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THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

The Use and Adoption of ICT

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THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

Table of Contents
Literature review ............................................................................................................................. 2 Research question ........................................................................................................................... 5 Research Hypothesis ....................................................................................................................... 6 Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 6 Research design .............................................................................................................................. 7 Data collection ................................................................................................................................ 8 References ..................................................................................................................................... 11 Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 14

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

Literature review
The use and adoption of ICT can be found almost in all aspects of peoples lives. ICT has become a significant determinant in peoples private and professional lives. Winley & Lau (2012), states that one of the major areas ICT has greatly covered is enhancing communication. This involves both private and public communication. The introduction of cellular phones has made private communication flexible and convenient. People can make phone calls or receive them in any part of the world. In addition to convenience in communication, smart phones have additional features, which also contribute to communication (Abdel-Wahab & El-Masry, 2011). Shuva, (2005) provides that technology holds infinite potential in enhancing the education experience among both students and lecturers together with the indirect stakeholders such as university administration. The sophistication of technology with time ensures the provision of more affordable components and services, a wider range of services and an enhanced lifestyle. In this age of information and communication technology, most of the advanced institutions of higher learning have already enlarged the scope and role of the university libraries (Shuva, 2005). A study conducted by Allen and Seamon (2010), on the state of online learning in higher learning indicates that in the United States alone, there were over 4.6 million students who were taking at least one online course. This was during the 2008-2009 fall semesters. The research findings indicate that this was a 17 percent increase in the number of online enrolments in accordance with the overall student population growth. Dorado et al, (2009) conducted an exploratory study to discover the various factors that influence students to opt for online courses as opposed to attending the lecturers. This study took into consideration four basic essentials which were: convenience; social interaction;

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

effectiveness and level of difficulty. The study findings indicated that most students perceived the factors of convenience and effectiveness as the highest contributing factors to their opting for online studies. On the other hand, the students perceived the factors of social interaction and level of difficulty as the negative influences to their opting for online courses. The study findings therefore revealed that that the main factors that influence students to opt for taking online courses are convenience first followed by its effectiveness (Dorado, et al, 2009). Buzzetto more (2008), conducted a study to identify how students perceived the various components of the Blackboard e-learning system in one of the United Kingdom Universities. The study findings indicated that there was an enhanced and increased level of communications and interactions during the online classroom contrary to the underlying perceptions. Her research sample included 121 students of which 63.5 percent indicated that the e-learning system provided an enhanced learner-to-instructor interaction. 61.9 percent of the study respondents indicated that e-learning provided an overall increased volume of communication while over 55 percent of the study respondents agreed that the e-learning website fostered community in the classroom. According to the study, the students indicated that they enjoyed the functionality of the universitys e-learning system. According to studies conducted by According to Blackboard (Blackboard Inc, 2000) indicates hat the e-learning system has enhanced the learning experience of students especially when the learning institutions incorporate the use of the companys online tools that are associated with internet based learning management system. Adoption and use of ICT is extensively utilized in education. In developed countries, instructors are using technology when teaching students. For example, power point presentations are largely used by instructors and lecturers (Dawson, Heathcote & Poole (2010). Technology

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

has not only made easier learning but also interesting. When a lecturer uses power presentation, it looks interesting and lively for the students. It mostly helps when teaching a difficult topic. Today, many lecturers do not require students to hand in their work in hard copies. Using a computer has made easier even for a student when he or she is doing school work. Available software assists instructors to assess students work. For example, there are several programs for checking plagiarism. Initially, it was not easy for instructors to assess plagiarism using hard copies. Students no longer have to attend classes physically. According to Dawson, Heathcote & Poole (2010), ICT has facilitated electronic learning and students can learn from any location in the world. Lecturers use video conferencing with students and teach them. Students also can ask questions using the same media. Another convenient mode of video conferencing is using Skype. It is easily available and some teachers and students are using it for learning. Electronic learning has enabled people to acquire education from distant institutions, without going there. This mode also saves on costs because a student does not have to travel or pay for accommodation in the institution. ICT has helped online students to interact and form discussion groups. They use media like Facebook or Skype to communicate. They could also use other social sites with chat features. It is not necessary for a student to have a computer for him or her to participate in an online discussion. Smart phones are connected to the internet and it is possible to chat in a discussion via the internet. Online students do not meet physically but it is possible for them to socialize and share knowledge using available facilities from ICT (Bouwman, 2005). Adoption and use of ICT in education has experienced several challenges. Institutions are benefiting from introduction of advanced technology but there are numerous barriers associated

