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Shortcuts for the Basic Maths Problems (Beginners Guide)

How to Improve Calculation Speed? Additions Shortcuts Subtractions Shortcuts Shortcuts in Multiplications (Simple Tricks) Shortcuts in Multiplications (Base Method) Shortcuts in Divisions Decimals Divisibility Rules Comparisons of Fractions LCM and HCF BODMAS Average Shortcut for Finding Squares Another Shortcut Method for Finding Squares Shortcut for finding Cubes

How to improve Calculation Speed


Calculation Speed plays a very very very important role in Competitive Exams. Some people think that, they should have the natural ability to do calculations fast, of course that is true at some extent. But that doesn't mean that the other ordinary people like you and I need to feel bad. Only The Belief in You and Hard work will create wonders. Trust me; it is very easy to develop good calculation speed in a relatively short period of time. All you need is hard work and little Amount of time 30 x 30: Just spend 30 minutes a day for 30 days. You will definitely find the difference in your calculation speed. Your practice involves basic Additions, Subtractions, Multiplications, Percentage Calculations, Comparing Fractions and Calculating Squares and makes yourself thorough with the following Multiplication Tables (Up to 20 x 10) Squares (Up to 30) Cubes (Up to (15) Powers of 2 (Up to 12) Powers of 3 (Up to 6) Reciprocals of numbers (Up to 12) Complements of 100 (the difference between 100 and the given 2 digit number).

Additions Shortcuts
Addition of numbers close to multiples of ten (e.g. 19, 29, 38, 59 etc.) 116 + 39 (Here we can write this 39 as 40-1) = 116 + (40 - 1) = 116 + 40 - 1 = 156 - 1 (Instead of adding 39 to 116, we just add 40 to 116 (because we can do this without using pen and paper) and later we subtract one from it = 155 Now lets try another example. 116 + 97 = 116 + (100 - 3) = 116 + 100 - 3 (Here, instead of adding 97 to 116, we are just adding a 100 to 116 and then subtracting 3 from it) = 216 - 3 = 213 Addition of decimals 12.5 + 6.25 = (12 + 0.5) + (6 + 0.25) = 12 + 6 + 0.5 + 0.25 (Here we just added the rounded numbers first and later we added the decimal numbers) = 18 + 0.5 + 0.25 = 18.75

Subtractions Shortcuts
SUBTRACTION BY NUMBERS CLOSE TO 100, 200, 300, 400, ETC 250 - 96 = 250 - (100 - 4) (here, instead of subtracting 96 from 250, we are just subtracting 100 from 250 and then adding 4) = 250 - 100 + 4 (Why adding? because the actual amount we have to subtract from 250 is 96. But we are subtracting 100. That means, we are subtracting 4 numbers more than we actually deserve. So our 250 will feel bad. So we should add that 4 to it) = 150 + 4 = 154 250 - 196 = 250 - (200 - 4) = 250 - 200 + 4 (here also same. In order to subtract 196, we subtract 200 and adding 4) = 50 + 4 = 54 216 - 61 (Here I found it difficult to subtract 61 from 216) = 216 - (100 - 39) (So I just decided to subtract 100 to it and later will subtract the extra 39) = 216 - 100 + 39 (Hey, see here. How about writing this 39 as 40 -1?) = 116 + (40 - 1) (dont be confused. just practice this method and you will come to know how easy and efficient method it is) = 156 - 1 = 155 Subtraction of decimals 47 - 9.9 (How about dividing this 9.9 as 9 + 0.9?) = 47 - (9 + 0.9) we can write this as... = 47 - 9 - 0.9 = 38 - 0.9 = 37.1 18.3 - 0.8 = 18 + 0.3 - 0.8 = (18 - 0.8) + 0.3 = 17.2 + 0.3 = 17.5

Shortcuts in Multiplications
Multiplication using multiples 12 x 15 (Here we can write this 15 as 5x3) = 12 x 5 x 3 (now 12x5 becomes 60) = 60 x 3 (For this you just calculate 3x6, that is 18 and add one Zero to It. that is 180) = 180 (see, how simple it is?) Multiplication by distribution 12 x 17 (Here we can divide this 17 as 10+7. here; multiplying 12 with 17 is same as multiplying 12 with 10 and 7 separately and then adding the results) So, we can write it as = (12 x 10) + (12 x 7) = 120 + 84 = 204 Multiplication by "giving and taking" 12 x 47 (Here its little difficult for us to calculate the multiplication of 12 and 47 mentally. so just check for the ROUNDED number nearer to 47. Yes it is 50. So..... = 12 x (50 - 3) = (12 x 50) - (12 x 3) (we have discussed this rule earlier) = 600 36 = 564 Multiplication by 5 - If we have to multiply a number with 5, just divide the number with 2 and then multiply the result with 10. Confused? Its very simple step actually.... 428 x 5 (Now just divide the number with 2)

