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Proceedings of the 1

International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010


Induction generators are the most popular in wind energy
conversion system due to its simplicity and absence of
synchronization problem. However the major drawback of this
machine is its additional reactive burden on the electric network.
This paper studies the voltage stability of wind farms (WFs)
Connected to IEEE 14 bus network during system disturbances
such as a load change, three phase fault or island condition.
Those disturbances have a great impact on the system voltages
and frequency. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is
proposed to maintain voltage and frequency within grid codes
requirements. The proposed system shows an excellent
performance it maintains the voltage and frequency constants by
injection controllable reactive power during system disturbances.
MATLAB/SIMULINK and the Power System Analysis Toolbox
(PSAT) package are used for the simulation.
Wind turbine technology h a s under gone a revolution during
the last century. The attention has continued to grow as the
demands on reducing polluting emissions have increased.
With the development of wind turbine technology, large
scale wind farms at hundreds MW rated capacity are being
developed in many countries. These modern wind farms are
usually connected to the power grid. The wind power
penetration levels in the networks could b e h i g h , f o r
e x a mp l e , average wi n d power penetration levels of 20-30
% with peak penetration level up to 100%. Which will
effectively reduce the requirement on the fossil fuel based
conventional power generation; however, it also presents many
challenges to modern power systems. The issues, such as
power system operation and control, system stability and power
quality, need to be addressed in order to realize power
quality for the power systems integrating large scale wind
power [3, 4, 7, 10].Technical constraints of power generation
integration in a power system may in general be associated
with the thermal limit, frequency and Voltage control and
stability. Grid codes are set up to specify the relevant
requirements [8]; these specifications have to be met in order
to integrate wind turbines into the grid. The predominant
generator employed in WF s i s t h e asynchronous type,
which requires reactive power for its excitation. Whilst
asynchronous generators have particular advantages for wind

turbine generator (WTG) applications, t hei r demand for
reactive power can b e p r o b l e ma t i c . To achieve continuous
voltage regulation under varying system conditions such as
under fault conditions, this demand increases substantially,
contributing to voltage instability and possible voltage Collapse
[5],[6], by compensating capacitors located at the site of the
WF's itself, however during fault conditions additional
reactive power resources are needed. Flexible ac transmission
systems (FACTS) devices improve the transmission of electric
power and include a family of shun and series devices. static
synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) can provide t h e
reactive power required for the regulation voltage
.STATCOMs have not yet been widely used in distribution
networks due to their cost, however when used in this
context they can assist WFs to continue to provide active
power during fault conditions for some time. STATCOMs are
shunt devices that use voltage-sourced converter (VSC)
technology, which allows them to regulate the voltage at the
bus to which theyre connected by either generating or
absorbing reactive power [6].
Figure 1(a), shows the one-line diagram for the IEEE 14
bus[11] the interconnected system with one additional wind
farm connected at bus 8 that is PV bus which consist of
50units of 2MW,690V ,60 Hz squirrel cage induction generator
wind energy conversion system which serves local load and
STATCOM connected in parallel to wind farm. Figure 1(b)
,shows the direct connection of squirrel cage induction
generator to grid through transformer and transmission line,
STATCOM connected in parallel to wind energy conversion
systems at load bus voltage. The data used in simulation f or
wind farms and STATCOM described in table below,
100MVA is selected for base power and the frequency i s 60Hz
for interconnected power system.

Table 1.Simulation Data
Turbine Da t a
Shaft stiffness 2.5pu/rad
Rated wind speed
Turbine rotor speed range 9.52rpm
Rotor diameter 75m
Gear ratio 1:86.5
A. M. Amin M.M.A. Mahfouz Erhab B. Youssef
Helwan University Helwan University Helwan University
Department of Electrical Power
P.O. Box 11792,Helwan,Egypt
Department of Electrical Power
P.O. Box 11792,Helwan,Egypt
Department of Electrical Power
P.O. Box 11792,Helwan,Egypt
amrmaamin@yahoo.com mmahfouz@abcelectric.com rehabbakry@gmail.com
Proceedings of the 1
International Nuclear an

