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CLASS XII MATHEMATICS

By:-

DR. VIKRAM SINGH TANUSHREE SINGH

YEAR OF PUBLICATION-2010

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means- Electronic, Mechanical, Photocopying, Recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the Authors and Publisher TM

SAVANT INSTITUTE Mathematics

Relations and Functions

1 1

RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS Slide 1
S
(Scooter, 60 km/hr)}
of
it

Slide 2

A

=

{a,

b,

c,

d},

B

{p,

q,

r,

Slide 3 Now we know that the relation is a subset of the Cartesian product of the two sets so if we take the subset speed of particular vehicle then we will get

= {(bus, 40 km/hr), (car, 80 km/hr), (Jet plane, 500 km /hr),

Thus S will form a relation because it relates the elements

set A with the corresponding elements of set B

Note-: Relation can exists between two same sets also

is not necessary that the two sets must be different.

For example if we say relation on set A that means we

are relating elements of set A with the elements of set

A only.

Slide 4

Solved Example-:

If

following are relation from A to B: Give Reasons?

=

s}, then which of the

 (a) R 1 = {(a, p), (b, r) (c, s)} (b) R 2 = {(q, b), (c, s), (d, r)} (c) R 3 = {(a, p), (a, q), (d, p), (c, r), (b, r)}

Solution-:

 (a) Clearly: R 1 ⊆ A × B. So R 1 is a relation from A to B. (b) Since (q, b) ∈ R 2 but (q, b) ∈ A × B so R ⊄ A × B Thus R 2 is not a relation from A to B. (c) Clearly R 3 ⊆ A × B So R 3 is a relation from A to B.

Relations-:

Two objects are said to related if there exists a recognizable connection or link between the two objects or quantities. The concept of relation can be applied to sets in which we relate the elements of one set with the corresponding elements of the other set. Let A and B be two sets. Then a Relation R from A to B is a subset of A × B. Where A × B represents the Cartesian product of the two sets A and B. Thus, if R is a relation from A to B then R A × B

Lets try to understand relation with help of a example suppose I have two sets A and B shown below in which the set A represents the collection of different vehicles and set B represents the collection of the values of speed of different vehicles. There exists a link or connection between the elements of the two sets this link is mathematically termed as relation.  SAVANT EDUCATION GROUP E-17, East of Kailash, New Delhi – 110065. Ph.: +91-11-26224417

www.savantgroup.org

6

Relations and Functions

Mathematics

Slide 5

Illustration-:

If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {a, b, c} then whether R = {(1, b), (2, c) (1, a) (3, a)} is a relation or not?

Either (T 1 , T 2 ) R T 1 is congruent to T 2

T 2 is congruent to T 1

Hence R is symmetric Moreover (T 1 , T 2 ), (T 2 , T 3 ,) R which implies that T 1 is congruent to T 2 and T 2 is congruent to T 3 which implies. T 1 is congruent to T 3 (T 1 , T 3 ) R Therefore R is transitive Since R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive thus R is a equivalence relation.

(T 2 ,T 1 ) R

Slide 6

Various Types of relation Slide 7

Empty relation-:

A relation

element of A is related two any element of A

i.e. R = φ ⊂ A × A. Universal relation-:

A

element of A is related to every element of A i.e. R = A × A. Both empty and universal relation are sometimes called trivial relations.

relation R in a set A is called a universal relation if each

R

in

a

set

A is called empty relation

Slide 8

Reflexive relation:

A

every a A. Symmetric Relation: A relation R in a set A is called symmetric if (a 1 , a 2 ) R implies that (a 2 , a 1 ) R,

for all a 1 , a 2 A.

Transitive relation:

transitive if (a 1 , a 2 ) R and (a 2 , a 3 ) R implies that (a 1 , a 3 ) R for all a 1 , a 2 , a 3 A.

A relation

relation if R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

an equivalence

relation R in a set A is called reflexive if (a, a) R for

A

relation

A is

R

R

is

in

a set

said to be

Slide 9

Solved Example-:

Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R a relation

in T given by R = {(T 1 , T 2 ): T 1 is congruent to T 2 }

Show that R is an equivalence relation?

