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Blue Badge Guide Course Notes 18 Sept 08

Literature in England

Literature
Introduction
Literature in England Imagine yourself under the portico St Pauls Covent Garden. It is a summers evening, raining in 1914 surrounded by the fictitious people in Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw. They are sheltering after having been to the opera, and under one pillar is Eliza Doolittle, with her cockney accent selling flowers. A gentleman is making notes on her accent to which the girl takes exception. The note taker is Henry Higgins, professor of phonetics, and the woman who utters such disgusting sounds and must remember you are a human being, speaking the language of Shakespeare, and Miltion should not opine like a bilious gutter rat (check quote). Bernard Shaw saw 3 pinnacles of English literature: Shakespeare Milton The King James Bible Sample of idioms (figures of speech) from the Bible which are so woven into our language: Sour grapes Pride before a fall Put words in my mouth Lamb to slaughter Writing on the wall Give up the ghost Fly in the ointment Thorn in the flesh Salt of the earth

Higgins opinion still appears to hold up on this one. Milton, John, (1608 -1674), born 8 years before Shakespeare died. Dictionary of quotations (9 pages devoted to Miltons works). His dark materials (Gods dark materials). Paradise Lost (concerns Garden of Eden and fall of the angels to become Lucifer, and expulsion from Eden) Eve expelled for having knowledge. Philip Pulman read this at school and wrote trilogy (Northern Lights eg Golden Lights)

Does general opinion still feel this way?


The King James Bible (1611), written by committee, doesnt this seem strange? In 1603 King James I instituted commissioned to rewrite bible in accessible English and scholarly. Originally written in Hebrew (OT/ NT in Greek). 2 scholars from West, 2 from Oxford, 2 from Cambridge.

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Literature
Miltons legacy
Pulmans trilogy, commends humanity for seeking knowledge. The magisterium = catholic church. The authority = God, opposite of the theme of Paradise Lost (eg: good to challenge authority). Most famous schoolboy howler Milton got married, wrote Paradise Lost, then wife died, wrote Paradise Regained. Puritan, lives out life dictating Paradise Lost to daughter because blind. Tragedy. Not fresh faced idealist of his youth Memorial St Margarets Church Westminster. Hero of American Constitution 1st amendment (freedom of the press) right to publish unlicensed printed material derives from Milton. Defending freedom of the press. Rewind to beginning of English literature: 5th and 6th centuries, Angles and Saxons. Angleland = England. Historians traditionally call it the dark ages. But when you see the Lindisfarne gospels (British Library) or Sutton Hoo treasure dark ages is a misnomer. Only English king to be called the great is 9th century King Alfred. Military great (beat Danes), civically great (laws), culturally great (English culture), in particular Anglo Saxon Chronicle. 1st prose work in European vernacular language (Old English), apart from Latin and Greek. Page 2
Detail from Lindisfarne Gospels

Literature
Anglo Saxon writings
Chronicles, dry eventually narratives arrive. 1st narrative story in English is Cynewulf and Cyneherd, rival Saxon kings. Violence, sex, anonymous. Very first prose work in English (see Appendix I for full transcript). First vernacular language. Alfred compiled it, but he probably didnt write it. Easily outstripping is 1st major poem in English (Beowulf). Film in 2007 and language is highly literary. The warrior in the Mead hall, Saxon warriors, monstrous troll called Grendell, enters hall and eats warriors. Beowulf slays Grendell. Grendells mother lurches out of slime, he kills in an epic fight, slices off her head. Only 1 surviving manuscript of this poem in Brit Library. Old English (Anglo Saxon). Doesnt sound much like todays English, only a few words seem similar. Anonymous, probably passed down orally. Then scribes wrote it. JR Tolkein Hobbit (1937), scholar of Anglo Saxon, thought that this was the heart of English culture, thought 1066 was a disaster for English. He wrote Hobbit and Lord of the Rings, Middle Earth is a Saxon concept. Frodo = faithful in Old English. Steeped in Anglo Saxon imagery. 1066: Invasion and language. For hundreds of years our kings and queens spoke French. Language developed in parallel with English. Henry IV (1399) first to make pronouncements in English. Page 3