Rated Power
Rated voltage
Rated frequency 6
Maximum current
Minimum current -
Gain of the voltage control
Time constant of voltage control
Generator Data
Rated power 2
Rated voltage 6
Rated frequency 6
Stator resistance 0.
Stator reactance 0.
Rotor resistance 0.
Rotor reactance 0.
Mutual reactance 3.
Generator rotor inertia 0
Number of poles pairs
A simplified representation of the STATCOM,
side capacitor, an inverter, and series inductanc
lines connecting to the transmission line is sh
This inductance accounts for the leakage o
power transformers. The circuit also includ
in shunt with the capacitor to represent the s
in the inverter, and resistance R in series w
to represent the inverter and transformer co
The inverter block in the circuit is treated as
power transformer .It operates in two mode
capacitive mode will depend upon the volt
power system. If the voltage is V1 highe
STATCOM will absorb reactive power; if the s
V1 lower than V2, it will generate react
balanced three phase system STATCOM can
steady-state, wher eas the DC circuit is d
following differential equation, in terms of th
the capacitor [12].
2 2
) (
dc dc
The active and reactive power injections into th
) cos(
dc dc

) cos(
dc dc

Where K =
m and m is modulation index=
phase angle of inverter voltage. Of primary inte
for transmission line ASVCs. In this case, k is
and the only available control input is the angle
voltage vector [1] .This type of controller is use
k=0.9 constant and is varying within range th
minimum value to get minimum and maximum
modes.. The block diagram of control of voltag
is shown in Figure 3.
nd Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, M
1.0 pu
690 V
.048 pu
.075 pu
018 pu
120 pu
8 pu
0.5 s
including a DC
ce X in the three
own in Figure 2.
of the actual
des resistance R
switching losses
with the AC lines
onduction losses.
an ideal, lossless
es inductive and
tage level of the
er than V2, the
system voltage is
ive power. For
n be described in
described by the
he voltage v
he ac system are:
) sin( VB
) sin( VG

and is
erest is controller
a constant factor,
e of the inverter
ed in paper where
he maximum and
m current in two
ge for STATCOM

Figure 1.a. The IEEE 14

Figure 1.b. Wind farm conn

Figure 2.Simpified circuit of S
March 21-24, 2010

4 bus network.

nection to bus 8.

STATCOM circuit
Proceedings of the 1
International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010


Figure 3. Block diagram of STATCOM controller.

Simulation studies for the proposed system were carried
out du r i n g d i f f e r e n t system disturbances occurrences
with and without STATCOM using MATLAB/SIMULIN
and the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) package.

4.1. Sudden Load change

The dynamic performance of self excited induction generator
with STATCOM connected in parallel with load bus is
examined under disturbance and results are depicts in

4.1.l. load increase: sudden increase in load demand occurs
at (t=3 s to t =4 s) by 40% as shown in figure 4(a)simulated
generator terminal voltage magnitude drops from 1 pu to
0.98 pu due to reactive power increased to apply load
demand but using fixed capacitor as source for reactive power
voltage cannot remain constant. Fi gu r e 4(b) reactive powers
transferred to wind farm increased to support load demand,
STATCOM used for this reason where in this case STATCOM
generates reactive power required to maintain voltage stable as
shown in figure 4(c). A transient drop in the kinetic energy,
speed and active power of the IG in order to provide the sudden
increase in generator output power are represented in figure
4(d) and (e). After This transient, the increase in load power
was balanced by the grid, and generator speed returned to its
original value. The active power exported to the grid was
decreased, whereas the local bus load increased.