Solution-:

R is reflexive since every triangle is congruent to itself.

Slide 10

in

Illustration-:

Show that

the

relation R

the set {1,

2,

3}

given by

 R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3)} Is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive?

Slide 11 Illustration-:
R
if
no
Slide 12
Function
a
set
A
is called

in

Show that the relation R in the set Z on integers given by

{(a, b): 2 divides a b} is an equivalence relation?

Let X and Y be two nonempty sets of real numbers. A function from X into Y is a rule or a correspondence that associates with each element of X a unique element of Y. The set X is called the domain of the function. For each element x in X, the corresponding element y in Y is called the image of x. The set of all images of the elements of the domain is called the range of the function.

Mathematics

Relations and Functions

7

Slide 13

Activity-: For the function f below, evaluate f at the indicated values and find the domain and range of f Slide 14

Slide 16

We observe that f 1 is not a function from set A to set B, since here is an element 3 A which is not associated to any elements of B. Also f 2 is not a function from A to B because an element 4 A is associated to two elements d and e. f 3 is a function since each element of A is associated to a unique element in B. f 4 is a function since each element in set A is associated to a unique element in set B.

Slide 17

Domain, co-domain and range of a function Let f: A B be a function defined for two sets A and B Then, the set A is known as the domain of function f. The set B is known as the co-domain of f. The set of all f-images of elements of A is known as the range of f.

Slide 18

Mathematical definition of function

Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then a function ‘f’ from set A to set B is a rule or method which associates elements of set A to elements of set B such that.

(i)

(ii)

in set B. In other words, a function ‘f’ from a set A to set B associates each element of set A to a unique element of set B. If f is a function from a set A to a set B then we write Solved Example-:
Now
2
f(0) = (0)
f(1) = 1
= 0
2
= 1
Types of functions-:

f (2) = (2) 2 = 4 f(1) = (1) 2 = 1

1. All elements of set A are associated to element in set B.

An element of set A is associated to a unique element

Let A = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2} and B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} be two sets and we define a function f: A B such that f(x) = x 2 . Determine the domain, co-domain and range of function f(x) = x 2 . Solution:

Now the domain of function f will be domain (f) = A = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2} Co-domain of function f will be co-domain (f) = B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

f : A B which is read as f is a function from A to B.

Slide 15

For Example

Let A {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {a, b, c, d, e} be two sets and let f 1 , f 2 , f 3 , and f 4 be rules associating elements (A to elements of) B as shown is the following figures:  f(2) = 2 2 = 4 thus the range of f is range (f) = {0, 1, 4}

Slide 19

Injective or one to one function:

A function f: A B is called injective if the images of

distinct elements of A under f are distinct

i.e. for every a 1 , a 2 A, f(a 1 ) = f(a 2 ) implies that a 1 = a 2 Otherwise: f is called many-one

2. Surjective (onto) function:

 A function f: A → B is surjective if every element of B is the image of some element of A under f

i.e. for every b B there exists a element a A such that f(a) = b.

3. Bi-jective functions:

A function f: A B is called bi-jective if it is both one-

one and onto.

8

Relations and Functions

Mathematics Slide 24
Slide 25
Solved Example-:
We have gof(2) = g(f(2)) = g(3) = 7
gof(4) = g (f(4)) = g(5) = 11
gof (5) = g (5) = 11
Slide 26
Illustration-:
7
⎧⎫ 3
Show
that
if
f:
R–
R–
⎨⎬
⎩⎭
5
⎩⎭ 5
3x
+
4
⎧⎫
3
⎧⎫ 7
f
(
x
)
=
and
g:R–
⎨⎬
R–
⎨⎬
5x – 7
⎩⎭
5
⎩⎭ 5
7x
+
4
g
(
x
)
=
then fog = I A and gof = I B .
5x – 3
3
⎧⎫ 7
Where
A
=
R–
; B
=
R–
⎨⎬
⎩⎭
5
⎩⎭ 5
Slide 27
Solved Example-:
Suppose gof(x 1 ) = gof(x 2 )
⇒ g(f(x 1 ) = g (f(x 2 ))
⇒ f(x 1 ) = f(x 2 ) as g is one-one
⇒ x 1 = x 2 , as f is one-one
Hence, gof is one-one. Slide 20

Out of the given four function determine which is injective f 1 is one-one or injection function f 2 is many-one (into) function f 3 is also many one function f 4 is onto and one-one i.e. bi-jective function.

