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Differentiated Instruction and Technology: An Annotated Bibliography

Differentiated instruction is a way of teaching that focuses on students. It is a way of teaching that is becoming the norm amongst teachers. My paper will focus on what differentiated instruction is, which school of thought and theory it coincides with, and what role technology plays with differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction is a focus for the school in which I am the vice principal. This paper will be practical to my life and my philosophy of education. It is a way of teaching that I am passionate about. Bender, W.N., & Walker, L. (2011). RTI & differentiated reading in the k-8 classroom. Bloomington: Solution Tree Press. This book outlines three innovations which are advancing instruction in literacy and all areas of learning. The three innovations include response to intervention, differentiated instruction, and technology. The book focuses on methods of R.T.I. and differentiated instruction which integrate technology. William N. Bender, one of the authors, earned his doctorate in special education from the University of North Carolina and is an international leader in instructional methods including differentiated instruction and response to intervention. The other author, Laura Waller, is considered a master teacher for differentiating instruction and earned her masters degree in elementary education from John Hopkins University. Fogarty, R.J., & Pete, B.M. (2011). Differentiated instruction: A professional learning communities approach. Bloomington: Solution Tree Press. The book focuses on teaching and learning. It details how to focus on supporting differentiated instruction through professional learning communities. The goal of the book is for P.L.C. teams to manage the intricacies of instruction in a fashion that personalizes instruction for each student. The authors of this book are curriculum and instructional leaders. Robin J. Fogarty received her doctorate in curriculum and human resource development form Loyola University in Chicago. Brian M. Pete has coauthored ten books and is the cofounder of Robin Fogarty and Associates, an educational consulting and publishing company. Hipsky, S. (2008). Differentiated instruction and technology. L.A. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Technology Curriculum Integration. (pp. 215-220). doi:10.4018/978-1-59904-881-9.ch035 Shellie Hipsky is a professor at Robert Morris University in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. She received her doctorate from Duquesne University in Educational Leadership. Her paper

discusses what differentiated instruction is and how technology can be used to implement it in the classroom. Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development This book links Marzanos nine categories of effective instructional strategies with educational technology applications. The book discusses why technology should be employed with these instructional strategies and how it gives students more control over their learning. It discusses how technology can transform teaching and learning, and it provides ample educational tools and examples. Howard Pitler holds a doctorate from Wichita State University, and he is the Senior Director for Curriculum and Instruction with Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). Rose, D.H., Meyer, A., Strangman, N., & Rappolt, G. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development This book takes a comprehensive look at Universal Design for Learning. The research for this book is provided by the Center for Applied Special Technologys (CAST). The book describes what Universal Design is and how it should be used in a classroom. It emphasizes the flexibility needed in instructional strategies and adaptable curricula. The focus of the book is on learner diversity and the opportunities available to help each student reach their full potential. Scigliano, D., Hipsky, S. (winter 2010). Three ring circus of differentiated instruction. Phi Delta Kappan Record, 82-26. Retrieved from http://www.kdp.org/publications/pdf/record/winter10/ReW10_Scigliano.pdf The authors of this article compare the activity in the three rings of a circus to the three main rings in differentiated instruction. The three main rings of differentiated instruction include content, process, and product. They talk about how teachers should focus on differentiating instruction by focusing on one ring at a time. By doing this, all three will come together and it wont be overwhelming to the teacher. The authors of this paper are Deborah Scigliano, who is an assistant professor at Duquesne University in Pittsburg, and Shellie Hipsky, a professor at Robert Morris University in Pittsburg. They both have a passion and long history of researching differentiated instruction.

Smith, G.E., Throne, S. (2007). Differentiating instruction with technology in K-5 classrooms. New York: International Society for Technology in Education. Smith and Throne discuss in their book how combining technology and differentiated instruction provide a better environment for learning for students of all ability and readiness levels. The book discusses how to accommodate a variety of learning styles, abilities and curriculum content. The book gives an overview of what differentiated instruction is and the impact of technology on learning.

Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development This book provides a guide for educators who want to create a learning environment that allows for learners of all abilities to succeed. It provides a detailed look at what the learning environment in a differentiated classroom looks like, the role of the teacher in a D.I. classroom, and how to differentiate content, process, and products. Carol Ann Tomlinson has authored several books on differentiating instruction. Tomlinson, C.A., Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Callahan, C.M., Moon, T.R., Brimijoin, K., Reynolds, T. (2003). Differentiating instruction in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile in academically diverse classrooms: A review of literature. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27, 119-145. This paper argues that there is a need for differentiated instruction based on several factors. It suggests that, based on the model of supporting student readiness, interest, and the way in which the learn best, there is evidence in theory and research for differentiated instruction. They demonstrate that there is a need for enhanced quality of education for all learners. Willis, S., & Mann, L. (winter 2000). Differentiating instruction: Finding manageable ways to meet individual needs. Curriculum Update. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/Default.aspx This paper talks about the reality that all students are different and they show up with a variety of experiences and tools. It discusses the dilemma this creates for teachers. Examples of how teachers are differentiating at a variety of grade levels and supports that are necessary for differentiating are discussed. The paper also discusses the benefits of putting differentiation into practice and why it is worth it.