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Tourism is generally considered a clean industry, one that is based on hotels, restaurants, shops and attractions, instead of factories.

But the impact of tourism can be vast and can also degrade the environment. Tourists generate the wastes and also responsible for pollution. Litter has become a major problem in Goa and there is no infrastructure to deal with it. The situation in Goa is complex as for as the use of resources and institutional responses are concern, the large number of stakeholders is involved in tourism; the Luxury Hotels, family-run Guest Houses are operating and cater to provide the accommodations to shacks have creating problems and also responsible for deteriorating the marine resources. Hence, there is a need of the hour to promote tourism and readdress the issues related to the tourism. Key words: Environmental degradation, aesthetic beauty, marine resources, tourists' paradise, hospitable people. Issues of tourism. INTRODUCTION Goa is a Paradise on the earth, not by the people but by the nature. The natural aesthetic beauty is only key aspect for the tourism. Goa, with its silvery beaches bordered by coconut groves, swimming winds and waves, vast verdant lands, a fine network of rivers, canals and creeks, a salubrious climate amenable people, a delectable cuisine, has now come to occupy a high place on the tourist map of the world. Meagre natural beauty alone will not promote the tourism. The required infrastructural facilities are responsible for emerging tourism as an industry. Today, Goa is earning 13.70 per cent GDP from tourism sector, Goa is well endowed with resources particularly minerals as well as marine. The economic activates are creating ample of employment opportunities and attracts lot many labour force, along with tourism industry. The hotel industry is coming up as an off spring in the Goan economy with scope of transportation, travel operators, marketing etc are main forces. The massive growth of tourism will be largely concentrated along the beaches and it has already imposed a perceptible strain on local society and resources. The residents in the coastal areas have had to absorb a cultural shock with clearly discernible social and economic dimensions. There is growing resentment which is reflected in a new political consciousness based primarily on the issue of tourism which has not yet been seen in other parts of the country. In fact, the effects of tourism on environment, social and economic sector of Goa have generated many problems also. Despite the euphoria about benefits of tourism and its role in economic development, the recent decades have seen strong reservations over unregulated forms of tourism

development. The banes of tourism and its detrimental consequences have been documented rather elaborately. Some of the key concerns could be easily identified, categorized broadly into environmental, economic, sociocultural and ethical-legal issues. REIVEWOFLITERATURE Before 20th Century, literature on tourism was not available, even if it is available is only in the form of experiences. Only after 1933 systematic work on tourism was first published by Barness (1933), it is the best descriptive work and became the foundation for tourism. Norval (1936) studied the international tourism industry, but not much attention was paid on foreign tourists flow. Coffean (1937) threw light on certain landuse pattern for tourism. In 1948 British Travel Association (BTA) prepared a report on tourism industry, but this method was criticised many researchers. Thomson (1963) analysed tourism by taking sample of firm and the hotel industry. Warst (1965) has thrown a light about economic benefit of tourism by using method to eliminate the errors in qualifying tourist expenditure through the hidden factors of tourist turnover. Andriellow (1965) insists on the environmental regulation in developing tourist centres. Kozlowski and Huges (1972) applied threshold analysis and measured the existing capacity of tourist facilities. Mitchel (1973) published research paper on Indian hill stations. Burkart and Medlik (1974) have developed a theoretical concept of anatomy of tourism marketing finance. Farness (1974) highlighted the impact of tourism on regional economy both by conceptual as well as empirical approaches. Papson (1980) has predicted that the world tourism would become the largest industry, nearly 2000 million tourists travelling in 2000 A.D. Micheal Leinter A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA ABSTRACT The present paper aims to study the development and issues of Tourism in Goa, from the spatial perception point of view. The preservation of the natural environment, the prudent use of natural resources, disposal of solid waste and sewage, and the depletion and deterioration of groundwater are important issues related to the tourism is the main consideration in the present study. Many coastal communities thus experienced a dramatic growth during this period with constructions of resorts and other buildings. Goa is a tiny emerald land on the West Coast of India. Known as Rome of the East, Tourist Paradise and Pearl of the Orient. Goa with its aesthetic beauty, attractive beaches, churches, temples, unique architecture, feasts and festivals, casinos, cruises, rave parties and above all hospitable people with a rich cultural milieu has become a firm favourite to the tourists around the world. P.R.Morakar Research Scholar (FIP)