Promotional poster for 2007 film

Literature
Geoffrey Chaucer
Gradually language merged into middle English. Easily most famous in middle English is Chaucer. Father of English language (1343 1400). Born in vintry in London. Had a range of important posts. Used to be controller of wool excise at the customs house quay. He was multi-lingual. Newly absorbed language. 29 pilgrims meeting at the tabardium. Taken two days to canter on horse back.
There is a blue plaque, south of George Inn (last surviving galleried Inn in London). Tabard Inn, Southwark.

Chaucer had an original scheme that each pilgrim told 2 tales on way down and 2 on way back. Canterbury Tales. Austere characters, raunchy, holy, drunk (Miller wart, blowing bad pipes), wife of Bath (seen off 5 husbands), friar (supposed to be ministering to needs of young women, nudge, nudge). Good humoured. Courtly tales, bawdy tales, spirituality, military might, feuds with pilgrims. Great masterpiece of this period. At Aldgate near Boots the Chemist, blue plaque, Chaucer lived in gatehouse for many years. Chaucers knight is seen as stereotype of upright chivalrous nobleman, Jones suggests knight is ironic. John Gower (1330 1408) is buried in Southwark Cathedral tomb inscription in 3 languages. In development of language contemporary with Chaucer. Doesnt crop up a lot in guiding. Shakespeare uses Gower as a chorus figure in Pericles.
Geoffrey Chaucer

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John Gower

Literature
Sir Thomas Mallory
Chaucer ended his life as the master of the kings works at Westminster Abbey, in 2nd major period of the abbey. Henry Yevely, architect, responsible to Chaucer. Chaucer lived in shadow of Westminster abbey. Buried in the abbey because civil servant not because he was write. Edmund Spencer (major Elizabethan) asked to buried next to Chaucer. Over space of 200 years, 2 poets buried, hence origin of Poets Corner. Contemporary poets threw their verses into the grave (incl perhaps unpublished Shakespeare). Then others wanted to be buried there. Next author we know little about. Sir Thomas Mallory. (1400 1471) Credited with taking on board tradition of stories of Arthurian legends and romances. Major work, Le Mort darthur, where we meet Guinevere, Tristan, Isolde, Lancelot, Merlin, Arthur, Galahad. Uther Pendragon. Still telling these stories now (Spamalot, Holy Grail). Cup that caught Christs blood from cross. More recent versions, eg: Dan Browns Da Vinci Code. Page 5 Premise is that Holy Grail is secret, Christ and Mary married. Temple Church, Newtons Monument in Westminster Abbey. Lincoln Cathedral took money because filming wasnt allowed.

Literature
Metaphysical poets to first novel
[see later Blue Badge sessions on 16th c dramatists] Group of poets metaphysical poets. Mostly religious themes. Celebrating delights of body. George Herbert (1593 1633) Vicar of nearby parish. Stained glass window dedicated to him. John Donne, (1572 1631) very raunchy life as a young man. Marriage without permission, poems celebrating his love life, exploring his mistresses body. His effigy is in St Pauls Cathedral, in his shroud. Image of himself to remind him of his own death. Became dean of St Pauls. Only statue to survive great fire of London. Member of Lincolns Inn. Whenever a member died, the bell is tolled in memory of the dead. No man is an island..Ask not for whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee. 18th Century Literary phenomenon is Dr Samuel Johnson (1709 1784). Never graduated, it is an honorary title. Dictionary of quotations When a man is tired of london, tired of life. There is in london all that life can afford. Triumph of hope over experience. Most famous biography, James Boswell, Life of Dr Johnson. Scottish friend of SJ. Interesting character, sexually highly active, addictive. 17 bouts of venereal disease. Condom made from sheeps guts. First real English dictionary. 11 years, 6 members of staff clerks whereas French dictionary took 40 years. 114,000 examples of words. Not above dropping humorous definition, eg: Lexicographer - a harmless drudge. Physically a shambling, twitching character, scrofula, dropsy. Depressive. He thought he was lazy, spend days not surfacing. Man of enormous achievement, but he felt an underachiever. May have had Tourets Syndrome. Major development in 18th century is the novel (means new). Histories used to be called (eg: Lhistoire, stories). Narrative prose writing in contemporary times with consistent them and psychologically realistic characters. First novelist jury is out. Daniel Defoe (d. 1731) (Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders). Purports to be a true story of a castaway (Alexander Selkirk). Moll Flanders, daughter of woman transported to Virginia for theft, turns to thieving, prostitution. Bishop denounced Moll Flanders as a pack of lies, missing point that it was fiction. Most interesting for London guides (Journal of the Plague Year). Defoe 6 years old in 1665. Claims to be blow by blow account. Fiction. Some anecdotes may be true. Eg: one whose buboes whose pain is awful he leaps into Thames and they burst. He lives. One chap on death cart, but chap is still alive and walked away.

