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1. An Introduction to Elizabethan drama and revenge tragedy. -The Golden Age of Drama in Englan and Spain is similar. -The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas Kyd is one of t. most famous play in Eliz. Period. -Elizabethan tragedy revenge; Performance=real blood. Titus Andronicus, Shak.s most violent play. -Idea of scaffold connected to the stage, stake. -Black humour. -Dif. Levels of understanding t. play: The Spanish Tragedy violence, plenting of war, lovers, blood, justice and revenge. Life as a stage, a performance, what we do is written by someone we cannot see. -The play Hieronimo is a judge, his only son is murdered and he wants the culpables, important people, to justice. He hates violence but he has no choice. Family tragedy=his only son is called Horatio (Inversion with Hamlet). Also about politic conflict between Spanish and Portugal (based on some real events but a fiction story). a) Elizabethan period. -Eliz. Jacobean Caroline beginning Of Civil War in Eng. Eliz I James I Charles I -Theatre reopened in 1660 Restoration Drama The Country Wife with Horner. -Early modern. -Elizabethan/Jacobean playwrights excluding Shakespeare: Thomas Kyd The Spanish Tragedy; Christopher Marlowe The Jew of Malta; Thomas Middleton Women Beware Women; John Ford 'Tis Pity Shes a Whore -Tudor Drama=Henry VII Eliz. I; Seneca was a well known author at the time. -Eliz. Society more brutal than contemporary society. -T. Spanish Trag.(fathers loss their sons) written before Hamlet (sons loss their fathers). b) Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy. -Characters names are very revealing: Hieronimo, Villuppo, Alexandro, Putana, etc. -General definition of tragedy: Its a matter of ambition, pride, anger, cruelty, incest, rebellions, killing, treasons and all kind of heroyck euils by John Greene. -The Spanish Trag.=one descripted scene is t. most import. Distinction bet. Seneca/Eliz. Trag. -The tragic gap and the shift from the heoric to the ironic phase are evident in Elizabethan/Jacobean trag. The fates of Marlowes Tamburlaine/Faustus are consequent on their hubristic error denial of mans mortality but the tragic structure of these morality situations insists on t. hostility, even the malevolence, of the 'gods' or 'God' that exact their rights. In tragedies we find pride (Lorenzo/Baltazar in The Spanish Tragedy).

-The gap between Human/ultimate causes in Eliz. Developments of the Senecan tragedy of blood: Kyds Spanish Trag. the revenge structure becomes a metaphor for an irruption of evil. Whatever the superficial moral realities of the situation, and the calls of the revenger on nature, honour, and blood, the acting out of revenge is a decent into chaos of horror and savagery urged on by a malignant and insatiable ghost. The revenger can only carry out his 'duty' by distancing himself from the reality of the act by elaborate mimes, masks, plays. -Revenge Trag. Senecas tragedy. To be read aloud. The ending is even worse, many innocent people died. -No Revenge Tragedies are ever set in England. Distant countries were a reflection of Elizzabethan Period. The Spanish king has no children, as the Queen Elizabeth. Belimperias a delivered character of Eliz. (decides not to get marry on purpose). -Features of Elizzabethan. Period Revenge. Trag.: revenge, ghosts, chorus, figures, Senecan background. 2. Thomas Kyd and The Spanish Tragedy. a) Thomas Kyd (1558). -We know a little of him. University Wits authors, playwrights that studied at the university. He was murdered, involved in spy activities. -Family of some standing. Educated at the merchant Taylors school though never in attendance at Oxford/Cambridge so far a is known. -In Elizzabethan Period those children who could afford school started to learn Latin at age of 5/Greek at 9. School children were expected to speak Latin at the age of 14. -Ovids Methamorphoses many studies of Shakespeare. Use of Ovids writings. -Hieronimo (St. Jerome): he tells the audience he wrote in Toled when he was young. The plays written in several languages which remind audience The Tower Of Babel. -Kyds credential of many years of Latin at school/a practical education in the writing of plays through involvement in the burgeoning theatres. -In the play of Hieronimo they cannot understand Each other; in Eliz. Period, pronunciation, terms Babel/Babylon was considered Synonyms at the time. -Babylon frequent expression in t. time to refer to Spain political dimension of the play was a completely success. -Shakespeare Imitates his style. b) The Spanish Tragedy (1592) -Written few years later Spain invaded Portugal. - An Armada play written on the time of the Spanish Armada. Anxiety period, Mary Stewart was executed, Philip II used this as a motif to invade Britain. Spanish were the enemy; moments of taeromaquia representation (revenge/political play). -Crucial theme: justice/ social inequalities. -Notion of delay=People dont take revenge immediately; linked to the protagonist before Taking revenge, the protagonist Needs to see proofs. Most soliloques include philosophical issues. Presence of violances compulsory, implicit most of the

