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AHaTOAl!

1t1t Tapac
HAPb4HIIlK no PA3V3HABAHE
III ClIlfVPHOCT
Ta3l1t KHlItra lIt3AlIt3a Ha PYCKlIt C nceBAOHlItMa Ha aBTOpa - POMaH POHlItH.
HanlltCaHa e Ha 6a3aTa Ha PycKaTa AeVicTBlItTeAHOCT - PycKlItTe 3aKOHlIt lit CTaH-
AapTlIt; pycKlItTe nOCTlIt)f(eHlIt51 B o6Aacna Ha TeXHlItKaTa lit eAeKTpOHlItKaTa ..
OTKAOHlItXMe ce OT no6hArap5IBaHe, B 6AlIt3KO BpeMe lIt3AaAeM
,,cDlItpMeHO pa3Y3HaBaHe lit ClItryPHOCT" OT reH. TOAOP lItH)f(. BhALfO
rplItropOB lItlltH)f(. KpbCTbO 4aAbMOB. B He51 ca nplItAO)f(eHlIt KaKTO 6hArapCKlItTe,
TaKa lit CTaHAapTlItllt3aKOHOBlIt HOPMlIt. nOAPo6HO e onlltca-
Ha TeXHI1KaTa (LfY)f(Aa 11 Hawa), K05lTO ce 113nOA3Ba 11 npOAaBa y Hac.
AHaTOAl1H T apac
(B051 pa3BeAKa
Om U3gamellcmBomo
AHMHTpHHa r eprOBa, KpaCHMHpa (TOW-Il<OBa, npeBoA, 1999 r.
1\106oMHp MHxaHAoB, XYAO)f(HHK, 1999 r.
KHHroH3AaTeAcKa Kbw,a "TpYA", 1999 r.
ISBN 954-528-149-9
HAPb4HII1K
no PA3V3HABAHE
11 Cl1rvPHOCT
Bep6yBaHe Ha azeHmypa,
meXHUKa 3a Ha6;1/ogeHue U cpopcupaHO
Bb3getlcmBue BbPXY;\UI.JHOCmma
AHATOi\V1t11 TAPAC
fIpeBOll: OT PYCKI1
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KpaCI1MHpa CTOHQKOBa
1113AATEACKA 1'1""$1 Kblll,A
COCDI!I51,1999
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)/(uBombm e gRBOI1CKU CI10)f(eH
U 3a ga ol.{el1eeW, mpR6Ba ga geucmBaw,
npu moBa He npe3 Kyn 3a 2pOW, l1ymauKu
ce HanocOKU U OOlaHRUKU ce Ha
w,aCmI1UBUR cl1YJau, a l.{el1eHaCOlfeHO
U cBoeBpeMeHHO, U3npeBapBaUKU
He)f(el1amel1HU cb6umUR om
KpUMUHal1eH
U nOI1UmUlfecKU xapaKmep.
Ao6pe op2aHU3upaHomo pa3Y3HaBaHe
nOMa2a ga ce npegBugRm HRKOU KoBapHU
3aMUc;\U U geucmBuR Ha npomuBHuKa.
He e U311UWHO BceKu ga 3Hae
Bb3MO)f(HOCmUme Ha pa3Y3HaBaHemo
U HRKOU xBamKu, Koumo M02am ga ce
3ageucmBam KaKmo om Bac, maKa U om
gpY2ama cmpaHa. HapblfHuKbm e n0l1e3eH
3a BceKu, Koumo He )f(el1ae ga 6bge po6
Ha meKyw,ume cumyal.{uu, KaKmo U 3a
OH3U, Koumo UCKa ga 3Hae KaKBu
HenpURmHocmu MO)f(e ga OlfaKBa
om mBbpge 06U2paHU KOHKypeHmu,
npecmbnHUl.{U U gbp)f(aBHU cmpyKmypu.
npegucAoBue
"Aa 3Haelllllpe,lJ;BapHTeJIHO HaMepeHIDlTa Ha npomBHHKa, 03HaQaBa
BC'LlQHOcT,lJ;a ,lJ;eHCTBalll KaTO Eor!" - H3peK'bJI HaBpeMeTo KHTaHcKHWf
BoeHeH cTpaTer H M'L,lJ;peD; C)'H A3'b. TaK'bB BCeMOr'blQ Eor MO)Ke ,lJ;a
CTaHe H BceKH OT Bac.
BC'bJ.QHOCT TpH6Ba ,lJ;a ce 3Hae He MHoro, a caMO Heo6xo,l1;HMOTO H TO
3aBHCH OT BalllaTa D;en B )KHBOTa. BalllHWf llpomBHHK MO)Ke ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e
KaKTO TB'Lp,lJ;e 06HrpaH KOHKYPeHT, TaKa H OllHTeH llpo<i>ecHOHaJIHCT HJIH
MOJ.QHa opraHH3aD;HOHHa cTp)'KT)'pa. IIpH TOBa B3aHMOOTHOllleHHHTa
BU MoraT ,lJ;a 6'L,lJ;aT Hall'LJIHO D;HBHJIH30BaHH H KOpeKTHH, a MoraT ,lJ;a ce
OKa)KaT U KpaHHO 06TerHam H HeemqHH.
CUJIaTa Ha UHTeJIeKTa He e aHaJIOr Ha MOpaJIa, KaKTO H UCTHHCKHHT
llpo<i>eCUOHaJIH3'bM He BHHarH e C'bBMeCmM C MOpaJIa. BCHKO l103Ha-
Hue MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce B'L311pUeMa llOJIHPHO - HepH,lJ;KO OT e,l1;HH H3BOP llHHT H
T03U, KOHTO U3B'LplllBa llpeCT'bllJIeHHe, H OH3H, KOHTO JIOBH llpeCT'bll-
HUKa. OT l103UD;HHTe Ha BeQHOCTTa e TpY,l1;HO ,lJ;a ce Ollpe,lJ;eJIH KOH OT
nOJII-QCUTe e yrO,lJ;eH Ha Eora, 3alQOTO B IIpupo,lJ;aTa HHMa pa3JIUKa Me)K)J;y
,lJ;06POTO H 3JIOTO, a 3a xopaTa e xapaKTepHO ,lJ;a llpOMeHHT
MHeHueTO H l103UD;HHTe CH.
"KoraTo T'bTpelQHHT ce KepBaH H3Be,l1;H'b)K ce 06'bpHe Ha3a,lJ;, KYD;aTa
KaMUJIa Be,l1;Hara CTaBa ll'LpBa" - lllerYBaT ce aKCaKaJIHTe* OT M3ToKa.
OHe3H, KOHTO ,lJ;OBQepa ca 6HJIH CMHTaHH 3a rnycHH npeCT'bllHHD;H, ,lJ;Hec
ce B'b3npueMaT KaTO M'b,lJ;PH 6H3HecMeHH, a Te3H, l<OHTO cera ca o6HBe-
HU 3a Tepopucm, MO)Ke 6H yTpe lQe CTaHaT yKpallleHHe Ha HaD;HHTa.
* AKcaKaJI - OT TlOPKCKIi - aK (611J1), CaKaJl (6paAa), rJlaBa Ha pOAa, cTapeiiulHHa, nO"Ii-
Tall '10BeK B A3lill Ii KaBKa3. - BeJl. peA.