Department of Geography, K.U.Dharwad. A.A.Mulimani Associate Professor and Chairman, Department of Geography, K.U.Dharwad. Please cite this Article as : , : Golden Research Thoughts (Feb ; 2012) P.R.Morakar & A.A.Mulimani A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOAVol.1,Issue.VIII/Feb 2012; (1999) has studied promoting peace through international tourism. Indian literature on tourism is in the form of pilgrimage, the modern tourism counts from 1960. Mahadev and Ramesh (1967) are prominent researchers who threw light on hotel industry. Misra and Tungamani (1972) have developed a conceptual and empirical model of tourism with planning by assessing the resources. Gupta and Krishnalal (1974) focussed on the tourist attraction of India. Dilip (1975) has given a theoretical account of the world tourism and its potential impact on Indian tourism. Tejvir Singh (1975) has dealt about the physical features as recreation resources and classification of recreation resources in Uttar Pradesh. Other prominent personalities who worked on tourism are; Dixit (1976), Bhatia (1978), Thangamani (1980), Ambli (1983), Vijayakumar Gupta (1987), Deshpande (1989), Ramachandra Rao (1990), Shalini Singh (1994), Swamy (1996), Sushma Seth Bhat (1996), Batra (1996), Sinha (1998), P.K.Singh (1998), Jain (1998) and others. STUDYAREA The State of Goa has an area of 3,702 square kilometres with the total population of 13,43,998 (2001 Census), out of which 6, 85,617 are males' and 6, 58,381 are females. It has extended from 1453'54 North to 1548'00 North Latitudes and 7340'33 East to 7421'13 East Longitudes. North, Goa shares its boundary with Sawantwadi taluka of Ratnagiri and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra, in the East and South bounded by Belgaum and Uttar Kannada districts of Karnataka, and on West surrounded by the mighty Arabian Sea ( Fig no:-1). OBJECTIVES: The specific objectives for the present study are: 1. to study the positive and negative impacts of tourism. 2. to study the natural and cultural problems associated with tourism of the study area. 3. to deal and explain the aesthetic beauty of the tourist spots for the attraction of the tourists. 4. To appreciate the application of strategies adopted

for the healthy tourism in the study area. HYPOTHESIS It is hypothesised that.......... 1. the tourist spots attracts the tourists to exhibits the aesthetic beauty . 2. the infrastructural facilities are responsible for A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA spending the leisure time and enjoying a pleasure by the tourist. 3. the tourism industry spoils the natural beauty and create problems to the locals. DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY The present paper is an outcome of exhaustive secondary sources of information/data. The information related to tourist spots has been collected from the Goa Tourism Development Corporation (GTDC). Arrivals of tourists of both domestic and international, revenue earned through tourism, infrastructural development for development of tourism in the state, etc have also collected from Directorate of Planning and Statistics etc. The collected information has been compiled and prepared the tables and charts for analysis. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN GOA Goa has rich cultural heritage, the concept of tourism and tourism industry has emerged in their soil only after liberation in 1961.This industry has given ample scope for generating employment opportunity, along with other industries like hotel and transportations are also developed, this has happen due to development of infrastructural facilities. The emerging hotel industry, transport sectors are other sectors are benefiting through the tourism industry. As a result, the tourism is prospering in the study region. The domestic tourism is more active than the international tourism. TOURISTARRIVALS On account of aggressive media campaign undertaken by the government, tourist in flow to the state has reached to 2.64 million marks for the calendar year 2010. To cater to the increased tourist traffic in flow reflected to increase, at present, the bed capacity has gone up to 44,066 as on March, 2010. 626 Charter flights has brought in 1, 37,790 tourist for the season October to May 2009-10 and for the current season upto January 2011, 507 flights have brought in 1, 02,964 foreign tourists to the State. Atourist an arrival of both domestic and international, arrival of charted flights and nationality wise foreign tourist arrives from 2000 to 2010 is given in the tables of 1, 2 and 3, hence, the hypothesis that the tourist spots attracts the tourism to exhibits attractive beauty is confirmed. TOURISTATTRACTION SITES