= 428 x 1/2 = 214 (Now multiply it with 10. I mean just add a zero at the end) = 214 x 10 = 2140 (This is our result) * Lets say the number is X. * Now we are dividing the number with 2. So here X becomes X/2. * And then we are multiplying it with 10. So it will become 10x / 2 * Now cancel it with 2. So it becomes 10x / 2 = 5X = 5 multiplied by X. Thats it ;) Multiplication by 10 - just move the decimal point one place to the right 16 x 10 = 160 5.9 = 159 169.93 = 169.3 (Need an explanation for this too?) Multiplication by 50 - divide with 2 and then multiply by 100 well, this is also same process as we did for 5. Here we should add an extra zero. Thats it 18 x 50 = (18/2) = 9 = 9 x 100 = 900 Multiplication by 100 - move the decimal point two places to the right 45 x 100 = 4500 Multiplications by 500 - divide with two and multiply with 1000 21 x 500 = 21/2 x 1000 = 10.5 x 1000 = 10500 Multiplication by 25 - use the analogy Rs 1 = 4 x 25 Paise 25 x 14 (just divide the 14 as 10+4) = (25 x 10) + (25 x 4) = 250 + 100 ---> Rs2.50 + Rs1 = 350 Multiplication by 25 - Divide by 4 and multiply by 100 36 x 25 = (36/4) x 100 = 9 x 100 = 900 Multiplication by 11 (if sum of digits is less than 10) 72 x 11 = 7+2 =9, it is less than 10. So, = place this term 9 between 7 &2 = 792 Multiplication by 11 (if sum of digits is greater than 10) 87 x 11 => 8 + 7 = 15 (because here 15 is greater than 10, first use 5 and then add 1 to the first term 8, which gives you the answer) = 957 Multiplication of numbers ending in 5 with the same first terms (square of a number) 25 x 25 First term = (2 + 1) x 2 = 6 Last term = 25 Answer = 625 ---> square of 25

75 x 75 First term = (7 + 1) x 7 = 56 Last term = 25 Answer = 5625 ---> 75 squared

Shortcuts in Division
Divisions by parts -> Imagine you have Rs.874. You have to give that to your two children. 874/2 [We can write this 874 as 800+74 (for our convenience) = 800/2 + 74/2 = 400 + 37 = 437 Division using the factors of the divisor: "this is also called as Double Division" 70/14 = (70/7)/2 (Because 7 and 2 are the factors of 14) = 10/2 =5 Division using Fractions: 132/2 = (100/2 + 32/2) (here we've broken the given fraction into two separate fractions) = (50 + 16) = 66 Division by 5: Note: if you have to divide any number with 5, then divide it by 100 and then just multiply by 20 1400/5 = (1400/100) x 20 = 14 x 20 = 280 Division by 10 (Its very simple, just move the decimal point one place to the left) 0.5/10 = 0.05 Division by 50 (Just divide with 100 then multiply by 2) 2100/50 = (2100/100) x 2 = 21 x 2 = 42 700/50 = (700/100) x 2 =7x2 = 14 Division by 100 (just move the decimal point two places to the left) 25/100 = 0.25 Divisions by 500 (just divide with 100 and then multiply with 0.2) 17/500 = (17/100) x 0.2 = 0.17 x 0.2 = 0.034 Divisions by 25 (just divide by 100 and then multiply by 4) 500/25 = (500/100) x 4 = 5 x 4 = 20

