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# 3.

Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing Resistance of a ship: RT = f (V , L, , , g ) Total resistance V Speed of the ship L Length of the ship Density of the fluid Kinematic viscosity of the fluid g Acceleration of gravity

3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing Dimensional analysis Total resistance coefficient CT = CT ( Rn , Fn )
T Total resistance coefficient CT = 2 1 / 2 V S (S = Wetted surface)

## Reynolds number Rn = Froude number

Fn =

VL

V gL
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Flow similarity

## Equal non-dimensional numbers. - Reynolds number: - Froude number:

Rns = Rnm Vm =
Fns = Fnm Vm =

Ls Vs Lm
Lm Vs Ls

(same fluid)

Conclusion: it is impossible to satisfy simultaneously the equality of Reynolds and Froude numbers. The model dimensions do not allow the equality of the Reynolds number for model testing.
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

Resistance force is measured at model scale (model) and extrapolated for full scale (ship). Measurements are performed with the equality of the Froude number at model and full scale (Froude scaling):
Vm = 1 / 2V s

= Ls / Lm is the scale factor. Models length Lm is determined by the geometrical properties of the towing tank.

3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

The length of the model should try to minimize the difference in Reynolds number (maximum length) within the limits imposed by the towing tank dimensions. The precision of the measurements increases with the growth of the model. Model dimensions are limited by the depth (h) and width (b) of the towing tank section to avoid a significant influence of the bottom and side walls.

3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

Typical model dimensions: h: depth Lm < b / 2 b: width Area of the models midsection < 1/200 bh
Lm < h

With the reduction of the ships length it becomes difficult to avoid a significant region of laminar flow. At full scale, the flow is nearly fully-turbulent (region of laminar flow at the bow is negligible). Therefore, model testing should avoid laminar flow.
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

For the typical Reynolds number of model testing (106 to 107), transition to turbulence must be stimulated: Trip wires, studs or roughness strips applied at the bow. These devices introduce an added resistance that has to be estimated to correct the measured resistance. Turbulence of the outer flow may be increased with the use of grids or bars in the incoming flow.

3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

The model is towed at a constant speed and it is generally free to heave, surge, pitch and roll. The resistance force is measured. The test is performed at different speeds.
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance tests

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance components

Resistance has two contributions: Friction resistance. (Shear-stress at the wall) Pressure (residual) resistance. (Pressure distribution on the ship surface) Non-dimensional coefficients: CT ( Rn , Fn ) = C F ( Rn ) + C R ( Rn , Fn )

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance components. Froudes hypothesis

Froudes Hypothesis: The friction resistance may be calculated from the flow over a flat plate with the same length of the ship (equality of Reynolds number) and the same wetted surface. All the rest is residual resistance. The residual resistance is independent of the Reynolds number, i.e. it depends only on the Froude number. CT ( Rn , Fn ) = C F ( Rn ) + C R ( Fn )

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance components. Froudes hypothesis

Model scale: Total resistance coefficient: RTm CT m = 1 / 2 mVm 2 S m Friction resistance coefficient: C Fm = C F ( Rnm ) Residual resistance coefficient: C Rm = CT m C Fm

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Resistance components. Froudes hypothesis

## Ship (full scale): Residual resistance coefficient:

C R s = C R m = CT m C Fm

Friction resistance coefficient: C Fs = C F ( Rns ) Total resistance coefficient: CTs = C R s + C Fs + ca Correlation allowance, ca
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Extrapolation of the friction resistance

Schoenherr:
0,242 = log( Rn C F ) CF

ITTC 1957:
CF = 0,075 (log10 Rn 2) 2

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Geosims Lucy Ashton

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Geosims Simon Bolivar

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3. Resistance of a Ship
Resistance components
Froudes method
CT

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log Rn

3. Resistance of a Ship
Resistance components
Viscous pressure resistance Form drag
CT

CR

F>0 F=0

CF

Resistncia de forma

log R

## CT = (1 + k )C F + C w Form (viscous pressure) resistance coefficient: kCF 1+k: Form factor

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3. Resistance of a Ship
Resistance components
Hughess method
CT

log Rn

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Deteremination of form factor Prohaskas method