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6
AHATOnvllii T APAC
ilo,Il; BJIIDIHMe Ha HaTPalT'IMBa M,Il;ejI lJMHrM3 XaH e )'HMIl(O)J(MJI QeJIH
QHBMJIM3aQMH, HO B ,Il;HeIIlHa MOHrOJIMjI ro TaqaT KaTO HaQMOHaJIeH re-
pOM. 3apa,Il;M aM6MQMMTe CM HarroJIeoH e rrory6MJI CTOTMQM XMJIjI,Il;H BOM-
HMQM, HO B rraMeTTa Ha xopaTa e OCTaHaJI KaTO pOMaHTlJqHa H ,Il;OCTa
YSa)J(aBaHa MO)J(e 6M cJIe,Il; BpeMe B rrO,Il;06eH IlHeTeTeH cmJI
Il(e rrpeB'b3HaCjIT M XnTJIep, M CTaJIMH.
bJIarMTe HaMepeHIDi BMHarM OIIpaB,Il;aBaT cpe,Il;CTBaTa, a ,Il;aJIM ce npM-
eMaT MJIM He, 3aBMCM B qaCTHOCT OT MOpaJIHaTa MOTMBaQIDI Ha H3n'bJI-
HMTeM. He 6MBa ,Il;a ce 3a6paBjI, qe He Op'b)J(MeTo, a qOBeK'bT y6HBa.
ilpe,Il;CTaBeHMTe B TOBa P'bKOBO,Il;CTBO Han'bJIHO eTMqHM, a rrOHj{Kora H
MP'bCHMlIIHM XBaTKM ca npe,Il;Ha3HaqeHM 3a xopaTa, KOMTO He ca rrpeMM-
HaJIH crreQKypCOBe B C'bOTBeTHO yqe6Ho 3aBe,Il;eHMe, HO TaKa MJIM MHaqe
ca npMHy,Il;eHM ,Il;a CM rrp06MBaT rr'bT B T03M 6e3YMefi: xaoc OT xopa M
HHTepeClf B rrycHaTaTa Ha caMOTeK ,Il;'bp)J(aBa. ilo rr'bTjI Clf MO)J(eTe ,Il;a
CpeIl(HeTe If KPlfMlfHaJIHlf crteQMaJIMCTlf, If rrpO<peClfOHaJIlfCTM OT ClfJIO-
BlfTe CTPYKryPlf, II npocTo JIOBKll aBaHTIOplfcTlf, rrpeCJIe,Il;BaIl(M CBOlf
nO,Il;03plfTeJIHlf QeJIlf. BClfqm Te 6lfXa MOrJIlf ,Il;a nycHaT B XO,Il; XMTPO-
yMHM KOlfTO 6lf TPjI6BaJIO ,Il;a ce 3HMT II OT xopaTa, Hecrroc06-
HM ,Il;a 3a,IJ;ellcTBaT HeIl(o IIo,Il;06HO cpeIl(y ,I1;pYrHTe.
TYK Il(e pa3rJIe,Il;aMe KaK 6lfxTe MOrJIM ,Il;a IIOJIyqH1'e He06xo,Il;lfMlfTe
Bll cBe,Il;eHIDI 3a ,Il;a,Il;eHa JIlflIHOCT lfJIlf OpraHM3aQIDl, rro KaK'bB HaqlfH ,Il;a
rrpMBJIeqeTe Ha CBOjI cTpmta MHoro rrOJIe3Ha JIlfqHOCT If KaK ,Il;a B'b3,Il;eMC-
TBaTe Ha qOBeKa, qe TOM ,Il;a HarrpaBli TOqHO OHOBa, KoeTO Blf e He06xo-
,Il;MMO. ilpe,Il;CTaBeHMTe B rrplfJIo)J(eHMeTo rrpOCTlfqm cxeMlf Il(e rr03BO-
JIjIT Ha HaqlfHaeIl(lliI Mrpaq ,Il;a Clf HarrpaBM lfMIIPOBlf3lfpaHa cIIeQMaJIM-
3MpaHa arraparypa, 6e3 ,Il;a KOHTaKryBa C T'bproBQM Ha rroJIyJIeraJIHaTa
CTOKa. HMaHTe rrpe,Il;Blf,Il;, qe e3MK'bT Ha TOBa P'bKOBO,Il;CTBO He e cTPoro
crreQM<plflIeH, 3aTOBa 6lf MOf'bJI ,Il;a rrpe,Il;lf3BMKa y Ha,IJ;MeHHIfj{ rrpO<peClf-
OHaJIMCT BMCOKOMepHa YCMMBKa. 3arrOMHeTe, qe HaM-JIeCHO ce rro6e)J(-
,Il;aBa OH3lf, KOMTO He Blf B'b3rrpMeMa HacepH03HO!
LJacm nbpBa
HaLfIllHIII 3a nOAYLfaBaHe
III npeu,eHKa Ha
III
1. YSOAHVI 6eAe>KKVI
3a pernaBaHeTO Ha BceKlf IIp06JIeM ce H3HCKBa OllTMMaJIHa IIH<POp-
MaQIfj{. Ho OHOBa, KoeTO 3a Hj{KOrO npe,Il;CTaBMBa MH<popMaQIfj{, ,Il;pyr
MO)J(e ,Il;a ro B'b3nplfeMa KaTO HMIl(O He3HaqeIl( If 6aHaJIeH
rnyM.
HH<p0pMaQMjITa ce CMjITa 3a QeHHa caMO ToraBa, KoraTO TjI MO)J(e
,Il;a ce H3IIOJI3Ba, a HeMHaTa nOJIe3HOCT MHoro CHJIHO 3aBlfCll OT n'bJIHO-
TaTa, ToqHOCTTa M CBoeBpeMeHHOCTTa H.
TpjI6Ba KOHKpeTHO ,Il;a ce pa3JIMqaBaT If ,Il;a He ce 6'bpKaT: <paKTII (,Il;aH-
HM), MHeHIfj{ (JIHqHOCTHM rrpe,Il;rrOJIO)J(eHMjI), lfH<popMaQMjI
o6pa60TeHM ,Il;aHHH).
06lfKHOBeHO HH<popMaQIDlTa n03Bomma;
- ,Il;a ce OpMeHTMpaTe B cHryaQMjITa;
- TOqHO ,Il;a rrJIaHHpaTe ,Il;eMCTBMjITa CM;
- ,Il;a rrpOCJIe,!J;jlBaTe ,Il;OKOJIKO pe3YJITaTHH ca rrpoBe)J(,Il;aHlfTe aKQMH;
- ,Il;a ce npe,IJ;Ila3lfTe OT H3HeHa,Il;M;
- ,Il;a ce MaHHrryJIHpaT OT,Il;eJIHH xopa If rpynMpoBKH.
llH<popMaQIDITa ce rrO,I1;pa3,Il;eM Ha:
- TOTaJIHa (,Il;aBa 06Il(a 0630pHa IIpe,Il;CTaBa 3a lfHTepecysaIl(MjI Blf
np06JIeM H 3a yqaCTHHQMTe -:- HH,Il;lfBlf,Il;H M opraHM3aQMM - Ha npOBe)J(-
,Il;aHaTa Mrpa);
- TeKYIl(a MJIM orrepaTMBHa (,Il;'bP)J(M BH B KYpca Ha rrpOMeHjIIl(lfTe ce
C'b6MTMjI);
8
AHATOnvllii T APAC
- KOHKpeTHa (3an'hJIBa p;OnYCHaTIfTe npOnYCKH B p;aHHHTe HJIH OTIO-
Bapjl Ha Onpep;eJIeHH B'hnpOCH);
- KOCBeHa (nOTB'hp)l(,IJ;aBa HJIH OnpOBepraBa HjlKOn npe,IJ;nOJIO)l(eHllj{,
C KOHTO e CB'hp3aHa CaMO onOCpep;CTBaHO);
- OQeH'h'fHa (TbJIKyBa C'h6HTHjlTa H p;aBa npOrH03H 3a pa3BHTHeTO
HM B 6'hp;em;e - TOBa ca OnTHMaJIHO 06pa60TeHH p;aHHH).