situation, acted on stage. -People dead mortality isnt a element in this play but in Hamlet/The Duchess of Malfi. -Theatrical metaphor: The play within the play theatricality, where charactersre watching other characters Andrea/Revenge. Several moments when characters are watching what the others are doing in another Side of the place, hidden, as Lorenzo, responsible os all the deaths, the murder of Horatio opens a new dimension on the play. -Andrea/Revenge in Act II Baltazar/Lorenzo Horatio/Belimperia.(they cannot see those who are above). Andrea/Revenge In Act III Pedringanio (Guard=group of people), ironical dimension of deaths comments Serb (several people watching). -Maquiavillan: Bosola became an expectator. -Intelligence: in Eliz. Period, it means 'bad news' intelligencer/spyre synonyms. Maquiavillan behaviour. Andrea isnt very credible, maybe was murdered in battle or not. ACT 1 -Andrea/Revenge Andrea begins in a very rhetorical way that may distract the audience from the play, which is excesival rhetorical something the audience enjoys at that time. Allusion to classical literature Or mithology. Horatio/Belimperiare compared to Mars(War)/Venus(Love). Venuss husband, Valiano, suspects of her/Mars reference Well known at that time. -Reaction of a Elizzabethan Audience when Andrea addresses to them: he belongs to a inferior class. -Issue/question of degree: members of the nobility like him but in a below range, you belonged to a low social class social ladder (the same occur to Horatio, killed bec. He was inferior for Belimperia). As Hieronimo is the most import judge but his social class is very lower. -For Andrea, Belimperia Was a possession: 'I possessd'. It could have a sexual meaning or a possessive meaning; Hes pointing his love affairs. -Ironic dimension: characters know something But we as the audience know more than them, like the scene when Belimperia/Horatio thought theyre safe but they were being watched by Lorenzo/Baltazar. -Beginning written in media res because there are many things that have happened before. Characters could see people below but they dont see people above them. -'Which' indicates social considerations, Belimperia Was considered nothing but a possession. -Alliterations: Line 5 don, -drea, des- or Court, cod, or inferior, far. Line 8 prime, pride; Line 9 du, service, serving.

SCENE I -Some editors refer to it as 'Induction' (Introduction). -Line 1= four lines for 1 single sentence. Typical use of expressions that are the same but not as its rhetoric. So here, this first line in standard English means When I was alive.... Someone who understands Latin at that time, would understand This rhetoric line. -Reference To Andreas death, he doesnt say 'Im dead'. At the very beginning Of the play, some crucial events have already happened. Spanish Tragedy Established A conflict. -Ending of this scene=Andreas been delivering a long speech. Modern in time, Revenge knows whats going to happen; we arent free. -Hieronimo writes a play; everyone in t. play s determined to be in a part. Way. Play is ironic: Lorenzos in control of everything. Maybe someone controls them. Problematic the presence of the ghost, clearly coming from hell not to be trusted. Ghost will behave diferent In each play. -Line 1 key idea= soul! Line 2 key idea= flesh! theyre opposite; IMPORTANT Line 3 an opposite doesnt exist without the other. -Main idea in the play= Revenge, opposed to Justice (Injustice). In Elizzabethan Period, Revenge was described as Wild justice. If there is no justice, theres revenge. Contemporary debate. The play has been staged in t. 20th century, Never on a Victorian stage of t. play. -Jeronimos a judge supposed to give the justive that he isnt given because Those who are guilty have high social states. -Love-Hate. Love in the play arises out (Belimperia in love with Andrea). But chooses another Lover and she can be a maquiavelic character or only in love with another Man. Several moments where hate is created by love. Ex: Baltazar is defeated in battle and by Belimperia; Double humiliated. Even worse for social reasons: prince of Portugal that could be prince of Spain too. She chooses Horatio instead, who is inferior, something That couldnt be allowed at that time. -Andrea was a courtier. May have been a member of t. nobility, but a low member. Belimperias the king of the Spains niece. People interested in a match between the two countries. Andrea was an obstacle, so he dies mysteriously by a Portuguese soldier maybe or Spanish; he comes from hell, diferent Perspectives. He claims that he has been killed, but maybe murdered on purpose (careful with Andreas words: maybe they dont tell the truth); he was inferior to royal people. SCENE II -Horatio has fighted but hes considerated inferior. Lorenzo is not mentioned, so he wasnt in the battle. four people tell the battle at the beginning, but they dont coincide. -Innocent people die. The last person that talks about the battle to a woman is Andrea s friend, Horatio. Next to Andrea at the beginning Of the play is Revenge, a personified concept. How he rescues Andreas body to impress Belimperia.

