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Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

PAPER 2 Writing PAPER 3 Use of English PAPER 4 listening PAPER 5 Speaking

For questions 1-18, read the three texts below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

sse tia tips

~ Read each text quickly to understand its general meaning before you attempt the task. ~ The gapped word or phrase may be part of a fixed expression, collocation or phrasal verb, or it may be a discourse marker which affects the meaning of the text as a whole. ~ Check the words before and after the gap carefully to decide what type of word you are looking for. ~ Once you have finished the task, read the whole text again to check that your choices make sense in the text as a whole. Question 2: Which of the options forms a phrasal verb with 'off', meaning 'do something to protect yourself from'? Question 3: The preposition after the gap is regularly used with one of the options. Question 4: The sentence talks about the activity of decorating egg shells and how this can demonstrate artistic talent. Which option can be used to describe how something is conveyed? Question 6: One of the options is often used with a reflexive pronoun and the preposition 'to' to mean 'be suitable for being used in a particular way'. Question 7: One of the options often collocates with 'collections' that are on display in museums and art galleries. Question 9: The correct option is often used to express that someone or something possesses something impressive. Question 12: The correct option must mean 'open a building officially for the first time'.

In ancient times the egg was a symbol of life, birth and fertility, and it featured prominently in several creation myths, representing the (1) beginnings of time and the birth of the universe. It was also believed that the egg had magical powers: it could (2) off storms, illnesses and the evil eye. In many societies decorated eggs were at the centre of rituals and ceremonies that (3) with the spring - a time of new life and growth after the long hard winter.

Today eggs continue to be important in many cultural and religious events - such as Easter - and shell decoration is an effective (4) for demonstrating artistic skills. The symmetrical form of the egg - often (5) one of the most aesthetically pleasing shapes in nature - (6) itself to a great variety of decorative techniques: it can be dyed, painted and embellished and precious jewels. 1 A total 2 A ward 3 4 A A A A occurred method regarded helps with leaves and flowers, and even gold, silver



complete put happened means considered lends


absolute fend resulted vehicle viewed offers


very send coincided drive seen provides

The Burlington Museum was recently re-opened after an extensive development programme that aims to make the collections (7) there more appealing to a wider public. The Museum's fine collections can now be seen in more inspiring (8) , and exhibitions include a wide range of innovative displays which allow visitors to make use of the latest interactive information technology. The Museum also (9) an excellent new education centre and art room, as well as a gift shop. Finally, ramps and wider doorways offer improved (10) for the disabled and people with limited mobility. The Museum worked closely with community groups to achieve its goals. One of the (11) of this collaboration is a Buddhist shrine created with the assistance and advice of the local Buddhist community. A priest (12) this significant exhibition and more than two hundred people of different faiths attended the event. A A 9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A 7 8 set backgrounds boasts entrance effects installed


placed contexts prides access outputs presided


housed frameworks scores admission fruits commenced


homed circumstances acquires admittance benefits inaugurated

Question 14: The correct option must mean 'unexpected'. Question 15: There is a 'trap' , here, so think carefully about the structure of the sentence and the meaning intended! Question 17: The correct option must mean 'lift something heavy'.

Peter's plane was due to leave at 8.40 am. My father, having little (13) in my brgther's ability to get himself to the airport on time, had offered to drive him there. A punotual man himself by nature, he detested the thought of any (14) delays, and so roused Peter as early as he dared. (15) ,they arrived at the airport well in advance of the recommended two hours prior to departure. They made their way over to the check-in desk, where a queue was only just starting to (16) up. When his turn came, Peter handed over his passport and ticket and (17) his bags onto the conveyor belt. The check-in attendant frowned. 'I'm sorry, sir, but you aren't on the passenger list,' she said. Then she took a closer look at his ticket and her eyes widened in surprise. 'Now I see the problem. You're booked on tomorrow's fli-9~t! You've come a day too early!' She turned to my father, who was temporarily (18) . for words, and asked, 'Does he do this often?'

13 A credit

15 16 17 18


improper Subsequently build settled stunned

B faith B unfounded B Duly B gather B hoisted B shocked


belief groundless Consequently collect elevated lost

0 0 0 0 0 0

assurance untoward Finally grow handed struck


PAPER 2 Writing PAPER 3 Use of English PAPER4 listening PAPER 5 Speaking
You are going to read four extracts which are all concerned in some way with the sense of touch. For questions 19-26, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

E sential lips
~ This part of the exam tests your understanding of the whole short text or text organisation, and some questions may also focus on the details in sections of the text. ~ Readeach text quickly to understand its general meaning before you attempt the questions. ~ Readthe questions carefully and decide which part of the text they refer to. ~ Look at key words in the questions and see how they relate to the relevant part of the text. The text will probably express ideas using different words from those that appear in the questions and options. ~ Checkthat the option which answers the question or completes the question stem conveys the same meaning as that expressed in the text. Question 19: What did the manufacturers do before that is now changing? Question 20: Readthe second paragraph and think carefully about how haptic feedback helps the machine operator. Which option describes this most successfully? 19 The writer says that until recently, the manufacturers of automated A intended to make the users of machines redundant. machinery

In touch with machines

Engineers are finally beginning to recognise the value of the human touch with regard to the operation of mechanical devices. Until recently, the makers of automated machinery seemed bent on rendering operators redundant by reducing their involvement with the machine to the touch of a button. This theoretically made the user's job easier, but in practice, they felt they had no connection with the machine or how it functioned. The relatively new field of haptics is changing all that. It focuses on ensuring that an operator can 'feel' what a machine is doing. Haptic principles, which have been applied very successfully to cars and aircraft, are now being applied to earth-moving equipment with excellent results. By programming haptic feedback into the electronic control system, engineers are helping operators to enhance their understanding of how a machine is responding to a particular terrain through feel, and by doing so, achieve optimum performance. It is also hoped that operators will be able to anticipate possible hazards in the ground, such as hidden water or gas pipes, by means of haptic warning sensations transmitted through the controls and so take evasive action.

B felt no connection with the machine they were operating. C largely ignored the human need for physical contact with a machine. D used haptic principles to develop machinery.


Haptic feedback A reduces the operator's


of how his or her machine operates.

B enables the operator to manoeuvre machinery over the ground. C makes the operator's job less complex. D makes the operator more aware of how his or her machine is performing.

fia f
Question 21: Readthe question stem and answer options. Here, you are being asked in what way :; iropractors treat patients. Find" - e part of the text which c swers this question. Which otion expresses the same idea in other words? estion 22: Read the question =:-Bm carefully. Note that the . er implies that a person who 'shes to visit a chiropractor ::~ould do something; however, -'" does not give this advice =mlicitly.

chiropractor. Chiropractors musculoskeletal function


- - - - - - - - ..-......-- ,.
headaches? Any from a of a neuroto the joints

you suffering from back pain or inexplicable

strained muscles from playing sport or perhaps whiplash

recent accident? Then what you may need is to visit your local

diagnose and then treat problems

nature by making specific adjustments

of the body - the spine in particular

- in order to improve the

of the nervous system, and thereby enable the body's at the hands of a trained specialist! health-care profession, negating the need are subject to rigorous

natural healing processes to do their work. No drugs or surgery, just gentle manipulation Chiropractic for a doctor's regulations,

is a primary

referral. Registered chiropractors

and high standards of practice are maintained. feeling of release they may

Patients enthuse about the wonderful experience movement after treatment,

and how much easier and more supple

becomes. So why not give it a try? Chiropractic

change your life!


Chiropractors treat patients A by employing gentle massage techniques. B by altering the alignment of bones in the body. C by adjusting the position of nerves and muscles in the body. D by manipulating the nervous system.


Before visiting a chiropractor,

the writer implies you should

A visit a doctor who can diagnose your problem. B obtain a referral from your doctor. C stop taking any medication. D ensure they are a member of a recognised chiropractic


Question 23: Look for a word or phrase in the text that means 'realise' and what the writer say~ after this. Which option expresses the same idea in other words? Also, think about the words in the options. For example, if you 'conform' to something, what does that mean? Question 24: Think about the overall meaning of what the writer says in the second paragraph. What does 'abstract images from forms' mean? What do artists try to do and how do they do it? How might the sense of touch help them to do this?

Art and Visual Impairment

Ks a student artist with a minor visual impairment I had spent
years trying to keep up with my peers, struggling to master the principles of colour, form and perspective, until it dawned on me one day that perhaps the skills I was attempting to develop need not necessarily be visual. I started to re-examine the way in which I worked and realised that I could change my perspective, so to speak. I started to devise a tactile approach to recording the world that would complement the way I experienced it - rather than merely trying to reproduce it. Touch is far more meaningful to the visually impaired - blind people in particular - than it is for the majority of people. It can offer an alternative means of observation that increases one's sense of perception and it provides a unique, non-visual way for artists to abstract images from forms. Visual artists are taught to understand light. I have been learning to understand space and distance, volume and dimension, form and substance, and to work with materials that occasionally dwarf me.

23 What did the artist realise about herself?

A She had been trying to conform to established ideas about art. B She needed to improve her visual skills. C She wasn't as talented as the other students in her class. D She could improve her sight by changing the way she worked.

24 How can touch be used in art?

A It can improve one's powers of observation. B It facilitates the power of sight. C It enables artists to create without needing to see. D It helps visual artists to experience large objects.

Question 25: Readthe question stem carefully. You need to find the 'main' reason, which implies there may be other reasons too :.. just less important ones! Question 26: Be careful not to

In touch with the child

Touch is the first sense to develop in the embryo. Only a few weeks after conception a primitive nervous system linking skin cells to a rudimentary brain has already developed. Throughout the gestation period the foetus's tactile system develops and it will remain a potent form of communication throughout the course of a person's life. Essentially, touch aids psychological, intellectual and physical development while its absence can cause undeniable harm. Touch is a child's first language. Long before he can see, smell, taste or hear, he experiences others and himself through touch, the only reciprocal sense. In our consumer based society, we misguidedly try to meet the sensory needs of the newborn by providing artificial stimulation and security, so that we can keep ourselves 'at a distance. We put our children down to sleep in cots, monitoring their breathing with alarms while we sleep in the next room. Instead of holding them close to our bodies, we push them around at arms' length in prams. We suspend them in baby bouncers in an attempt to reproduce the experience of being jogged around in human arms. But babies need their mothers, not machines and contraptions. No invention can substitute for the direct physical contact that forms the basis of the mother and child bond.

read too much between the lines. You may think that a text implies something, but what does it actually say? Which of the options is stated explicitly in the text?

25 The main reason why touch is important

A B C D it it it it is the first sense to develop. facilitates healthy development. improves our communication skills. teaches us how to reciprocate.

is because

26 What is the writer's main point in the second paragraph?

A B C D Children should never be left to sleep alone. Most people fail to provide the right kind of security for their children. Man-made objects cannot replace nature in providing tactile stimulation. People should take a more active part in bringing up their children.

PAPER 2 Writing PAPER 3 Use of English PAPER4 Listening PAPER5 Speaking

You are going to read an article about palaeoanthropology. Seven paragraphs have been removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A-H the one which fits each gap (27-33). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.

If these bones could talk ...

To a palaeoanthropologist, the past is an open book, but one that fails to tell the whole story. The covers are missing. The first chapters may never be found. There are hardly any pages, and most are so smeared and crumpled, so foxed and faded, that the text could mean almost anything. The cast of characters is confusing and narrative thread anybody's guess. Is it a detective story, a clifThanger, or a romance? Can there be a happy ending? humans are somehow special. The evidence shows us that our evolution was as complex and as undirected, I suppose, as that of any other species we have studied.'

~-----------Modern humans probably popped up within the last 200,000 years, but the things that make modern humans so distinctive in the fossil record - symbolic art, pottery and jewellery - bloomed only about 50,000 years ago. Nobody in the world of palaeoanthropology considers modern humanity to be the flower of creation, either. A temporary bloom, maybe.


