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) Early System EARLY OPERATING SYSTEMS This section lists early operating systems of the 1950s and early1960s that are primarily of historical interest. Most of these systems were batch systems or si ngle job monitors for large computers. Early examples of other categories, such as timesharing, minicomputer, or real-time systems, are listed with their respec tive sections. ADMIRAL Operating system for the Honeywell 800/1800. Early 1960s [Bouvard 1964]. Atlas I Supervisor Supervisor Program for the first computer designed to use an operating system. I ntroduced system calls and virtual storage. U. of Manchester, mid 1960s [Kilburn et al 1961, Howarth et al 1961]. B1, B2, B3, B4 Operating Systems for NCR Century series computers. Early 1960s [Datapro 1974]. Basic Executive System Memory-based real-time executive for the IBM 1710. Early 1960s [Harrison et al 1 981]. FMS FORTRAN Monitor system. Operating System developed by North American Aviation fo r the IBM 709. Late 1950s [Weizer 1981, Bashe et al 1986]. GM OS A very early operating system developed by General Motors for the IBM 701. Unnam ed. About 1955 [Steel 1964]. HES Honeywell Executive System. Operating System for the Honeywell 800. Early 1960s [Bouvard 1964]. IBM 1410/1710 OS OS for the IBM 1410/1710. Early 1960s [Barnett & Fitzgerald 1964]. IBSYS Predecessor to IBM OS/360 for 709x architectures. Early 1960s. [IBM 1963]. Input Output Selector An IO Control System for the DDP-116 minicomputer. One of the earliest OSs for m inis. Mid 1960s [Koudela 1973]. Input Output System A very early operating system developed by General Motors and North American Avi ation for the IBM-704. About 1956. [Steel 1964, Bashe et al 1986]. IOCS Input Output Control System. An early I/O Executive for the IBM 7090. About 1960 . SABRE Semi-Automatic Business Related Environment. The first major transaction process ing system, developed by IBM and American Airlines for the IBM 7090. Early 1960s [Jarema & Sussenguth 1981]. SAGE Semi-Automatic Ground Environment system. Control Program for IBM AN/FSQ7 to mon itor weapons systems. First real-time control system. Late 1950s [Everett et al 1957]. SOS Operating System developed by the IBM SHARE Users Group for the 709. Late 1950s [Shell et al 1959]. 2.) Batch System Batch processing is execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer wit hout manual intervention. Jobs are set up so they can be run to completion without manual intervention. So , all input data are preselected through scripts, command-line parameters, or jo b control language. This is in contrast to "online" or interactive programs whic

h prompt the user for such input. A program takes a set of data files as input, processes the data, and produces a set of output data files. This operating envi ronment is termed as "batch processing" because the input data are collected int o batches of files and are processed in batches by the program. Batch processing has been associated with mainframe computers since the earliest days of electronic computing in the 1950s. There were a variety of reasons why batch processing dominated early computing. One reason is that the most urgent b usiness problems for reasons of profitability and competitiveness were primarily accounting problems, such as billing. Billing may conveniently be performed as a batch-oriented business process, and practically every business must bill, rel iably and on-time. Also, every computing resource was expensive, so sequential s ubmission of batch jobs on punched cards matched the resource constraints and te chnology evolution at the time. Later, interactive sessions with either text-bas ed computer terminal interfaces or graphical user interfaces became more common. However, computers initially were not even capable of having multiple programs loaded into the main memory. 3.)Multi Programming n the early days of computing, CPU time was expensive, and peripherals were very slow. When the computer ran a program that needed access to a peripheral, the C entral processing unit (CPU) would have to stop executing program instructions w hile the peripheral processed the data. This was deemed very inefficient. The fi rst computer using a multiprogramming system was the British Leo III owned by J. Lyons and Co.. Several different programs in batch were loaded in the computer memory, and the first one began to run. When the first program reached an instru ction waiting for a peripheral, the context of this program was stored away, and the second program in memory was given a chance to run. The process continued u ntil all programs finished running. The use of multiprogramming was enhanced by the arrival of virtual memory and vi rtual machine technology, which enabled individual programs to make use of memor y and operating system resources as if other concurrently running programs were, for all practical purposes, non-existent and invisible to them. Multiprogramming doesn't give any guarantee that a program will run in a timely manner. Indeed, the very first program may very well run for hours without needi ng access to a peripheral. As there were no users waiting at an interactive term inal, this was no problem: users handed in a deck of punched cards to an operato r, and came back a few hours later for printed results. Multiprogramming greatly reduced wait times when multiple batches were being processed. 4.)Time-sharing System A time sharing system allows many users to share the computer resources simultan eously. In other words, time sharing refers to the allocation of computer resour ces in time slots to several programs simultaneously. For example a mainframe co mputer that has many users logged on to it. Each user uses the resources of the mainframe -i.e. memory, CPU etc. The users feel that they are exclusive user of the CPU, even though this is not possible with one CPU i.e. shared among differe nt users. The time sharing systems were developed to provide an interactive use of the com puter system. A time shared system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to p rovide each user with a small portion of a time-shared computer. It allows many users to share the computer resources simultaneously. As the system switches rap idly from one user to the other, a short time slot is given to each user for the ir executions. The time sharing system provides the direct access to a large number of users wh ere CPU time is divided among all the users on scheduled basis. The OS allocates a set of time to each user. When this time is expired, it passes control to the next user on the system. The time allowed is extremely small and the users are given the impression that they each have their own CPU and they are the sole own

er of the CPU. This short period of time during that a user gets attention of th e CPU; is known as a time slice or a quantum. Note: The term 'Time Sharing' is no longer commonly used, it has been replaced b y 'Multitasking System'. 5.) ReAL-Time Sharing A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serv e real-time application requests. It must be able to process data as it comes in , typically without buffering delays. Processing time requirements (including an y OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter. A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the a mount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variabi lity is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft re al-time operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rath er a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadli ne deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling. Scheduler flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount of work it can perform in a given period of time. 6.) Distributed System a distributed computer system is de?ned to be a system of multiple autonomous processing elements cooperating in a common purpos e or to achieve a common goal. This de?nition is wide enough to satisfy most intui tive notions, without descending to details of physical dispersion, means of communic ation, and so on. Goals of Distributed Systems: ?Connecting resources and users ?Distribution transparency ?Openness ?Scalability A distributed system is a piece of software that ensures that: "A collection of independent computers that appears to its users as a single coherent system" Two aspects: (1) independent computers and (2) single system ? = "middleware"