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10010316 Biswajit Bharat

10010330 K Kishore Reddy


10010331 Kapil Krishnapada Gain
10010334 Keshav Kumar Meena
10010335 Amol Vasant Lanjewar
10010336 Lavuri Rakesh
10010339 Manish Kumar Agarwal
10010353 Rajat Gupta

Development of PITOT STATIC TUBE

GROUP 9

PITOT TUBE
A Pitot Tube is simple L-shaped tube which is used to measure the flow velocity of a fluid.
Relation between static and dynamic pressure.
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 2
2
v
2
d s
p p = +
Static pressure




Pressure developed by stationary fluid.
It is equal in all directions. Independent of fluid velocity .
Dynamic pressure




For fluid in motion the pressure measured depends on the direction of motion and hence
the term dynamic.
- Dynamic pressure in direction of flow
- Static pressure
- Velocity


d
p
s
p
v
PRINCIPLE
It works on Bernoulli's principle.
Working Principle
2
v
constant (along the streamline)
2
p z + + =
_ p Static pressure =
2
v
_
2
p z Total pressure + + =
2
v
_
2
Dynamic pressure =
_ z hydrostatic pressure =
5 4 1
( )/( )
pitch
Cp P P P P

=
2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
2 2
V V
P Z P Z + + = + +
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Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 4
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
PITOT and STATIC TUBE

1
2
2g
+
1
=

2
2
2g
+
2
For the two points 1 and 2 on the streamline, point 1 corresponds to any point on the same
stream line as that of the point 2 which is stagniton point at the opening of the pitot tube.

2
= 0

1
=
2

1
2
2g
=


1
=
2(
2

1
)

Thus, the expression for fluid velocity at any point A in incompressible flow is:

1
=
2(


,
)









h1 h2
Pitot tube
Uniform
velocity profile
z
1
2
2 1
2 ( ) g h h =
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 5
PITOT - STATIC TUBE
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Pitot Tube Static Tube Pitot-Static Tube


1
2
1
h
2

h
Direction of flow
Direction of flow
Direction of flow Direction of flow
2 V gh =
2 V gh =
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 6
PITOT and STATIC SYSTEM
PITOT and STATIC SYSTEM in Aircraft
Pitot pressure, static pressure, local AOA pressure and AOS pressures are provided
by Pitot-static system for calculating flight parameters, which include -




ASI VSI Altimeter






Static Port
Pitot Port
PRESSURE Altitudes typically determined by a standard atmosphere relationship of static
pressure to altitude.
Altitude rate is defined as the rate of change of pressure altitude and is determined from the
rate of changed of static pressure.
Indicated Airspeed is determined from the difference between Pitot and static pressure . True
airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for non-standard temperature and can be determined
using Mach number and total temperature information.
Local Angle Of Attack is the relative angle of the airflow at the location of the measurement
and is measured by a differential between ports on the top and bottom of the probe head.
Local Angle Of Sideslip is measured in the same manner as angle of attack but uses
differentials between two ports in the horizontal plane on the probes head.
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 7
For Subsonic Flow :
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
1
2
0
1
1 1
2
total static
p p p p p M


| |

| |
|
= = +
|
|
\ .
\ .
1
2
0
1
1
2
p
M
p

| |
= +
|
\ .
The fluid is brought to stagnation isentropically from pressure p to stagnation pressure p0.
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 8
MUTIHOLE PITOT TUBE PROBE
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
These are extension of Pitot tube in more than one dimension.
It helps us to measure velocity even for 3-dimensional flow.
Three hole arrangement allows us to measure velocity vector
in two dimensions
Five hole arrangement in Plus formation is used to
measure velocity vector in three dimensions
3-Hole Pitot Probe
5-Hole Pitot Probe
7-Hole Pitot Probe
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 9
ADVANTAGES OF MUTIHOLE PITOT TUBE PROBE
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Measurement of 3 components of the fluid velocity as well as static and dynamic pressure.
Laser-Doppler velocimetry, particle-image velocimetry, HWA etc. are some
modern expensive techniques of measuring flow velocities
Using more number of holes we can go for measuring pitch angle and yaw angles, which
are important to control Helicopters while going for high angle of attack.
Multi-hole probes are
Robust
can sustain harsh environments, like very high temperatures, opaque fluids, flows
carrying particulates and others
easier to use
less expensive

