function:
A function f: A → B is called injective if the images of
distinct elements of A under f are distinct
i.e. for every a _{1} , a _{2} ∈ A, f(a _{1} ) = f(a _{2} ) implies that a _{1} = a _{2} Otherwise: f is called manyone
2. Surjective (onto) function:
A 
function f: A → B is surjective if every element of B 
is 
the image of some element of A under f 
i.e. for every b ∈ B there exists a element a ∈ A such that f(a) = b.
3. Bijective functions:
A function f: A → B is called bijective if it is both one
one and onto.
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8
Relations and Functions
Mathematics
Slide 20
Out of the given four function determine which is injective
f _{1} is oneone or injection function f _{2} is manyone (into) function f _{3} is also many one function f _{4} is onto and oneone i.e. bijective function.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{2}_{1}
Solved Example:
Let A be set of all 50 students of class X in a school. Let A →
N
Show that f is oneone but not onto?
Solution:
Not two different students of the class can have same roll number. Therefore f must be oneone. We can assume without any loss of generality that roll numbers of students are from 1 to 50. This implies that 51 in N is not roll number of any student of class, so that 51 cannot be image of any element of X under af. Hence f is not onto
be function defined by f(x) = roll number of the student x.
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{2}_{2}
Illustration:
Show that the function f: N → N given by f(1) = f(2) = 1 and f(x) = x − 1, for every x > 2, is onto but not oneone
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{2}_{3}
Illustration:
Show that f: N → N given by
f
(
x
)
⎧ x
+
1, if x is odd
= ⎨
⎩
x –1, if x is even
is both oneone and onto.
Composition of function and Invertible functions
Let f: A → B and g: B → C be two functions Then the composition of f and g denoted by gof is defined as the function gof : A → C given by gof = g (f (x)) ∀ x ∈ A
Let f: [2, 3, 4, 5] → [3, 4, 5, 9] and y: [3, 4, 5, 9] → [7, 11, 15] be functions defined as f(2) = 3, f(3) = 4, f(4) = f(5) = 5 and g(3) = g(4) = 7 and g(5) = g(9) = 11 find gof ? Solution:
is
defined
by
is defined by
I _{A} (x) = x, ∀ x ∈ A, I _{B} (x) = x, ∀ x ∈ B are called identity functions on set A and B respectively.
Show that if f: A → B and g : B → C are oneone, then gof : A → C is also oneone. Solution:
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Mathematics
Relations and Functions
9
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10
Relations and Functions
Mathematics
Slide 36
Illustration:
Show that * : R × R → R given by a * b → a + 2b is not associative?
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{3}_{7}
Illustration:
Show that −a is the inverse of a for the addition operation
‘+’ on R and
is the inverse of a ≠ 0 for the multiplicative
operation ‘×’ on R?
1
a
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{3}_{8}
Solved Example:
Determine which of the following binary operation on the set N are associative and which are commutative
a * b =∀1
a * b
=
a, b ∈ N
(a b)
+
2
∀∈
a, b
N
Solution:
(a)
Also (a * b) * c = (1 * c) = 1 and a * (b * c) = a * 1 = 1, ∀ a, b, c, ∈ N Hence R is both associative and commutative.
(b)
clearly by definition a * b = b * a = 1, ∀ a, b. ∈
now
a*b=
=
b
+
a
or
=
+
2
b * a
a
b
or
2
Shows that * is commutative
Further ⎛ a (a * b) * c + b ⎞ * c ⎛ ^{=} ⎜ ⎝ 
a + b ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ 2 
* c 