is rich in folk culture with a delightful blend of vigorous Konkani folk songs and remnants of Portuguese dance and music. Goa is best known for its spectacular , but there are many old churches, monuments, temples and museums, that are a must see. Goa beaches Table.1 Number of Tourist Arrivals in Goa Year Dome stic Foreign Total Growth 2000 9,76,806 2,91,709 12,68,513 1.9 2001 11,20,242 2,60,071 13,80,313 8.8 2002 13,25,296 2,71,645 15,96,941 15.7 2003 17,25,140 3,14,357 20,39,497 27.7 2004 20,85,729 3,63,230 24,48,959 20.1 2005 19,65,343 3,36,803 23,02,146 -6.0 2006 20,98,654 3,80,414 24,79,068 7.7 2007 22,08,986 3,88,457 25,97,443 4.8 2008 20,20,416 3,51,123 23,71,539 -8.7 2009 21,27,063 3,76,640 25,03,703 5.6 2010(P) 22,01,752 4,41,053 26,42,805 5.6 P-Provisional, Source: Directorate of Tourism, Government of Goa, 2010-11. Please cite this Article as : P.R.Morakar & A.A.Mulimani , A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA : Golden Research Thoughts (Feb ; 2012) Vol.1,Issue.VIII/Feb 2012; The table 4 and fig.2 evidently shows that the beach tourism is concentrated in coastal talukas of Pernem, Bardez, Tiswadi, Mormugao, Salcete and Canacona. Quepem taluka has only one beach. Talukas of Bicholim, Satari, Ponda and Sanguem do not have any beaches, but they are also exhibits the beauty of many temples and churches. The Lakes, Springs, Waterfalls, Museums, Masques, Forts, Bird sanctuaries, Wildlife sanctuaries, Dams, Islands, Spice plants, Art galleries and etc attractive spots. The Wildlife sanctuaries are concentrated in talukas of Ponda, Sanguem and Canacona. The study region is also witnessed major festivals of Carnivals and Shigmostava. Due to the International Film Festival (IFFI) multiplied the tourism industry, food festivals organised by GTDC is also responsible for the development of tourism industry in the study region. Since beaches are in the coastal talukas of west, other natural tourist spots like dams, wildlife and bird sanctuaries are along the Sahyadris in the east and temples and churches are in the midland of the study region attracts tourists of different tastes. Recently rave parties, casinos, cruises are the other attraction to the tourist and arranged by the different organisations. Therefore, the hypothesis that the infrastructural facilities are responsible for

spreading the leisure time and enjoys the pleasure by the tourist has been confirmed. IMPACTS OFTOURISM IN GOA POSITIVE IMPACTS 1. Generating Income and Employment: Tourism A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA in Goa has emerged as an instrument of income and employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. It contributes 13.7 per cent to the national GDPand 11.00 per cent of the total employment in Goa. 2. Source of Foreign Exchange Earnings: Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in Goa. This has favourable impact on the balance of payment. The tourism industry in Goa generated about Rupees 1500 Crores. In 2010 (p) figures shows that, the number of domestic tourists were more than 22 lakh while that of the foreign tourists were more than 4.1 lakhs (Table. No.4). 3. Preservation of National Heritage and Environment: Tourism helps preserve several places which are of historical importance by declaring them as heritage sites. For instance, the old goa Church, Tamadi Surla Temple etc would have been decayed and destroyed had it not been for the efforts taken by the GTDC to preserve them. 4. Developing Infrastructure: Tourism tends to encourage the development of multiple-use infrastructure that benefits the host community, including various means of transports, health care facilities, and sports centres, in addition to the hotels and high-end restaurants that cater to foreign visitors. 5. Promoting Peace and Stability: Researcher suggests that the tourism industry can also help promote peace and stability in Goa by providing jobs, generating income, diversifying the economy, protecting the environment, and promoting crosscultural awareness. However, key challenges like adoption of regulatory frameworks, mechanisms to reduce crime and corruption, etc, must be addressed if peace-enhancing benefits from this industry are to be realized. NEGETIVE IMPACTS/ISSUES OF GOAN TOURISM: 1. Undesirable Social and Cultural Change: Tourism is responsible for destruction of the social fabric of a community. From the late 60's to the early 80's when the Hippy culture was at its height, Goa was a haven for such hippies. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state leading to a rise in the use of drugs, prostitution and