Reference: Calibration of a Five-Hole Multi-Function Probe for Helicopter Air Data Sensors
Sung-Hyun Kim* and Young-Jin Kang,Rho-Shin Myong and Tae-Hwan Cho,Young-Min
Parkand In-Ho Choi
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 10
MULTIHOLE PITOT TUBE PROBE FOR MEASURING FLOW VELOCITY IN PIPE
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Normally Pitot Tube used in pipe flows, measure flow velocity in one direction only.
This technique is used to measure flow velocity in both direction for pipe flow.
Display
Signal
Conditioning
Differential
Pressure
sensor
Pipe in which
fluid is flowing
Stagnation
Pressure
Static
Pressure
Flow
Direction
Flow
Direction
2
2
1 2
v
2
p p = +
1 2
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 13
Calibration Method
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
5 4 1
( )/( )
pitch
Cp P P P P

=
Calibration method can be significantly divided into two kinds
1.Nulling method 2.Non-nulling method.
1.Nulling method
Nulling method is to move the probe axis angle being consistent with the direction
of flow; the pressure of four-hole become the same except for the centre hole. After
determine the direction of flow, the velocity is obtained by measured pressure at
that time.
The turning angle can be measured more accurately than the non-nulling method
Needs more space for traversing system
Long data acquisition time since the probe must be pitched and yawed at each
measurement location until the four pressures are equal.
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Calibration Method contd.
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
2.Non-nulling method.
The probe is fixed and the pressure of each hole is measured. The angle of attack and
side slip angle are calculated by coefficients obtained using five pressure data.
The non-nulling method has been more useful because it does not need much space
and time.
1 1 0 0
2 2 0 0
3 3 0 0
4 4 0 0
5 5 0 0
__
2 3 4 5
( )/( )
( )/( )
( )/( )
( )/( )
( )/( )
( )/4
p T
p T
p T
p T
p T
p p p p p
C p p P P
C p p P P
C p p P P
C p p P P
C p p P P
C C C C C
=
=
=
=
=
= + + +
Pc-pressure coefficient at every hole
PT & Po are the tunnel reference pressure measured using pitot tube
Cp is the average of all the pressure coefficients
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 15
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Calibration Method contd.
__
5 4 1
__
2 3 1
( )/( )
( )/( )
Ppitch P P P p
Pyaw P P P p
R C C C C C
Q C C C C C
= =
= =
__
5
__
5 1
(1 )/( )
P p
P P p
P C C
S C C C
=
=
non-dimensional parameters
R-Pitch plane (upwash)
Q Yaw plane (side wash)
Here P = Dynamic Pressure Parameter
S = Static Pressure Parameter
= pitch angle
= yaw angle
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 3/2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4
1 1 2 1 3 1 4
1 2 3 4
sin[ sin cos sin
tan
tan[ ]
tan
( ) ( ) ( )
tan (tan ) (tan ) (tan )
Arc
Arc
A Q R A Q R A Q R A Q R
Q Q Q Q
B B B B
R R R R
u | o o
|
|
o
u
|

= +
=
= + + + + + + +
= + + +
The hemispherical configuration of Pitot-static tube gives more rage of AOA
compared to conical configuration which provides range of 25 degree with
large standard error. 25 degree AOA is the operational range of a helicopter.
5 4
. .( )
( )
O F Max P
P P P
= A
A =
O.F is objective function
which is to maximize P.
P depends on X1 & X2
1 2
( , ) P f X X =
{ and
are angles
required for
calibration}
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube 11
ERRORs
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
It will only affect airspeed indicators.
While climbing a blocked Pitot tube will show an
increase in airspeed , even though actual airspeed is
constant. This is caused by the pressure in the Pitot
system remaining constant when the atmospheric
pressure (and static pressure) are decreasing.

On the contrary while descending the airspeed
indicator will show a decrease in airspeed
To prevent icing, many pitot tubes are equipped with a heating element.
Blocked Pitot tube
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ERRORs continued.
PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Blocked static port
It affects all Pitot-static instruments, hence more
serious problem.
The airspeed indicator will show opposite behaviour
compared to blocked Pitot probe.
Alternative static source is provided on the aircraft so
that you can switch over to other in case other is
blocked.
Position errors
occurs when the aircraft's static pressure is different from the air pressure away from
the aircraft.

This error is caused by the air flowing past the static port at a speed different from
the aircraft's true airspeed.

These factors include airspeed, angle of attack, aircraft weight, acceleration, aircraft
configuration, and in the case of helicopters, rotor downwash.
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PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Comparison:
Pitot Tube Anemometer
inexpensive to purchase
and to operate
Relatively more expensive than
Pitot tube
Simple construction

Little bit complicated to
construct than pitot
Almost no calibration
required
required
Intrinsically safe no electric
power supply

Not intrinsically safe.

No such difficulties like
cleaning of probe
Probe is fragile and difficult to clean.

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PITOT and STATIC TUBE
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PITOT and STATIC TUBE
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PITOT and STATIC TUBE
Applications :
Group-9 ME-323 Mechanical Measurement -Development of Pitot Static Tube