CJIe,IJ; KaTO OC'h3HaeTe, 'fe BH e He06xop;HMa llli<pOpMaQllj{, H3j1CHeTe
3a ce6e CH CJIep;HHTe B'hnpOCH:
- KaKBO HCKaTe p;a pa36epeTe?
- K'hp;e (H B KanB BHp;) 6H Morna p;a ce HaMHpa )l(eJIaHaTa HH<popMa-
QHjI?
- KOH 6H MOr'hJI p;a jI 3Hae HJIH p;a jI p;06He?
TO'fHlfTe H jlCHH OTIOBOPH Ha n'hpBHTe B'hnpOCH OCHrYPjlBaT pa36H-
paHeTO Ha nOCJIep;Hllj{, TeXHHKa 3a peIIIaBaHe 3aBHCH KaKTO OT
C'hm;eCTBYBanJ;lITe B'hHIIIHH YCJIOBllj{, TaKa H OT BaIIIHTe 3HaHllj{, BOJIjI,
onlIT, B'h3MO)l(HOCTH H H306peTaTeJIHOCT.
CJIep; KaTO nOJIyqHTe H3xop;HaTa HH<popMaQHjI, TjI Tpjl6Ba:
- p;a ce OQeHH (no CTeneHTa Ha p;OCTOBepHOCT, Ba)l(HOCT, ceKpeT-
HOCT, C'hBMeCTHMOCT, B'h3MO)l(HOCT 3a H3nOJI3BaHe);
- p;a ce llliTepnpempa (B CBeTJIHHaTa Ha p;pyrlITe p;aHHH H C p;'hJI60Ka
HHT)'I1lI;llj{), KaTO ce HaMepH MjlCTOTO H B 06m;aTa M03aHKa OT <p
aKTII
;
- p;a ce onpep;eJIH P;aJIH e He06xop;HMa H KaKBa p;On'hJIHHTeJIHa HH-
e HY)l(Ha;
- p;a ce H3nOJI3Ba e<peKTHBHO (p;a ce HMa npe,!J;BHp; B nJIaHOBeTe BH -
p;a ce npep;ap;e KOMYTO CJIe,!J;Ba HJIH p;a ce 3ap;'hp)l(H P;O MOMeHT ... ).
2. KpaTKa xapaKTepVlCTVlKa Ha V13T04HVlLI,V1Te
Ha V1H<popMaLl,V151
He06xop;HMaTa BH HH<popMaQHjI MO)l(e p;a 6'hp;e:
- OTKpHTa (nOBe'fe HJIH nO-MaJIKO P;OCTbnHa);
- nOJIY3aKpHTa (He 3aceKpeTeHa, HO KOHTPOJIHpaHa OT OHe3H, KOHTO
3aCjlra);
- ceKpema (C'hC CHJIHO OrpaHH'feH p;OCTbn H MHoro Ba)l(Ha B onpe-
p;eJIeHH cHTyaQHH).
KOH<pHp;eHQHaJIHaTa HH<popMaQHjI MO)l(e p;a ce nOJIyqaBa OT HaH-pa3-
Ho06pa3HH H3TO'fHHQI1, nOBe'feTO OT KOlITO HeH3KYIIIeHllj{T 'fOBeK npOCTO
He B3eMa nop; BHHMaHHe. p;a ce OT'fHTaT P;OpH HaH-HeBepOjITHH-
-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHocm 9
Te B'h3MO)l(HOCTH, KOJIKOTO H HepeaJIHCTH'fHH p;a HH ce cTPYBaT, 3arn;O-
TO B HH<popMaQHOHHaTa BepHra nOHjlKOra ce HaMHpa H3KJIIO'fHTeJIHO
QeHeH II3TO'fHHK.
fJIaBeH HOCIITeJI Ha nepcneKTIIBHH MaTepIIaJIII ca:
- 3Haem;II xopa;
- p;oryMeHTII;
- Cpep;CTBa Ha 6e3)l(II'fHaTa II )l(II'fHaTa Bp'h3Ka (TeJIe<pOHII, TeJIe<paK-
COBe, pap;IIOCTaHQIIII .. );
- eJIeKTPOHHII CIICTeMII 3a 06pa60TKa Ha IIH<popMaQIIjI (KOMnIOTPII,
eJIeKTpII'feCKII nIIIIIeII.J;II MalllliHII . );
- pa3JIII'fHII <paKTOPIi (nOBep;eHIIe, pa3rOBopII, pe3YJI-
TaTH OT p;eHCTBllj{).
CJIep; KaTO nonap;HeTe Ha ep;IIH IIJIH ,IJ;pyr 1I3TO'fHIIK Ha IIH<popMaQIIjI,
TO'fHO npeQeHeTe:
- HaJIII'fHIITe II nOTeHQIIaJIHIITe My B'h3MO)l(HOCTII - CTeneHTa Ha CII-
rypHOCT.
3HAE.m1I ca OHe3II, 3a KOIiTO ce CMjlTa, 'fe 6e3cnopHO npII-
Te)l(aBaT (HJIII MoraT ,IJ;a npIITe)l(aBaT) He06xop;IIMaTa IIH<P0PMaQllj{. K'hM
TjIX ce OTHaCjlT:
- EKCTIEPT - IIH,!J;IIBII,!J;, 'fHHTO npO<peCIIOHaJIHII II KOHTaK-
TH (KaKTO pa60TaTa, TaKa II X06HTO) OCIIrYPjlBaT npeB'h3XOp;Ha opIIeH-
TaQIDl B B'hnpoc. TOH m;e BII n03BOJIII no HOB Ha'fHH p;a
BIIp;lITe np06JIeM, m;e BH p;ap;e 6a30BII MaTepIIaJIH, m;e
BII II3Be,IJ;e P;O HeII3BeCTHII II3TO'fHIIQI1 Ha IIH<popMaQllj{. TIPH TOBa 06-
rn;aTa Hap;e)l(,!J;HOCT Ha nOJIyqaBaHIITe p;aHHII KaTO npaBIIJIO e OT HaH-
BIICOKa KJIaca.
- BbTPEmEH lIH<I>OPMATOP (OCBE)l;oMlITEn) - 'fOBeK OT
rpynIIpoBKaTa Ha npOTHBHIIKa, 3aBep6ysaH II p;OCTaBjlm; IIH<pOPMaQllj{
no MaTepIIaJIHII, MOpaJIHII II p;pyrII OT 3Ha'feHHe 3a Hero npII'fIIHH. IJ;eH-
HOCTTa Ha OT HH<popMaTopa p;aHHH C'hm;eCTBeHO 3aBII-
CII OT B'h3MO)l(HOCTHTe My II MOTIIBIITe p;a II3p;aBa HY)l(HHTe
'fllj{TO p;OCTOBepHOCT npII C'hOTBeTeH KOHTPOJI 6II MOrJIa p;a e p;OCTa
BIICOKa.