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

to this. These problems are being experienced by countries in both developed and developing countries. The major barrier facing ICT use and adoption is finances (Dawson, Heathcote & Poole, 2010). Institutions managements are unable to allocate sufficient funds to ICT development. This is mainly because technology advances rapidly and it is difficult to keep up with new technology. Introducing ICT in universities include creating facilities for this development. For example, building to put the ICT equipment, where the students will learn. In some universities, they could have the premise but in poor condition. Therefore, additional casts are needed to do retrofitting. It has taken long before ICT courses receive all the resources for training students competently. This study intends to find out other obstacles of ICT in education. It will use universities in Sutton to establish common challenges in all institutions.

Research question
The literature review provides the use of blackboard learning systems holds invaluable potential for the university especially in enhancing its e-learning programs. It is therefore important for the institution to find out the various ways in which it could enhance its blackboard learning system in order to make improve student learning experience. This will further involve finding out the various barriers to the new systems implementation. Therefore, the research questions will be: 1. How much can blackboard be customized to fit the students and the teachers personal requirements? 2. What would be the challenges in bringing these changes into effect? The use and adoption of ICT has received a wide acceptance globally. Almost all the countries in the world are using ICT development, regardless of how minimal it could be. It has

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

positively changed peoples social, economic and cultural lives. It is certain that ICT is essential and its use and adoption needs to spread even further.

Research Hypothesis
This research hypothesizes that: H1: The blackboard learning system in its current state does not offer much enhancement to the student learning experience. H2: The blackboard learning systems effectiveness on the student learning experience can be enhanced by interactive learning activities, multimedia instruction, and e-learning system quality. H3: Some of the barriers of implementation include: cost, technological knowledge and equipment.

Methodology
Research methodology refers to the process through which the researcher collects the relevant information in order to evaluate the research hypothesis. The research methodology will involve conducting surveys among both the students and the teachers to identify the user satisfaction of the current system and identify suggestions for improvement. According to Tasakkori and Teddlie (2003), mixing multiple methodologies can help to provide better opportunities for getting better answer to your research question since it will allow us to better understand the extent to our research findings and better evaluated. This study will therefore use both quantitative and qualitative research techniques to carry out the research. This is because both techniques meet the objective of this study. The qualitative technique will be used to achieve an understanding of the barriers involved in

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT customizing and adopting the Backboard learning system. It will also provide insight to the

problem, which will assist in creating relevant hypothesis for quantitative research later on. The qualitative research also helps to discover the prevailing thought and opinions among the respondents. This will be crucial information for this study (Grant & Booth, 2009). Quantitative research technique will be relevant when dealing with computation. It mainly uses statistics, theories, models and hypotheses relating to the phenomenon being investigated. In this study, the data will be collected and analyzed. For this to happen effectively there will be need to apply quantitative research technique. In both techniques samples will be used only that the sample in qualitative research will be smaller than that of the quantitative research. The results obtained from these two techniques can be used to further this study. This research will further employ an ex post facto research design as designed by its pioneer Kerlinger (1973). The ex post facto research design is a systematic toll for empirical enquiry where the researcher is limited in having direct control of variables. In this way, inferences concerning various variables are designed from any determined variations between the studied variables. (p. 344). For this reason, the research study plan will entail collecting information on how effective the current technology is and the level of satisfaction and selfdirected learning readiness among students taking e-learning programs. The researcher will refrain from manipulating any of the variables. Instead, the determined differences will be ex post facto in nature. This implies that the determined differences will stem from differences in results in the measurement efforts.