Slide 21

Solved Example-:

Let A be set of all 50 students of class X in a school. Let A

N

Show that f is one-one but not onto?

Solution-:

Not two different students of the class can have same roll number. Therefore f must be one-one. We can assume without any loss of generality that roll numbers of students are from 1 to 50. This implies that 51 in N is not roll number of any student of class, so that 51 cannot be image of any element of X under af. Hence f is not onto

be function defined by f(x) = roll number of the student x.

Slide 22

Illustration-:

Show that the function f: N N given by f(1) = f(2) = 1 and f(x) = x 1, for every x > 2, is onto but not one-one

Slide 23

Illustration-:

Show that f: N N given by

f

(

x

)

x

+

1, if x is odd

= ⎨

x –1, if x is even

is both one-one and onto.

Composition of function and Invertible functions

Let f: A B and g: B C be two functions Then the composition of f and g denoted by gof is defined as the function gof : A C given by gof = g (f (x)) x A

Let f: [2, 3, 4, 5] [3, 4, 5, 9] and y: [3, 4, 5, 9] [7, 11, 15] be functions defined as f(2) = 3, f(3) = 4, f(4) = f(5) = 5 and g(3) = g(4) = 7 and g(5) = g(9) = 11 find gof ? Solution-:

is

defined

by

is defined by

I A (x) = x, x A, I B (x) = x, x B are called identity functions on set A and B respectively.

Show that if f: A B and g : B C are one-one, then gof : A C is also one-one. Solution-:

Mathematics

Relations and Functions

9 A
binary operation* on a set A is a function * : A × A → A
Slide 28
where we denote * (a, b) by a * b.
Illustration-:
a
a
+ b, a − b, a b and
for b ≠ 0 are all for basic binary
Show that if f: A → B and g : B → C are onto, then gof :
A →
b
C
is also onto.
operations.
Slide 29
Slide 33
Invertible function
A binary operation * on the set X is called commutative if
a × b = b × a for every a, b ∈ X.
A
function f: X →
Y is defined to be invertible, if there
A binary operation *: A × A → A is said to be associative if
exists a function g : Y → X such that gof = I x and fog = I y .
The function g is called the inverse of f and denoted by f
(a * b) * c = a * (b * c), ∀ a, b, c,∈ A.
−1 .
Thus if f is invertible then f must be one-one and onto
conversely, if f is one-one and onto then f must be
invertible.
Consider a binary operation *: A × A → A an element e ∈
A, if it exists is called identity for the operation * if.
a
× e = a = e * a, ∀ a ∈ A.
Given a binary operation * : A × A → A with identity element
Slide 30
e
in A, an element a ∈ A is said to be invertible with
respect be the operation *, if there exists are element b in
Solved Example-:
A
such that
Let f : N → Y be a function defined as f(x) = 4x + 3 where
a
* b = e = b * a and b is called the inverse of a and is
Y
= {y ∈ N : y = 4x + 3 for some x ∈ N} show that f is
denoted by a −1 .
invertible. Find the inverse?
Slide 34
Solution-:
Solved Example-:
Consider an arbitrary element y of Y. By the definition of Y.
y
= 4x + 3, for some x in the domain N this shows that
Show that *: R × R → R defined by a * b = a + 2b is not
(y–3)
commutative?
x =
4
Solution-:
(y–3)
Define g : Y → N by
g
(
y
)
=
4
+ 3 – 3)
We are given a * b = a + 2b
For a = 3 and b = 4 we have
3 * 4 = 3 + 4 × 2
Now gof (x) = g (f(x)) = g(4x + 3) = (4x
= x
4
y–3
4(y–3)
And fog (y) =
fgy
(
(
))
=
f
=
+=
3
y
= 3 + 8 = 11
And 4 * 3 = 4 + 2 × 3
= 4 + 6 = 10
⎜ ⎝
4
⎟ ⎠
4
Now
since
3
*
4
4
*
3
thus the
operation *
is not-
This shows that gof = I N and fog = I y which implies that f is
invertible and g is the inverse of f.
commutative.
Slide 35
Slide 31
Solved Example-:
Illustration-:
Let y = {n 2 : n ∈ N} ⊂ N. consider f : N → Y as f(n) = n 2 .
Show that f is invertible. Find the inverse of f?
Show that addition and multiplication are associative binary
operations on R. But subtraction and division are not
associative on R?
Slide 32
Solution-:
Binary operations
Binary means two and we are familiar with basic four
operations.
Binary operation in general is nothing but association of
any pair of elements a, b from a set X two another
element of X.
Addition and multiplication are associative since (a + b) +
c = a + (b + c) and (a × b) × c = a × (b × c) ∀ a, b, c ∈ R.
However subtraction and division are not associative as
(8 − 5) − 3 ≠ 8 − (5 − 3)
And (8 ÷ 5) ÷ 3 ≠ 8 ÷ (5 ÷ 3)
Thus finally we conclude that addition and multiplication
are commutative binary operations while subtraction and
division are not.