- "fOPE.m lIH<I>OPMATOP" - MO)l(e ,IJ;a 6'hp;e BceKII, KOHTO pa3no-
JIara C OT npIIB'hp)l(eHIIQIITe Ha npOTIIBHIIKa IIJIII HerOBII
KOHTPareHTH H p;aBa CBep;eHllj{ nop; BJIllj{HHe Ha aKTIIBHII MeTop;H Ha B'h3-
,IJ;eHCTBlie B CTHJIa Ha TB'hPP; <popCIIpaH pa3nHT - II3Te3aHIIe, XIInH03a,
IIIaHTa)l( II np. TIopa.D;II TOBa 'fe B nop;06HII CJIyqaII He e rapaHTHpaHa
,IJ;OCToBepHOCTTa Ha C'h06rn;eHIIjlTa, TaKaBa e p;onYCTII-
10 AHATOJlVlIiI T APAC
Ma CaMO npH oC'Tpa Heo6xo,n:HMOCT - KOraTO mlMa BpeMe, )J(eJIaHHe
HJIH B'b3MO)J(HOCT 3a "yxa)J(BaHe" Ha ,n:pyrH H3TOlfHH:QH. 3a pa3JIHKa OT
Bep6ysaHIDI HH<pOpMaTOp B CJIyqa5I KOHTaKThT C JIH:lfHOCTTa e nOlfTH
BHHarH MOMeHTeH.
- BREWER 113TOQH11K - CBOH lfOBeK, KOHTO IlO e,n:HH HJIH ,n:pyr
HalfHH e ycmIJI ,n:a BJIe3e B 06Kp'b)J(eHHeTO Ha 06eKTa. QeHHOCTTa Ha
,n:OCTaBHHHTe OT Hero ,n:aHHH 3aBHCH OT HH,n:HBH,n:yaJIHHTe My KalfeCTBa
H OT ,n:OCTHrHaTOTO paBHHme Ha BHe,n:pHBaHe.
- nEKOM11CnER I1H<l>OPMATOP (TIn5IMTIAnO) - lfOBeK Ha
npOTHBHHKa - KOHTaKTbOp HJIH BCHKO HH<popMHpaHO JIHu;e - KOHTO C'b-
06maBa HHTepeCHH <paKTH B ,n:eJIOBH, ,n:pY)J(eCKH HJIH HHTHMeH pa3ro-
BOp. CnylfaHHo H3nycHaTo C'b06ru;eHHe MO)J(e ,n:a 6'b,n:e MHoro u;eHHO,
MaKap lfe B TaK'bB CJI)"laH He ca H3KmolfeHH KaKTO 6e3rpH)J(Ha JI'b)J(a,
TaKa H npe,n:HaMepeHa ,n:e3HH<popMaQIDl.
- KOHTAKT10P11- K'bM THX ce OTHaCHT BCHKaKBH xopa, KOHTO no
HHKaK'bB HalfHH KOHTaKTYBaT HJIH m1Kora ca ce C6JI'bCKBaJIH C H3yqaBa-
HIDI o6eKT (lfOBeK, rpyna, OpraHH3aQIDI ... ). Te MoraT,n:a 6'b,n:aT cTa6HJI-
HH HJIH CJIyqaHHH ,n:eJIOBH napTHhopH, PO,n:HHHH H npIDITeJIH, o6cny)J(-
Baru; nepCOHaJI ... Rape,n: C'bC C'b06ru;aBaHeTO Ha onpe,n:eJIeHH <paKTH, Te
MoraT ,n:a C'b,n:eHCTBaT 3a ,n:OCThn ,n:o o6eKTa HJIH ,n:a yqaCTBaT B npHKO
H33eMBaHe OT Hero Ha HHTepeCYBaru;aTa BH HH<popMaU;IDI.
- CbI03HI1K - TaKa 6HXa MOrJIH ,n:a ce HapeKaT lfOBeK HJIH HHKaKBa
cTPYKTYpa - 06meCTBeHa, ,n:'bp)J(aBHa, KpHMHHaJIHa ... - KOHTO ca B pO-
JIHTa Ha npOTHBHHK HJIH "Ha,n:3HpaTeJI" Ha 06eKTa. PaBHHru;eTO H Ha-
,n:e)J(,n:HOCTTa Ha nOJI)"laBaHHTe OT "C'blO3HHKa" MaTepHaJIH 3aBHCHT OT
HaC'bmHHTe HHTepeCH, JIH:lfHHTe B3aHMOOTHOilleHIDI H Il03HaBaHeTO Ha
H3TOlfHHKa. OCBeH C'bBCeM HOBa TOH e cnoco6eH ,n:a ,n:aBa H nOTB'bp)J(,n:a-
Bama HH<popMaQIDl. -
- CnYQAEH - HHKaK'bB C'bBCeM CJI)"laHHO nona,n:HaJI
BH HH,n:HBH,n:, KOHTO ,n:OpH He ce pa3rJIe)J(.ll:a KaTO nOTeHU;HaJIeH HH<p0P-
MaTOp, H3Be,n:H'b)J( ce OKa3Ba HOCHTeJI Ha YHHKaJIHa HH<popMaU;IDI. TIo-
HHKora TaKa MO)J(e ,n:a ce HaMepH HeH3BeCTeH ,n:o MOMeHTa KOHTaKTbOp
HJIH C'blO3HHK. TIopa,n:H HBHaTa HeIlpe,n:CKa3yeMocT Ha TaK'bB lfOBeK He
MO)J(e oco6eHO ,n:a ce pa3lfHTa. Ho CJI)"laHHO HaMepeH, TOH ce pa3pa-
60TBa ,n:OKpaH.
B rpyrraTa Ha 3a<pHKCHpaHHTe MaTepHaJIH BJIH3aT:
- O<l>I11U1AnH11 K'bM THX ce OTHaCHT Ka,n:pOBH-
Te ,n:eJIa H Me,n:HQHHCKHTe KapTOHH, ,n:OKJIa,n:HHTe, 06HCHHTeJIHHTe 3anflCKH
H nHCMaTa ,n:o pa3JIHlfHH HHCTaHU;HH, BCeB'b3MO)J(HH ,n:oryMeHTHpaHII
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 11
,n:aHHH, C'b6paHH OT 0<pHU;HaJIHUTe CJIY)J(6u (OT,n:eJI "Ka,n:pu", )J(HJIUmHH-
Te BJIaCTH, nOJIHQIDITa ... ) 3a HHTepeCYBamOTO BU JIHI.\e flJIH opraHU3a-
U;HH. Rape,n: C 06ru;UTe CBe,n:eHHH, MoraT ,n:a ce HaMepHT H ,n:pyru, nOJIe3-
HH IlpU ,n:eTaMJIHaTa pa3pa6oTKa Ha BceKH o6eKT. Ta3U HH<pOPMaQHH ce
CMHTa 3a ,n:OCTaThlfHO Ha,n:e)J(,n:Ha, MaKap H ,n:a He ce H3KJIlOlfBa npe,n:Ha-
MepeHa <paJIlllH<pHKaQIDI.
