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Optimization of Wind Hybrid Energy System Design and Implementation: Case Study on the Design and Implementation of a Hybrid

Wind/PV/Diesel Energy System.


BevinT.Etienne Abstract: To successfully optimize the use of available wind resource for wind turbine electricity production in offgrid and small isolated grid applications, some form of hybrid energy system design along with a robust control system to maximize wind energy penetration is required. This paper presents a hybrid energy system design in which wind is the primary energy resource. It provides the economicsensitivityofhybridizationandtheeconomicandenvironmentalbenefitsofusingablendof technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harnessandutilizetheavailablerenewableenergyresourcesefficiently.Acasestudyonthedesignand implementation of a 455 kW wind/solar/diesel hybrid system is also discussed to demonstrate the effectsofenvironmentalconstraintswhenoptimizinghybridsystems. Keyterms:Optimization,Homer,Costofenergy,Hybridenergysystems Introduction The foremost concern for the implementation of any renewable energy technology is its economic viability. The high cost of fossil fuel electricity production in small island developing states due to the highpriceofoilontheworldmarketcoupledwiththedepletingoilreservesandtheimportationcostof fossilfuelhavestimulatedthedevelopmentofrenewableresourcesforenergyproduction.Thereisalso a growing awareness of the impact of the usage of fossil fuels on global warming. Whereas in most cases it is not possible to eliminate all fossil fuel energy production systems, it is possible to combine traditional technology with renewable energy technologies in order to minimize fossil fuel energy productioncostbyeffectiveutilizationofrenewableenergyresourcesforenergyproduction. Several studies have been done demonstrating the ability to optimize hybrid configurations of renewableenergysystemsinordertomaximizeperformancewhileminimizingcost.Theoptimizationof hybrid energy systems in the context of minimizing excess energy and cost of energy is addressed by Razak,SopianandAli[1].Thehighupfrontcosthybridsystemswarrantstheneedtooptimizeunitsizing forreliableandcosteffectiveenergysystem[2][3].KamelandDahl[4]andKhanandIqbal[5]usedthe Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software [6] to find optimum sizing and minimizingcostforhybridpowersystemwithspecificloaddemandinstandaloneapplications.Genetic algorithmhavebeenusedtofindtheoptimumsizingaswellasthesuitableoperationstrategiestomeet differentloaddemandby,amongothers,SeelingHochmuth[15],DufoLopezandBernalAugustine[16] and Ashok [17]. These studies have however not addressed the optimization of the design and implementation of hybrid energy systems optimized design solutions are not always implementable due to environmental constraints. In most cases optimization of the design and implementation of hybridrenewableenergysystemsisdependentonthegeographiclocationandnotjustontheavailable

renewableenergyresource.Thispaperdiscussestheoptimizationsolutionforhybridrenewableenergy system configuration and demonstrates how the optimized design solution may not be the optimal implementablesolution.Inthiscontextenvironmentalconstraintstakeintoconsiderationconditionof thegridinfrastructure,abilitytodonetmeteringandpowerpurchaseagreements.Italsoencompasses the availability of construction equipment available to facilitate the implementation, operation and management of the technology. It is well known that the mobilization of heavy equipment for installationandservicingofmidsizetolargewindturbinesiscriticaltotheeconomicviabilityofawind project. Methodology The hybrid energy system proposed is for the Rosalie Nature Resort on the island of Dominica and consists of wind, solar, diesel, and grid power as depicted in Fig. 1. The 22 acre nature resort energy consumption is 772 kWh/day with a 96 kW peak demand load. The energy system consists of a wind turbine generator, diesel generator, solar pv array, battery bank, grid power and a AC/DC converter. Thelifetimeoftheprojectisestimatedat25yearswithafixedannualinterestrateof6%. Fig.1:WindDieselSolarandGridHybridConfiguration

Themonthlywindspeedandsolar(clearnessindexanddailyradiation)isshowninTable1. Table1:WindandSolarResource Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Thefixedgenerationcostforthedieselgeneratoris85.6$/hrandthecostofenergyfromthegridis 0.47$/kWh.Thesystemisdesigntoprovidenetmeteringwithasellbackrateof$0.20/kWh. TheproposedhybridconfigurationwasusedasinputvaluesforHOMERinordertofindtheoptimum configurationbaseontheavailableresources.TheoptimaldesignsolutionisillustratedinFig.2. Fig.2:Optimumsolutionbasedonavailableresources Wind Speed (m/s) 7.503 7.521 7.043 6.518 6.474 5.490 4.923 5.001 4.945 4.867 6.903 7.432 6.218 Clearness Index 0.481 0.519 0.522 0.518 0.504 0.482 0.500 0.499 0.488 0.493 0.486 0.506 0.500 DailyRadiation (kWh/m2/d) 3.929 4.681 5.192 5.472 5.402 5.144 5.333 5.266 4.932 4.563 4.045 3.977 4.828