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Literature
Selected images from previous pages

Tabard Inn, Southwark

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John Donne

Samuel Johnson by Joshua Reynolds

Literature
Romantic novelists of the 19th century
Henry Fielding (1707 - 1754), narrator, playing games with form of the novel. Eg: Lets leave tom enjoying his life Tom Jones. Names squire allworthy is the benevolent character, based on Ralph Allen (will see when do Bath built on money of philanthropist Georgian). Mr Thwackam, schoolmaster, believed in justice, leaving mercy to heaven. At Queen Anne Gate in Salisbury, first house on left, where girl is prototype for Sophie in Tom Jones, and became his wife. 19th century
"It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife Opening line Pride and Prejudice

Lived in Howarth. Two major novels, Wuthering Heights, memorable character in Heathcliff (savage unbridled temperament played in recent musical by Cliff Richard). Charlotte Bronte (1816 1855) Jane Eyre. Mr Rochester (first wife, mad Creole woman locked upstairs). When arrived in London at publishers on Cornhill, letter to Ellis Bell, Acton Bell, Currer Bell (kept letters of alphabet). Publisher looked at letter, how did you get hold of these? Came out they were authors. Selected images of English literary figures John Milton, cherubic scholar of Kings College

Jane Austen (Pride and Prejudice). Elizabeth Bennett. Opening lines (v. famous). Ironic tone her forte. Her life is noteable for lack of events. Did get engaged for 1 night. But broke it off next day. Bath makes a lot of Jane Austen, regency period. Jane Austen centre in Bath. She hated bath and didnt write while she was there. Threw a fit when told moving. Northanger Abbey and Persuasion partly set in Bath. Buried in Winchester. Daughter of clergymen. First book she published as a lady anonymously. 3 other women authors, Charlotte, Emily Anne Bronte (daughters of clergymen). Rev. Patrick Brunty (changed name in honour of Nelson, awarded earldom of Bronte).

John Milton

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Literature
19th century writers

Jane Austen

The Bronte Sisters

Charles Dickens

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Jane Austen (1775 1817) by Cassandra. Not After Shakespeare, most famous writer in Britain. sure how like her it is. In British Library, the Didnt go to Uni, like Shakespeare. But no one writing desk is there, to hide writing paper quickly. questions that he wrote them. No privacy. Serialised episodic novel. Some TV versions Charlotte, Emily, Anne Bronte (Branwell painted follow successfully, Bleak House a good example. himself out in self disgust). Most died young. He Lots of visitors likely to be familiar with Oliver died from drink and drugs. Lost until 1914, when Twist, Christmas Carol. 2nd wife of Charlottes husband found it on top of a wardrobe. Major novels 15 to 16. Childhood in notorious Novel as major literary form. Young successful blacking factory, near Embankment Tube station. novelist, painting of Charles Dickens (18121870). Nonchalantly theatrically, Daniel Mclease, Often a dispossessed orphaned child. David Copperfield. Serialised and cliff-hangers either after success of Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, weekly or monthly. Nicholas Nickelby.