- 11 APX11Bll- TOBa ca BCeB'b3MO)J(HH-
Te ,n:orOBopH, OTlfeTH, <paKcose, IIllCMa, MeTo,n:UlfHH YKa3aHHH, B'b'Tpelll-
HH TeJIe<pOHHH YKa3aTeJIH, 3anOBe,n:n H .n:pyrH KHH)J(a, CB'bp3aHU C ,n:eJIO-
BaTa aKTUBHOCT Ha lfOBeKa HJIH opraHfl3aQIDlTa. Te ca QeHeH H3TOlfHHK
3a KOH<pH,n:eHQHaJIHa HH<popMaU;HH, KOHTO n03BOJIHBa ,n:a ce OpHeHTHpa-
Te B ,n:eHHOCTTa Ha 06eKTa, ,n:a fl3HCH5IBaTe HaMepeHUHTa My U MeTO,n:H-
Te My Ha pa60Ta, ,n:a rrporH03HpaTe IlOCThIlKHTe U B'b3MO)J(HOCTHTe My,
,n:a pa3KpHBaTe <PYHt<u;HOHepHTe H Bp'b3KUTe .. TIpu TOBa ,n:OCTOBepHOCTTa
Ha HH<popMaQH5ITa e npe,n:HMHO Ha BUCOKO pasHHru;e.
- HOC11TEn11 HA EJIEKTPOHRA I1H<l>OPMAQ115I - omUMa-
JIeH H3TOlfHUK, C'bmeCTBYBaru; B MHoro opraHH3aU;HH, e 6aHKaTa ,n:aHHU,
BKapaHH B KOMnlOThpa. C'bXpaH5IBaHUTe TaM CBe,n:eHU5I ca <pUKCHpaHH
Ha HeH3BJIeKaeMH (TB'bp,n:H ,n:HCKOBe) HJIH U3BJIeKaeMH (,n:HCKeTU) Mar-
HUTHH HOCHTeJIU U MoraT ,n:a 6'b,n:aT pa3IlelfaTaHH Ha npUHTep. BnpOlfeM
06opy,n:BaHeTO Ha ,n:a,n:eHa <pupMa C KOMIllO'TpH He BHHaru 03HalfaBa, lfe
Te ce U3nOJI3BaT e<peKTH:BHO UJIH lfe C'b,n:'bp)J(aT u;eHHa HH<popMaQHH.
- JII1qHI1 11 APXI1BI1. B T03U u;eHeH KOMIlJIeKT
BJIU3aT Te<pTeplfeTa, pa3HH 6eJIe)J(KU no JIHCTOBeTe Ha KaJIeH,n:apa, ,n:py-
)J(eCKU H UHTUMHH nUCMa, Il03,n:paBHTeJIHH KapTHlfKH, CHHMKU, ay,n:uo- U
Bu,n:e03anucu, ,n:HeBHUU;U U ,n:p. Te3H ,n:aHHU ca Heou;eHHMH IlpH aKTUBHa-
Ta pa3pa6oTKa Ha npe,n:H3BUKaJIU5I HHTepeca BU 06eKT. Te IlOMaraT 3a
YCTaHOB5IBaHe Ha KOHTaKTHTe MY U 3a npeQeHKa Ha peaJIHUTe B'b3MO)J(-
HOCTU 3a IlOCJIe,n:Baru;OTO MY OTCTPaHHBaHe, lllaHTa)}(, MaHunYJInpaHe
UJIU Bep6YBaHe.
- "EOKJIYK" - U3XB'bpJIeHUTe HaK'bCaHH lfepHOBH H KOMIllOThPHH
pa3nelfaTKH, QurapeHH KYTUU U xapTHeHH K'bClfeTa C BCeB'b3MO)J(HU 6e-
JIe)J(KU no niX, H3xa6eHHKonIDI H CJIyqaHHH JIHCTOBe 3a no,n:JIO)J(KH, CTa-
pa KOIlHpHa xapTHH H U3nOJI3BaHH JIeHTU OT IIllllleIQU MalllHHU - BCHlf-
KO TOBa B p'bu;eTe Ha YMeJI cy6eKT MO)J(e ,n:a ce npeB'bpHe B nOTpecasaru;
,n:oryMeHT. TIO,n:06HU MaTepHaJIU ce Ha6aBHT 3HalfHTeJIHO nO-JIeCHO OT
0pHrUHaJIHTe.
- - KOM THX ce OTHaCHT ny6JIHKa-
U;HH B'bB BeCTHUU;UTe U CIIHCaHH5ITa, pa,n:Ho- H TeJIeBH3UOHHH Ilpe,n:aBa-
HUH, t.IeTeHH HHK'b,n:e JIeKQHH H U3Ka3BaHH5I ... TaKHBa H3TOlfHHQH ,n:aBaT
12 AHATOJH11i1 T A PAC
B'b3MO)}(HOCT 3a 3arr03HaBaHe C KYJIOapHIfTe MaTepI1aJII1, pa3KpI1BaT HOBI1
HOCI1TeJII1 Ha I1HcpOpMaQI151 I1 3Ha'fI1TeJIHO C'bKpaLQaBaT TPY,ll;a rro pa3pa-
60TBaHe Ha 06eKTa. Ka'feCTBOTO Ha IIHcpopMaQI151Ta B CJIyqa51 MHoro
3aBI1CI1 KaKTO OT KOMrreTeHTHOCTTa I1 rrO,ll;6Y,ll;I1Te Ha aBTopa, TaKa I1 OT
HaMepeHI15ITa I1 perrYTaQI15ITa Ha OHe3I1, KOI1TO KOHKpeTHO ca MY ,ll;aJII1
,ll;YMaTa.
- TIOAXBbPJIEHH JIHCTOBKH H CAMH3AAT - MHoro JIlo60-
rrI1THa I1HcpopMaQI15I MoraT ,ll;a C'b,ll;'bp)}(aT TI1pR)}(I1paHIfTe rro e,ll;I1H I1JII1
,ll;pyr Ha'fI1H JII1CTOBKI1, 06p'bLQeHI151 I1JIH 6eJIe)}(KH, KOI1TO rropa,ll;I1 He)l(e-
JIaHI1e I1JII1 HeB'b3MO)}(HOCT He ca I13,ll;a,ll;eHI1 ocpI1QI1aJIHO. BCH':IKO TOBa
ce XB'bPJI5I Ha T'bJIrraTa C QeJI ,ll;a ce orropo'fI1 H51Koe JII1Qe I1JIH OpraHH3a-
QI15I, ,ll;a rrOJIyqaT rry6JII1'fHOCT HeLQa B H5IK051 KOHKpeTHa 06JIaCT, ,ll;a ce
rrpe,ll;I13BI1Ka CMYT I1 6'bPKOTI151 B MI1CJIeHeTO Ha xopaTa. TIO,ll;06HH TeKC-
TOBe rrOH5IKOra ce rrO,ll;rrHCBaT OT peaJIHO C'bLQeCTBYBaLQI1 JIHQa, rpyrrH-
POBKI1 I1 opraHH3aQI1I1 I1JII1 rr'bK I1M ce rrpHrrI1CBaT, a HaH-'feCTO ce pa3rr-
pOCTpaH51BaT KaTO aHOHI1MHH. <I>aKTI1Te B T5IX ca Ha paBHI1LQe rroJIyI1c-
THHa, rrpaB,ll;orro,ll;o6I1e I1 51BHa ,ll;e3I1HcpopMaQI15l. TIopa,ll;I1 TOBa 'fe CTe-
rreHTa Ha ,ll;OCTOBepHocT Ha rr'bpB0I13TO'fHI1Ka e a6COJIlOTHO HeOrrpe,ll;e-
JII1Ma, CJIe,ll;Ba ,ll;aHHI1Te ,ll;a ce I13rrOJI3BaT MHoro BHHMaTeJIHO - ,ll;a He ce
rrpeHe6perBaT, HO I1 ,ll;a He I1M ce OT,ll;eJI5I oco6eHo BHI1MaHHe. TIO-CKOPO
I1HcpopMaTI1BeH MO)}(e ,ll;a ce OKa)l(e CaMI151T cpaKT Ha pa3rrpocTPaHeHI1e
Ha rrO,ll;06HH MaTepI1aJII1, OTHOrneHI1eTO K'bM T5IX Ha pa3JIH':IHH JII1Qa,
rpyrroBaTa rrpI1Ha,ll;J1e)}(HOCT Ha pa3rrpocTPaHHTeJII1Te I1M ...