Thecostofenergy(COE)forthissolutionis$0.015/kWh.ThissolutionhaseliminatedtheneedforaPV array,batterybankandconverter.Thisoptimaldesignsolutionassumesthatthegridpowersystemis reliable and will be consistently available to be used in place of the battery bank and the PV array. In reality,thislocationinDominicaissusceptibletofrequentbrownouts,blackoutsandintheeventofa tropicalstormorhurricanemaybeoutofelectricalpowerfromthegridforseveraldays.Usuallythereis alsoanextendedperiodofcalmweather(verylittletonowind)afterastormwhichwouldmeanthat duringthistimetherewontbesufficientwindtopowertheresort.Thisfrequentgridpowerfailure andweatherconditionwouldmakethedesignsolutionillustratedinFig.2nonoptimal. When these external factors (grid and weather conditions) are taken into consideration the optimal solutionbaseonperformanceandcostisshowninFig.3 Fig.3Optimumsolutionbaseonavailableresourcesand environmentalandoperationalconstraints

TheCOEfortheconfigurationshowninFig.3is$0.050/kWhCOE.ThisCOEismorethan3timestheCOE of the optimal design solution from Fig. 2. However, when these same external factors are taken into considerationforthedesignconfigurationinFig.2(primarilythebrownoutsandlowproductionhours fromthewindturbine)thedieselgenerationwouldoperateforapproximately742hrs/yrwhichresults intheCOEbeing$0.062/kWhforthisdesign.ThusthesolutioninFig.3isshowntobe$0.012/kWhless thantheactualsolutionpresentedinFig.2configuration.Thisanalysisdoesnottakeintoconsideration theinconvenience,potentiallossofbusiness,andtheincreasedoperationalcostthatmayoccurfrom theimplementationoftheFig.2configurationinthiscommercialresortapplication. In both Fig. 2 and Fig.3 the wind turbine generator (WTG) was limited to the 40 meter hub height Norwin225kWwindturbineduetotowertransportationandconstructabilitylimitationontheisland. ThecranesthatareavailableonIslandareattherelimitsfortheinstallationofthe40meterNorwin225 kWWTG.Themobilizationanddemobilizationofacranefromanotherislandtodoasingleinstallation wouldmaketheprojectuneconomical.Theroadinfrastructurewouldalsomakeitdifficulttotransport

biggertowerstoprojectsitesonisland.Also,withthespaceavailableattheresortitisonlypossibleto haveoneWTGatthislocation. Conclusion Althoughtheapplicationandimplementationofrenewableenergysystemsforcommercialapplication withisolatedgridsareprimarilydependentontheavailabilityoftherenewableresourcesonthespecific site of interest, there are a number of economic considerations and design tradeoffs to be taken in ordertooptimizecostandperformance.Athoroughanalysisofthesiteconditionsandidentificationof sitelimitationisrequiredtooptimizethedesignandimplementationofahybridenergysystem. References [1] Juhari Ab. Razak, Kamaruzzaman Sopian & Yusoff Ali, Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid SystembyMinimizingExcessCapacity.InternationalJournalofEnergy,Issue3,Vol.1,2007,pp.7781 [2] Kellog, W., Nehrir, M.H., Venkataramanan, G. & Gerez,V. Optimal Unit Sizing for a Hybrid Wind/PhotovotaicGeneratingSystem.ElectricPowerSystemsResearch,Vol39,1996,pp.3538. [3]Borowy,B.S.&Salameh,Z.M.,OptimumPhotovoltaicArraySizeforaHybridWind/PVSystem, IEEE TransactiononEnergyConversion,Vol.9,No.3,1994,pp.482488. [4]Kamel, S. & Dahl, C.,The Economics of Hybrid Power Systems for Sustainable Desert Agriculture in Egypt,Energy,Vol.30,2005,pp12711281. [5]Khan,M.J.,&Iqbal,M.T.,PreFeasibilityStudyofStandAloneHybridEnergySystemsforApplications inNewfoundland,RenewableEnergy,Vol.30,2005,pp.835854. [6]NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory,HOMERGettingStartedGuideVersion2.1,NREL,2005. [7]SeelingHochmuth, G.C., Optimisation of Hybrid Energy Systems Sizing and Operation Control, PhD Thesis,UniversityofKassel,1998,pp.219. [8]DufoLopez, R. & BernalAugustin, J.L., Design and Control Strategies of PVDiesel Systems Using GeneticAlgorithm,SolarEnergy,Vol.79,2005,pp.3346. [9]Ashok,S.OptimisedModelforCommunityBasedHybridEnergySystem. RenewableEnergy,Vol.32, No.7,2007,pp.11551164.