Homo floresiensis was the mysterious survivor unearthed from a cave on the island of Flores in Indonesia: a pygmy descendant, perhaps, of Homo erectus, perhaps even connected to an earlier human species, but with this special feature: the bones were only 18,000 years old. So Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalis and Homo floresiensis must have all shared the planet at the same time, tantalisingly recently: within the last 100,000 years perhaps. Now only Homo sapiens survives.

QIJ_----------Genetic evidence suggests humans may have come close to extinction a number of times in the past. Modern humans shared the Middle East with Homo neanderthalis 120,000 years ago, and as Cro-Magnons became the sole tenants of Europe 30,000 years ago, a terrain held successfully by the Neanderthals for more than 100,000 years. Did they compete? Did they co-exist? Did they trade, or cohabit?

Q!J_----------Stringer, 57, is head of human origins at the Natural History Museum in London. One of palaeoanthropology's big players, he has spent his career in pursuit of Homo neanderthalis and is also one of the great proselytisers of the Out-of-Africa theory, the one that says the human story begins on just one continent. Homo floresiensis, however, astonished him.


'I still tend to the view that the primary message would have been: different. They would have had a different body language, a completely different way of communication; they would have had different behaviours.'

@]-----------He and his co-author Peter Andrews - a former head of human origins at the Natural History Museum, and an expert on the early part of the human story - tried to tell the story of human evolution not just through time, but through its context, Stringer says: how you set about excavating a site, what a piece of tooth or jaw can tell you about ancient human behaviour. In that, the title of the book means what it says: complete.

~-----------'Nature is constantly experimenting. I think a lot of people thought that humans were somehow different; that we had this all embracing culture and this unifying adaptation, which meant that human evolution progressed in a somewhat different way, because of our technology and the way we probably vainly think we are partly controlling the world now. So people project backwards and think that

A It's humbling, Stringer says.'We shouldn't see ourselves as the summit of the pel{ection of whatever evolution is trying to achieve. We seem to be very successful at the moment in terms of our numbers but, looking at it on a geological timescale, how ~uccessful will we look in 50,000 years, which is a very short time, geologically speaking?' B 'Neanderthals were certainly human and evolved as us in their own way, but they were different. They had several hundred thousand years of evolving their own anatomy and behaviour. But when these people met in Europe would they have seen each other as people? Or as someone different?' he says. C What stories could these bones tell? And who could have dreamed, before their discovery that some tree-climbing, pygmy-elephant-hunting human candidate could have survived on a tropical island while Homo sapiens moved into the Fertile Crescent, preparing to invent agriculture, civilisation and global terrorism? D He thinks the Neanderthals perished at a moment of maximum stress in the stop-go, hot-cold pattern of climate during the last ice age. Though they left their mark in the Pyrenees, they never got to Britain at all. But then the human occupation of Britain itself is a bit of a riddle. There is evidence of it, most of it indirect, of little pulses of human occupation, and then a gap of 100,000 years when no humans appeared to have visited Britain at all. Modern humans finally moved in and stayed only 12,000 years ago.

E These

people were capable of making tools and butchering large beasts like rhinos. They may not have killed these beasts themselves - they were, after all, dangerous animals - but even if they were just scavenging, it must have taken some degree of cooperation and organisation to have driven off the lions or wolves, and secured the carcass for themselves.

F There is a story-so-far, but that potted version of events is forever being revised, and nobody knows that better than Chris Stringer, one of the authors of a book published today called The Complete World of Human Evolution. Complete? Stringer spent eight years on the text. Then, late last year, he had to sit down in one night and compose an entirely new chapter to incorporate the discovery of Homo floresiensis, also known as the Hobbit. G Here is the orthodm,'Y, pieced together over a century or more by Darwin's disciples: primate creatures with a capacity for walking upright emerged perhaps twenty million years ago. From these emerged the ancestors of all gorillas, all chimpanzees and all humans. There is no line of evolution: think, instead, of foliage, and the surviving humans and two species of chimpanzees are just nearby buds at the ends of twigs dose together on the tree oflife. H 'Until that turned up, we had no idea that ancient humans had ever reached as far as Flores. We certainly had no idea that there was a completely new kind of human - or is it even human? That is still being argued about - living there, and the fact that it was still around there when modern people passed through the region. Each of those is astonishing and that shows how little we knew about human evolution in that part of the world. We are building up the pieces of a huge, complex jigsaw, and we still have a lot of spaces to fill in,' he says.

~ This part of the exam tests your understanding of how a text is organised and, in particular, how paragraphs relate to each other. ~ Read the main text through first to get an idea of what it is about and how the writer develops his or her subject matter. ~ Read the paragraphs before and after each gap carefully to see how they are connected. ~ Underline the names of people, organisations or places. Also, underline reference words such as 'this', 'it', 'there', etc. They will help you see connections between sentences and paragraphs. ~ Read paragraphs A-H and do the same, noting how each may be linked to the subject matter of the main article.

~ Underline time references and notice any changes in tense within a text. The writer may be comparing a past situation with the present. ~ When you have finished the task, read through completed text to make sure it makes sense. the

Question 30: Compare the paragraph before the gap with that which comes after it. Notice that in the paragraph after the gap, the writer makes use of a metaphor. Look for an option which employs a similar use of language. Question 32: In the paragraph before the gap, Homo neanderthalis is mentioned and questions are asked. Look for an option which addresses these questions in some way.

You are going to read an extract from a short story. For questions 34-40, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

PAPER3 Use of English PAPER4 Listening PAPER5 Speaking

'Time to go, Joe: Officer Dicks stands in the now open doorway to freedom. I hesitate and contemplate this fact with some trepidation, oscillating between a feeling of excitement and one of utter dread. I suddenly feel as if I am standing at the top of a precipice, parachute attached and ready to jump, but tortured by the overwhelming fear that when I jump the chute won't open. After dreaming of this moment for years, endlessly counting off the days, over and over - ever since I came here, in fact - I am now gripped with a sense of terror at the thought that the time has actually arrived. Bill, my soon-to-be erstwhile neighbour, notices my sudden reluctance and smiles, nodding sagely. 'Hard, isn't it?' he says. 'You spend all your time waiting for your release only to find that when it comes down to it, you don't want to go. Much as you hate to admit it, this dump has become your home, and the lads, even the warden, bless him, welt they've become family: A sarcastic quip in response to this last remark dies in my throat. It strikes me that this motley bunch of miscreants with whom I have co-existed for the last five years have indeed come to mean something to me, and that in spite of myself I will miss them. Like a worn-out old coat that you can't throwaway, we have moulded together, an unlikely yet close-knit group, not particularly fond of each other, perhaps, but comfortable in the familiarity of each other's presence. Bill, with his weather-beaten, pock-marked face and his infuriating habit of whistling the same tune over and over again has become like a brother to me. He may irritate me to screaming point several times a day, and no doubt if you were to ask him about me, the feeling would be mutual, but we have grown used to sharing a fag and talking about nothing in particular. It suddenly dawns on me that he understands me in a way nobody else ever has and I never have to pretend to be something I am not with him. He just seems to know what is going on in my head and doesn't

question it, but rather accepts it philosophically. I realise there is something comforting about waking up every morning to the sounds of Bill moving around his domain next door. Sighing, I take a last look around the walls of my cell. Not much to look at because I never really bothered to decorate it, my mind determinedly focused on the temporary nature of my stay. Even so, it is amazing how we unwittingly leave traces of ourselves wherever we go, stamping our self on everything we touch. There is the rubber mark on the wall above my bed, made by my throwing a small ball at it every day, an activity which grated on Bill's nerves but which helped me calm my own. Then the wall against which my bunk stands is spattered with writing: the lyrics of songs and the lines of poems that I have struggled not to forget. Wherever I look, I see things that are familiar. They define me in some way and give me my identity by which others recognise me. Out there the unknown waits to engulf me, and the loneliness of being marginalised by society; I will be branded by the fact that I have done time - just another bad apple. It occurs to me that we convicts spend all our time cooped up and trapped, longing for the moment we will be free again, not realising that there is a perverse freedom to being inside: a freedom from all forms of responsibility. Your accommodation, food, clothing and essentials are all provided free of charge. There is no need to work and you can spend all day reading or just doing nothing if you want to. Such luxuries are hard to come by on the outside because out there you are' forced to fend for yourself and perhaps for others in an unforgiving society, and it's tough. Out there, you must face life. Here, you can turn your back on it, and that seems cosy and appealing to me right now. Reaching the door, my threshold to freedom, I look over at Bill and say wryly: 'I1l be back before you know it:

" !lmp"""J'


ssentia tips
~ This part of the exam tests your detailed understanding of a text, including the views an;J attitudes expressed. . ~ Readthe whole text quickly for its general meaning - the gist. ~ The questions follow the order of the text, although the last question may refer to the text as a whole or ask about the intention or opinion of the writer. ~ Readeach question or question stem and try to identify the part of the text which it relates to. Then read the relevant part of the text carefully and think of the meaning of what you are reading. Look for the option that expresses this meaning, probably in other words. ~ Be careful: some options may state facts that are true in themselves but which do not answer the question or complete the question stem correctly; others may include words used in the text, but this does not necessarily mean that the meaning is correct; yet others may be only partly true. ~ Checkthat the option you have chosen is correct by trying to find out why the other options are incorrect. Question 34: An option may be a 'rue statement in itself, but this does not necessarily mean it answers the question correctly. Nhat does the writer actually tell liS about his feelings in this oaragraph? Question 38: If you do not know - e meaning of the words in the options, guess. For example, if ou do not know what 'ostracised' eans,imagine how someone o has done time in prison ight be treated by the rest of


In the first paragraph, how does the writer allude to his situation? A He has mixed feelings about it. B He is afraid of heights. C He thinks there may be disastrous consequences. D He regrets wasting so much time.


How did the writer react to Bill's comment? A He couldn't think of anything clever to say. B He realised that Bill would miss him. C He suddenly saw the warden as a member of his family. D He thought Bill had made a good point.

36 The writer and Bill A have nothing much in common. B dislike each other. C find solace in each other's company. D have developed some peculiar habits.

37 The writer finds it surprising A B C D he he he he


didn't decorate his cell after all these years. has left evidence of his personality in the cell. has spoiled the wall near his bed. has forgotten the words to some songs.


How does the writer feel about leaving prison? A He is aware that there will be nothing familiar around him. B He is worried that people won't recognise him any more. C He is afraid that he will be ostracised as an ex-convict. D He is concerned about leaving his old friends behind.


In the penultimate paragraph, what does the writer imply is ironic? A that prison offers certain liberties B that free people have many responsibilities C that luxuries are rare in the outside world D that prison life is more comfortable than life outside

40 Overall, the writer implies that leaving prison

A is an event that is long overdue. B is a reason for celebrating. C is not as joyful as he thought it would be. D is only a temporary situation.

estion 39: Make sure you ~ow what 'ironic' means. Irony ...anbe difficult to detect in a text _ d you must be alert to the . er's intentions.

Question 40: This question refers to the whole of the text. Some of the options may be mentioned somewhere in the text and so appearto be correct, but this does not mean that they expresswhat the writer is implying overall.

You must answer appropriate style.

this question.







in an

PAPER 3 Use of English PAPER 4 Listening PAPER 5 Speaking

1 You have read the extract technology send in their has affected opinions. raised below as part of a newspaper people. a letter article about the way

the lives of young You decide to write your


have been asked to responding

to the newspaper

to the points

and expressing

own views.