750/25 = (750/100) x 4 = 7.5 x 2 x 2 = 30

Decimals
Sometimes, you have to convert or express the given percentages in the form of decimals. It is not such a difficult task as we think. Have a look at the following. 1% = 1/100 = 0.01 (if two zeros are given, just move the decimal pointer two places left) 2% = 2/100 = 0.02 = 1/50 (the simplification of 2/100) 3% = 3/100 = 0.03 4% = 4/100 = 0.04 = 1/25 5% = 5/100 = 0.05 = 1/20 6.25% = 6.25/100 = 0.0625 = 1/16 7% = 7/100 = 0.07 7.5% = 7.5/100 = 0.075 10% = 10/100 = 0.1 = 1/10 12.5% = 12.5/100 = 0.125 = 1/8 20% = 0.2 = 1/5 21% = 0.21 25% = 0.25 = 1/4 30% = 0.3 = 3/10 33.33% = 33.33/100 = 0.3333 = 1/3 37.5% = 0.375 = 3/8 40% = 0.4 = 2/5 50% = 0.5 = 1/2 60% = 0.6 = 3/5 62.5% = 0.625 = 5/8 66.66% = 66.66/100 = 2/3 75% = 0.75 = 3/4 80% = 0.8 = 4/5 87.5% = 0.875 = 7/8 100% = 1 125% = 1.25 = 1 1/4 150% = 1.5 = 1 1/2 200% = 2

Divisibility Rules
A number is divisible by 2, when its unit digit is either Even or Zero. A number is divisible by 3, when the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. A number is divisible by 4, when the number formed by the two extreme right end digits is either divisible by 4 or both these digits are zeroes. A number is divisible by 5, when its unit digit is either zero or 5. A number is divisible by 6, when it is divisible bye 2 as well as 3. A number is divisible is by 7, if it passes the following Test... o Take the last digit in a number. o Double and subtract the last digit in your number from the rest of the digits. o Repeat the process for larger numbers. Take an Example 357 (Double the 7 to get 14. Subtract 14 from 35 to get 21 which is divisible by 7 and we can now say that 357 is divisible by 7. A number is divisible by 8, when the number formed by its three extreme right end digits is divisible by 8 or when these last three digits are Zeros. A number is divisible by 9, when the sum of its digits is divisible by 9. A number is divisible by 10, when its unit digit is zero. A number is divisible by 11, when the difference between the sums of the alternate digits is either zero or divisible by 11. A number is divisible by 12, when it is divisible by 3 as well as 4.

A number is divisible by 13, if sum of 4 times the digit in units place and the number in the remaining part is multiple of 13. If the difference of 5 times the digit in units place and the number in the remaining part is 0 or multiple of 17, then the number is divisible by 17. If the sum of double the digit in units place of a given number and number in the remaining part is multiple of 19, then the given number is divisible of 19.

Mental Maths (Comparison of Fractions) - Part 1


You have to compare the given fractions in a number of problems in Data Interpretation and Quantitative Ability. Let us study some of the common methods of identifying out the largest or smallest of a given set of fractions which are useful for Mental Maths. Model 1: When the numerators are same and the denominators are different, the fraction with the largest denominator is the smallest. Have a look at the following example. Which of the following fractions is the smallest? (3/5), (3/7), (3/13), (3/8) Here, 13 is the largest denominator, so, (3/13) is the smallest fraction. 5 is the smallest denominator, hence (3/5) is the largest fraction Here logic is simple, Situation 1: Assume that you are 5 children in your family. Your Dad brought an Apple and mom cut it into 5 pieces and distributed among all the children including you. (1/5) Situation 2: Assume that you are 8 Children in your family. Your Dad brought an Apple and mom cut it into 8 pieces and distributed among all the children including you. (1/8) In which Situation will you get the BIG Piece of the Apple? Obviously in the Situation 1. Thats it......... Model 2: When the numerators are different and the denominators are same, the fraction with the largest numerator is the largest. Have a look at the following example. Which of the following fractions is the smallest? (7/5), (9/5), (4/5), (11/5) As 4 is the smallest numerator, the fraction 4/5 is the smallest. As 11 is the largest numerator, the fraction 11/5 is the largest. Here too logic is very simple, Here too logic is very simple. Situation 1: Assume that you are 4 Children in your family. Your Dad brought 8 Apples and mom distributed them among all the children including you. (8/4) Situation 2: Assume that you are 4 Children in your family. Your Dad brought 12 Apples and mom distributed them among all the children including you. (12/4) In which situation will you get more apples? Obviously in the second. So, 12/4 is the Biggest. Thats it ;) Model 3: The fraction with the largest numerator and the smallest denominator is the largest. Which of the following fractions is the largest? (19/16), (24/11), (17/13), (21/14), (23/15) As 24 is the largest numerator and 11 is the smallest denominator, 24/11 is the largest fraction. Logic? Cutting the More fruits into fewer pieces is more beneficial for you than cutting the less fruits into more pieces. Model 4: When the numerators of two fractions are unequal, we try and equate them by suitably cancelling factors or by suitably multiplying the numerators. Thereafter we compare the denominators as in Model 1. Have a look at the following examples. Which of the following fractions is the largest? (64/328), (28/152), (36/176), (49/196) 64/328 = 32/164 = 16/82 = 8/41 this is approximately equal to 1/5 Note: In these types of problems, approximate values will be enough. No need to get EXACT values. 25/152 = 14/76 = 7/38 this is approximately equal to 1/5.5