Table.1 Number of Tourist Arrivals in Goa Year Dome stic Foreign Total Growth 2000 9,76,806 2,91,709 12,68,513 1.9 2001 11,20,242 2,60,071 13,80,313 8.8 2002 13,25,296 2,71,645 15,96,941 15.7 2003 17,25,140 3,14,357 20,39,497 27.7 2004 20,85,729 3,63,230 24,48,959 20.1 2005 19,65,343 3,36,803 23,02,146 -6.0 2006 20,98,654 3,80,414 24,79,068 7.7 2007 22,08,986 3,88,457 25,97,443 4.8 2008 20,20,416 3,51,123 23,71,539 -8.7 2009 21,27,063 3,76,640 25,03,703 5.6 2010(P) 22,01,752 4,41,053 26,42,805 5.6 P-Provisional, Source: Directorate of Tourism, Government of Goa, 2010-11. TABLE.4 SECTOR COMPOSITION OF GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST BY INDUSTRY (2004-05 TO 2009-10) Percent Sl .No Industr y 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2009-10 2009-10(A) 1 Agri culture ,Forestrya nd Fishing 7.92 9.31 7.00 7.24 6.80 6.76 2 Mining andQuarrying 4.46 4.38 6.27 13.12 13.86 13.49 3 Ma nufac turing 30.22 29.50 29.70 26.28 25.19 24.72 4 El ectric ity, Gas and Wa ter Supply 2.27 2.24 2.28 1.72 2.08 1.72 5 Construction 10.38 9.95 9.92 8.54 8.86 9.88 6 Trade, Hotels, Restaurant, Transport , Storage and Communication (Tourism) 25.87 25.81 2 5.51 25.80 24.94 2 4.94 7 Financing, Insuranc e,Real Est ate a nd Busine ss Se rvic es 11.40 11.57 12.17 11.02 10.92 10.84 8 Community, Social and Personal Servi ces. 7.47 7.25 7.15 6.99 7.26 7.65 GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GSDP) 100.00 100. 00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Source: Directorate of Statistics and Evaluation, Stastical Hand Books, 2004-05 to 2009-10. Please cite this Article as : P.R.Morakar & A.A.Mulimani , A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA : Golden Research Thoughts (Feb ; 2012) Vol.1,Issue.VIII/Feb 2012;

human trafficking. 2. Increase Tension and Hostility: Tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion between the tourists and the local communities when there is no respect and understanding for each other's culture and way of life. This may further lead to violence and other crimes committed against the tourists. 3. Creating a Sense of Antipathy: Tourism brought little benefit to the local community. In most allinclusive package tours more than 80% of travellers' fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and workers. Moreover, large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence. This has often created a sense of antipathy towards the tourists and the government. 4. Adverse Effects on Environment and Ecology: Increased transport and construction activities led to large scale deforestation and destabilisation of natural landforms, while increased tourist flow led to increase in solid waste dumping as well as depletion of water and fuel resources. Flow of tourists to ecologically sensitive areas resulted in destruction of rare and endangered species due to trampling, killing, disturbance of breeding habitats. 5. Depletion of Natural Resources: Tourism development can put pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where resources are already scarce. (i) Water resources:Water, especially fresh water, is one of the most critical natural resources. The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generating a greater volume of waste water. Talukas like Bardez, Tiswadi and Pernem are already facing such problems. (ii) Local resources: Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food, and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Because of the seasonal character of the industry, many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have.

(iii) Land degradation: Important land resources include minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetland and wildlife. Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA landscapes. Direct impact on natural resources, both renewable and non renewable, in the provision of tourist facilities is caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use of building materials. 6. Pollution Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry: air emissions, noise, solid waste and littering, releases of sewage, oil and chemicals, even architectural/visual pollution. (i) Air and Noise Pollution: Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number of tourist activities in Goa. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level, especially from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to transportation energy use. Some of these impacts are quite specific to tourist activities where the sites of coastal belt are an evident (ii) Solid waste and littering: In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment - rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. (iii) Sewage: Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Changes in salinity and siltation can have wide-ranging impacts on coastal environments. And sewage pollution can threaten the health of humans and animals. 7. Destruction and Alteration of Ecosystem An ecosystem is a geographic area including all the living organisms, their physical surroundings and the natural cycles that sustain them. Attractive landscape sites, such as sandy beaches lakes, riversides, wildlife sanctuaries and mountain tops and slopes, are often transitional zones, characterized by species-rich ecosystems. PLANNING STRATEGY 1. With the cost of scare resources like water and energy spiraling and thus eating into tight profits, their 'sustainable use' has a twofold advantage; one to