~ In Paper 2 you must answer two questions in two hours, so timing is important. ~ The question in Part 1 is compulsory. You may be asked to write an article, an essay, a letter or a proposal. All of these will be written for a particular purpose and target reader. Make sure you are familiar with all four text types that may occur in Part 1. ~ Part 1 tests your ability to process information given to you through instructions as well as written or visual prompts in order to produce a piece of writing that makes use of this information in an appropriate style. ~ Read the instructions carefully and underline the key words that tell you what you have to do. Then read the written prompt, which may be an extract from a letter, article, etc. and underline the relevant information. If there is a visual prompt as well, make sure you understand what information it is conveying. You must make use of all the information in your writing. Question 1

The infiltration of technology in our lives is having a negative effect on our children. Wherever we turn, we see young people clutching mobile telephones, sitting at cyber cafes, or engrossed in some computer game. They no longer seem to be interested in their own culture and are losing their individuality. They engage less in wholesome physical activities, spend more time indoors, have fewer social pastimes - even their academic performance seems to be suffering. Are we to sit back and do nothing as the next generation turn into walking techno-zombies?

~ Here, you have been asked to write a letter to a newspaper, so think about the registerhow formal or informal should it be? ~ Analyse the points in the written prompt. How far do you agree or disagree with each point? Do you agree? Do you disagree? Or do you agree with some points to a certain extent but disagree with others?

~ Plan your writing so that your own points are clearly organised and lead towards a strong conclusion. Finish your letter with a strong, clear point or by saying what you hope the outcome will be. ~ Make sure you use a good selection of linking words and phrases in your writing. ~ Think about appropriate language and expressions

which can lend weight to each of your points. Use examples wherever possible in order to underline your message. ~ Make sure the examiner can read your writing. When you have finished, check your spelling and punctuation. ~ See the Writing bank on page 142 for examples of different types of writing.


an answer words

to one of the questions in an appropriate style.


in this

part. Write




300-350 PAPER 3 Use of English PAPER 4 Listening PAPER 5 Speaking

-2 The local council wasteland town. visitors. They


has recently


to develop metres

an area of neglected on the outskirts of both locals of the and



5,000 square

hope to make full have therefore an entertainment

use of the area for the benefit invited the public to send


in proposals. a sports

So far, there complex, a

have been suggestions hypermarket, ~ There are four questions to choose from in Part 2. Question 5 relates to the set books (works of literature) which you might have studied and prepared. For questions 2-4 you will be required to write one of the following text types: an article, a letter, a proposal. a report or a review. If you have studied one of the set books and want to answer question 5, you can expect to write one of the following text types: an article, an essay, a letter, a report or a review. Make sure you have had practice writing all text types. ~ Choose a question you think you will be able to answer satisfactorily. Read each question carefully. Are you ami liar with the features of the ext type? Do you know enough appropriate vocabulary to write on the topic in the question? ake sure you understand hat you have to do by _nderlining the key points in - e question and then plan .our answer around these, ing down suitable words " d phrases you may want to _se in your writing. ::: ,yourself into the 'context' :;= the task, and consider your -='get reader. Then write your -: . in a register and style ,,:;propriate for the particular -=-x:. :-eck your text for relevance, -: -ety of language and racy. 'on 3 ---nk about the question __Jirements. Who are your -=~et readers? You should not _-: -00 formal since you are -ng for fellow students, but ::.3C:ni-formal register would "ppropriate.

that the area be used for parkland, complex or a nature


3 You have been asked to write

of the textbooks review meet you and say what students' you think

a review

for your


magazine course.

comparing Write your


have been studying

this year on your

of the books'

level and content

and whether



and requirements.

4 The restaurant about the poor

chain quality

that you work of service

for has received

a number

of complaints You have on

and food

at one of its restaurants. and submit of staff a report,

been asked to investigate the present standard

the complaints the quality


of food,


and making


for improvements.

~ Underline the key points in the question and make notes. This question asks you to compare two textbooks, so decide whether you want to praise them, criticise them or praise some aspects and criticise others. Consider contrasting the two books. ~ Organise your points into paragraphs before writing. Question 4 ~ Consider the topic carefully. Your report should be addressed to a particular person in authority, and needs to be formal in style. So think of suitable language you can use. ~ Reports tend to be written according to a set plan. This includes:

an introduction, in which you explain your purpose for writing your report and the matters you have investigated. the main body (usually two or more paragraphs). in which you discuss the current situation. In this case, one paragraph could describe the present standard of food, citing some complaints that have been made about it, as well as your own observations. Another paragraph could describe the present quality of service in a similar way. a conclusion, in which you make recommendations for improving the situation. ~ Carefully planned, a report is relatively straightforward.


PAPER 1 Reading PAPER 2 writing

For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

PAPER4 Listening PAPER 5 Speaking

Part 2


Part 4 Part 5

~ Readthe whole text for gist before you attempt the task. It is important to notice if negative ideas are expressed, or where there is antithesis or contrast. ~ Think about thl:!type of word that is missing. Most gapped words form part of the grammatical structure of a sentence, but some may form part of a phrasal verb or a fixed phrase. ~ Checkthe words before and after the gap carefully, Remember,the gapped word must fit into the meaning of the text as a whole. Sometimes a gapped word will affect the development of the text, so be careful. ~ When the gapped word is a quantifier, think about whether it is positive or negative. When it is a connector, does it introduce a supporting point or a contrasting one? ~ Once you have completed the task, read through the text again to make sure it makes sense. Checkyour spelling: marks are not awarded for misspelt words. Question 2: Think of an expression with 'to' which means 'as a result of'. Question 4: Which particle follows 'stumble' to form a phrasal verb meaning 'find or discover by chance'? Question 8: Look at the grammatical structure immediately after the gap. What type of word are you looking for?

For centuries world's greatest

Egyptian linguistic

hieroglyphics challenges.

represented They (1)

(0) scholars century, (2)

of the baffled to

until they were finally deciphered the discovery In (3) the year

in the nineteenth

of the Rosetta Stone. 1799 some working French soldiers found a slab of black basalt

on a fortress

near the small town (4)

of Rosetta. One .

officer, Pierre Francois Bouchard, a finding The (5) (6) (7) (8) hieroglyphics third script of great significance Stone

realised they had stumbled

and handed it over to scholars. in two fact, languages, scripts Egyptian carved form and on Greek, it. The used which The


has inscriptions there script are, in


is hieroglyphics, the language

a pictorial

of writing and

transcribe be found are followed is Ancient

of Ancient buildings


on many Egyptian (9) (10)

and monuments. Egyptian

by Demotic, and

script. The that alerted


it was

Bouchard, Many

who recognised became

it, to the importance (11)

of the discovery. the task of deciphering until 1822 that there was a major was familiar with



hieroglyphics, breakthrough. (13) of the Ancient signs (15) in

but it was (12) The 'French linguist,

Jean Francois Champollion

Greek and Coptic, the language of the Christian Egyptians. and He was able to (14) from there traced a path back to


out the Demotic hieroglyphics,


making their decipherment


Question 12: Which word goes with 'until' to express that it was 'only' in 1822that scholars came close to finding a solution?

Question 15: Which word conveys the idea of 'in this way'? Sometimes more than one word can complete a gap correctly.

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER2 Writing

For questions 16-25, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

PAPER4 Part 3 PAPER5 Speaking Part 4 Part 5

~ Read the whole text for gist before you attempt the task. ~ Look at each gap carefully and decide what part of speech is missing - noun, verb, adjective,or adverb. ~ Look at the context to decide whether the gapped word should have a positive or negative meaning. ~ If the gapped word is a noun, should it be singular or plural? If it is a verb, what tense or form should it be? ~ Check if the gapped word is an adjective or an adverb. ~ You may need to add one or more prefixes and/or suffixes to the word in capitals, and you may also need to make internal changes. Also, look out for compound words. Be prepared to experiment! ~ Once you have completed the task, read through the text again to make sure it makes sense. Check your spelling: marks are not awarded for misspelt words. Question 16: Here, you need an Think carefully how :his is formed. Question 17: Is the gapped word a noun, verb, adjective or adverb? Should it have a positive or negative meaning? Question 19: Notice the antithesis in the sentence. Question 21: A vaccine is a substance given to people or 3nimals to protect them against isease. Is the meaning of the ord you need here positive or

There (16)

are (0) creatures



bats, those


of the night: that they are blind wander into their wildly. hair. They may even become You may, therefore, mammals be have Their


and carry rabies, and if you (17) lair, they panic and flap around (18) surprised in your

to. learn that in fact, these wonderful

good eyesight and depend on sonar for nocturnal navigation. talent for echolocation bump (19) they groom themselves rabies and you would an (21) Bats play an important percent of bat species assisting makes it virtually impossible up in your

for them to hair. Another

into you, let alone get caught

view of b~ts is that they are dirty; in reality, (20) Few of them carry


be more likely to contract the disease from dog or cat. role in the environment. feed farmers almost with (22) pest control. But they About seventy on are

insects, thus important

in other ways, too. Some species feed primarily

, while

on fruit

and so aid in seed (23) nectar


others feed on on them for








So beari~

all this in mind, isn't it time we stopped



bats with ,(25) amazing animals they really are?

and started to see them

as the

Question 25: Has public opinion ::>' bats so far been positive or

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER2 Writing

For questions 26-31, think of one word only which can be used appropriately three sentences. Here is an example (0). in all

PAPER4 Listening PAPER 5 Speaking


We are setting off at first

,so please go to bed early.

She had to explain the matter to me again before I saw the

~ Make sure you read all three sentences in a set. A word may make sense in one or two of the sentences, but it is not correct unless it makes sense in all three! ~ The gapped word must be the same part of speech and have the same form in each sentence in a set. ~ The gapped word may have an unusual or unfamiliar usage, or form part of an expression or phrasal verb. Question 26: Read the second 'sentence; it will help if you know what a symphony is and who Brahms and Schumann were. Question 28: You should be able to guess the gapped word by reading the first sentence, but if you can't, the adjective in the second sentence has the meaning of 'strong and able to deal with difficult situations'. Question 30: The gapped word has a similar meaning in the second and third sentences: 'make longer in time or distance'. In the first sentence the word is part of an expression.


Before the interview himself. Did Schumann Try to

Brian took a deep breath and tried to

this symphony, your thoughts

or was it Brahms?

before you start on the essay.


My grandmother handedly.

managed to

five children single-

Before ending the meeting, the Managing to any objections. They will

Director asked if anyone wanted

the flag while we sing the national anthem.


The steak was so Gerald thinks he looks studs.

that you couldn't

cut it, let alone chew it!

in that black leather jacket with the


Why don't more women Does your car We are going to paper.

for public office? on unleaded petrol or diesel? a series of advertisements in the local


I would like to for being with 'us tonight. They are planning to They originally decided to

a warm welcome to you all and thank you


the road by twenty


intended to spend ten days in Egypt but now they've their visit.


They died in the war.

the monument

to the memory

of the soldiers who

The doctor She through

his life to finding

a cure for this fatal disease.

all the difficult

the song to her husband, who had helped her times.

PAPER 1 Readrng PAPER2 Writing

For questions 32-39, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). Example:

PAPER 4 Listening PAPER 5 Speaking

He struggled to open the door. difficulty

~ Read both sentences carefully. The gapped sentence must express all the information contained in the prompt sentence, but in different words. ~ You must use the key word to complete the gapped sentence, but you must not change its form in any way. ~ The key word may be part of an expression. ~ You may need to change the form of words in the prompt sentence, and the order in which you express the information. ~ Be prepared to experiment. For example, you may have to change an active structure to a passive one, or a positive sentenceto a negative one. ~Your answer must be between ree and eight words in ength. If you write too few or :00 many words, you will be o:>enalised. estion 32: Which expression 'under' conveys the idea of --llre is no way'? A sentence inning in this way will need ~- 'nversion.



the door.

had difficulty

in opening

1=0= I

There is no way I'm letting you go to that party! allowing Under to that party!

Although choice. 34

,they wouldn't

be my first

You shouldn't taking Stop for you!

expect your mother to do everything

for you!

your mother will do everything


We wouldn't been Had

have got out alive without

the fire fighter's help.

, we wouldn't

have got out alive.