10

Relations and Functions

Mathematics CURRICULUM BASED WORKSHEET
Topics for Worksheet – I
Relations
Reflective Relation
Symmetric Relation
Transitive Relation
Equivalence Relation
Worksheet – I
1.
Three relations R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 are defined on set
A = {a, b, c} as follows:
(i) R 1 = {(a, a), (a, b), (a, c), (b, b), (b, c), (c, a),
(c, b), (c, c)},
R 2 = {(a, b), (b, a), (a, c), (c, a)}
R 3 = {(a, b), (b, c), (c, a)}.
(ii)
(iii)
Find whether each of R 1 , R 2 and R 3 is reflexive,
symmetric and transitive.
2.
Determine whether each of the following relations
are reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
N
(i)
Relation R in
set
A
=
{1,
2,
3,…
,
13, 14}
(ii)
(iii)
defined as
Relation R in set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as
Relation R in set A = {all the lines in a plane} as
R
= {(L 1 , L 2 ): L 1 ⊥ L 2 }
(iv)
Relation R in set X of all integers defined as
R
= {(x, y): x − y is an integer}
3.
Prove that the relation R on the set Z of all
integers defined by
(x, y) ∈ R ⇔ x – y is divisible by n
Is
an equivalence relation on Z.
4.
Prove that the relation R on the set N × N
defined by (a, b) R (c, d) ⇔ a + d = b + c for all
(a, b), (c, d) ∈ N × N is an equivalence relation.
5. Let A be the set of all lines in xy-plane and let R be
a
relation in A, defined by R = {(L 1 , L 2 ) : L 1 || L 2 }.
Show that R is an equivalence relation in A.
Find the set of all lines related to the line y = 3x + 5.
6. Let A be the set of all lines in a plane and let R be
a
relation in A defined by
R
= {(L 1 , L 2 ) : L 1 ⊥ L 2 }.
Show that R is symmetric but neither reflexive not
transitive.
7. Let N be the set of all natural numbers and let R
be a relation in N, defined by
R
= {(a, b) : a is a multiple of b}.
Show that R is reflexive and transitive but not
symmetric.

Slide 36

Illustration-:

Show that * : R × R R given by a * b a + 2b is not associative?

Slide 37

Illustration-:

Show that a is the inverse of a for the addition operation

‘+’ on R and

is the inverse of a 0 for the multiplicative

operation ‘×’ on R?