YHI1KaJIHa B'b3MO)I(HOCT 3a He3a6eJIe)l(I1MO I133eMBaHe Ha HaH-pa3-
JII1'fHI1 ,ll;aHHI1 rrOH5IKOra ,ll;aBaT TeXHI1'feCKI1Te cpe,ll;cTBa 3a rrpe,ll;aBaHe H
o6pa6oTKa Ha I1HcpopMaQI15ITa, KOI1TO rropa,D;I1 eJIeKTPoMarHI1THaTa CH
crreQI1cpHKa rr03BOJI5IBaT ,ll;a ce ,ll;06I1Ba I1HcpopMaQI151Ta OT ,ll;OCTaT'b'fHO
OT,ll;aJIe'feH o6eKT. TIopa,ll;I1 51BHaTa rrepCrreKTIfBHOCT, a6COJIlOTHaTa 6e-
30rraCHOCT H OTHOCI1TeJIHaTa JIeKOTa BKJIlO'fBaHeTO K'bM TaKI1Ba KaHaJII1
B HarneTO TexHoTPoHHO BpeMe ce pa3rJIe)l(,ll;a KaTO e,ll;HH OT HaH-BR)}(HH-
Te I1 peaJIHI1 TIbTHIIJA 3A TIOJIyqABAHE HA HY)I(HHTE MATE-
PHAJIH:
- TEJIE<I>OH - KaTO HaH-pa3rrpOCTpaHeH I1HcTPYMeHT 3a o6LQyaa-
He Me)l(,ll;y xopaTa TeJIecpOH'bT e crroco6eH JIeCHO ,ll;a I13,ll;aBa TaHHHTe Ha
CB051 co6CTBeHI1K. HHTepeCHOTO e, 'fe rrpI1 TOBa MO)l(e ,ll;a ce rrpOCJIe,ll;5lT
He caMO TeJIecpOHHI1Te pa3rOBOpI1, HO I1 ,ll;a ce qye KaKBO ce rOBOpI1 B
3aTBopeHa CTa51 rrpI1 3aTBopeHa CJIyrnaJIKa.
- TEJIEfPA<I>, TEJIETAMn, TEJIE<I>AKC - rro KaHaJII1Te Ha Te3I1
arrapaTI1 QI1pKyJII1pa KaKTO rpacpI1'fHa, TaKa I1 3HaKOBa I1HcpopMaQI15I,
K05lTO ce I13Be)l(,ll;a Ha XapTI1eHI1 HOCI1TeJII1 - TB'bp,ll;e y,ll;06HO rrpI1 ,ll;eJIo-
HapblJHUK 3a pa3yJHaBaHe U CUzypHocm
13
BHTe Bp'b3KH. TIpeXBaLQaHeTO Ha rrO,ll;06HH MaTepI1aJII1 ce oC'bLQeCTB5IBa
MHoro JIeCHO - BKJIlO'fBaHe K'bM JIHHI1I1Te 3a Bp'b3Ka, a rrOH51KOra I1 6e3-
KOHTaKTHO, KaTO ce H3rr0J13BaT oco6eHOCTIfTe Ha crreQI1cpI1'fHaTa rrpI1-
eMHo-rrpe,ll;aBaTeJIHa arrapaTYpa. CJIO)l(HOCTH MoraT ,ll;a B'b3HI1KHaT caMO
rrpH YCJIOBI1e 'fe CTOrraHI1Te ca MOHTIfPaJII1 crreQIfa.JIHI1 Cpe,ll;CTBa 3a 3a-
LQIfTa Ha rrpeMHHaBaLQaTa I1HCPOPMa:QI15I.
- TIEPCOHAJIHH PAAHOCTAHIJ;HH - H3rr0J13BaHI1 3a
H JIH':IHa pa,ll;I10Bp'b3Ka. Te3H pa,ll;I10CTaHQI1I1 B rrOBe'feTO CJIyqaH ca ecpI1p-
HO He3aLQHTeHH. AKO 06eKT'bT He H3rrOJI3Ba 3a:LQHTHI1 cpe,ll;CTBa H aKO
BI1e pa3rrOJIaraTe C rrO,ll;XO,ll;51LQ pa,ll;I10rrpHeMHHK, 6HXTe Mor JIH MHoro
JIeCHO I1 He3a6eJIe)}(I1MO ,ll;a rrpOHHKHeTe B HaMepeHI15ITa Ha KOHTPOJII1-
paHmIo6eKT.
- KOMTIIOTbP - BC5IKa ,ll;eJIOBa opraHH3aQI151 IIpI1Te)}(aBa T03H YHH-
KaJIeH eJIeKTPOHeH MeXaHH3'bM 3a C'bXpaH51BaHe H o6pa6oTKa Ha I1H-
cpopMaQIf5l. HeLQo rrOBe'fe - KOMrrlOTPIfTe Ha OT,ll;eJIHI1Te CTPYKTYpH ca
CB'bp3aHH rrOMe)l(,ll;y CI1 rrOCpe,ll;CTBOM TeJIecpOHHa Bp'b3Ka, KoeTO Hep5l,ll;-
KO rr03BOJ15lBa,ll;a ce TerJII1 OT T5IX I1HcpopMaQI15l ,ll;a)l(e aKO ce HaMI1paTe B
,ll;pyr rpa,ll;. TIPH rr05lBaTa Ha ,ll;aHHI1Te B'bpXy eKpaHa Ha ,ll;I1crrJIe51 Te MO-
raT ,ll;a 6'b,ll;aT pa3'feTeHH He3a6eJI5I3aHO KaKTO 6e3KOHTaKTHO ('fpe3 pa-
,ll;I10I13J1'b'fBaHe), TaKa I1 KOHTaKTHO ('fpe3 BKJIlO'fBaHe B KOMrrlOT'bpHaTa
Mpe)l(a HJIH 3a:xpaHBa:LQH5I Ka6eJI). Pa36I1pa ce, ,ll;OCTOBepHOCTTa Ha rro-
JIyqeHH5I rro T03H Ha':II1H MaTepHaJI e rrpe,ll;eJIHO BHCOKa.