It's not like her to behave like that as she's normally very calm. keeping Her behaviour her normally calm nature.


estion 33: 'Averse' suggests __ dislike something. What do eed to say here in order to : "the gapped sentence the --e meaning as the prompt _ .""nce?

on Your entr'y 38 The rumours of his being fired are not true. contrary Despite , he has not been fired . your examination results.


.on 36: The key word is . a fixed expression .:c=~ing 'not consistent with'. 'on 39: You will need to ersion here.

She was very nice to me at first and I never imagined she could be so cruel! little She was so nice to me at first could be so cruel! she

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER 2 Writing

Part 1 For questions 40-44, read the following texts on tourism in Antarctica. For questions 40-43, answer with a word or short phrase. For question 44, write a summary according to the instructions given.

PAPER4 Listening PAPER5 Speaking

Part 2

Part 3
Part 4

~ Readthrough both texts to get an idea of how they are similar and also how they are different. ~ It is a good idea to attempt questions 40-43 first. This will help you focus on the points made in each text. ~ Your answers to questions 40-43 do not need to be full sentences, but they need to be clearly expressed. ~ Some questions may ask you to find words or phrases in the text. Others may ask you to explain the meaning of words and phrases or part of the text. Use your own words to do this and do not copy words and phrases from the text. Be careful to explain only what you are asked for, not the whole paragraph! Question 40: What is the word 'commercial' usually associated with? Consider how tourism might develop if more and more people want to visit Antarctica.

Antarctica represents ten percent of the Earth's landmass and is also the world's last unspoilt wilderness, so it is hardly surprising that greater numbers of people are visiting the frozen continent every year. Tourism to Antarctica
5 to have a commercial

began in the late 1950s but it wasn't until the 1990s that it began impact. In the summer season 2004-5, over 27,000 tourists visited Antarctica, and if one takes into account the crew, support teams and scientists that went there too, the actual number of visitors was closer to 50,000. The tourist industry is predicting that these figures will increase even further. Mass tourism has arrived. Tourism is already exerting pressures on the Antarctic environment, and what worries environmentalists is that there is no current regulation and


very little constraint on where people may go and what they can do there. Tours to important wildlife and historic sites often attract large numbers of people, and a new kind of 'adventure tourism' - offering activities such as scuba-diving, skydiving, and skiing - has also arrived. Tourists can even fly directly in to waiting ships, and there is now better access to inland areas thanks to light aircraft, helicopters and land vehicles. Inevitably, there have been calls for accommodation to 'be built ashore, as well as airstrips and landing sites. However, if tourism is not to compromise Antarctica's designation as a natural reserve, it must be subject to certain restrictions concerning where people can go and the types of activities they can do once they get there. Otherwise it is doubtful whether Antarctica can remain the last pristine environment on the planet for much longer.

Question 42: How might tourists to Antarctica like to feel? (They pay a lot of money to visit the ./ only continent that has not been populated by people.) Why do some tour operators avoid other groups of tourists when they arrive? Question 44 ~ Here, you need to use information from both texts in order to write a short summary. Read the question carefully to see what information you are being asked for. ~ Make a list of points from the two texts and then check that they are relevant to the question. ~ The first text includes two points for your summary. The first of these forms part of the message running through the text and is hard to miss. The second point is briefly mentioned but it is something that you would probably consider if you were thinking of visiting Antarctica. The second text also includes two points. The first clearly mentions one of the things a potential visitor should be aware of. The second point offers advice. ~ Write your summary from the list you have made, using your own words as far'as possible. Remember: A summary introduction needs no .. , or conclusion.

has no indigenous population - if you exclude the unavoidable colonies of penguins - and the only people you are likely to see there are other tourists. Some prudent tour operators, however, schedule their landings so they don't bump into each other, thus reinforcing the illusion of the wilderness experience. Vessels travelling to the Antarctic vary in size from cruisers carrying around fifty passengers to much larger icestrengthened vessels with a capacity of 1,000 or so. The International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), a well-respected voluntary organisation, has established rules about the size of ships allowed into Antarctic waters and conduct o't landing sites, so you should check that the tour company you go with is a member. One of these rules states that no more than 100 people can visit land at anyone time, so it is usually better to go with a smaller ship to ensure you will get to see some of the spectacular wildlife and natural features of the continent up close. Tours operate in the summ,er months, between November and March, when you can expect more than twenty hours of sunlight and temperatures up to 10C. In the winter temperatures can plunge to -90C, but only a handful of hardened scientists ever sit it out.

You need to summarise what the texts say, but you are not asked for your opinion. Do not include unnecessary details such as examples to support a point. ~ Check the number of words, vocabulary, sentence structure, etc~


In a paragraph of 50-70 words, summarise in your own words as far as possible which factors, according to both texts, should be taken into consideration by anyone thinking of going on a tour to Antarctica. Write your summary on the separate answer sheet.

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER 2 Writing PAPER 3 Use of English

You will hear four different extracts. For questions 1-8, choose the answer (A, B or Cl which fits best according to what you hear. There are two questions for each extract.

... . ~

PAPER 5 Speaking

Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

How did she feel during the trip?

~ Before you listen, read the statement that introduces each extract and the two questions or question stems that follow. These will give you an idea of what to expect. The extracts are short, so you don't have much time to analyse the context while you are listening. ~ Underline the key words in the statements and questions. ~ You may hear monologues or dialogues from real life situations: a conversation overheard on a bus, or someone talking on the radio, for example. ~ Listen for gist the first time, noting the options you think are correct. Watch out for traps: some words or expressions may be misleading and two of the options are there to confuse you. ~ The second time you listen, check your answers carefully. Question 1: The woman mentions feeling 'green', which can have more than one . meaning. However, in this case, the meaning is connected to the fact that the sea is rough, and creates a contrast with the baby's peaceful sleep. Question 3: Listen carefully to the whole extract before choosing your answer. There are key words in the text which will help you.

A terrified B seasick C inexperienced

What did they discover when they reached the next island? A The harbour. was old and ill-equipped. B There were too many ferries. C The locals were not very accommodating.

What is he talking about? A making a sculpture B making a wooden doll C making a musical instrument

What does he think is the most important A precision B patience C knowledge

factor in making this object?


Question 6: You could get confused here by the various combinations in the options. As you listen, tick off the points you hear, but remember that you may not hear the same words. Question 7: Listen carefully for

Which factor assisted the woman

in teaching

her dog sign language?

A The breed has a tendency to be born with hearing problems. B Visual communication is instinctive in dogs. intelligent.

C The dog in question was especially

comments which indicate the speaker's attitude towards the activities performed in the darkroom.

How did the woman train her dog? A by using sign language and facial expressions B by using facial expressions and spoken commands

C by using sign language, facial expressions and spoken commands

How does he feel about the darkroom A relieved B regretful C non-committal



The software for digital cameras is so far unable to A save the photographer money.

B produce good quality posters. C correct mistakes in a photograph.

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER 2 Writing PAPER 3 Use of English

You will the world. hear part of a radio talk about For questions 9-17, complete the ways in which birth is celebrated or short around phrase. the sentences with a word





for babies

after the birth of a child.

ssent-a. ti

A special

~ Before you listen, read the questions carefully, paying special attention to any words that may give a clue to the gapped word(s). Key words in the sentence can act as indicators of what to listen out for. ~ The first time you listen, try to understand the overall meaning as this is crucial. The questions follow the order of the text, so you have some indication of where you will hear the answer. ~ As you listen, jot down any words or phrases that seem to complete the gaps correctly, both in meaning and grammatically. Listen out for the key words you noted so you know when the answer is about to be mentioned. Sometimes you may hear names, dates or numbers. ~ The second time you listen, make sure your answers correspond to what is being said. The word(s} you need will be heard in the recording, but sometimes a very close synonym or paraphrase is acceptable. ~ Once you have completed task, check your spelling. the

cultures, trees are planted

and toddlers

may be held in Nigeria.

In some

because health

they and




QI] @]


and springs

may play a role in birth because they



__________ IJIJ a baby's

Some people believe the gods will bless a new baby it thei r


and offer







or wear



Learning to walk is one of the important


as new mothers.

I----------In many cultures, a



in a child's


marks the transition

between childhood and adulthood.

Question 9: What can a person suffer from? Listen for a word that might describe an illness or physical condition. Question 13: Listen for what the Indians do to the baby's head. If it is a word you do not know, try to write it as close as possible to the way it sounds or the way you imagine it would be spelt. Don't leave a question unanswered. Question 15: Here you need a phrase. Listen for examples of women who paint their bodies or wear jewellery. Question 17: Listen for a phrase which means 'the special events that mark the journey between childhood and adulthood'.


PAPER 1 Reading PAPER 2 Writing PAPER3 Use of English
You will hear an interview with an historian. For questions 18-22, choose the answer (A, B, C or Dj which fits best according to what you hear.


sse fial tips

~ Before you listen, read the instructions. Who is speaking and what is the situation? ~ Readthe questions carefully and imagine the content of what you are about to hear. Underline key words in the questions and question stems. ~ The words in the questions will not usually be the same as the words used by the speakers, so listen for similar ideas expressed in a different way. ~ The speaker's attitude to his or her subject is very important. Listen carefully to any language which conveys feelings or opinions. ~ The first time you listen, concentrate on understanding what the speakers are saying rather than answering the questions. ~ The second time you listen, be ready to choose your answers. Question 18: The speaker mentions all the options, but hich one does he give as being ~ e reason for scholars' special - 'erest in the site? estion 19: What does ~ ofessor Pretz say about the .NO theories? Do they have the same approach to the subject? estion 20: Read each option, --en listen carefully to what the ::-ofessor says about _ ourmouziadis' interpretation. =:r>--s he accept it completely? estion 22: Pay attention to the ::-ding of each option. Then -n carefully to the professor's = :: comments. What conclusion he draw? 22 19

The settlement at Dimini is especially interesting because A it dates back to the Neolithic period. B it includes a large, central building surrounded by smaller ones. C it is surrounded by a series of stone walls. D it is the oldest example of an organised community in Greece.

The two theoretical reconstructions of the site A are based on different interpretive models. B assume that the central building was a castle. C were influenced by the writings of Homer. D were formulated at roughly the same time.



to Professor Pretz, Chourmouziadis'


A is convincing and provides insight into how the settlement worked. B is based on evidence of social and economic activity in the settlement. C is persuasive but the thinking behind it is open to question. D is too simple and generic to be of any real value to historians.


The main difference between the two theories regarding Dimini is that A they disagree about the settlement's social system. B they disagree about the function of the central building. C they disagree about the economic function of the settlement. D the historians were inspired by different authors.

Professor Pretz A thinks historians should pay more attention to the social, historical and cultural influences of the period. B suggests that the study of the past is affected by influences in the historian's own society. C proves that some historians are entirely subjective in their approach to the study of the past. D implies that the interpretations of the settlement at Dimini are unrealistic.

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER2 Writing PAPER 3 Use of English

You will advisers. hear part of an interview For questions 23-28, with Penny whether and Simon, the opinions agree. two Internet business by only decide are expressed

one of the speakers, Write P S or B

or whether

the speakers

for Penny for Simon for Both, where they agree.

~ Read the questions carefully to get an idea of what will be discussed and the opinions that will be expressed. ~ Pay close attention to any views that seem to conflict. It is unlikely that a speaker would contradict him/herself, so these are probably mentioned by different speakers. ~ If a speaker mentions a point, wait until the other speaker has expressed his or her view because you need to know if they agree or not. ~ Listen for words or phrases that show agreement or disagreement, for example 'you're quite right', or 'I'm afraid I disagree', although agreement and disagreement are usually expressed more subtly than this. ~ Listen for different ways of saying the same thing or expressions which have a similar meaning. ~ Check your answers when you listen the second time. Question 23: How might you express 'widely available' in other words? Question 24: What does 'superfluous' mean? What is another way of talking about images on a computer? Who mentions this? Question 27: Which noun may reflect what something 'contains'? Listen for this in the text, as well as someone comparing it to visual images or pictures. Question 28: What is 'endorsement'? If something is 'official', where does it come from?