1

a

Slide 38

Solved Example-:

Determine which of the following binary operation on the set N are associative and which are commutative

a * b =∀1

a * b

=

a, b N

(a b)

+

2

∀∈

a, b

N

Solution-:

(a)

Also (a * b) * c = (1 * c) = 1 and a * (b * c) = a * 1 = 1, a, b, c, N Hence R is both associative and commutative.

(b)

clearly by definition a * b = b * a = 1, a, b.

now

a*b=

=

b

+

a

or

=

+

2

b * a

a

b

or

2

Shows that * is commutative

 Further ⎛ a (a * b) * c + b ⎞ * c ⎛ = ⎜ ⎝ a + b ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ 2 * c ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎠ a + b + 2c or = or = 2 4 But a * (b * c) = a * ⎛ ⎜ b + 2 c ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ a ⎛ b + c ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ + ⎜ ⎝ 2 2a + b + c or = or = 2 4

Since (a * b) * c a * (b * c). Hence * is not associative.

Mathematics

Relations and Functions

11

8. Let N be the set of all natural numbers and let R be a relation on N × N, defined by (a, b) R (c, d) ad = bc. Show that R is an equivalence relation.

Topics for Worksheet – II

Functions

Worksheet – II

Types of function

Compression of functions

Invertible functions

1.

Define

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

One-one function

Onto function

One-one and onto function

Topics for Worksheet – III

Binary Operations

 Commutative binary operations Associative binary operation Identity element of binary operation Inverse of a binary operation

Worksheet – III

1. Let * be the binary operation on N given by a * b = LCM of a and b. Find

 (i) 5 * 7 (ii) 20 * 16

2. Consider the binary operation on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by a ^ b = min {a, b}. Write the operation table of ^. 3.
4.
(i)
(ii)
∈ N
5.
6.
x–2
a
(
)
=
.
x–3
(i)

fx

Commutative

Associative

2. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let f = {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. Show that f is one-one.

3. Let f: N N be defined by

Find the identity element in Z for * on Z, defined by A * b = a + b + 1

Show that the operation * on Q {1}, defined by a * b = a + b ab is.

Let f : N Y : f(x) = 4x 2 + 12x + 15 and Y = range (f). Show that f is invertible and find f 1 .

Show that the function operation on Z, defined by

b = a + b + 1 for all a, b Z

satisfies(i) the closure property, (ii) the associative

law and (iii) the cumulative law.

Find the identity element in Z.

x +

1 , if x is odd

f

(

x

) 2

= ⎨

x , if x is even, for all x

2

Show that f(x) is not a bijective function.

4. Let A = R {3} and B = R {1}

Let F: A B be defined as

Show that f(x) is one-one and onto.

5. Let f: {1, 3, 4} (1, 2, 5} and g: {1, 2, 3} {1, 3} be given by f = {(1, 2), (3, 5), (4, 1)} and f = {(1, 3), (2, 3), (5, 1)}. Write down gof.

6. If f(x) = 8x 3 and

7. Let f: N N, g: N N and h : N N be defined

as f(x) = 2x, g(x) = 3x + 4 and h(x) = Sin x. Show that ho(gof) = (hog) of.

8. If f : Q Q is given by f(x) = x 2 , then find

(ii) What is the inverse of an element a Z?

7. Show that the operation o Q {1}, defined by

a b = a + b ab for all a, b Q {1}

satisfies (i) the closure property, (ii) the

associative law,

 (iii) the commutative law. (iv) What is the identity element? (v) For each a ∈ Q − {1}, find the inverse of a.

8. On the set N of all natural numbers, defined the operation on N by m n = gcd (m, n) for all m, n N. Show that is commutative as well as associative.