Literature
Dickensian locations
So successful at cliff hanger. When Old Curiosity Shop reaching its climax, ship docking in harbour in New York, people shouted out about what about little Nell? Shes dead, shes dead. Dickensian, grotesque, sentimental, socially reformist. Oscar Wilde famously said one would have to have a heart of stone on reading death of little Nell without laughing out loud. (see Richard Jones, Walking Dickensian London). 48 Doughty Street is the only surviving of 37 different adult residences. Museum. Where he wrote Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickelby. Jacobs Island on the south bank, just east of tower bridge is one of Dickens slums, depraved, squalid atmosphere, Bill Sykes hangs himself trying to escape in Oliver Twist. Nancys steps, Southwark , south end of London bridge. One surviving bit of Wrens bridge. Where she announces to Brownlow Olivers situation, and the eavesdropping takes place on Nancy. Page 10
Nancys Steps (London Bridge)

Jacobs island (1855)

Literature
Victorian novelists
If Dickens was the novelist of London, then the novelist of west country is Thomas Hardy (1840 1928). Tess, etc - Climax is Stonehenge. Symbolic sacrifice at end. Jude the Obscure devastating tragedy, Hardys last novel. Stonemason at Oxford Uni. Not married. She is a trainee teacher in Salisbry Close. 3 children. Cant afford them. Abject poverty. Come home to find 11 yo boy has hanged himself and two infants, because cant afford children. Leaves note because cant afford us. Greeted with revulsion critically. Hardy gave up writing novels in disgust. Other great Victorian novelists. George Eliot (1819 1880) Middlemarch aka Mary Ann Evans, Thackeray (1811 1863) Vanity Fair. But not as interesting to tour groups. Poetry major school in 19th century, end of 18th. Romantic poets aka The Romantics. The imaginative power is important. The individual figure in the landscape. The national trust ethos stems from this. One of the poets William Wordsworth (1770 1850) Wrote Daffodils, a good deal about lake district. Grassmere, Wordsworth property.
William Makepeace Thackeray

Thomas Hardy

George Eliot

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William Wordsworth

Literature
Blake
Wordsworth survived to ripe old age. Brilliant early poems. Declined in later years (eg: Ive measured it from side to side, 3 foot long and 2 foot wide.) Going over Westminster Bridge (1801, dawn across Westminster bridge, Earth has not anything greater to share, view from Westminster bridge.) Coming back from Revolutionary France. Now eye. William Blake,(1757 1827) tiger tiger burning bright. Rapped expression on his face in his portrait is due to artist talking to him about Archangel Gabriel. Often sat in garden naked with wife talking about adam and eve. His grave in Bunhill fields (non-conformist graveyard) At the Southend of Blackfriars bridge is the site of the first factory in England and first in world. Steam powered mill. Albion Mills. Burned down by labourers. Jerusalem written by Blake, lived in Lambeth, worked in Strand Albion Mill may have prompted the line Dark Satanic Mills. Rennie Gardens is the site. The mill was designed John Rennie (as was London Bridge, the one that was transported to Arizona). Page 12
Status by Carlozzi of Blakes take on Newton

Rennie Gardens

Literature
Romantic poets
I met a traveller from an antique land Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand, Half sunk, a shatter'd visage lies, whose frown And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamp'd on these lifeless things, The hand that mock'd them and the heart that fed. And on the pedestal these words appear: "My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!" Nothing beside remains: round the decay Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away

Percy Shelley. (1792 1822) Expelled from Eton for atheism. Drowned off coast of Italy. Body burned on beach. My name is Ozymandias, etc. head of Rameses the Great. It is thought Shelley had that Pharaohs head in mind.