⎜ ⎝ 2 
⎟ ⎠ 
a + b 
+ 
2c 

or 
= 
or 
= 

2 
4 

But a * (b * c) 
= 
a * 
⎛ ⎜ 
b + 2 c ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 

a ⎛ b + 
c ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 
⎝ 

^{+} ⎜ ⎝ 
2 
2a + 
b 
+ 
c 

or 
= 
or 
= 

2 
4 
Since (a * b) * c ≠ a * (b * c). Hence * is not associative.
SAVANT EDUCATION GROUP E17, East of Kailash, New Delhi – 110065. Ph.: +911126224417
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Mathematics
Relations and Functions
11
8. Let N be the set of all natural numbers and let R be a relation on N × N, defined by (a, b) R (c, d) ⇔ ad = bc. Show that R is an equivalence relation.
Topics for Worksheet – II
Functions
Worksheet – II
Types of function
Compression of functions
Invertible functions
1.
Define
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Oneone function
Onto function
Oneone and onto function
Topics for Worksheet – III
Binary Operations

Commutative binary operations 

Associative binary operation 

Identity element of binary operation 

Inverse of a binary operation 
Worksheet – III
1. Let * be the binary operation on N given by a * b = LCM of a and b. Find
(i) 
5 * 7 
(ii) 
20 * 16 
2. Consider the binary operation ⊥ on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by a ^ b = min {a, b}. Write the operation table of ^.
fx
Commutative
Associative
2. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let f = {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. Show that f is oneone.
3. Let f: N → N be defined by
Find the identity element in Z for * on Z, defined by A * b = a + b + 1
Show that the operation * on Q − {1}, defined by a * b = a + b − ab is.
Let f : N → Y : f(x) = 4x ^{2} + 12x + 15 and Y = range (f). Show that f is invertible and find f ^{−}^{1} .
Show that the function operation ∗ on Z, defined by
∗ b = a + b + 1 for all a, b ∈ Z
satisfies(i) the closure property, (ii) the associative
law and (iii) the cumulative law.
Find the identity element in Z.
⎧ x +
^{1} , if x is odd
f
(
x
)
= ⎨
^{x} , if x is even, for all x
⎪
⎩ 2
Show that f(x) is not a bijective function.
4. Let A = R − {3} and B = R − {1}
Let F: A → B be defined as
Show that f(x) is oneone and onto.
5. Let f: {1, 3, 4} → (1, 2, 5} and g: {1, 2, 3} → {1, 3} be given by f = {(1, 2), (3, 5), (4, 1)} and f = {(1, 3), (2, 3), (5, 1)}. Write down gof.
6. If f(x) = 8x ^{3} and
7. Let f: N → N, g: N → N and h : N → N be defined
as f(x) = 2x, g(x) = 3x + 4 and h(x) = Sin x. Show that ho(gof) = (hog) of.
8. If f : Q → Q is given by f(x) = x ^{2} , then find
(ii) What is the inverse of an element a ∈ Z?
7. Show that the operation ∗ o Q − {1}, defined by
a ∗ b = a + b − ab for all a, b ∈ Q − {1}
satisfies (i) the closure property, (ii) the
associative law,
(iii) 
the commutative law. 
(iv) 
What is the identity element? 
(v) 
For each a ∈ Q − {1}, find the inverse of a. 
8. On the set N of all natural numbers, defined the operation ∗ on N by m ∗ n = gcd (m, n) for all m, n ∈ N. Show that ∗ is commutative as well as associative.
(
gx
)
1
3
= x, find gof and fog.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
f
f
f
^{–}^{1} (9)
^{–}^{1} (–5)
^{–}^{1} (0)
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12
Relations and Functions
Mathematics
– 1 x
Justify your answer.
16. Consider the binary operation ∧ on the set {1, 2,
4, 5} defined by a ∧ b = min {a, b}. Write the
operation table of the operation ∧.
17. Let the * binary operation on N be defined by a * b = H.C.F of a and b. Is * commutative? Is * associative? Does there exist identity for this operation on N?
18. Let f : N → R be a function defined as f(x) = 4x ^{2} + 12x + 15. Show that f : N → S where, S is the range of f (x). Find the inverse of f.
19. Let A = {−1, 0, 1, 2} B = (−4, −2, 0, 2} and f, g : A →
be function defined by f(x) = x ^{2} − x, x ∈ A and
Then, are f and g equal?
∈ A.
be functions from R → R. Then
(f + g) oh = foh + goh (f.g) oh = (foh).(goh)
Show that
f,
If f : [1, 2, 3] → [a, b, c] and g : [a, b, c] → [apple,
g and g of are invertible.
Find out f ^{−}^{1} , g ^{−}^{1} and (gof) ^{−}^{1} and show that (gof) ^{−}^{1} = _{f} −1 _{o}_{g} −1 _{.}
Define a binary operation * on the set {0, 1, 2, 3,
if a
+ +
b – 6 if a
+ +
b
b
<
≥
6
6
Show that 0 is the identity for this operation and each element of the set is invertible with 6 − a being the inverse of a. Let * be the binary operation on the set Q of rational numbers which are as follows:
Find which of the binary operation are
commutative and which are associative.
Show that fof (x)
=
x
for
all
What is the inverse of f(x)?
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Mathematics
Relations and Functions
13
9. Let R be an equivalence relation on a finite set A having n elements. Then the number of ordered points in R is,
< 1
≥ 1
Then, for what value of α
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14
Relations and Functions
Mathematics
(
x
)
=
1
16. Find the domain of the function
f
(a) 
(0, ∞) 