Figure 4.a. Voltage terminal at wind farm bus

Figure 4.b. Reactive power at bus 8

Figure 4. c. Reactive power generated by STATCOM

Proceedings of the 1
International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010


Figure 4. d. Stator frequency at wind farm bus

Figure 4.e. Active power at wind farm bus

Figure 4. Grid performance for wind farm during increasing load

4.2 Three Phase Short Circuit Faults

Figure 1(b), Shows three-phase short-circuit faults that
occurs at 3second and cleared after 100 ms. The voltage at the
wind turbine drops during the fault period, which leads to the
reduction in rotor acceleration and the active power
transmitted to grid is zero .The results with and without the
STATCOM in operation are presented in figure 5(a),(c)
and(d) as the generator terminal voltage cannot recovered
after the fault and the generator will be tripped by the over-
speed protection .the STATCOM has effectively restored
the generator terminal voltage and the system will restore
normal operation. Figure 5(b), Shows the reactive power amount
that was generated by STATCOM duri ng fault and increasing
time of voltage to recover its normal operation as fast as
possible it can be seen that the STATCOM control is an

Figure 5. a. Voltage terminal at wind farm bus.

Figure 5.b. Reactive power generated by STATCOM

Figure 5.c. Stator frequency at wind farm bus

Proceedings of the 1
International Nuclear an

Figure 5.d. Active power at wind fa

Figure 4. Grid performance for wind farm duri
bus 8 condition.

4.3 Island Perf ormance

During island condition, self-excitation will
I G l os e s i t s connect i on with t h e g r i d .
and frequency will be observed during self- ex
and [9]. In the simulated event, the wind
connection to the grid at t = 2.5 s
islanding mode thereafter .Figure 7(d) illus
active power of IG exported to grid dropp
0.4 to 0 pu. After the grid-disconnection tran
in figure 6 (a) generator voltage terminal co
reactive power and this time the load deman
voltage collapse. To continue wind farm
demand at island condition STATCOM u
figure (b), the load bus voltage magnitude wa
state. Rotor speed of IG accelerates in islan
reduction of active power exported to gr
difference between frequency of IG and gr
turbine that lead to active stall control
constant and it will be take be covered in fut
case wind farm will trip and isolated from sys

Figure 6.a. Voltage terminal at wind

nd Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, M

farm bus
ing three faults at
occur when the
Unstable voltage
xcitation [2], [5],
d farm lost its
and remained in
strates that the
ped rapidly from
nsient .As showed
ollapse due loss
nd change due to
serving load
used as shown in
s fixed at steady
nd mode due to
rid that causes
rid. Due to stall
to keep speed
ture work in this
stem .

d farm bus

Figure 6.b. Reactive power ge

Figure 6.c. Stator frequen

Figure 6.d. Active power
Disturbances normally occur in power
load change, faults and island mod
connection to the grid. These have
farms performance during direct co
conversion system with network.

The previous results above s
system ,using STATCOM can cover
and frequency during network dis
March 21-24, 2010

enerated by STATCOM

ncy at wind bus.

r at wind farm bus.
r system networks such as
de in case of wind farm
e great impacts on wind
onnection of wind energy
show that the proposed
r the variations of voltage
sturbances and keep its
Proceedings of the 1
International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010

values within the grid code. STATCOM work a s a
reactive power controller has been successfully designed to
regulate the load bus voltage during disturbances by injection
reactive power demand to compensate for the voltage drop.
STATCOM has a great effect on voltage stability during
disturbance .Constant frequency will be studied in future work
to serves load at island case with constant voltage and
frequency in future work with artificial intelligent control
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[4] IEC 61400-21: Power quality requirements For wind whines
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frequency regulator to improve grid-disconnection transients
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IEEE Int. Conf. Power Electron. Drive Syst.,2003, vol. 2, pp.
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Technical regulations for the properties and the control
wind turbines ", Eltra and Kraft systems, 2004.
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and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific
Dalian, China.
[9] Woei-Luen Chen, Member, IEEE, and Yuan-Yih Hsu, Senior
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Driven by a Variable- Speed Wind Turbine,"inIEEE
NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2006.
[10] IEC 61400-12: Wind turbine generator systems. Power
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[11] http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/~fmilano/.
[12] F. Milano, Documentation for PSAT, volume 1.3.3.