Shelley

Another famous poet, John Keats, (1795 1821) born in Moorgate, apothecary at St Thomass Hospital (statue of him in courtyard at Guys) Dies young of tuberculosis in Rome. Poems include Endymion, Ode to a Grecian Urn, When I have fears that I may cease to be, La Belle Dame sans Merci, the Fall of Hyperion.
Keats Colossal Bust of Rameses II

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Literature
Victorian Edwardian Britain to WWII
Oscar Wilde,(1854 1900) wrote brilliant witty plays, Importance of Being Earnest. Life. He soon became as famous as his work. Sued the Marquis of Queensbury for note saying he was posing as a sodomite. Eg: Bosie, Lord Alfred Douglas Imprisoned. Died soon afterwards and is buried in Paris. Wildes grandson unveiled his statue opposite Charing Cross. A conversation piece with Oscar Wilde. Cigarette nicked from statue.

Oscar Wilde

Sherlock Holmes, a character of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, (1859 1930) the worlds most famous detective. 56 short stories. 2 novels. 1st story A study in Scarlet. Based just outside Baker St tube station. Funded by Abbey National because on site 221b Baker St, was Abbey National headquarters. There was in fact no 221b. Still receive letters to Mr Holmes to this day. Modernism, TS Eliot (1888 1965). American born, real name Patrick Heron. Wrote The Wasteland. Worked in the city as a banker. Virginia Woolf once said here he comes in his 4 piece suit. Wrote Old Possums book of practical cats, translated into the musical Cats. Valery Eliot, 2nd wife is still alive. First wife, Vivien went to insane asylum play called Tom and Viv about this.
TS Eliot Sherlock Holmes

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Literature
1940s
Virginia Woolf, English modernist novelist. 1902. Before she and 3 siblings to Bloomsbury from Kensington. Nucleus of the Bloomsbury Set. Saw their creed as the enjoyment of beautiful objects and social intercourse. Tavistock square (where 7/7 bus bomb took place) is also where Woolf and Leonard walked in 20s and 30s. Film the hours take on Mrs Dalloway, and her life.
Virginia Woolf

In 1941 has bouts of depression and drowns in Ouse in Sussex. Sex lives very complicated.

Joke: They lived in squares and loved in triangles. Female lover was Vita Sackville West. Masterpieces are Mrs Dalloway (stream of consciousness for politicans wife from Westminster to flower shop in Bond St). To the Lighthouse (set in Hebrides), based on childhood in Cornwall. Also lived in Gordon Square. George Orwell, (1903 1950) Senate House, administrative headquarters of University of London. 1984 in 1948, set Ministry of Truth at Senate House. Big Brother is watching you. Page 15

Senate House, Administrative Quarters of University of London

Literature
Childrens writers
Childrens literature. All American groups are keen on Peter Pan. Italian students also knew about Peter Pan. JM Barrie (1860 1937) gave all the royalties to Great Ormond St Hospital (1904 2004) Films: Disney version is Hook, and Finding Neverland Recent novel, Peter Pan in Scarlet Tinker-bell is the smallest statue in London, unveiled by Duchess of Wessex. Charles Ludwig Dodgson aka Lewis Carroll (1832-1898). 4th July 1862, maths don at Christchurch oxford, takes young girls, including Alice Liddell, on boating trip, telling story. Christchurch Oxford. Theophilous Carter (Mad Hatter) invented alarm clock bed. Lewis Carroll may have been dodo due to stutter. Platform 9 - relates to Harry Potter. Joanna K Rowling didnt use first name because she didnt want to alienate boys from reading them. If boys knew it was a female writer, wouldnt touch it with a barge pole. Many people very keen on Harry Potter.

Peter Pan, Great Ormond St Hospital

CS Lewis (1898 1963) One of the Inklings (like minded dons which included Tolkein). They drank in the Eagle and Child in Oxford. He wrote the Narnia chronicles. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Prince Caspian. To conclude, per Jane Austen (Pride and Prejudice) listening to interminable piano playing, Mr Bennett says You have delighted us long enough