36/176 = 18/88 = 9/44 this is approximately equal to 1/5 49/196 = 7/28 = 1/4 As all the numerators are 1 and the least denominator is 4, the fraction 49/196 is the largest Which of the following fractions is the largest? (71/181), (214/519), (429/1141) (71/181) = (71 X 6) / (181 X 6) = 426/1086 (214/519) = (214 X 2) / (519 X 2) = 428/1038 The numerators are now all ALMOST equal (426, 428 and 429). The smallest denominator is 1038. So, the largest fraction must be 428/1038 that is 214/519 :) Model 5: For a fraction Less than 1: If the difference between the numerator and the denominator is same then the fraction with the larger values of numerator and denominator will be the largest. Have a look at the following example. Which of the following fractions is the largest? (31/37), (23/29), (17/23), (35/41),(13/19) The difference between the numerator and the denominator of each fraction is 6.... So the fraction with the larger numerals i.e., 35/41 is the greatest and the fraction with smaller numerals i.e., 13/19 is the smallest. For a fraction Greater than 1: If the difference between the numerator and denominator is same, then the fraction with the smaller values will be the largest. Which of the following fraction is largest? (31/27), (43/39), (57/53), (27/23), (29/25) As the difference between the numerator and the denominator is same, the fraction with the smaller values i.e., 27/23 is the largest. Model 6 : Which of the following fractions is the largest? (15/17), (23/29), (31/34), (11/15) Comparing fractions 15/17 and 23/29 The numerator of the fraction has increased from 15 to 23. i.e. 8/15 i.e. a little more than 50%. The denominator of the fraction has increased from 17 to 29. i.e., 12/17 i.e., well over 50%. As the percentage increase in the numerator is less than the percentage increase in the denominator, the fraction 15/17 > 23/29. Now compare 15/17 with 31/34 As the change in the numerator is more than double (15 to 31), and the change in the denominator is exactly double, the fraction 15/17 < 31/34. Now compare 11/15 and 31/34 The numerator has almost tripled from 11 to 31 whereas the denominator has just over doubled from 15 to 34. Since the increase in numerator is greater than the increase in the denominator, 31 /34 > 11/15. So, 31/34 is the largest fraction

LCM and HCF


Factor: A number is said to be a factor of other when it EXACTLY divides the other. Ex: 6 and 7 are Factors of 42. Multiple: A number is said to be a multiple of another, when it is exactly divisible by the other Ex: 42 is a multiple of 6 and 7 Prime Number: Prime number is a number which has no factors except itself and Unity. Ex: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 etc. are prime numbers Composite Number: Composite number is a number which has other factors besides itself and Unity. Ex: 14, 15, 16, 18 etc.

Co-Prime: Two numbers are said to be Co-Prime (Prime To-Each Other) when they have no common factors except Unity. Note: The Co-Primes need not necessarily be Primes. 15 and 19 15, 17 and 22 are Co-Primes Common Multiple: A Common Multiple of two or more numbers is a number which is exactly divisible by each of them. Ex: 12 is a common multiple of 2, 3, 4 and 6 Least Common Multiple (LCM): The LCM of two or more given numbers is the Least Number which is exactly divisible by each of them. Ex: 20 is the Common Multiple of 2, 4, 5 and 10 40 is the Common Multiple of 2, 4, 5 and 10 80 is the Common Multiple of 2, 4, 5 and 10, But Here 20 is the Least Common Multiple of 2, 4, 5, and 10 Highest Common Factor (HCF): The HCF of two or more numbers is the Greatest Number which divides each of them exactly. It is also Called Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) Ex : Find the HCF of 18, 24 Factors of 18 --> 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 Factors of 24 --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 Here the Greatest number, which divides them exactly, is 6. So 6 is the H.C.F of 18, 24 In the above example they have given very small numbers. So it was easy for us to find the HCF. What if they ask you to find the HCF for 84 and 540? Will you write the factors to both of them and then find out the highest number? If you are planning to do that, please erase that thought from your mind :) Because there are several methods to make the process simple Methods of finding HCF: HCF by factorization: 1. Express each of the given number as the product of Prime Factors 2. Choose common factors 3. Find the Product of Lowest Power of these Factors. This Product is the required HCF of the given Numbers Ex: Find the HCF of 84, 540 84 -> 7 X 12 => 71 X 22X31 540 -> 10 X 54 => 2 X 5 X 6 X 9 => 2 X 5 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 3 => 24 X 51 X 33 Now the product of the lowest Powers => 22 X 31 => 12 This is the required HCF If you find this method little confusing, dont worry. There is another method to find HCF. HCF by Method of Division: Consider two different numbers. Divide the longer number by the smaller one. Now divide the divisor by the reminder. Repeat this process of dividing the preceding divisor by the last reminder obtained, till you get the reminder "0" The LAST DIVISOR is the HCF of the given TWO numbers Ex: Find the HCF of 42, 70