PAPER 1 Reading PAPER2 Writing PAPER3 Use of English PAPER4 listening

Answer these questions: How would you describe the area you live in? What are your neighbours like? Would you prefer to live somewhere else? What would you like to improve about the area you live in?

~ Try to be as natural as possible in your interview, and smile! This will help both you and the other candidate to relax. ~ Use as much variety of language as possible and avoid repeating words and expressions the other candidate has used. ~ Listen to the examiner's questions and instructions carefully. ~ In Part 2, which is the interactive part of the interview, remember to address the other candidate, not the examiner, and avoid long monologues. You are supposed to be conducting a conversation, so talk with your partner, asking him or her questions, as well as expressing your own ideas. ~ In Part 3, you will need to express your opinion on a subject, so learn useful words and expressions to help you do this. Express yourself as honestly as possible - we generally express ourselves better when we believe what we are saying! Candidates A and B: Turn to pictures A-F on page 130-131, which show images connected with space. First look at pictures A and F and discuss how space exploration has helped us to understand more about the world we live in. You have about one minute for this. Now look at all the pictures. I'd like you to imagine that the government is thinking of spending more money on space exploration and wants to produce a leaflet to publicise the fact. Talk about the importance of expanding our knowledge of the universe and decide which picture would be used most effectively for the cover of the leaflet. You have about three minutes for this.

Candidate A: Look at the question in the box and say what you think about it. You can use the ideas in the box if you like or add some ideas of your own. You have two minutes for this. Does the most important classroom or elsewhere? learning/play pre-school education occur within the

friends and peers real life experience Candidate B: Is there anything you would like to add?

Candidate B: Look at the question in the box and say what you think about it. You can use the ideas in the box if you like or add some ideas of your own. You have two minutes for this. Has the function parents' day? working parents child minding private study and guidance Candidate A: Is there anything you would like to add? about education in general: of schools changed since your

Candidates A and B: Now answer these questions

Are standards in education falling or improving? Are teaching materials and resources outmoded? Should the government spend more on education and less on defence? Should school subjects be more geared towards real life and work? Should teachers be obliged to attend regular retraining courses?

It appears/seems to be ... This must/could be ... ... I'm fairly certain/sure I imagine ... Judging by ...

I can't tell who/what/where


How about this picture for the cover? What do you think of this one? This picture depicts/shows ...

This picture might be suitable because ... This picture gets the message across because ... I think this one is too obscure and confusing. You've got a point there. We could also ... I wouldn't say that. I think it shows . .

That's not a bad idea, but why not What about a combination of ...

Picture (A) could be superimposed astronaut communications cost of research extraterrestrial life globe launch pad maintenance orbit outer space planet

on picture (D).

research rocket satellite space exploration space shuttle spacesuit space station threat of meteors universe


fertility prominent performed aesthetic

PAPER 1 Reading

and have babies or young a series of actions


(n) a small change that is made to something

joint (n) a part of your body such as your elbow or knee where two bones meet and are able to move together manipulation position (n) the act of skilfully moving and pressing bones or muscles with your hands in order to push the bones into their correct or make the muscles less stiff to lose the effect or value that it had sending someone to a person or negate (v) to cause something referral (n) the act of officially authority registered that is qualified

(n) the ability to reproduce (adj) very noticeable

ritual (n) a religious

service which involves

in a fixed order (adj) used to talk about beauty or art, and people's . .. . by soaking It In a special to

to deal with them . or other authority . In

(adj) recorded on an official list

appreciation of beautiful things dye (v) to change the colour of something liquid embellish inspiring innovative interactive (v) to add decorative (adj) exciting; (adj) allowing or television

rigorous (adj) very thorough and strict regulation (n) a rule made by a government order to control the way something enthuse (v) to talk about something you are about it

. features or patterns to something and enthusiastic

is done or the way people behave in a way that shows how excited

make it look more attractive making you feel interested direct communication system (adj) new and original between the user and

supple (adj) able to move and bend very easily visual (adj) relating to sight or to things that you can see impairment (n) a condition properly which prevents someone's eyes, ears or brain from working status as you perspective (n) the art of making some objects or people in a picture (phr v) to realise something look further away than others dawn on someone tactile holy devise (v) to have the idea for a plan, system or machine, and design it (adj) received or felt by touch complement (v) to go well with another thing and make its good qualities more noticeable observation (n) the ability to pay a lot of attention notice more about them than most people do perception (n) the way you think about something you have of it abstract (v) to create an object or formulate that you observe or study volume (n) the amount of space that an object contains or occupies dimension (n) a measurement such as length, width or height substance embryo (n) a solid, powder, liquid or gas with particular or something properties dwarf (v) to make someone look or feel very small . body IS of to things and to or the impression

the computer levels mobility example

ramp (n) a sloping surface between two places that are at different (n) the ability to move or travel easily from place to place, for because you are not physically disabled or because you have . to produce a piece of .

peer (n) a person who is the same age as you or who has the same

your own transport collaboration (n) the act of working work, especially shrine (n) a place of worship


a book or some research

which is associated with a particular

person or object assistance (n) help and support punctual (adj) arriving somewhere at the right time and not late very much detest (v) to dislike someone rouse (v) to waken someone prior to (prep) before conveyor belt (n) a continuously moving strip of rubber or metal objects along so that which is used in factories or airports for moving or something

. an idea from something

they can be dealt with as quickly as possible

~~PART 2
device (n) an object that has been invented for a particular for example for recording bent on doing something particularly redundant something machinery something or measuring something to do something, state (phr) determined purpose,

(n) an unborn animal or human being in the very early stages

of development conception (n) the process in which the egg in a woman's fertilised primitive and she becomes pregnant (adj) belonging

harmful to be in a particular

render (v) to cause something

to a very early period in the development

(adj) no longer needed because its job is being done by else or because its job is no longer necessary or useful to computerised of how of to enable the user to gain a physical impression is performing

an animal or plant rudimentary gestation (adj) very basic or simple (n) the process by which babies grow inside their mother's

haptics (n) the science of adding tactile sensation the machinery

body before they are born foetus (n) an animal or human being in its later stages of development potent undeniable reciprocal consumer artificial before it is born (adj) definitely (adj) involving true two people or groups who do the same (adj) very effective and powerful

enhance (v) to improve the value, quality or attractiveness

something . . terrain (n) an area of land or a type of land when you are conSidering its physical features .. optimum (adj) the best level or state that something anticipate (v) to realise in advance that something which could be dangerous be prepared for it hazard (n) something transmit substance take evasive action (phr) deliberately something chiropractic chiropractor diagnose 148 (n) the treatment move away from someone or in order to avoid meeting them or being hit by them of injuries by pressing and moving . to you, your health . an object or or safety, or your plans or reputation (v) to allow sound or signals to pass through could achieve may happen and

thing to each other or agree to help each another in a similar way (n) a person who buys things or uses services (adj) not occurring naturally and created by human beings, someone to develop or progress of sensory (adj) relating to the physical senses for example stimulation monitor something contraption substitute thing using science or technology (n) the process of encouraging or someone from a high place (n) a device or machine that looks strange, or you do not (v) to take the place or perform the function of another check the development

(v) to regularly

suspend (v) to hang something know what it is used for

people's joints, especially the spine (n) a person who treats injuries by chiropractic an illness or disease in someone (v) to identify

CPE Tests Glossary

bond (n) a strong feeling of friendship, experiences

love or shared beliefs and

disciple (n) a person who is influenced tries to follow their example primate (n) a member

by someone's



that unites one person with another

of the group of mammals

which includes

~~PART 3
palaeoanthropology through crumple (n) the scientific study of early human beings fossils to learn about the history of human life on earth with dirt or an oily or sticky substance so that it becomes full of untidy brown stains (v) to squash something

humans, monkeys and apes foliage (n) the leaves of a plant bud (n) a small pointed develops lump that appears on a tree or plant and into a leaf or flower

smear (v) to cover something creases and folds foxed (adj) discoloured cliffhanger (n) a situation

twig (n) a very small thin branch that grows out from a main branch of a tree or bush

with yellowish

fade (v) to become gradually or frightening

paler or less clear what

~~PART 4
contemplate trepidation oscillate behaviour (v) to think about whether to do something (n) fear or anxiety about something (v) to keep changing or not that you are going to or type of that

or part of a play or film that is very exciting

because you are left for a long time not knowing

will happen next pygmy (adj) belonging descendant tantalising to a species of animal which is the smallest of who is related to a it makes you feel hopeful a group of related species (n) a person in a later generation (adj) if something is tantalising, person in an earlier one and excited about getting what you want, usually before disappointing proselytiser you by not letting you have what it appeared to offer (n) a person who tries to persuade others to share their religious or political beliefs embraces a group of people, things or something or changing your

do or experience from one mood, attitude to another and back

dread (n) a feeling of great anxiety and fear about something may happen precipice erstwhile reluctance doing it sage (adj) wise and knowledgeable dump (n) a place that is ugly and unpleasant warden motley (n) a prison officer or clever to live in or visit (n) a very steep cliff on a mountain

(adj) used to describe someone that used to be the type of but no longer is to do something and hesitation before (n) unwillingness

person indicated,

beliefs, especially

embrace (v) if something adaptation behaviour distinctive

ideas, it includes them in a larger group or category (n) the act of changing (adj) if something to make it suitable for a new purpose or situation is distinctive, it has a special quality or and different from other

quip (n) a remark that is intended to be amusing strange together miscreant badly mould (v) to change or influence that they develop in a particular close-knit interest in each other weather-beaten pock-marked covering infuriating domain rights unwitting

feature which makes it easily recognisable things of the same type bloom (n) a flower on a plant ero-Magnon

(adj) used to describe a group of things or people that seem because they are all very different illegal or behaved (n) a person who has done something

(n) an early type of human being found in Europe type is the only one of

between 60,000 to 10,000 years ago sole (adj) a sole thing or person of a particular that type tenant (n) a person who pays rent for the place they live in, or for land or buildings Neanderthal that they use (n) an early type of human being who lived in Europe

someone over a period of time so way and taking an

(adj) closely linked, doing things together

(adj) used to describe skin with deep lines because (adj) used to describe skin with small hollow marks

the person has spent a lot of time outside in bad weather it because the person has at some time been scarred by a (adj) extremely annoying has control, influence or or is has

between 35,000 and 70,000 years ago cohabit (v) to live together primary (adj) main; most important that relates to an idea or event, and from an area of land and look which are buried there, in or context (n) the general situation Nhich helps it to be understood excavate (v) to remove earth carefully rder to discover information umbling summit

disease such as chicken pox or smallpox fag (n) a cigarette (n) an area over which someone

'or things such as pots, bones or buildings

about the past

(adj) used to describe a person who does something in something without realising it or something

(adj) making you realise that you are not as important you were (n) the highest point of something


good as you thought

trace (n) a sign which shows you that someone been in a place or as the result of

erish (v) to die as a result of very harsh conditions accident

stamp (v) to leave marks of your presence in a place grate on someone's spatter nerves (phr) to make someone feel annoyed at with marks often in a sudden the way you are behaving (v) to cover the surface of something way bad, people think they engulf (v) to cover or hide something and unexpected marginalise are that thing do time (phr) to serve a prison sentence bad apple (phr) a person who is dishonest and therefore they belong to in a place which is too causes a lot completely,

aye your mark (phr) to have a lasting effect on another person or ing "ddle (n) something ulse (n) a temporary : mething 5Cavenge (v) to collect things by searching : jects rcass (n) the body of a dead animal tted (adj) containing - mething mpose (v) to write something orporate e together such as music, a letter or an article another discover the truth about something (v) to include one thing within (phr v) to gradually just the main facts about someone or among waste or unwanted that people have been trying to understand increase in the presence or activity of or =xplain but have not been able to