Kings Cross Station

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Literature
Appendix I Cynewulf and Cyneheard
Cynewulf and Cyneheard: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 755 In this year Cynewulf and the councillors of the West Saxons deprived Sigeberht, a kinsman of his, of his kingdom, except for Hampshire, because of his unjust acts; and he [Sigeberht] held Hamshire until he killed the ealdorman [Cumbra] who had stayed with him the longest; and then Cynewulf drove him into the forest, and he lived there until a swineherd stabbed him to death at Pvivett's stream, and he [the swineherd] was avenging Ealdorman Cumbra. And Cynewulf often fought in great battles against the Britons. And some thirty-one years after he had come to the kingship he wanted to drive out an atheling who was called Cyneheard, and this Cyneheard was Sigeberht's brother. And then he [Cyneheard] found out that the king, accompanied only by a small troop, was womanizing at Merton, and he rode against him there, and surrounded the outbuilding [where the king was] before the men who were with the king discovered him. And then the king discovered that, and he went to the door and defended himself in no lowly fashion, until he caught sight of the atheling [Cyneheard], and then he rushed out at him, and wounded him severly; and they [Cyneheard's men] were all fighting against the king until they killed him. And then, through the carrying on of the woman, the king's men discovered the disturbance, and they ran there, each one as quickly as he could get ready. And the atheling [Cyneheard] offered each of them money and life [if they would surrender to him], and none of them was willing to be a party to that. But they were all fighting continually until they [the king's troop] lay dead, except for a British hostage; and he was severely wounded. When in the morning the king's thanes who had not been with him heard about the king having been killed, then they rode there [to Merton], including his second in command Osric, and his thane Wiferth, and all the men the king had left behind earlier, and they confronted the atheling [Cyneheard] in the burgh where the king lay slain. And they [Cyneheard and his men] had shut the gates against them [Osric, Wiferth and the rest], and they advanced to the gates. And they [Cyneheard and those inside with him] offered them [the slain king's men] money and land as much as they should decide for themselves if they would yield Cyneheard the kingship; and those inside made known to those outside that kin of those outside were in there with them who did not want to leave. And those outside said that no kin were dearer to them than their lord, and that they would never become followers of their lord's killer; and they offered their kin inside the chance to come out unharmed; and they said that the same offere had previously been made to the little troop who had accompanied the king. Then they said they didn't want to take any more thought of that sort of escape "than your companions did who earlier were slain along with the king." And they were then fighting about the gates until those outside forced their way in, and slew the atheling [Cyneheard] and the men who were with him, all but one, who was Osric's Godson, and he spared his life, but neverhteless he was much wounded. ... Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 784, Recording Cynewulf's Death 784 In this year Cyneheard killed Cynewulf the king, and he was also slain there, and eighty-four men with him; and then Beorhtric assumed the rule of the kingdom of the Westsaxons, and he ruled sixteen years ...