42 |70 |1 |42 | 28 |42|1 |28| 14 |28 |2 |28 | 0 Thats it. Now the answer is 14 :)

BODMAS
In The simplifications of numerical questions, the order of mathematical operations to be followed is given in the abbreviated form: "BODMAS", where B stands for 'Bracket' stands for 'Of' D stands for 'Division' M stands for 'Multiplication' A stands for 'Addition' and S stands for 'Subtraction'. Order to be followed by in case of brackets is as follows: ( ) : Small Brackets, { } : Curly Brackets and [ ] : Square Brackets

Average
Average of Given Items: Average = Sum of the given Items Number of those Items Average Speed: Suppose a Person covers a certain distance at X kmph and an equal distance at Y kmph. Then, the average speed for the whole journey will be (2XY)/(X+Y) Kmph Finding the Square of the given Number Square of the number 38. So, the general process is 382 multiplying 38 with itself. But this process takes much time and effort. So, instead of calculating 38 X 38, just use the formula a2 + 2ab + b2 But here you should apply a little trick. If you apply the above formula as it is... you cant get the answer... Just do as mentioned below .3 8

Treat this as b Treat this as a Now follow the below mentioned steps Step 1: find the a2 i.e., 82 = 6

Put the 4 here


4 6

Add this 6 to 48

Put the 6 here Put the 4 here Put the 5 here

Step 2: now calculate 2ab i.e., 2 X 8 X 3 = 48 Add 6 to this 48, by adding 6 to 48 you will get 54 44 5 Step 3: Now Calculate b2 i.e., 32 = 9 Now add the 9 to this 5 = 14 1444 Thats it... The answer is 1444.

Put the 14 here

Now lets have a look at another example. Lets see how to find out the square of 56. I mean 562. Now treat 6 as a, and 5 as b and apply the a2 + 2ab + b2 formula as explained above. First of all, find the a2 i.e., 62 = 36 6 3 Now find 2ab i.e., 2 X 6 X 5 = 60 Add that 3 to 60 = 63 36 6

Put the 6 here Put the 3 here Put the 3 here Put the 6 here

Now find the b2 i.e., 52 = 25, now add this 25 to 6 = 31. And put this before the numbers 3 6. So it will become 3 1 3 6 This is our answer 562 = 3136

Shortcut for Square - A Simple Method


We have already discussed a method for finding the squares of the given number. Now we shall discuss another simplest method to calculate square of the given number. Finding the square of a number ending in 5 is very simple. If the last digit of the number is 5, then the last two digits of the square will be 25.Whatever is the earlier part of the number multiplies it with one more than it and that will be the first part of the answer. (The second part of the answer will be 25 only). 352 = 1225 Here 3 x 4 = 12 so the answer is 1225 452 = 2025 552 = 3025 752 = 5625 952 = 9025 1252 = 15625 1752 = 30625 2352 = 55225 1952 = 38025 2452 = 60025 Well friends, now we know the squares of numbers 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 etc. If we want to find the squares of any other number, we find it using these squares which we already know. For 262 we will go from 252, for 322 we go from 302 and so on. One way is writing 262 = (25+1)2. But we need not even calculate (a+b)2 by adopting the following method. 262 = 252 + 26th odd number. i.e., 625 + 51 = 676 (a+b)2 = a2+ 2ab + b2 262 = (25 + 1 )2 = 252 + 2 x 25 x 1 + 12 = 625 + 50 + 1 = 625 + 51 = 676 So, the answer is same. Now we shall look at an easiest method which will help you to calculate Squares Mentally. 12 = 1 = 1 22 = 4 = 1+3 32 = 9 = 1+ 3 + 5 42 = 16 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 52 = 25 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 I mean, to get n2, you should add the FIRST n odd numbers. If we want 172, it will be the sum of the FIRST 17 odd numbers.