Research design
The investigation of the level of appreciation and identification of students and teachers recommended changes on the current system will involve undertaking a quantitative study. This

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will entail the use of semi-structured interviews as the primary research approach. The process should start at the end of the fall semester. The research will further include a descriptive approach. The nature of this research is based on investigating the barriers involving in customizing and adoptiong the Blackboard learning system. Sandhu & Ajmal (2011) agree that such a study ought to be tackled by a descriptive approach. This is because the researcher and the audience of this research want to understand these barriers. Therefore, the findings have to be described clearly. There is a notion that this design just gives mere descriptions. It is fundamental to obtain description because they add significantly to peoples knowledge and determine the society. A description can be made concrete or abstract depending on the nature of study. In this research, it is going to be concrete since it determines the next steps. In other words, after finding out the barriers in the customization and adoption of the Blackboard learning system, it is expected that certain efforts will be directed towards curbing these barriers. This is why the description has to be concrete, for audiences to establish how to approach solutions to the barriers (Bhattacherjee & Fitzgerald, 2012). After making a good description of the research question, it is likely to provoke other questions, which ask why a certain situation exists. All these outcomes will contribute when tackling how to eliminate barriers of adopting a new Blackboard learning system in the university.

Data collection
The methods will be carrying out a survey, observation and interviews. This will be methods of primary data collection methods. Secondary data collection methods include gathering information from other similar studies. Scholarly journals and edited books are also a relevant source of collecting data. Hodkinson & Macleod (2010) state that t is important to know

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT

that not all published materials have reliable or valid information. Researchers should ensure that their sources of data are credible. This mainly applies to information retrieved from the internet. During the survey, a sample will participate in collecting data. According to Grant & Booth (2009) the most appropriate method of sampling will be simple random sampling. All the respondents involved in this study belong to Sutton Universities and they are scattered and the population is too large. This involves a very large population that needs to undergo sampling. The universities participating in this study will be selected. After acquiring a suitable sample, collecting data will commence. There will be a structured observation plan to assist in the field. The respondents will have questionnaires, which they will provide their information and data about the research question. Since some respondents are going to be far, an oral interview will be carried out via phone or any convenient medium. For example, universities are far and it will not be practical to travel to their locations. It will save costs and time to communicate with these respondents using other means. As we carry out the field work we will visit the accessible respondents and interview them via questionnaires. As this happens, we will make observations of our own, which will be necessary for accuracy (Matlay & Addis, 2003). The interview will entail understanding how much ICT is been used and adopted by our respondents. They will also tell us the barriers and challenges they experience when using or adopting new technology. After collecting all the data and information necessary for this research, analysis will be made. We tend to use various measures of dispersion and variations. The results will be presented in charts, tables, graphs and other relevant data presentation methods. Presenting data in various methods makes it easier to understand the findings of a study. It is vital to derive the

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT correct information from the results because it determines drawing conclusions about the findings and recommendations.

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We expect to face some limitations as we carry out the research. The most evident is inaccessibility to some respondents. This will be solved by using oral interviews over the phone. Although an interview will be conducted, it will not be possible to implement the observation method. Another issue is the possibility of respondents withholding information. Others might decide to give inaccurate answers. We plan to encourage all respondents to answer appropriately and inform in case a question involves confidential information or data. Our resources might limit us from carrying out some activities relevant to the study. However, we plan to make a budget and allocate resources wisely for us to achieve all objectives of this research. All studies have a niche of furthering the study and we hope to do it in future.