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Literature
Appendix II Handouts
Beowulf - 8thC epic poem written in Old English - modern translation by Seamus Heaney. Film version 2007 J.R.R.Tolkien The Lord of the Rings(1954-5) inspired by Old English writings. Three films, 2001, 2002, 2003 Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales (c 1390) written in Middle English modern translation by Neville Coghill - the key section is The General Prologue but you could try a few of the Tales too e.g The Millers Tale is good for a laugh. Film A Knights Tale (2001) shares its title and some themes with Chaucers version. Robin Hood This English folk hero featured mainly in ballads (Wikipedia has about 30). A modern childrens version of the stories is The Adventures of Robin Hood by Roger Lancelyn Green (Puffin Classics 1994). Films include Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves (1991) which is spoofed in Robin Hood: Men in Tights (1993). . Sir Thomas Malory Le Morte DArthur (mid 15thC), but you could look at the modern childrens book King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table by Roger Lancelyn Green (Puffin Classics 1994). Also The Sword in the Stone (1937 - a childrens classic). Films include Excalibur (1981) and the spoof Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975). Also the current (2008) West End show Spamalot. William Shakespeare The villainous Richard III is useful for the Tower of London etc but see The Daughter of Time by Josephine Tey (1951) for a contrasting historical view. Filmed versions star Laurence Olivier (1955) and Ian McKellan ((1996) Henry V, the heroic English warrior king. Filmed versions: Laurence Olivier ((1944), Kenneth Branagh (1981). Romeo and Juliet. Filmed versions directed by Franco Zeffirelli (1968) and Baz Luhrmann (1996). The film Shakespeare in Love (1998) has a somewhat fanciful love interest but is very good on atmosphere. Samuel Pepys - the Diary (1660-69). Abridged versions available e.g. The Shorter Pepys ed. Robert Latham to dip into. But see also an excellent biography: The Unequalled Self by Claire Tomalin (2002). Daniel Defoe Many will know about Robinson Crusoe (1719) (film 1997 though not a success), but for London background there is A Journal of the Plague Year concerning the year 1665, though written later 1722. Henry Fielding The History of Tom Jones a Foundling (1749), but a much shorter investment of time would be excellent screen versions (Tom Jones 1963, or the BBC version 1997). Samuel Johnson and James Boswell Boswells The Life of Samuel Johnson (1791). You could dip into it, or read brief selections on the web and even get a flavour from a dictionary of quotations. Jane Austen - e.g. Pride and Prejudice (1813). BBC version 1995; film 2005. (Bridget Joness Diary 1996 by Helen Fielding may have parallels and certainly uses some same names the film of Bridget Jones (2001) even has Colin Firth from the BBC version of P and P.) Many other film and TV adaptations of Austen novels, including films Sense and Sensibility (1995), and Pride and Prejudice (2005). Becoming Jane (2007): feature film about her life. Charles Dickens Oliver Twist (1838) Filmed versions include Roman Polanski 2005. A Christmas Carol (1843): several filmed versions, including The Muppets! Also David Leans classic film of Great Expectations (1946). Recent BBC adaptations include David Copperfield (1999) and Bleak House (2005 a highly successful version).

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Literature
Appendix II Handouts (cont.)
Emily Bronte Wuthering Heights(1847) Film versions include 1939 and 1992. Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre(1847) - BBC versions, 2006 and 1973. Thomas Hardy Tess of the DUrbervilles (1891). Film Tess (1979 dir. Roman Polanski). (TV version this autumn- 2008) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sherlock Holmes stories in various anthologies. e.g. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892) and The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902) Oscar Wilde The Importance of Being Earnest (1895). Filmed versions include the classic 1952, and 2002. George Bernard Shaw - Pygmalion (1913). Perhaps best known now through the musical adaptation My Fair Lady (Film 1964) T. S Eliot The Waste Land (1922). If youd like a guide to the poem, the York Notes are very accessible. Virginia Woolf Mrs Dalloway (1925) Film 1997. The successful film The Hours (2003) is a sort of modern version of this, and incorporates episodes from V.Woolfs life. Ian Fleming the James Bond novels mid 20thC. Now best known through the films, most recently Casino Royale (2007) and its sequel (though not a Fleming novel) Quantum of Solace (2008). Sebastian Faulks has written a new Bond novel Devil May Care (2008) to mark the centenary of Flemings birth. Contemporary fiction about various cultures in London includes Monica Ali: Brick Lane (2003), Andrea Levy: Small Island (2004) and Zadie Smith: White Teeth (2000). And Salman Rushdies novel Midnights Children set in 20th Century India, has won the accolade as the best of all the Booker prizewinners. CHILDRENS LITERATURE Lewis Carroll Alices Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Glass(1871) Beatrix Potter e. g. The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1901). Film about the author: Mrs Potter 2005. Sir J.M. Barrie Peter Pan (play 1904; story Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens 1906). Films include Disney animation (1953), Hook 1991 (after Peter Pan grows up), Finding Neverland (2004) about Barries relationship with the family who inspired the story. A recent written sequel is Peter Pan in Scarlet by Geraldine McCaughrean (2006) Kenneth Grahame The Wind in the Willows (1908) C.S. Lewis The Chronicles of Narnia- the first book is The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe(1950). Film 2005. Then Prince Caspian (film 2008). J.K Rowling Seven Harry Potter novels, from Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone(1997) (...Sorcerers Stone in U.S.) to Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (2007). The filmed versions are nearly keeping up with the novels

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