CF

## Total resistance coefficient: CT = (1 + k )C F + cFn 4 Therefore, 4 CT Fn = (1 + k ) + c CF CF

Fn 4 CF

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Extrapolation of the Resistance, ITTC method

Model scale: Total resistance coefficient: RTm CTm = 1 / 2 mVm 2 S m Friction resistance coefficient. ITTC line:
C Fm = C F ( Rnm ) Form factor 1+k,viscous resistance coefficient: CV = (1 + k )C Fm

## Wave resistance coefficient: Cwm = CT m (1 + k )C Fm

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Extrapolation of the Resistance, ITTC method

Ship (full scale): Wave resistance coefficient: Cws = Cwm Form factor 1+k independent of Reynolds number. Friction resistance coefficient, ITTC line: C Fs = C F ( Rns ) Total resistance coefficient: CTs = (1 + k )C Fs + Cws + ca Correlation allowance ca
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: For typical roughness heights k s smaller than the thickness of the viscous sub-layer (region with negligible Reynolds stresses), the wall shear-stress is not affected by the roughness of the wall, hydrodynamically smooth wall.

w u =

k s u

<5

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: For typical roughness heights k s much larger than the thickness of the viscous sub-layer (region with negligible Reynolds stresses), the wall shear-stress becomes independent of the Reynolds number and essentially determined by the roughness height, fully-rough regime.

k s u

> 70 80

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: Equivalent sand-grain roughness height, k sg , of a given surface is the height of an evenly distributed sand-grain roughned flat plate that produces the same resistance of the selected surface. This is a single parameter definition of roughness that is not easy to obtain for real ship surfaces. A recently painted ship has a typical value of ksg=30m, which is equivalent to 150m for the average roughness height, kM, (the typical roughness height measured in shipyards).
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: The non-dimensional parameter used to quantify roughness effects is the Reynolds number based on the roughness height

Rk =

Vk sg

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

Roughness effects on the wall shear-stress of a turbulent flow: Near-wall non-dimensional roughness parameter depends on the Reynolds number of the flow 0.1 C u k k x k s 0.9 f + s s k = = RL 0.17 RL 2 L L L Model testing is perfomed with hydrodynamically smooth surfaces. Full scale ships have rough surfaces.
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Roughness effects

Roughness effects are covered by the correlation allowance,ca . The correlation allowance is not only a roughness correction. Each model basin uses its know-how to determine ca. Holtrops formula for the correlation allowance: ca = 0.006( Lwl + 100) 0,16 0.00205 Bowden and Davison formula:
kM ca = 0.105 L PP 0.00064
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Appendage resistance

Resistance tests are frequently performed with the rudder and the remaining appendages (shaft brackets, bilge keels, fins, etc). The appendages contribute to the wetted surface of the ship. The Reynolds number based on the ship length (and undisturbed velocity) is not representative of the local flow on the appendages. In general, due to the smallest dimensions of the appendages, the local flow has a smaller Reynolds number than the ship flow.
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Appendage resistance

The extrapolation of the resistance based on a friction resistance dependent on the Reynolds number and an equal form factor at model and full scale, may not be applicable to each appendage separately. Due to the small size of the appendages at model scale, it may be impossible to avoid laminar flow on the appendages for the lowest velocity tests, required to determine the form factor. At full scale, the flow will be fully-turbulent on the appendages.
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3. Resistance of a Ship
3.1 Model testing
Appendage resistance

An alternative way to determine the viscous pressure resistance of the appendages (form drag) is to perform two model scale tests at high speed for a bare hull and a fully-appended model. Assuming that the wave resistance is equal in both models and that the friction resistance component may be corrected according to the wetted surface of the two models, the difference between the resistance of the two tests gives a measure of the viscous pressure resistance of the appendages.

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