- 3AIIJ;HTHH H TPAHKOBH* PAAHOCHCTEMH - ,ll;a,ll;eHI1Te MO-
6HJIHH YCTPOHCTBa 3a CJIOBeCHO (pa,ll;I10TeJIecpOH) H 3HaKOBO (rreii:,D;)l('bp)
06LQYBaHe ca ,ll;OCTa y,ll;06HH 3a eKCrrJIOaTaQI15I, HO OTKpI1TI1 3a 06HKHO-
BeHOTO ecpHpHO pa,ll;I10rrpeXBaLQaHe C'bC C'bOTBeTCTBaLQ CKeHep (aKO H5I-
MaT 3aLQI1THO KO,ll;I1paHe .. ) HJIH C ",ll;BOHHI1K" Ha H3rrOJI3BaHI151 arrapaT.
***
TIO,ll; cpaKTopH 3a CJIe,ll;eHe ce rro,ll;pa36I1paT aKYCTI1'fHO (rrO,ll;cnyrnBa-
He), BH3YaJIHO (CJIe,ll;eHe) I1 MeHTaJIHO (aHaJII13I1paHe) Ha6JIlO,ll;eHI1e Ha
o6eKTa.
- TIO,[(CJIYIIJBAHE. TaHHO MoraT ,ll;a 6'b,ll;aT rrO,ll;CJIyrnBaHI1 KaKTO
CPOpMaJIHHTe (,ll;eJIOBH), TaKa H HecpopMaJIHHTe (rrpH5ITeJICKI1 H IfHTI1M-
HH) pa3rOBopH. EJIarO,ll;apeHHe Ha TOBa e B'b3MO)l(HO ,ll;a ce HayqaBaT
rroTPecaBaLQH cpaKTIf H KocBeHo ,ll;a ce pa3KpI1BaT rrepcrreKTHBHI1Te KOH-
*Trunk (aHfJl.) - OCHOBHa JlI1Hl1l1 B Mpe)l(OBa CI1CTeMa. - BeJl. peA.
14 AHATOJlI1Ii1 T APAC
TaKTII Ha qOBeKa .n:a ce 1I3}!CH}!BaT II HaMepe-
HII}!Ta, .n:a ce HaBJIII3a B Ha MIICJIeHe Ha .n:eifCTBarn;IITe l<aTO
3ae.n:HO C TOBa ce OTqlITaT 06IIKHOBeHlITe lIM peaKIJ;1I1I K'hM C'h6IITII}!-
Ta ... IIplIeTO e rrO.n:CJIYUlBaHeTO .n:a ce OC'hrn;eCTB}!Ba C 1I3rrOJI3BaHe Ha
TeXHlIqeCKII Cpe.n:CTBa ("O)KUB}!Barn;" TeJIe<pOH, HaCOqeHII II KOHTaKTHII
MIIKPO<pOHII II MHOrO .n:pyrlI pa.n:IIOTeXHIIqeCKII Cpe.n:CTBa). IIoH}!Kora
rrO.n:CJIYlllBaHeTO ce OC'hrn;eCTB}!Ba II 6e3 TeXHIIqeCKII Cpe.n:CTBa (rrpOCT()
ce 6JIII30 .n;0 pa3rOBap}!IIJ;lITe).
- TAHHO HAEmO}J;EHME. HaJIara ce .n:a ce Ha6mo.n:aBa KaKTO
IIH.n:IIBII.D:, TaKa II 06eKT. TaHHOTO CJIe.n:eHe Ha .n:a.n:eH qO-
BeK rr03BOJI}!Ba .n:a ce 1I3}!CH}{T KOHTaKTIITe MY, MeCTaTa 3a cpern;II, Map-
rnpYTIne, MY, HaqIIH'hT Ha )KIIBOT II BCIIqKII OCTaHaJIII acrreK-
Til OT rrOBe.n:eHlIeTO, He06xo.n:IIMII rrplI .n:eTaifJIHaTa pa3pa60TKa Ha H}!-
Koe IIJIII opraHl13aUIDI. Ha6mo.n:eHlIeTO Ha 06eKT OCII-
ryp}!Ba KOHTpOJI Ha rrOCeTIITeJIIITe II e CTaH.n:apTHO cpe.n:CTBO rrplI np-
ceHe Ha KplIern;a ce JIIIqHOCT.
- 3ACMlIAHE HA CJIYXOBE. Te31I Herro.n:JIe)Karn;U Ha rrOTBp'h)K-
.n:eHlIe C'h06rn;eHU}!, cpe.n: orrpe.n:eJIeH Kp'hr xopa, ca rro-
JIe3HII C TOBa, qe HaMeKBaT 3a rrpe.n:rrOJIaraeMII 3HaHlI}! II OqaKBaHlI}! Ha
cpe.n:aTa ("CJIYx OT .n:OJIy"), a rrOH}!KOra II 3a IIrplITe Ha e.n:HII IIJIII .n:PyrlI
CIIJIII ("CJIyx OT rope"). BC'hIIJ;HOCT Te ca .n:OCTanqHO .n:ocToBepHu, Ma-
Kap II qeCTO .n:a ca 1I30rraqeHII. }J;OplI II OT He}{CHlITe cnyxoBe MO)Ke .n:a ce
.n:061Ie rplI)KJIIIBO cKplIBaHa
- M35ICIDIBAHE HA HAqHHA HA }J;EMCTBME. AHaJIlI3lIpaif-
KII Ha 06eKTa K'hM .D;yMIITe II rrOBe.n:eHlIeTO Ha pa3JIIIqRII xopa,
K'hM BceKlI.n:HeBHII II eKcTpeMaJIHII MO)Ke .n:OCTa TOqHO .n:a ce
orrpe.n:eJI}!T II MOTlIBIITe MY, CIIJIaTa II CJIa60CTIITe MY, CTerreHTa
Ha rrOMaBaHe Ha BJIII}{HlIe II IIH<popMlIpaHOCT, KJIlOqOBlITe rrap-
THbOPII, MeTo.n:lITe Ha 1I3rrOJI3BaHlITe .n;eifCTBII}! ... BCIIql(O TOBa rrOMara
.n:a ce rrporH03IIpa <paKTIIqeCKOTO rrOBe.n:eHlIe Ha qOBeKa IIJIII rpyrraTa B
Haif-pa3JIlIqRlI II B KpaifHa CMeTKa rr03BOJI}!Ba e<peKTIlBHOTO
lIM yrrpaBJIeHlIe.
B KaqeCTBOTO Ha 1I3rr0JI3BaH 06eKT MO)Ke .n:a 6'h.n:e BC}!KO rrepcrreK-
TlIBHO - qJIeH Ha Bp<DK.n:YBarn;aTa rpyrrlIpoBKa, caMOTeH IIrpaq,
KOHTaKTbOp, C'hlO3HIIK ... - KoeTO rrplITe)KaBa JIlO60IIlITHa IIH<popMaIJ,lI}{.
Hapbl./HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
15
A. l1ulfHu Momu6u 3a npega6aHe Ha uHcpopMau,U5I
IIoHe)Ke BceKII IIH.n:IIBII.n: ce P'hKOBO.n:1I OT orrpe.n:eJIeHII rro.n:6y.n:1I B
rrOBe.n:eHlIeTO CII, T}!XHOTO pa36IIpaHe .n:aBa B'h3MO)KHOCT .n:a ce rro.n:6epe
KJIlOq'hT K'hM Hero II B KpaifHa CMeTKa .n:a ce rrOJIyqaT He06xo.n:IIMlITe
.n;aHHII.