(

gx

)

1

3

= x, find gof and fog.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

f

f

f

1 (9)

1 (–5)

1 (0)

12

Relations and Functions

Mathematics CURRICULUM BASED CHAPTER ASSIGNMENT
3,
1
Mark Questions
1
1.
Show that
is the inverse
of
x
0
for
the
x
multiplication operation on R.
2.
f = {(3, 1), (2, 3), (1, 2) find f −1 if f is one-one and
onto.
If
3.
A
relation R in a set A is called …
,
if no element
of
A related to any element of A.
B
4.
A
relation R in a Set A is called
,
if each
1
g
(
x
)
=
2
x –
element of A is related to every element of A.
2
5.
A
relation R in a set A is called
,
if (a, a) ∈
R,
for every a ∈ A.
3 Marks Questions
6.
A
relation R in a set A is called
if (a 1 , a 2 ) ∈
R
(a 2 , a 1 ) ∈ R for all (a 1 , a 2) ∈ A.
20.
Let
f,
g
and
h
7.
R
is a relation in a set {1, 2, 4} given by R = {(1,
show that
1), (2, 2), (4, 4)}. State whether R is reflexive or
(i)
symmetric.
(ii)
8.
If
a function f : X → Y is defined to be one-one (or
injective), if for all a 1 , a 2 ∈ X, if f(a 1 ) = f(a 2 ), then it
21.
implies
otherwise f is
ball
cat].
9.
If
f is one-one and onto, so f −1 is
to f.
10.
Let * be a binary operation on set Q of rational
numbers as follows a*b = (a – b) 2 . Then is this
operation commutative?
22.
⎧ a
b
4,
5} as
a
2
Marks Questions
11. A = R − (3) and B = R − (1), consider the function
If
x–2
f
: A → B defined by
fx
(
)
=
.
Is f one-one and
x–3
23.
12. Show that the
function f
:
R
R
given
by
(i)
a * b = a − b
⎧ 1
if x
>
0
(ii)
a * b = a 2 + b 2
f
(
x
)
=
0
if x
=
0
is neither one-one nor onto.
(iii)
a * b = a + ab
⎪ 0
⎩ –1if x
<
13. Check the injectivity and surjectivity of the
following:
(
4x
+
3
)
(i)
f : N → N given by f(x) = x 2
24.
If
fx
(
)
=
,
(
6x – 4
)
(ii)
f : R → R given by f(x) = x 2
2
14. Show that the Relation R in the set A = {x ∈ z : 0 ≤
x
.
x
≤ 12} is an equivalence relation.
3
R
= {(a, b): |a − b| is a multiple of 4}
15. Determine whether the following relations are
reflexive, symmetrical, and transitive if relation R,
in
the set N of Natural numbers is defined as R =
{(x, y) : y = x + 5 and x < 4}.

– 1 x

16. Consider the binary operation on the set {1, 2,

4, 5} defined by a b = min {a, b}. Write the

operation table of the operation .

17. Let the * binary operation on N be defined by a * b = H.C.F of a and b. Is * commutative? Is * associative? Does there exist identity for this operation on N?

18. Let f : N R be a function defined as f(x) = 4x 2 + 12x + 15. Show that f : N S where, S is the range of f (x). Find the inverse of f.

19. Let A = {1, 0, 1, 2} B = (4, 2, 0, 2} and f, g : A

be function defined by f(x) = x 2 x, x A and

Then, are f and g equal?

A.

be functions from R R. Then

(f + g) oh = foh + goh (f.g) oh = (foh).(goh)

Show that

f,

If f : [1, 2, 3] [a, b, c] and g : [a, b, c] [apple,

g and g of are invertible.

Find out f 1 , g 1 and (gof) 1 and show that (gof) 1 = f 1 og 1 .

Define a binary operation * on the set {0, 1, 2, 3,

if a

+ +

b – 6 if a

+ +

b

b

<

6

6

Show that 0 is the identity for this operation and each element of the set is invertible with 6 a being the inverse of a. Let * be the binary operation on the set Q of rational numbers which are as follows:

Find which of the binary operation are

commutative and which are associative.

Show that fof (x)

=

x

for

all

What is the inverse of f(x)?

