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Lecture Notes Twain The Philosopher humorist (uses humor), realist, cynic (uses writing to expose human selfishness

ss and false motives), satirist (uses sarcasm, irony, and wit to ridicule a habit, custom, and ideas) characters were often motivated by spite, self-importance, and greed other characters (Huck and Jim) demonstrate how Twain was attuned to the caring Twains attitude to society was a WARY one 1. detested the hypocrisy of the world 2. detested the insistence on the importance of conventional manners while inner corruption was ignored 3. felt ones conscience was more fit to decide how one should act For Twain, the dictates of conscience took precedence over dictates of society (reflected in the way Tom ignores church/community expectations) Twains view of societys imperfections led him to glorify the individual who escapes contamination of society He saw the peak of NOBILITY in youth Huck Finn is his ideal representative (social outcast, smoked, drank, had his own set of standards) Twain set out to undo model book boys What Is Behind His Books? 1870s American literary style was shifting from romanticism to realism REALISM attempted to create believable characters with complete personalities 1. wrote about people from many walks of life and captured slang/dialect people used (reminds adults about whom they once were) examined current social problems squarely faced them romanticism was an escape from miseries of industrialization and urbanization Twain was called the first American realist Tom Sawyer displays this transition from romanticism to realism 1. Twain adds an element of romantic nostalgia He also used exaggerated humor of the American frontier Another tool used is satire sometimes gentle and sometimes harsh

The Novel On Many Levels Level 1 humorous and exciting childrens story the hero and main characters are children adventures are those that children can relate to

Level 2 nostalgic look at childhood in the preindustrial, pre-Civil War days of a sleepy town on the Mississippi River Level 3 appeals to the social historian the novel is a realistic record of the folklore, superstitions, myths, beliefs, customs, and manners of 19th century village America Level 4 gentile satire on the pride, pretense, and petty vanities of the adult world and on the customs and institutions of America society Finallyoffers insight into the process of growing up

Voices in the Novel Lyric (poetry) Sardonic (humorous in a grim/sarcastic way) Mix of elevated diction and vernacular expression (everyday speech) 3rd person limited omniscient Twains viewpoint is present, but the characters do their own talking

Literary Devices Bildungsroman Idyllic a remembrance of simple, peaceful, and innocent country life picaresque satire juxtaposition- Toms relationship with the adults

Introducing the Novel Mark Twain as did most Americans felt a longing for a simpler time Fictional town of St. Petersburg is drawn from memory of boyhood in Hannibal, Missouri 1. St. Petersburg tends the gates of heaven Mark Twain did not remember only the pleasant parts of Hannibal 1. St. Petersburg is divided into strict social classes Evil 1. wealthy and educated 2. penniless drunks 3. enslaved African-Americans 4. homeless One purpose was to make fun of model boy books 1. romanticizes childhood Twain admires imagination

1. Novel features oddball characters, imagination adventures, vivid colloquial/frontier speech (imagination is Tom Sawyers greatest strength Plotline 1; (Ch 1) Toms relationship with family, school, church 2; (Ch 3) Toms infatuation with Becky 3; (Ch 13-17) Tom, Huck, Joe Harper spend a week on Jackson Island 4: (Ch 9) Tom and Huck witness a murder; leads to trial in Ch 23 5; Search for Injun Joe, Tom and Hucks quest for treasure, Tom and Beckys adventure in a cave Historical Happenings Westward Expansion 1. change 2. Pushing back boundaries 3. great population growth Economic Depression Revolt against Slavery Communications expanded 1. Newly improvised postal service 2. Telegraph Transportation Revolution 1. Establishment of railroads, canals, steamboats, steamships Explosion of Irish and German immigrant population 1. Events created tension, but they also opened up new and exciting opportunities Basic Theme Toms trip to maturity