(v) to make someone feel isolated and unimportant

brand (v) if you brand someone as something

of problems convict

for the group or organisation

(n) someone who is in prison

coop up (phr v) to keep someone or something perverse (adj) unnatural; unreasonable

small, or which does not allow them much freedom

fend for yourself

(phr) to look after yourself without of something

relying on help exciting or

from others threshold (n) if you are on the threshold new, you are about to experience it wry (adj) referring to a bad situation

~. PART 3
anthem (nl a song which is used to represent a particular nation, society or group, and which is sung on special occasions stud (n) a small piece of metal that is attached to a surface for decoration

in an amusing way

PAPER 2 Writing ~. PART 1

infiltration (n) the act of entering order to influence it Internet engrossed attention zombie (n) a person whose face or behaviour understanding shows no feeling, or interest in what is going on around them an organisation or group secretly in

exert (v) to use influence, authority or pressure in a strong or effect posi>i ; determined way, especially in order to produce a particular inevitable (adj) certain to happen; unavoidable compromise (adj) if you are engrossed in something, it holds your designation pristine indigenous (vI to do something (nl a description, (adjl indigenous which damages someone's or their reputation name or title that is given to somethi people or things belong to the country (adj) extremely clean or new

cyber cafe (nl a cafe with computers

where people can pay to use the

which they are found, rather than coming there or being brought

PAPER3 Use of English ~. PART 1

hieroglyphics some writing linguistic (n) symbols in the form of pictures which are used in systems, for example those of ancient Egypt

there from another country prudent conduct (adj) sensible and careful (nl the way someone behaves in particular situations

(adj) relating to language or linguistics says, even though it

baffle (v) to confuse someone decipher (v) to work out what a piece of writing is very difficult to read or understand such as a stone by volcanoes which is intended to slab (n) a thick, flat piece of something, fortress

PAPER 1 Reading HPART 1
graphology consultant what sort of personality organisation friction assessment on a particular (n) a judgement (nl disagreement

(n) the study of people's handwriting they have subject between people or something after about someone in order to discc _ (nl a person who gives expert advice to a person or and argument

basalt (n) a type of black rock that is produced be difficult inscription for enemies to enter (n) writing carved into something or medal

(n) a castle or other large strong building

made of stone or metal,

for example a gravestone


rabies (n) a serious disease which causes people and animals to go mad and die lair (n) a place where a wild animal lives, usually a place which is underground or well-hidden flap (v) if a bird or insect flaps its wings, the wings move quickly up and down sonar (n) a method of finding waves nocturnal navigation echolocation position (adj) occurring the position of an object using sound

have been considered

or reviewed often

invertebrate (nl a creature that does not have a spine track (v) to follow someone's or something's movements,

means of a special device such as a satellite or radar bait (v) to put food on a hook or in a trap in order to catch fish animals behemoth (nl something extremely large in size or power crone (n) an ugly old woman wisp (nl a small, thin, untidy bunch of hair flash (v) if you flash a look or a smile at someone, you sudden

at night and the

(n) the science of deciding which course to follow (n) a system used by some animals to determine

at them or smile at them gums (n) the areas of firm, pink flesh inside your mouth, whic teeth grow out of swirl (v) to move round and round quickly

steering a ship or an aircraft there of an object by measuring how long it takes for an echo to it

return from the object groom (v) to clean an animal's fur, usually by brushing contract supplies nectar (nl a sweet liquid produced insects collect pollen (n) a fine powder flowers enigma (n) something understand tangle (v) to twist together cause a particular injection, an activity in an untidy way a harmless form of the germs that vaccine (n) a substance containing produced by flowers which fertilises other to of the same species so that they produce seeds or someone that is mysterious or difficult by flowers, which bees and other

.~ PART 2
perfunctory (adj) done quickly and carelessly and showing a interest in what you are doing consolidation (n) the strengthening power, knowledge secure aptitude facilitate happen in decline (phr) gradually atrocious obesity decreasing in importance, fat or the amount of i test (n) a test that is specially

(v) to become ill with a serious illness or disease

1,,- _

pest (n) an insect or small animal which damages crops or food

of something

you have, s :--

or success, so that it becomes more effec designed to find out h

easily and how well you can do something (v) to make an action or process easier or more like quality 0 -

(adjl of poor quality; very bad (n) the state of being extremely ::-

disease which is given to people, usually by a place or taking part in

to prevent them getting that disease

capacity (n) the ability to do something, are able to do grievous (adj) extremely

exclude (vI to prevent someone from entering

serious or worrying

in its effects



PAPER 1 Reading

23 B: 23 C:

~ ~ PART 1 1 D 2 A 3 D 4 C 5 B 6 B 7 C 8 B 9 A 10 B 11 C 12 D 13 B 14 D 15 C 16 A 17 B 18 C ~ ~PART 2 19 A: Incorrect. The text says, 'Until recently, the makers of automated machinery seemed bent on rendering operators redundant', not that this was their intention. It simply appeared to be so. 19 B: Incorrect. The operators, not the manufacturers, felt no connection with the machine they were operating. 19 C: Correct. 'Engineers are finally beginning to recognise the value of the human touch with regard to the operation of mechanical devices. Until recently, the makers of automated machinery seemed bent on rendering operators redundant by reducing their involvement with the machine to the touch of a button. This theoretically made the user's job easier, but in practice, they felt they had no connection with the machine or how it functioned.' 190: Incorrect. The text implies the opposite: that until recently, haptic principles were not being used to develop machinery. 20 A: Incorrect. The opposite is true. Haptic feedback enhances the operator's understanding of how a machine works. 20 B: Incorrect. Haptic feedback helps the operator to understand how the machine is responding to different types of terrain. 20 C: Incorrect. There is no evidence to support this answer in the text. 20 0: Correct. 'By programming haptic feedback into the electronic control system, engineers are helping operators to enhance their understanding of how a machine is responding to a particular terrain through feel, and by doing so, achieve optimum performance.' 21 A: Incorrect. There is no mention of massage in the text. 21 B: Correct. 'Chiropractors diagnose and then treat problems of a neuro-musculoskeletal nature by making specific adjustments to the joints of the body - the spine in particular - in order to improve the function of the nervous system, and thereby enable the body's natural healing processes to do their work. No drugs or surgery, just gentle manipulation at the hands of a trained specialist!' 21 C: Incorrect. The specialist makes adjustments to the joints in the body, not the nerves and muscles. 21 0: Incorrect. The specialist makes adjustments to the joints in the body, not the nervous system. 22 A: Incorrect. 'Chiropractors diagnose and then treat problems'. 22 B: Incorrect. Chiropractors make the diagnosis, 'negating the need for a doctor's referral'. 22 C: Incorrect. The text does not mention anything about medication that a person may already be taking. 0: Correct. Although the writer does not directly advise the reader to do so, he emphasises the fact that 'Registered chiropractors are subject to rigorous regulations and high standards of practice are maintained', implying that it is advisable to go to a registered chiropractor. A: Correct. 'I had spent years trying to keep up with my peers, struggling to master the principles of colour, form and perspective, until it dawned on me one day that perhaps

230: 24 A:

24 B: 24 C: 24 0: 25 A: 25 B:

25 C: 250:

26 A:

26 B: 26 C:

26 0:

the skills I was attempting to develop need not necessarily be visual.' Incorrect. The artist realised that she did not need to improve her visual skills. Incorrect. The artist indicates that in the past she had struggled because she had a visual impairment, not because she lacked talent. Incorrect. The artist says she realised she could improve her work by changing the way she perceived the world. Incorrect. The text says that touch can 'offer an alternative means of observation', not improve it, although it can 'increase one's sense of perception'. Incorrect. Touch does not improve one's ability to see. Correct. 'it provides a unique, non-visual way for artists to abstract images from forms' Incorrect. The artist has been working with large objects but she is not a 'visual' artist. Incorrect. Touch is the first sense to develop, but this is not the main reason why it is important. Correct. 'Essentially, touch aids psychological, intellectual and physical development while its absence can cause undeniable harm.' Incorrect. Touch is important for communication but this is not its most important function. Incorrect. The text says touch is a 'reciprocal sense' but this is not the same as saying that it teaches us to 'reciprocate' - share with others. Incorrect. The writer uses this as an example of how people distance themselves from their babies. He does not say babies should never sleep alone. Incorrect. The writer indicates that some people provide artificial security. He does not indicate if they are a majority. Correct. 'But babies need their mothers, not machines and contraptions. No invention can substitute for the direct physical contact that forms the basis of the mother and child bond.' Incorrect. The writer is not talking about a child's upbringing.

~ ~ PART 3 27 F: The first paragraph uses a book metaphor and talks about 'the story of the past'. Paragraph F introduces the book that Chris Stringer and Peter Andrews have written. 28 C: The paragraph before the gap mentions the newly discovered human species for the first time and compares it to other known early human species. This new evidence raises questions, which are then posed in paragraph C. 29 H: The paragraph before the gap refers to Stringer's background and ends with the statement' Homo floresiensis, however, astonished him', which suggests that some comments by Stringer may follow. The paragraph after the gap consists of a quote, with no mention of the speaker's name, which implies that the speaker is continuing a comment which began in the gapped paragraph. Paragraph H is a quotation, and explains what the speaker finds 'astonishing' about the new discovery. 30 G: The paragraph before the gap explains the nature and complexity of human evolution. Paragraph G describes the accepted view of human evolution using the metaphor of a tree. In the paragraph after the gap, this metaphor is continued: 'Modern humans probably popped up within the last 200,000 years, but the things that make modern humans so distinctive in the fossil record - symbolic art,

pottery and jewellery - bloomed only about 50,000 years ago.' 31 A: The last sentence of the paragraph before the gap suggests that our own species is transient. Paragraph A continues this idea: 'We should not see ourselves as the summit of the perfection ... how successful will we look in 50,000 years ... ?' The paragraph after the gap says that humans nearly died out several times in the course of their evolution. 32 B: The paragraph before the gap mentions the Neanderthals, and raises questions about their relations with other human species. Paragraph B considers the Neanderthals and raises a further question: did other human species regard them as different from themselves? Stringer's answer to this question is in the paragraph after the gap. 33 0: This paragraph presents Stringer's view of what became of the Neanderthals, concluding what has been said in the three previous paragraphs, and leads into the final paragraph, regarding the authors' intentions in writing their book. ~ ~ PART 4 34 A: Correct. The writer is not certain how he feels about leaving prison. 'I hesitate and contemplate this fact with some trepidation, oscillating between a feeling of excitement and one of utter dread.' 34 B: Incorrect. The writer uses the image of the precipice as a metaphor to describe his anxiety about leaving prison. 34 C: Incorrect. The text does not mention the consequences of what he is about to do. 340: Incorrect. He does not regret wasting so much time. He is now frightened that the time to leave has arrived. 35 A: Incorrect. He has a 'sarcastic quip' ready, but realises he cannot say it. 35 B: Incorrect. Bill implies that the writer will miss his fellow prisoners, not the other way round. 35 C: Incorrect. He realises he feels close to the other people in the prison, but he does not necessarily regard them as family. 350: Correct. 'Bill ... notices my sudden reluctance and smiles, nodding sagely. "Hard, isn't it?" he says. "You spend all your time waiting for your release only to find that when it comes down to it, you don't want to go. Much as you hate to admit it, this dump has become your home, and the lads, even the warden, bless him, well, they've become family." A sarcastic quip in response to this last remark dies in my throat. It strikes me that this motley bunch of miscreants ... have indeed come to mean something to me, and that in spite of myself I will miss them.' 36 A: Incorrect. The writer does not mention if he and Bill have or do not have anything in common. 36 B: Incorrect. The writer says that he and Bill irritate each other, but this is not the same as disliking each other. On the contrary, the writer finds Bill's presence comforting and he says that Bill understands him. 36 C: Correct. 'we have grown used to sharing a fag and talking about nothing in particular. It suddenly dawns on me that he understands me in a way nobody else ever has and I never have to pretend to be something I am not with him. He just seems to know what is going on in my head and doesn't question it, but rather accepts it philosophically. I realise there is something comforting about waking up every morning to the sounds of Bill moving around his domain next door.' 'Solace' means 'comfort'.