-Characters names are very revealing: St. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. -Baltazars defeated in battle and in love. -Several fathers who has lost their sons. Diferent People want to take revenge for diferent Motifs. Hieronimo asks the heaven for help. -Irony important In the play. -God= Pluto/Proserpina classical gods of mithology mixed with Christianity. Revenge is there all the time, knows whats going to happen at the end. -Many people die in diferent Ways: no repetition. Ciatrical description, very effective on stage imagination. Our mind help us to create the dramatical effect.

ACT 2 -Belimperia disappears in Act 2. Nobody talks about it because Of their interests. Shes not developed psychologically; Horatio disappeared: Romance between Them. -Revenge to Baltazar, hummiliated by Belimperia, compared with Gertrude (Hamlet), Lorenzos sister. Both machiavellian. She was in love with Andrea, now in love with Horatio to bother Baltazar. -Action on stage: play within the play is very important Because Of the revenge. SCENE I -Lorenzo refers To a past we dont see, reference To Andreas love Pedringano sends messages between Belimperia and Andrea first mention Of Pedringano, his participation in battle. -Words are loaded. Words/swords similar, fight with words. Belimperia/Horatio express their love/fight specific sexual connotation. Word tale = Belimperia Alludes to Horatios tale/tail. Encounter in the Hieronimos bower, part of the garden, thick= Bower of bliss (literary expressed). -You can see people below, but not people above. People were fascinating for theatrical dimensions. Someone in the play watchs someb. In the play. -Sense of predestination Controls of ourselves/No freedom. -In this scene, Hieronimo in his shirt, deliberate imitations of Kyds styles by Shak. SCENE IV -Mention of 'ivy', a creature that is tied to someone and doesnt leave. Horatio 'Ay, thus, thus'. 'Fruits of love'= he is hanging on a tree like a fruit and he s killed in 2 dif. Ways: Belimperia touchs him so he dies; if you love someone, you will be dead. 'Fruits' could be literal or metaphoric. -Lorenzo/Baltazar enter disguised (only wear masks) but they talk and can be recognised by Belimperia I love Horatio but he doesnt love me. Baltazar Baltazar Loves Belimperia. He fails, hes silly. When he talks by himself. -Lorenzo= 'At t. highest' refers To Horatio in the tree and Horatio would like to be in the highest place of the social class, now hes dead at the highest place.

ACT 3 -The phrase Hieronimo go by, go by has no sense but was a very popular expression in that period. People laughed. -The play is delivered rhetorical offputting, overly rhetorical. The only difference Is that in Elizzabethan Period, people enjoyed the rhetorical point. -The play was written for a different Type of audience. An audience nowadays wouldnt enjoy it. SCENE VI -3 characters: Hieronimo/Deputy. ACT 4 -Freedom Hieronimo decided not to speak in a very visual way. -Revenge is really quiet or asleep. No matter what we do, our destiny is already written. -The Revenger doesnt wants to take revenge immediately. -Theatrical structure and Metaphor is present: 3 different Levels of performance. -Silence key subject: what we arent told. -Ghosts coming from Spain for Elizzabethan Audience (double wicked ghost). In Hamlet, ghost comes from purgatory = Catholic idea. SCENE IV -Hieronimo finds his sons dead body. He keeps his sons bloody handkerchief to remember him about his revenge, as Hamlet and his skull. -Three fathers want to take revenge because Of the death of their sons. Same structure as in Hamlet: three sons want to take revenge because Of the death of their fathers. SCENE V -When Belimperia Commits suicide, she avoides something: leave the king of Spain without descent. Ill lead my Belimperia... by Andrea. Belimperiad do everytthing For the country, even to kill herself. That vestal virgins... Belimperias comparison with Queen Elizabeth herself.