nth odd number is equal to (2n - 1) Suppose you want to find out 62 knowing what 52 is, we can move from 52 to 62. 62 will be the sum of 1st 6 odd numbers. But the sum of the first 6 odd numbers can be written as "Sum of the first 5 odd numbers" + "Sixth odd number". Since we already know that the sum of the FIRST 5 odd numbers is 52, i.e., 25, we need to add the sixth odd number, i mean (2x 6-1) =11 to 25 to give us 62 = 36. Similarly 312= 900 + 31st Odd number = 900 + 61 = 961 362 = 1225 + 36th odd number = 1225 + 71 = 1296 (remember that 352 = 1225) 412= 1600 + 81 = 1681 462 = 2025 + 91 = 2116 1262= 15625 + 251 = 15876 1962= 38025 + 391 = 38416 2162= 46225 + 461 = 46656

Mental Maths (Additions)


Examples........ 342 + 557 + 629 + 746 + 825 =? When we are adding three-digit numbers, first add-two-digits at a time (Units and Tens Place). 42 + 57 + 29 +| 46 + 25 = 199 To add 42 and 57, mentally treat 57 as 50 + 7 (Because 50 would facilitate quick addition) So, 42 + 57 = (42 + 50) + 7 = 92+ 7 = 99 Similarly, 99 + 29 = (99 + 20_ + 9 = 128 128 + 46 = (128 + 40) + 6 = 174 174 + 25 = (174 + 20) + 5 = 199 The last two digits (the units place and the tens place) of the addition are 99, while the digit 1 is to be carried forward). Now Add, 1 (Carried) + 3 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 30 So, the answer of the above addition is 3099 (initially, it may look little confusing. Just practice this method and you can find how efficient this method is) The same logic can be extended to 4 digit additions too.

Mental Maths (Subtractions)


987 256 =? Instead of taking a single digit at a time, subtractions would be faster by taking two digits. See here, 87 - 56 = 31 900 - 200 = 700 So, the result of 987 - 256 = 731 824 587 =? Take 100s Complement of 87 (i.e. 100 - 87) which is 13 and add it to 24. The result is 37. This gives the units and tens digits of the result. Since 24 < 87, we have actually subtracted 87 from 124 i.e. we have borrowed 1 from 8 (of 824). So, we now do (7 -5) = 2. The result is 237. 9217 858 =? Adding 100s complement of 58 (which is 42, i mean 58 + 42 = 100) to 17, we get (42+17) = 59 which gives the units and 10s digits of the result. Since 58 is greater than 17, we have to borrow 1 from 92 which leaves us with 91. So, the first part of the answer is 91 - 8 = 83. SO, the result is 8359. 934 286 + 847 798 =? When we have a combination of additions and subtractions, first add all the numbers with + sign before them and add all the numbers with sign before them. I mean (934 + 847) - (286 + 798) = 1781 1084. By applying the method explained in previous examples, 1781 - 1084 = 697.

Problems on LCM and HCF


1. Find the least number which when increased by 4 is exactly divisible by 8, 16, 24, 30 and 32? a) 480 b) 484 c) 476 d) 472 e) None of these What is the greatest number of five digits which when 3769 is added to it will be exactly divisible by 5, 6, 10, 12, 15 and 18? a) 4309 b) 9945 c) 100539 d) 99911 e) None of These Find the minimum number of square tiles required to pave the floor of a room of 2m 50cm long and 1m 50cm broad? a) 50 b) 750 c) 45 d) 15 e) None of these Five bells toll together at the intervals of 5, 6, 8, 12 and 20 seconds respectively. Find the number of times they toll together in one hour's time (Inclusive of the toll at the beginning) a) 120 b) 31 c) 30 d) 5 e) None of These A milk man has three different kinds of milk 493liters, 551 liters and 435 liters. Find the minimum number of equal size containers required to store all the milk without mixing. a) 29 b) 51 c) 58 d) 49 e) None of these The circumference of the front and back wheels of a vehicle are 6 3/14 m and 8 1/18m respectively. At any given moment, a chalk mark is put on the point of contact of each wheel with the ground. Find the distance traveled by the vehicle so that both the chalk marks are again on the ground at the same time a) 217.5 m b) 435 m c) 412m d) 419m e) None of these The LCM of two numbers is 28 times of their HCF. The sum of their LCM and HCF is 1740. If one of the numbers is 420, the other number is a) 150 b) 225 c) 180 d) 240 e) None of these Two persons A and B walk around a circular track whose radius is 1.4 km. A walks at a speed of 176 meters per minute while B walks at a speed of 110 meters per minute. If they both start at the same time, from the