36 D: Incorrect. The writer does not imply that his or Bill's habits are peculiar. 37 A: Incorrect. The writer is not surprised that his cell is not decorated; he deliberately did not bother to make it look nice. 37 B: Correct. He is surprised to find that he has left evidence of his presence, even though he never made an effort to decorate his cell. 'Even so, it is amazing how we unwittingly leave traces of ourselves wherever we go, stamping our self on everything we touch. There is the rubber mark on the wall above my bed, made by my throwing a small ball at it every day, an activity which grated on Bill's nerves but which helped me calm my own. Then the wall against which my bunk stands is spattered with writing: the lyrics of songs and the lines of poems that I have struggled not to forget. Wherever I look, 1see things that are familiar.' 37 C: Incorrect. He is not surprised by the marks on the wall. 37 D: Incorrect. He has not forgotten the lyrics: he has written them on his wall in order to remember them. 38 A: Incorrect. The writer does not know what to expect outside but neither does he imply or say that nothing will be familiar. 38 B: Incorrect. He does not say whether people outside prison will recognise him or not. 38 C: Correct. 'Out there the unknown waits to engulf me, and the loneliness of being marginalised by society; I will be branded by the fact that I have done time - just another bad apple.' 38 D: Incorrect. Although he has become accustomed to his fellow prisoners, he is not really concerned about leaving them; there is more a sense of anxiety about what he is going to find outside. 39 A: Correct. 'It occurs to me that we convicts spend all our time cooped up and trapped, longing for the moment we will be free again, not realising that there is a perverse freedom to being inside: a freedom from all forms of responsibility.' 39 B: Incorrect. He suggests that free people have responsibilities, but this is not the irony. 39 C: Incorrect. He suggests that the luxury of being able to put your feet up and relax is difficult to achieve outside prison, not that all luxuries are rare. Nor is there any irony in the statement. 39 0: Incorrect. He is momentarily attracted to the lack of responsibility attached to life in prison, but does not suggest that it is more comfortable. Again, there is no irony in this. 40 A: Incorrect. Although the writer has been waiting to leave for a long time, the text implies that when the time comes, he is reluctant to go. 40 B: Incorrect. The text implies that he is reluctant to go. 40 C: Correct. 'After dreaming of this moment for years, endlessly counting off the days, over and over ... I am now gripped with a sense of terror at the thought that the time has actually arrived .... Out there, you must face life. Here, you can turn your back on it, and that seems cosy and appealing to me right now.' Generally, the text talks about the writer's surprise at realising that the moment he has been waiting for all this time is no longer so attractive to him. 40 D: Incorrect. In the last paragraph the writer says to Bill that he may be back in prison soon, but he is actually making a joke.

APER 2 Writing
~ PART 1 Question 1 Style: Formal ntent: Letter 1 In the introduction explain your reason for writing. Mention that you have read the article and that you would like to share your opinions with the newspaper's readers. 2 Address the points made in the extract: Do young people spend all their time on the phone, the Internet or playing computer games? Are they no longer interested in their culture or their individuality? Is it true that they engage less in physical activities and spend more time indoors? Is their academic performance suffering? Can we blame all this on technology? 3 You may agree or disagree completely, or you may want to express a view somewhere in between. Choose the right kind of language and be careful with your tone. Use examples wherever necessary or where they can support your argument. 4 Conclude by addressing the final question the extract poses: how far does technology affect our lives, and can we or should we do anything about the situation? ~ ~ PART 2 uestion 2 Style: Formal ontent: Proposal, possibly divided into sections with headings 1 In the introduction state the purpose of your proposal. 2 Discuss each of the suggestions under a separate heading for each one. You could also include additional suggestions of your own. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each suggestion, highlighting who would benefit most from each. 3 Conclude by explaining which of the suggestions you think is best and give reasons to support your ideas. You could also express support for the idea of developing the wasteland in general. estion 3 Style: Semi-formal -antent: Review 1 In the introduction state what course you are studying, and the titles of the two textbooks you intend to compare. You may wish to compare a textbook you find particularly interesting and useful with one you consider to be of a lower standard. This will facilitate comparison. 2 Make sure you address the following points when comparing the books: Level - Say whether you think the textbooks are challenging or not Content - Is this varied and stimulating? Requirements - Do the books cover the essential aspects of the subject adequately? 3 Conclude by summing up your overall view of the two textbooks.


Style: Formal Content: Report, possibly divided into sections with headings.
Bullet points or numbered lists can also be used. 1 In the introduction state the purpose of your report. 2 Your observations on the current situation could be organised into two paragraphs, with the following headings: 'Quality of food' and 'Quality of service'. However, you may prefer to present your observations of both under one heading: 'The current situation'. Include reference to complaints that have been made by customers and say whether you found them to be justified. 3 The conclusion could have the heading 'Suggestions for improvement'. Present your suggestions for improvement and say why you think they will work.

PAPER 3 Use of English

~ ~ PART 1 1 had 2 thanks 3 while/whilst 4 on/upon 5 but/although/though 6 first 7 to 8 can/may 9 another 10 this 11 in 12 not 13 both 14 work 15 thus/thereby/hence

~ ~ PART 2 16 enigmatic (noun to adjective) 17 unsuspectingly (verb to negative adjective to negative adverb) 18 entangled/tangled (verb to past participle of new verb/verb to past participle) 19 misguided (verb to negative adjective) 20 daily (noun to adverb) 21 unvaccinated (noun to past participle with negative prefix) 22 exclusively (verb to adjective to adverb) 23 dispersal (verb to noun) 24 pollination (noun to noun describing a process) 25 disrespect (verb/noun to negative noun) ~ ~ PART 3 26 compose 27 raise 28 tou~h

29 run 30 extend 31 dedicated

H PART 4 32 no circumstances (1) + am I allowing you to go (1) 33 am not averse (1) + to (eating) snails (1) 34 taking it (1) + for granted that (1) 35 it not been (1) + for the fire fighter/fire fighter's help (1) 36 is not in keeping (1) + with (1) 37 to university (1) + depends/will depend on (1) 38 (the) rumours (1) + to the contrary (1) 39 that little (1) + did I imagine (1)


H PART 5 40 the effect of the growing income generated from tourism 41 restrictions 42 giving tourists a stronger impression that they are in a completely wild, unspoilt environment 43 They have got used to the Antarctica winterfThey are acclimatised to the coldfThey have wintered there before (so they are used to it). 44 Content points: the environmental impact of increasing/mass tourism (first text) the kind of tour available: wildlife, historical and adventure tourism (first text) the size of ships/the number of passengers on board (second text) the tour operators (i.e. commercial/member of IAATO) (second text) PAPER 4 Listening

~ ~ PART 1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 (postnatal) depression party (a) long life/longevity new life anoint protection mark their status milestones 17 rite of passage


18 D 19 A 20 C 21 A 22 B

23 P 24 S 25 B 26 P 27 P 28 S

mI 2
PAPER 1 Reading

~ ~ PART 1
1 B 2 D 3 D 4 B 5 C 6 A 7 C 8 A 9 B 10 D 11 C 12 C 13 B 14 A 15 B 16 A 17 B 18 C

~ ~ PART 2
19 A: Incorrect. The writer mentions homework as consolidation of what is learned in class. 19 B: Incorrect. Play is fun, but that is not why it is important. 19 C: Incorrect. The text does not mention 'cerebral development' or make clear what 'proper' cerebral development would be. 19 D: Correct. 'Intelligence and aptitude tests have demonstrated that not only is play fundamental to learning and developing skills, it is also a means by which the brain can grow, facilitating its own capacity to learn, create and think.' 20 A: Correct. 'We urge them to spend longer at their homework, but the sad truth is that by not playing, their capacity for learning is grievously curtailed, no matter how rigorous their academic drive.'

20 B: Incorrect. The text says that children are getting worse at spelling. It does not say that children who study are better at spelling. 20 C: Incorrect. The statement implies that children who do not study generally suffer from several eating disorders, whereas the text implies that a large number of children are overweight, which is not the same thing. 20 D: Incorrect. The text merely says that children who do not play find it harder to make friends. This is not the same as finding it harder to 'develop socially'. 21 A: Incorrect. The place the children are exploring has a 'doorstep', so it cannot be a cave. 21 B: Incorrect. 'decaying grandeur' implies that the place was once impressive, so it cannot be a shack. 21 C: Correct. The text refers to the 'doorstep' and 'the stark decaying grandeur' of the place. 21 D: Incorrect. The place the children are exploring has a 'doorstep', so it cannot be a mineshaft. 22 A: Incorrect. The writer does not mention any authorities. 22 B: Correct. The writer mentions 'ghouls and spectres' and imagines that 'they had got him and whisked him off to wherever it was they spent the daylight hours'. 22 C: Incorrect. The writer does not mention any animals, and nor is there any implication that there are animals in the story. 22 D: Incorrect. The writer makes it clear that he thought that someone or something had taken Timmy. 23 A: Incorrect. There is no evidence that any of the children was behaving aggressively. 23 B: Correct. 'I had asked the children to clear away their painting things ... but a few had to be told several times nonetheless. One girl in particular seemed determined not to hear me.' 23 C: Incorrect. The writer does not imply that the noise the children were making was irritating, and therefore was not frustrated by it. 23 D: Incorrect. The writer does not indicate how long the children were taking or that this is what was frustrating her. 24 A: Incorrect. There is no evidence for this in the text. The teacher was concerned that Sylvia might grow resentful of society or other children. 24 B: Incorrect. The teacher was surprised by the child's attitude. 24 C: Incorrect. There is no evidence for this in the text. 24 D: Correct. 'Bottling up her anger would have caused more problems. She might have taken it out on another child later on, or she might grow up feeling that society was treating her unjustly.' 25 A: Correct. 'We take it for granted that adulthood is the meaningful part of our existence, and everything prior to it is merely preparation. The old adage quoted by Samuel Butler is often cited but has not yet been fully assimilated: A hen is an egg's way of making another egg." It is very difficult for any of us to think of ourselves as a baby's way of making another baby.' 25 B: Incorrect. There is no mention of this in the text. 25 C: Incorrect. This is not the reason why the quote is used. 25 D: Incorrect. This is not the reason why the quote is used. 26 A: Incorrect. The fact that the young of many species play does not make it strange to suppose that childhood is preparation for adult life. 26 B: Incorrect. The text does not mention maturity in children. 26 C: Correct. 'it is one of the inviolable tenets of evolutionary theory that what an animal is or does is governed by events that have happened, not events that are going to happen'


language if you think about it: wagging their tail when they're happy. raising their hackles when they feel threatened. so it wasn't such a big step to teach him a new vocabulary. He was incredibly good-natured and ever so eager to please. Man: How did you teach him? Woman: Basically in the same way you'd train any hearing dog. If you reward a dog every time he does something right, he'll soon learn how to please you. You have to give very clear hand signals. Facial expressions seemed to help a great deal. so where possible we ensured that he could see our faces clearly. We found that actually saying the command out loud also helped to reinforce the correct facial expression. We only use about a dozen commands altogether, but some owners claim to have taught their deaf dogs a lot more than that! Extract Four Man: I think in my line of work the advent of the digital camera was a godsend. Reels and reels of film used to get wasted as you struggled to get one perfect shot. It was a costly business. Now, of course, the initial outlay is still high but the cost of developing and the running costs, well, they're negligible. The darkroom is virtually a thing of the past as it's rapidly being superseded by the computer. The software accompanying the equipment enables you not only to delete redundant shots but to tweak the ones worth keeping. You know, correct minor flaws, enhance certain features and even make creative adjustments. All without the headache of dealing with messy chemical solutions. But we're not writing off film cameras just yet. For projects such as advertising posters, professionals still prefer the large format film cameras. It's a question of resolution, basically. The resolution capability of a digital camera is determined by its megapixel capacity - pixels are the dots which make up the image in a digital photograph - and well. to date. this is not enough to produce mural-size display prints. But it's only a matter of time before ...