Mathematics

Relations and Functions

13 QUESTION BANK FOR COMPETITIONS
1. Let
R
be the
relation on the
set
R
of
all real
(a)
less than n
numbers defined by aRb iff |a − b| ≤ 1. Then R is
(b)
greater than or equal to n.
(a)
reflexive symmetric and not transitive.
(c)
less than or equal to n
(b)
symmetric only.
(c)
transitive only.
(d)
none of there.
(d)
anti-symmetric only.
10. The inverse of the function
2. Let A be the non-empty set of children in a family.
(
(
2
)
)
y
=
log
x
+
x
+
1
,
(
a
>≠
0, a
1
)
is
The relation “x is a brother of y’ on A is
a
(a)
reflexive.
(b) symmetric.
1
(
x
–x
)
(c)
transitive.
(d)
none of the there.
(a)
a
–a
2
3. Let R be a relation on the set N be defined by {(x,
(b)
not defined for all x
y) x, y, ∈ N, 2x + y = 41}. Then R is
(c)
defined for only positive x
(a)
reflexive.
(b) symmetric.
(c)
transitive.
(d)
none of these
(d)
none of the above
4. An
integer m
is said to be related to another
1/3
⎧ ⎪ x
3 + 1, x
<
0
(
x–1
)
, x
integer n if m is a multiple of n. then the relation is
11. If
fx
()
=
,gx
()
⎪ ⎩ x
=
2
1/2
+
1, x
0
(a)
reflexive and symmetric.
(
x–1
)
, x
(b)
reflexive and transitive.
compute (gof) (x)
(c)
symmetric and transitive.
(a)
x
(d)
equivalence relation.
(c)
−x
(b) 2x
(d) none of these.
1– x
5. If
2f
(
x – 1 – f
)
=
x,
then f(x) is
α
x
⎝ ⎜
x
⎠ ⎟
12. Let
f
(
x
)
=
, x
–1.
x
+
1
1
1
⎪ ⎫
(a)
(
21
+
x
)
+
is f[{f(x)}] = x?
3
(
1x
+
)
⎪ ⎭
(a)
2
(b)
2
(1– x)
(c)
1
(d) −1
(b)
2 x–1
(
)
x
⎧ 1
+
x,
0
≤≤
x
2
13. f
()
x
find fof
()
= ⎨
x
1
2
3 – x,
2
<
x
3
(c)
x
+
+
4
2
x
⎧ 2
+
x,
0
x
1
⎧ 3
+ x,
0
x
1
1
1
⎪ ⎫
(d)
(
x
+
2
)
+
(a)
2
– x,
1
<
x
2
(b)
2
+ x,
1
<
x
2
4
(
x2
+
)
⎪ ⎭
4
– x,
2
<
x
3
4 – x,
2
<
x
3
6. Let R be a relation < from A = {1, 2, 3, 4} to B = {1,
3, 5}, i.e., (a, b) ∈ R ⇔ a < b then RoR −1 is
⎧ –2 – x,
0
x
1
(c)
3 –
x,
1
<
x
2
(d)
none of these.
(a)
{(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5)}
(b)
{(3, 1), (5, 1), (3, 2), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4)}
4
+
x,
2
<≤
x
3
(c)
{(3, 3), (3, 5), (5, 3), (5, 5)}
14. f(x) = |sin x| has an inverse if it’s domain is
(d)
{(3, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5)}
(a)
[0, π]
(b)
[0, π / 2]
7. Given the relation R = {(1, 2), (2, 3)} on the set A
= {1, 2, 3}. The minimum numbers of ordered
points which when added to R make it on
equivalence relation is
– π
π⎤
(c)
,
(d) none of there.
4
4
x
–x
10
– 10
(a)
8
(b)
7
15. The inverse of the function
y
=
is
x
–x
10
+
10
(c)
6
(d)
4.
1
1x
+
8. Let L denote the set of all straight lines in a plane.
(a)
log 10 (2 − x)
(b)
log
10
Let a relation R be defined by α R β ⇔ α ⊥ β, α, β
∈ L. Then R is
2
1– x
1
2x
(b)
1 log
2
(
2x – 1
)
(d)
log
.
10
10
(a)
reflexive
(b) symmetric
4
2–x
(c)
transitive
(d)
none of there.