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same point and walk in the same direction, at what interval of time would they both be at the same starting point again? (In Hours) a) 6 2/3 b) 2 1/3 c) 5 1/4 d) 3 2/3 e) None of these 9. Find the least number which when divided by 8, 9, 15, 24, 32 and 36 leaves remainders 3, 4, 10, 19, 27 and 31 respectively? a) 2880 b) 2885 c) 2974 d) 2875 e) None of these

10. Find the greatest number which when divide 357, 192 and 252 leaves same remainder in each case a) 45 b) 1 c) 15 d) Cant be determined e) None of these Solutions: 1. LCM of 8, 16, 24, 30 and 32 is 480 So, required number is 480 - 4 = 476 LCM of 5, 6, 10, 12 and 18 is 540 On dividing (99999 + 3769) by 540, the remainder is 88 So, the required number is 99999 - 88 = 99911 HCF of 250 cm and 150 cm is 50 cm, which is the side of the tile So, the required number of tiles = (250 X 150) / (50X50) = 15 Time after which all the bells toll together is the LCM of 5, 6, 8, 12 and 20. i.e., 120 seconds = 20 minutes The number of times they toll together in one hour = 60/2 = 30 + 1 (beginning tone) So, the answer is 31 As minimum numbers of containers are required, the size of the container should be maximum and the size is also equal. So size of the container will be HCF of 493, 551 and 435 i.e., 29 So, required number of containers is = (493+551+435) / 29 = 51 The required distance is the LCM of 6 3/14 and 8 1/18 LCM of 6 3/14 and 8 1/18 = LCM (87/14, 145/18) LCM(87,145) / HCF (14,18) = 435/2 = 217.5m LCM = 28 HCF LCM + HCF = 1740 28 HCF + HCF = 1740 HCF = 1740/29 = 60 and LCM = 28X60 if a and b are two numbers, then LCM of (a & b) X HCF of (a & b) = aXb 28X60X60 = x X 420 = > x = 240 So, the other number is 240 Circumference of the track is 2r = 2 X (22/7) X 1400m = 8800 m Time taken by A to complete one round = (8800m) / (176m/min) = (8800X60)/(176) = 3000 sec Time taken by B to complete one round = (8800) / (110m/min) = (8800X60) / (110) = 4800 sec

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Time they meet together at the starting point is LCM of 3000 and 4800 sec i.e., 24000 sec = 6 2/3 hours So, they meet at the starting point after 6 2/3 hours 9. We can observe that the difference between the numbers and their remainders is same i.e., 8-3 = 9-4 = 15-10 = 24-19 = 32-27 = 36-31 = 5 So, required answer is LCM (8, 9, 15, 24, 32, 36) - 5 = > 2880 - 5 = 2875 10. Required answer is HCF (357-192, 192-252, 357-252) = > HCF (165, 60, 105) = 15

Problems on Average
1. What is the average of first 21 multiples of 7? a. 49 b. 147 c. 77 d. Cant be determined e. None of these In a class, the average age of 30 boys is 13 years and the average of 20 girls is 12 years. What is the average age of the whole class? a. 12.5 Yrs. b. 14.2 Yrs. c. 12.3 Yrs. d. 12.6 Yrs. e. None of these The average of seven numbers is 18. The average of first three numbers is 14 and the average of last three numbers is 19. What is the middle number? a. 42 b. 57 c. 27 d. Cant be determined e. None of these The average age of a class of 32 students is 16 yrs. if the teacher's age is also included, the average increases by one year. Find the age of the teacher a. 49 b. 46 c. 48 d. Cant say e. None of these The average weight of a class of 20 boys was calculated to be 58.4 kgs and it was later found that one weight was misread as 56 kg instead of 65 kg. What is the correct weight? a. 67.4kg b. 58.85kg c. 57.75kg d. 49.4kg e. None of these The average weight of 8 persons increases by 1.5kg when a person weighting 65kg is replaced by a new person. What could be the weight of the new person? a. 53kg b. 58.85kg c. 75kg d. 77kg e. None of these