~~ PART 1 You will hear four different extracts. For questions 1-8, choose the answer (A, B or C) which fits best according to what you hear. There are two questions for each extract. Extract One Woman: On leaving the island, we encountered the first rough weather of our trip. Before we knew it, the Beaufort scale was registering between 6 and 7 as the chilling north wind blew down, heaving us up over the waves and plunging us down into the troughs between them. Fortunately, our baby daughter Sophia Rose slept through the whole experience, wedged tight into her Moses basket in one of the cabins, apparently calmed by the sensation of being rocked up and down, unlike her mother. who was looking decidedly green! When we finally reached the south-west coast of the next island the wind had eased off, and before long we were searching for a berth in the island's main harbour. Unfortunately, most of the available space was taken up by local fishing boats, and the few spaces that were left were exposed to the swell from the ferries which regularly came and went. Wherever we tried to berth. fishermen belligerently waved us off but eventually we managed to tie up alongside another three sailing boats, which made disembarking with a baby and a pram an adventure in itself! Extract Two Man: Well, first of all, you need time and a lot of patience as well as knowledge. Patience is particularly important because precision is everything. Even a tiny mistake can ruin the end result. Then, suitable materials must be found. These are sometimes hard to come by because you need different kinds of wood for different parts and it must be good quality - and cut in a specific way. For example. the body needs strips of hard wood. which are then joined together to form a rounded shape. You also need a hard wood - preferably oak - for the neck. Then the fingerboard and bridge must be made of ebony. The soundboard is the only part which is made using a soft wood - pine. This needs a lot of planing and sanding because the thinner it is. the better the sound. I think the most difficult part is getting the measurements right. The spaces between the frets must be calculated accurately and their distance from the bridge carefully measured. This is of paramount importance. Foul this up and you won't be able to play a right note. Extract Three Woman: We got Pongo for the children initially, but it was a month before we realised he wasn't responding to any sounds at all. It's a congenital problem with some breeds, especially dalmatians. Man: Wasn't it difficult to train him? Woman: You'd be surprised. Dogs use their own form of sign

~ ~ PART 2 You will hear part of a radio talk about the ways in which birth is celebrated around the world. For questions 9-17, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase. Woman: In the West a new mother usually returns from the hospital within a few days of her child's birth and, although she is unlikely to go straight back to work and there are probably friends and family nearby to lend her a helping hand, there's little by way of significant ceremony to mark the important changes that have occurred. For many women this period is a time of great anti-climax and it has been suggested that it could be one of the causes of postnatal depression.

celebrated with many splendid rites and traditions, sometimes just by a clan or family, often by a whole tribe or community. In Nigeria a party is thrown for all babies and toddlers up to the age of three. because their spirits are thought to be connected to that of the newborn, and in the Sudan a party in the streets may go on well into the early hours, with feasting, drinking, music and dancing for all members of the community. Another way of commemorating the birth of a child is by

Professor: Yes, um ... Dimini was a small settlement which stood on a low hill rising out of the fertile plains of Thessaly. It's a site of particular interest to the historian because it dates back to the Late Neolithic period - between 3.700 and 3.300 BC - and. um. as such, represents Greece's earliest example of a small town planning scheme. The settlement comprised a large central building and courtyard situated at the top of the hill, with smaller houses or units on its slopes, all contained within a series of stone ring walls. Interviewer: Right. Now, Dimini has been the subject of debate among contemporary archaeologists. Why is that? Professor: Well, basically, that's due to two opposing interpretations put forward by leading archaeologists of the early and late twentieth century. Dimini was first excavated by the well-known archaeologist Christos Tsountas. He made use of the works of Homer as models for interpreting the structural organisation of the settlement in order to build a picture of its socio-economic system. Historians often make use of models such as these to understand and piece together the historical puzzle of early civilisations. In Tsountas' case. he used the Iliad and the Odyssey. and reconstructed the settlement at Dimini as a castle. its central building housing a wealthy king. fortified by subordinate units and surrounding walls, which were extended or added to after parts had been destroyed.

planting trees. In Nigeria a banana tree that has been named after the child is planted in a special grove at the edge of the village, where children can play. This tradition also exists in many European countries. In Switzerland the custom is to plant an apple tree for a girl and a nut tree for a boy. A tree's longevity and solidity symbolises the good health and long life of the child it stands for. Water is very often used in ceremonies that celebrate birth due to its cleansing and purifying powers. Natural springs and rivers are recurring symbols of new life. and in many cultures water is used to dedicate the child to Mother Earth. The Jicarilla Indians in Mexico traditionally invoke the protective Dowers of nature as they anoint the head of a newborn child ith water from sacred male and female rivers. Elsewhere. 'mmediately after birth a baby might be taken outside and Dresented to the gods or spirits in order that it might receive :heir blessing and protection. 3ut it is not only the child who is celebrated. A young woman is now a mother. In order to mark their new status, Aboriginal .Yomen in Australia paint their bodies with white clay; in hiopia new mothers may shave their heads and decorate : eir bodies with special jewellery. and in other countries they -nay take a ceremonial bath or be given gifts by the ... ommunity.

Professor: In the 1970s. the archaeologist George Chourmouziadis re-excavated the site using a different approach. He placed an emphasis on economic production in order to explain social structure and change within a given social group. As a result. his interpretation of Dimini conflicted with that of Tsountas. He argued that the settlement reflected a kind of communal system. where several households worked together to maintain the settlement. until a time when the owners of the larger building imposed a system of private property and built walls within the settlement itself. Interviewer: Whose interpretation do contemporary historians tend to favour, Professor? Professor: Well. you see, the debate is ongoing. Chourmouziadis' view is certainly appealing. yet his description of the site is somewhat simplistic and um. generic, raising concerns about the reasoning behind his interpretation. His theory is based on assumptions regarding the social and economic organisation of the site. But the verdict is still pending. One conclusion that can be drawn is that the very contrast between the two interpretations of this settlement highlights how much historians are affected by contemporary social. historical and cultural influences when making pre-historical reconstructions. Any conclusions resulting from any study of the early past are tentative, and so subject to constant revision. Interviewer: Professor Pretz, thank you for being with us today.

the west we tend to commemorate the growth of a child . ith birthdays. In the developing world. where it is not always :>ossible to know the exact date of birth, celebrations are held : mark the first time a child crawls, stands, walks or answers :::J her name. Her first tooth or haircut are also important ilestones in her life. But perhaps the most significant =-ansition a child makes is when she enters the world of the =dults; this is usually marked by a rite of passage that is _ ost totally ignored in the west.

~ PART 3 u will hear an interview with an historian. For questions -3-22, choose the answer (A, B, C or DJ which fits best ording to what you hear. erviewer: On the programme today, it gives me great :: 33sure to welcome the renowned historian, Professor David ::-stz. Professor, you specialise in the Neolithic period, and e conducted a considerable amount of research into the ement of Dimini in northern Greece. Can you tell us ething about it?

You will hear part of an interview with Penny and Simon, two Internet business advisers. For questions 23-28, decide whether the opinions are expressed by only one of the speakers, or whether the speakers agree. Write P for Penny, S for Simon, or B for Both, where they agree. Interviewer: Ever since the advent of the World Wide Web in the early nineties, an increasing number of small businesses have gone online in an effort to take advantage of the fact that, via the Internet, they can have access to billions of customers worldwide. Some have even managed to become 'dot com millionaires', but for many the results have been discouraging. With me in the studio today are Penny Hampton and Simon Sloane, who have spent the last six years advising clients on how to successfully market their e-businesses. Penny, what, in your opinion, is the key to having a good Internet business? Penny: Well, there are many factors that need to be taken into consideration if you are planning to start a new online business. First of all, it's imperative to start with the product or service you hope to sell. It should be something that has not flooded the market. but if it has you should at least be able to offer it in a better way than your competitors. Simon: One also has to get oneself a good website. It has to be instantly appealing to catch a visitor's interest. That's why flashy websites with too many graphics may be detrimental. Your potential customer is likely to give up and go somewhere else unless you can get his attention in the first few seconds and persuade him to stay. Penny: Yes, but slow down. Before you can begin even thinking about a website, you have to get your business strategy sorted out. And perhaps the single most important element in starting a web business is having a good name. For example. if you want to sell ethnic clothes. then see if you can get hold of the name 'ethnic-clothes.com'. Simon: With so many million web sites out there. you have to make sure that your name tells the visitor not only who you are but also what kind of goods or services you're selling and, if at all possible, where to find you. Penny: Yes, but it's not just a case of having a catchy name and a fantastic site. A customer using a search engine to find what he wants is going to use some keywords or phrases, If your web pages are carelessly written, or cover a variety of topics, those key words will be ineffective and it's highly unlikely that your website will even appear within the first hundred results that the search comes up with. Simon: Nevertheless, a good website is essential too. And I don't just mean the way it looks. If it's attractive, user-friendly and easy to navigate, with efficient customer service, most visitors are going to enjoy surfing through it, Penny: Yes, but why, in that case, do so many e-businesses flop? Usually it's because they haven't identified their niche in

the market, targeted a particular type of customer or spent enough time optimising their websites for search engines. It's all very well designing a user-friendly site with fast-loading graphics and state-of-the-art software. but what good is it going to do you if nobody can find it? Search engine optimisation is the key to success and a website with good, well written content has a much better chance of being found by potential customers than one that's visually appealing. Simon: Well, anyway, a final point I'd like to make is that you need credibility on the web. If you're seriously expecting people to hand over their credit card details just like that, you're going to have to persuade them you can be trusted. Most companies are much more likely to make a sale if their customer can order it directly - that's the beauty of the whole thing after all - but unfortunately online fraud is a real threa so offer a secure online payment method and get registered and approved by the appropriate recognised bodies. Penny: Basically, you've just got to do a lot of work. Most people think it's easy to set up their own online business, b if you don't have vision, dedication, patience and time, you' unlikely to succeed.


~ ~ PART 1

You will hear four different extracts. For questions 1-8, chaos: the answer lA B or C) which fits best according to what yo . hear. There are two questions for each extract. Extract One

Man: Perhaps it's obvious but, well, I would say that my

inspiration is nature, It seems that whenever I find mysel c: ~ loss, bogged down in a mire, I need to take myself off for E long, solitary walk in the country and lose myself completfr in the beauty of the world around me. It helps to be remilic.s:. that there's another existence beyond the rat race, that the world continues to spin round on her axis regardless. You see that in the shimmer of a dragonfly's wings as it darts you on the brook, or hear it in the rustling of the trees c the breeze picks up. Nature has her own music, an abun =-~ of themes, and seems to offer up just the right images - E-~ sometimes, if I'm lucky. entire stanzas fall into place. Ana -you're quiet. and close your eyes. and just listen for a moment. there's a definite rhythm every time nature dra ~ '= breath and exhales. There's alliteration there. and metaoSuddenly, I find I'm reaching for my notebook and pen ideas just springing forth. Extract Two Correspondent: Being able to travel around the globe i _ wonderful boon, but I'd much rather do it on my own tei There's not much opportunity to take in the sights wheyou're sent - sometimes at the drop of a hat - halfway ~..:the world to war zones, or to where political conflicts 0natural disasters are making the headlines. But then 0_"- day is ever the same, and there's no telling what kind "'will arise out of events that are in the process of wri in