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Experimental objective

Ascertain the validity of laws of friction Wear characteristics of the given specimen Determination of Wear Constant Understand the effect of parameters

Test Set up/unit


BASIC SPECIFICATIONS: Details Description Remarks Top specimen Pin Dia 3,4,6,8,10 & 12mm Material: as per test need Bottom specimen-Disc Standard Disc:165mm x 8mm thick Material: En 31 hardened to 62HRc Sensor specification Disc Speed Range : 200 to 2000 rpm Infinitely variable in steps of 1 rpm Sensor: Proximity sensor, model APS-8, PNP Type, make: TAP Least count 1 rpm Display accuracy (1 1% of measured speed) Normal load Range 1N to 200 In steps of 5N, (exact dead weights of size 0.1,0.5,1,2 & 5kg are provided to vary the load)

Frictional force Range 0 to 200N Specification 20 kg beam type load cell, make: IPA Least count 0.1N Accuracy (0.1 2% measured frictional force) in N Wear Range 2mm Sensor spec LVDT, make: Syscon Least count 1 micron Accuracy (1 1% of measured wear) in micron Wear track diameter: Min 50mm to max 100mm Sliding speed Min 0.5 m/s to max 10m/s Timer Max 99hrs, 59min, 59 sec

Experimental Procedure in Sequential steps:

Prepare equipment for test: Thoroughly clean specimen pin, remove burns form circumference using fine grade emery paper. Determine the weight of the specimen very accurately using highly accurate weighing balance having least count of 0.01 mg (Need?) Clean wear disc thoroughly with solvent and allow it to dry Clamping of specimen pin Specimen pin is clamped to loading lever tip by hardened jaws. Use the relevant size (4,5,6,8,&12 mm) clamp to hold cylindrical specimen pins

Set wear track radius The path generated is circle, so the specimen pin can be positioned over wear disc between 50 & 100 mm dia. By this the wear disc between each grind can used be used for many test by positioning the specimen pins at different diameter (Wear track diameter) on wear disc. Procedure Unscrew to loosen the sliding plate, move it to the desired position (say at 60 mm) by looking at the graduated scale and tighten the clamp screw at this position

Setting disc Speed Set 3 or 5 min time on controller Press test start push button 7 Rotate SET rpm knob on controller in clockwise direction till required test speed displayed Continue to run for the remaining time to observe for any fluctuation. Press stop button on controlled to switch off rotation

Calculating the sliding velocity and sliding distance: Sliding speed in m/sec = DN / 60,000 Sliding speed in m = DNT / 60,000 D = Dia of wear track in mm N = Disc speed in rpm T = Test duration in secs Based on the wear track set, determine the motor speed to be set on controller to achieve the desired sliding velocity

Applying Normal load Place required weights on loading pan slowly with out shaking Conduct the test and note the observations Press START push button on the controller front panel to commence the test; (simultaneously data is transmitted to PC). On controller the acquired test parameters like wear, frictional force, speeds are displayed, (same values are also displayed on PC screen and graph is plotted simultaneously) Note the necessary readings and record your data Repeat the procedure from a suitable stage to the next test condition and till you complete the test

Friction Force measurement

The friction force between the pin and disc is measured by a load cell mounted on bracket at a distance equal to the distance between specimen and pivot. A beam type load cell with a maximum capacity of of 20kg (200 N) is used. The load cell is strain gauge type load cell constructed on high strength corrosion resistant steel using foil type strain gauge with high stability. The tangential force on the specimen holding beam is transmitted to the load cell beam and (even minute) deformation of the beam is sensed by the strain gauge The strain gauge is connected to a wheat stone bridge circuit. Strain conditioning and balancing is automated and calibrated such that values are direct displayed

Wear Measurement
Linear wear rate is monitored using a LVDT( Linear variable differential transducer) LVDT measures wear of the specimen directly as the sensor is mounted at exactly same distance of specimen from pivot point to get equal (1:1) lever ratio. The plunger of sensor rests on a hardened pin projection from the lever and as wear occurs the loading lever lifts in upward direction, moving the plunger. This movement is displayed as wear on the controller. The least count of the LVDT is 0.1 m and thus the wear rate also The initial position is set on the mid point so that both + and ve wear can be monitored and the maximum range is 2 mm

Post test-data evaluation and Reporting

Generate a graphical plot of Ff Vs Fn for the different test conditions (Material, size and velocity) Observe the trend and infer (Note: A st. line relation if noted (through best fit also) confirms the validity of the first law and friction co-efficient can be determined from the slope) If the slope is constant for the velocities and sizes tested, other two laws are confirmed

Covert mass loss to volume loss (using the density) Estimate the wear constant by substituting the values in the wear equation. Using the test data, calculate the p.V factors of the test Generate a graphical plot of linear wear rate vs pV factor Observe the trend and infer (higher the pV value higher should be the wear rate ) Finalize your report and submit.

Format of Report
Name Batch

Dept. of Mech. Engg., IIT Madras

ME 3280-Mechanical Engg. Laboratory
Title of Experiment

Roll No Date

Objective Underlying theory Test Set up used Test procedure adopted Observations

Annexure A (Attach separately)

Shot description. Schematic sketch and basic specifications

Describe the steps in sequential order Record the data appropriately (tabular form) and systematically
Do the necessary calculations, Generate the required graphical plots etc



Draw and describe the conclusion arrived at

Setting of computer for data acquisition Click START button in PC windows Post evaluation of test data On PC the data acquired during test is stored. Open view file to display graph of single test with all test parameters. On the wear graph a line equation is provided to fit any slope, the slope position is entered as starting time & ending time, click REFERESH button to give slop equation and graph. Use compare graph to compare test parameters of different test files, at a time 4 files test parameters can be compared.

Test Specimen Material Diameter Harness Roughness Initial Weight



Final Weight Sliding speed/ velocity Linear wear Contact pressure p.V factor Co.eff of friction Remarks

S. Normal Friction force No Load

Suggested References
Rabinowicz.E., (1995), Friction and wear of materials, John Wiley & Sons, New York Gwidon W. Stachowiak and Andrew W. Batchelor (2001) Engineering Tribology Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston. Bhushan.B., (1999), Principles and Applications of Tribology, John Wiley & Sons, New York B.C. Majumdar (1986), Introduction to Tribology of Bearings, A.H. Wheeler and & Company Ltd. I.M.Hutchings(1992) Friction, Wear and Lubrication Edward Arnold-London UK.