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References

Abdel-Wahab, A. G., & El-Masry, A. A. A. (2011). Mobile information communication technologies adoption in developing countries: Effects and implications. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. Allen, E. I., & Seaman, J. (2010). Learning on demand. Online Education in the United States, 2009. Retrieved on June 12, 2010 from http://sloanc.org/publications/survey/pdf/learningond emand.pdf Bhattacherjee, A., & Fitzgerald, B. (2012). Shaping the future of ICT research: Methods and approaches, IFIP WG 8.2 Working Conference, Tampa, FL, USA, December 13-14, 2012, proceedings. Heidelberg: Springer. Blackboard Inc. (2000). Educational benefits of online learning. A Blackboard tip sheet. Retrieved on February 26, 2010 from http://med.uth.tmc.edu/administration/edu_programs/ep/blackboard/text/Online_Learning _Benefits.pdf Bouwman, H. (2005). Information and communication technology in organizations: Adoption, implementation, use and effects. London: Sage. Buzzetto-More, N. (2008). Student Perceptions Of Various E-Learining Components. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge & Learning Objects, 4, 113-135. Chinn, D. M., & Fairlie, R. W. (2006). ICT use in the developing world: An analysis of differences in computer and internet penetration. Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research.

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT Dawson, S., Heathcote, L., & Poole, G. (January 01, 2010). Harnessing ICT potential: The adoption and analysis of ICT systems for enhancing the student learning experience. International Journal of Educational Management, 24, 2, 116-128. Dorado, C., Hernandez, J., and Sani, B., Griffin, C. & Barnette, W. (2009). An exploratory analysis of factors influencing students decisions to take online courses. Issues in Information Systems. Vol. X. (1) 2009. Dwivedi, Y. K. (2008). Special issue: Adoption and use of information & communication technologies (ICT) in the residential - household context. Norwell, MA: Springer. Dwivedi, Y. K., & IGI Global. (2011). Adoption, usage, and global impact of broadband technologies: Diffusion, practice, and policy. Hershey, Pa: IGI Global

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Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (January 01, 2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26, 2, 91108. Hodkinson, P., & Macleod, F. (April 01, 2010). Contrasting Concepts of Learning and Contrasting Research Methodologies: Affinities and Bias. British Educational Research Journal, 36, 2, 173-189. Matlay, H., & Addis, M. (August 20, 2003). Adoption of ICT and e-commerce in small businesses: an HEI-based consultancy perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10, 3, 321-335. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2004). The economic impact of ICT: Measurement, evidence and implications. France: OECD. Ravi, V., & IGI Global. (2008). Advances in banking technology and management: Impacts of ICT and CRM. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

THE USE AND ADOPTION OF ICT Reddick, C. G., & IGI Global. (2009). Handbook of research on strategies for local egovernment adoption and implementation: Comparative studies. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. Sandhu, M., & Ajmal, M. (December 30, 2011). The adoption of ICT in project-based and

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traditional organizations: Evidence from Finnish and Swedish companies. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 25, 1, 7-27. Winley, G. K., & Lau, S. K. (December 01, 2012). The adoption and use of ICT in Thailand and Vietnam. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 54, 1.)

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Appendix
Program of work
Week commencing: Task ID 1 Preparing to collect data e.g. reconnaissance. 2 Establishing ethical issues involved in the study 3 Collecting data in the field conducting Task Name 22/4 29/4 6/5 13/5 20/5 27/5 3/6 10/6 17/6 24/6 1/7 8/7

Analyzing data after the field work

Determining recommendations conclusion and

Week commencing: Task ID 6 Reviewing the entire study 7 Determining the relevant Task Name 15/7 22/7 29/7 5/8 12/8 19/8 26/8 2/9 9/9 16/9 23/9 30/9

audience of this research

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8 Discussing the challenges faced the study 9 Establishing niche for during

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further research on this study. 10 Seeking public commentaries

Key: task

milestone

period when unavailable, e.g. on leave