(c) 
(−∞, ∞) 

= cos ^{−}^{1} 17. (x If f(x) 
− 
⎜
⎢
is
23. Find the domain of
f
(
x
)
=
(b)
(d)
^{⎛}
⎜
⎝
⎜
–
2
^{⎞}
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
none of these
(a) 
x ∈ _{[}_{–}_{1}_{,} 1] ∪∞( – 
, – 2)(∪ 2, ∞ _{)} 
(b) 
x ∈ _{[}_{–}_{1}_{,} 1] ∪∞( – 
, 2)(∩ 2, ∞ _{)} 
(c) 
x ∈ _{[}_{–}_{1}_{,} 1] ∩∞( 
, – 2)(∩ 2, ∞ _{)} 
(d) none of these.
If x
x
2
P
=
x 4
– 2x
2
+ 4
(b)
⎛
⎜ ⎝
,
3
4
⎞
⎟ ⎠
domain of f(x) is (where [.] is the greatest integer)
^{⎛} (a) ⎜
⎝
^{⎡}
(c) ⎢ ⎣
24. ∈ R and
interval
(a)
0,
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎡
⎢
⎣
(c)
0,
1
2
1
3
⎤
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎥
⎦
then P is lies in the
4
,
5
1
18. The domain of the function.
f
(
x
)
= log
log
log
log
222
n times
(a)
(b)
(2 ^{n}^{−}^{1} , ∞),
(2 ^{n}^{−}^{2} , ∞)
19. The inverse of the function
(a)
(c)
1– x
1
2
log
1x+
x
log ,
a
1
+
a
1– x
(b)
(d)
20. Let f: R → R defined by f(x) =
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
f(x) is oneone but not onto
(c)
x
not defined
x–
[
]
y =
x
2
1
+
x
2
is
Find the domain of
null set single ton set
Find the domain of
(b)
(d) none of these.
e cos
greatest integer function)
(b)
(d) −1
If the function f : R → R be such that f(x) = x − [x], where [.] denotes the greatest integer function,
(b)
(d)
[x] − x
none of these
f(x) is neither oneone nor onto
f(x) is many one but onto
f(x) is oneone and onto
29. The period of the function f(x) = a sin kx + b cos
kx is
as
its
fundamental period, then n is equal to
(a) 
2 
(b) 
4 
(c) 
6 
(d) 
8 
21. The range of the function
(a) 
[0, 1) 
(b) 
[0, 1] 
(c) 
(0, 1) 
(d) none of these. 
f (
x
)
=
x
2
– 3x
+ 2
22. The range of the function
in the interval
(a)
⎧ ⎨ ⎩ _{(}_{∞}_{,} ∞) \1{}
5
_{(}
∞
,
∞
_{)}
\
1
(b)
,1
⎫
⎬
⎭
(b)
x
2
+
x–6
lies
_{(}_{–}_{∞}_{,} ∞)
(d) none of these.
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