9. Let R be an equivalence relation on a finite set A having n elements. Then the number of ordered points in R is,

< 1

1

Then, for what value of α

14

Relations and Functions

Mathematics

(

x

)

=

1 (
x
)
–x 1–
x
2–
x

16. Find the domain of the function

f

 (a) (0, ∞) (c) (−∞, ∞) = cos −1 17. (x If f(x) − 1
+
5
2,
2
⎦ ⎥
1
+
5
2,
2
⎥ ⎦

is

23. Find the domain of

f

(

x

)

= (b) (−∞, 0)
(d)
none of there.
1
1
x) 2
+
1–
+
,
x
x
2 –1
⎣ ⎡
⎦ ⎤

(b)

(d) 1–
5
2,

2

⎟ ⎟ ⎠

none of these

 (a) x ∈ [–1, 1] ∪∞( – , – 2)(∪ 2, ∞ ) (b) x ∈ [–1, 1] ∪∞( – , 2)(∩ 2, ∞ ) (c) x ∈ [–1, 1] ∩∞( , – 2)(∩ 2, ∞ )

(d) none of these.

If x

x

2

P

=

x 4

– 2x

2

+ 4

(b)

⎜ ⎝

,

3

4

⎟ ⎠

domain of f(x) is (where [.] is the greatest integer)

(a)

(c) ⎢ ⎣

24. R and

interval

(a)

0,

(c)

0,

1

2

1

3

then P is lies in the

4

,

5 1 ⎤
(d)
0,
⎢ ⎣
4
⎥ ⎦
1
f (
x
)
=
x–
x
(b)
(d)
empty set
none of these
⎢ ⎣
x
⎞⎤
–1
sin
log
.
3 ⎜ ⎝
3
⎟⎥ ⎠⎦
(b)
1x9≤
(d)
none of these.
4
2
π+
x x–[x] cos
+
π
x
is ([.] denotes the

1

18. The domain of the function.

f

(

x

)

= log

log

log

log

222

n times

(a)

(b)

(2 n1 , ),

(2 n2 , )

19. The inverse of the function

(a)

(c)

1– x

1

2

log

1x+

x

log ,

a

1

+

a

1– x

(b)

(d)

20. Let f: R R defined by f(x) =

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

f(x) is one-one but not onto x
is
2
25.
[2 n , ∞]
(a)
(c)
–x
a
x –a
26.
f (
x
)
=
is
x
–x
a
+ a
(a)
1x7> ≤
1
1x
+
log ,
(c)
2 ≤ x ≥ –8
a
2
1– x
27.
The period of
none of these.
(a)
2
2
x
2 –x
e
–e
(c)
0
, then
2
2
x
–x
e
+ e
28.
then f −1 (x) is
1
(a)

(c)

x

not defined

x–

[

]

y =

x

2

1

+

x

2

is

Find the domain of

null set single ton set

Find the domain of

(b)

(d) none of these.

e cos

greatest integer function)

(b)

(d) 1

If the function f : R R be such that f(x) = x [x], where [.] denotes the greatest integer function,

(b)

(d)

[x] x

none of these

f(x) is neither one-one nor onto

f(x) is many one but onto

f(x) is one-one and onto

29. The period of the function f(x) = a sin kx + b cos

kx is (a)
k
(c)
k π
30. fx
Let
(
) 2
π
(b)
k
(d) none of these
sin 2nx
π
=
,
n
N
has
2
1
+ cos nx
6

as

its

fundamental period, then n is equal to

 (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8

21. The range of the function

 (a) [0, 1) (b) [0, 1] (c) (0, 1) (d) none of these.

f (

x

)

=

x

2

– 3x

+ 2

22. The range of the function

in the interval

(a)

⎧ ⎨ ⎩ (, ) \1{}

5

(

,

)

\

1

(b)

,1

(b)

x

2

+

x–6

lies

(, )

(d) none of these.