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The average temperature for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday is 36.3 degrees C. The average temperature for Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday is 36.7 degrees C. if Monday's temperature recorded as 39 degrees c, find the Thursday's temperature ? a. 40.2 degrees C b. 39.2 degrees C c. 41.4 degrees C d. 40.4 degrees C e. None of these A man spends Rs. 1600 per month on an average for the first three months, Rs 1550 for next four months and Rs. 1800 per month for the last five months and saves Rs . 5200 a year. What is his average monthly income? a. Rs. 2050 b. Rs. 210 c. Rs. 1950 d. Rs. 2200 e. None of these There were 45 students in a hostel, if the numbers of students increased by 7, the expenses of the mess were increased by Rs. 39 per day while the average expenditure per head diminished by Re.1. What is the original expenditure of the mess? a. Rs. 624 b. Rs. 562 c. Rs. 585 d. Rs. 598 e. None of these

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10. The average age of father and his two sons is 27 Years. Five years ago, the average age of the two sons was 12 Years. If the difference between the ages of the two sons is four years, what is the present age of the father? a. 42 b. 48 c. 44 d. 47 e. None of these Answers : 1. Required average = 7(1+2+....+21) / 21 = (7/21)X ( (21x22) / 2 ) (because sum of first 21 natural numbers) = 77 2. Total age of 50 students = (30X 13+20 X 12) = 630 Average = 630/50 = 12.6 Years 3. The total of seven numbers = 7X18 = 126 The total of first 3 and last 3 numbers is = 3 X 14+3 X 19 = 99 So, the middle number is (126 - 99 ) = 27 4. Total age of students is 32X16 = 512 Years Total age inclusive of teacher = 33X (16+1) = 561 So, Teacher's age is 561-512 = 49 Yrs. There is a shortcut for these type of problems : Teacher's age is 16+(33X1) = 49 Years 5. Actual total weight is (20X 58.4 - 56 + 65) = 1177 Kgs Actual average weight is 1177/20 = 58.85kgs 6. Let the average weight of 8 persons be 'x' years and the age of the new person be 'y' years so, (8x - 65 + y) / 8 = x+1.5 so, y = 77kgs Shortcut : 65 + 8X1.5 = 77kgs

7. Mon + Tue + wed Temperature = 3X36.3 = 108.9 Tue + wed Temperature = 108.9 - 39 = 69.9 Tue + wed + Thu temperature = 3X36.7 = 110.1 So, Thursday's temperature = 110.1 - 69.9 = 40.2 degrees C 8. Total expenditure for the first 3 months = 3X1600 = 4800 Total expenditure for 4 months = 4X1550 = 6200 Total expenditure for 5 months = 5X1800 = 9000 Total expenditure and saving (which is income for one year) = 4800 + 6200 + 9000 + 5200 = Rs. 25200 So, Average monthly income = 25200/12 = Rs. 2100 9. Let the original expenditure be Rs.x Original average expenditure = X/45 New average expenditure = (x+39)/52 So (x/45) - ((x+39) / 52) = 1 so x = 585 so, original expenditure is Rs 585 10. The total present age of father and two sons is 3S27 = 81 yrs. The total present age of sons is (12+5) X 2 = 34Years so, present age of father is 81 - 34 = 47 yrs.

Squares
1x1=1 2x2=4 3x3=9 4 x 4 = 16 5 x 5 = 25 6 x 6 = 36 7 x 7 = 49 8 x 8 = 64 9 x 9 = 81 10 x 10 = 100 11 x 11 = 121 12 x 12 = 144 13 x 13 = 169 14 x 14 = 196 15 x 15 = 225 16 x 16 = 256 17 x 17 = 289 18 x 18 = 324 19 x 19 = 361 20 x 20 = 400 21 x 21 = 441 22 x 22 = 484 23 x 23 = 529 24 x 24 = 576 25 x 25 = 625 26 x 26 = 676 27 x 27 = 729 28 x 28 = 784 29 x 29 = 841 30 x 30 = 900

Cubes
1X1X1=1 2X2X2=8 3 X 3 X 3 = 27 4 X 4 X 4 = 64 5 X 5 X 5 = 125 6 X 6 X 6 = 216 7 X 7 X 7 = 343 8 X 8 X 8 = 512 9 X 9 X 9 = 729 10 X 10 X 10 = 1000 11 X 11 X 11 = 1331 12 X 12 X 12 = 1728 13 X 13 X 13 = 2197 14 X 14 X 14 = 2744 15 X 15 X 15 = 3375