reduce input costs and the second to be largely self reliant. Since mangrove trees are grown along the coastal areas, strict vigilance is required. 2. In a place like Goa, tourist accommodations for one have large and expensive energy requirements, especially for cooling systems and lighting. Researcher strongly recommends that an energy audit and identify various areas that could do with energy efficiency, these areas could include the hotel lobby, guest rooms, meeting rooms, corridors and the kitchen and offices as well. After this the hotel could introduce energy conserving methods like ensuring Please cite this Article as : P.R.Morakar & A.A.Mulimani , A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA : Golden Research Thoughts (Feb ; 2012) Vol.1,Issue.VIII/Feb 2012; good insulation to reduce the need for costly cooling and keep the thermostat settings at a minimum. For light, the hotel can adopt compact fluorescent light (CFL) instead of incandescent lights. 3. The conservation of sand is required to protect coast from erosion and replenish the loss of sand due to wave and current energies. 4. Attention to the education, training, and skills imparted to the youth of local communities 5. Attention to the type of training needed for quality coastal tourism Examination of the implications of local involvement in tourism, in relation to the functioning of local panchayats. 6. The accommodation type that emerges, is supported by policy, and is developed in a tourist destination is important, as it contributes to the creation and sustenance of the destination's image. 7. The characteristics of a tourism accommodation sector include resource-use patterns and waste generation and disposal mechanisms. 8. Those who have been able to address the energy and water issue, with the loads of options available, swear that they almost immediately experienced benefits such as reduced costs and liabilities, higher returns on their low-risk investments, increased profits, and a positive cash flow, so why should an international tourism destination like Goa be left behind. CONCLUSION The protection of the environment can be achieved by proper planning and management of various spatial entities viz. water resources, land, settlements, forests etc. in the most effective manner. As in many other parts of the country, developmental activities and human pressure, including tourism, have had an adverse impact on the environment of

Goa. Like other states being affected by the rapid industrialization Goa too now is at the stage of great concern for the environmental conservation. Several issues, which need to be looked upon, include Waste management, pollution of wells in villages, uncontrolled construction with little attention given to protect delicate ecosystem and many others. There seems lack of basic infrastructure for proper management and sustain the pressure of the massive flow of tourists every year. Many regional/master plans are drafted, but none of the draft is accepted by the local people, because locals are not benefiting with those plans. There is an ample scope to develop ecotourism along the Ghats, hills and wildlife sanctuaries, and adventure tourism. Scope should be given to heritage and cultural tourism, government should tie up with Non Government Organisations (NGO's) to provide infrastructural facilities and develop water sports, A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN GOA adventure sports. Most of these areas are ecologically fragile areas and development of facilities in the interior areas is in complete violation of the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. Even though these areas may not have a protected area status, opening up of these areas for tourism would only mean endangering the fragile ecosystems and the livelihood conditions of the communities. REFERENCES Alvares, C. (1993) : Fish, Curry and Rice: ACitizen.s Report on the State of the Goan Environment.. Ecoforum Ambli S.M. (1990) :Tourism Development in GoaGeographic Analysis, Unpublished PhD, Thesis, Karnatak University Dharwad. Bhatia, A.K. (1978) :Tourism Development Principles and Practices, Sterling Publishing Private Ltd. New Delhi 16. D. Souza, J.A. (1988) : et.al., The Regional Plan for Goa, 2001 A.D. India, Government of Goa, Department of Town and Country Planning. Gupta, V.K. (1987) :Tourism in India, Gain Publication House, 29/6, Shakti Nagaar, Delhi-7. Mahadev, P.D. (1971) : People space and Economy of An Indian City, Prasaranga, University of Mysore, Karnataka. Misra, R.P. (1976) :Towards Sound Tourism Promotion in India, Basic Issues, Tourism Recreation Research. Vol.1. pp. 9-14. Lucknow. Michael, J.J. (1999) : Promoting Peace through

integration tourism. Tourism Recreation Research. Vol.24 (1). Pp.53-56. Lucknow. Prananath Seth and Sushma Seth Bhat. (1996) : An Introduction to Travel and Tourism, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. L10, Green Park Extension, New Delhi-16. Ramachndrara Rao (1990) : Tippu's Palace and Fort Prior to British Seize, March of Karnatak, Govt of Karnatak, Bangalore, Vol. 28; No. 4.P.21. Salini, Singh (1994) : Cultural Tourism and Heritage Management. Rawal Publication, Jaipur, New Delhi. Sing, Tejvir (1975) : Tourism and Tourist Industry (in U.P. India) Publishes; New Height, X/1024, Daryaganj, Delhi -06. Sinha. (1998) : Geography and Structure of Tourism and Travel, Anmol Publication Pvt Ltd. New Delhi02. Swamy, L.N. (1996) : History of Srirang