MOTIIBIITe Ha rrOBe.n:eHlIe Ha .n:a.n:eH qOBeK ce u3yqaBaT, KaTO CJIe.n:Ba
.n:a ce lIMa rrpe.D:BlI.n: II .n:o KaKBa CTerreH Te ca 1I3pa3eHII (MHoro CIIJIHO,
TB'hp.n:e CIIJIHO, cJIa60).
XapaKTepHlITe MOTHBII 3a 1I3.n:aBaHe Ha IIH<pOPMaUIDI OT
.n:a.n:eH IIH.D:IIBII.D: II B'h3MO)KHlITe II'hTlIrn;a 3a 1I3rr0JI3BaHeTO lIM ca CJIe.D:HIITe:
1. AJIqROCT. (06ern;aHlIe Mil Ha rraplI II .n:pyrlI MaTe-
plIaJIHII u,eHHOCTII.)
2. CTpax 3a ce6e CII. (llIaHT<DK, a rrOH}{Kora II 3arrJIaXa, IIJIII rpy60
<p1I3IIqeCKO IIJIII pa<plIHHpaHo rrCIIXOJIOrIIqeCKO B'h3.n:eifcTBlIe.)
3. CTpax 3a 6JIII3KIITe. (5IBHII 3arrJIaXII IIJIII pa3JIIIqHII HaqlIHU Ha
HaCIIJIlIe - OTBJIIIqaHe, rro6oif, 1I3HaCIIJIBaHe, HapKOB'h3.n:eifc-
TBlIe, ,,3apII6}!BaHe" C HapKOTlIK, rr'hJIHO <p1I3IIqeCKO rrpeMaxBaHe ... )
4. EOJIKa. (M3Te3aHlIe Mil 3arrJIaXa 3a IIHTeH3IIBHO 60JIe3HeHO B'h3-
.n:eifcTBlIe.)
5. CeKcYaJIHa (JIOBKO rro.n:xB'hpMHe Ha rrOJIOB rrap-
THbOP II pa3JIIIqHII rropHorpa<p1I1I C rrepcrreKTIIBa 3a "pa3cJIa6BaHe",
rnaHTa)K Mil pa3M}!Ha.)
6. (5IBHa .n:errpeCII}!, B'h3HIIKHaJIa B pe3YJITaT Ha IIHC-
rrlIplIpaHII Mil crrOHTaHHII )KIITeifcKII 06CTOfleJICTBa, a rrOH}{KOra II pe-
3YJITaT Ha rrClIxo<p1I3IIqeCKa 06pa60TKa Ha 06eKTa.)
7. B'hTperneH aBaHTlOpII3'hM. (}J;aBaHe Ha rnaHC Ha IIH.n:IIBII.n:a.n:a BO.n:1I
CBO}! IIrpa.)
8. B3alIMooTHOrneHII}! C .n:'hp)KaBHaTa CIICTeMa IIJIII C
(XIITpO 1I3rrOJI3BaHe Ha lI.D:eOJIorlIqeCKlITe pa3HOrJIaCII}{ II Ha C'hllWCT-
BYBarn;aTa Hey.n:oBJIeTBOpeHOCT Ha 06eKTa OT HaCTO}!rn;OTO MY rrOJIO)Ke-
HlIe IIJIII OT YTpernHa rrepCrreKTIIBa.)
9. B3alIMooTHOrneHII}! C KOHKpeTHII (Pa3rraJIBaHe Ha HeraTlIB-
HII qYBcTBa OT TlIrra Ha M'hCT, 3aBIICT II HerrplI}!3'hH, Herrpeo.n:OJIIIMO
)KeJIaHlIe .n:a ce HaHece Ha "Bpara" orrpe.n:eJIeHa Bpe.n:a.)
10. (l13rroJI3BaHe Ha .n:'hJI60KOTO ycern;aHe 3a
OHaJIHa rrpIIHa.n:JIe)KHOCT, 3a HeHaBIICT, rop.n:ocT, 1I3KJIlOqlITeJIHOcT.)
11. PeJIIIrlI03HII qyscTBa. (Pa3rraJIBaHe Ha HerrplI}{3'hH K'hM ".n:pyro-
IIJIII 06B'hp3BaHe Ha orrpe.n:eJIeHa C 1I36paHII .n:OKT-
PIIHII OT peJIlIrlI}!.)
16
AHATOnllll;; T APAC HapblJHUK 3a pa3yJHa8aHe U CUZypHOCm 17
12. fpaJK,D;aHCKH ,D;'bJIr. (lbrroJI3BaHe Ha 3aKOHOrrOCJIYIlIaHHeTo.)
13. 06m;OqOBeiliKH MOpaJI. (H3rrOJI3BaHe Ha qyBCTBOTO 3a rrop5l,D;'bq-
HOCT.)
14. IIo,D;c'b3HaTeJIHa rroTpe6HocT 3a caMoYBaJKeHHe. (CrreKYJIHpaHe
C H,D;eaJIHHTe rrpe,D;CTaBH Ha qOBeKa 3a CaMH5I Hero.)
15. KoprropaTHBHa (KJIaHoBa) COJIH.D;apHocT. (H3rrOJI3BaHe Ha KOHK-
peTHa eJIHTapHocT.)
16. 5IBHa CHMrraTH5I K'bM rrOJIyqaTeJI5I HJIH HerOBOTO ,D;eJIo. ("Pe30-
HHpam;a HarJIaCa K'bM 06eKTa".)
17. II1;eCTJIaBHe. (ilpoBoKHpaHe Ha JKeJIaHHeTO Ha 06eKTa ,D;a Harrpa-
BH orrpe,D;eJIeHO BrreqaTJIeHHe, ,D;a rrOKaJKe KOJIKO e 3HaqHM H OCBe,D;O-
MeH.)
18. JIeKoMHCJIHe. (AoKapBaHe Ha qOBeKa,D;O 6e3rpHJKHO C'bCT05lHHe
Ha Herrpe,D;rra3JIHBOCT H ,D;'bp,D;OpeHe. K'bM TOBa MOJKe ,D;a 6'b,D;e OTHeceHO
H 3a,D;eMcTBaHeTo Ha "XpoHoTorra" - 51BHaTa rrOBHIlIeHa ,D;OBepqHBOCT Ha
qOBeKa B orrpe,D;eJIeHO BpeMe H Ha orrpe,D;eJIeHO M5ICTO ("CJIyqaeH Crr'bT-
HHK").
19. YrO,D;HHqeCTBo. (TOqHa peaJIH3aU;H5I Ha rrO,D;C'b3HaTeJIHaTa (BOJIe-
Ba) H OC'b3HaTaTa (,D;eJIOBa H <pH3HqeCKa) 3aBHCHMOCT Ha 06eKTa OT no-
JIyqaTeJI5l. )
20. "II06'bpKaHocT" Ha ,D;a,D;eHa TeMa. (EJIH3Ka B'b3MOJKHOCT 3a KO-
JIeKU;HOHep, npHMepHo, ,D;a ce C,D;06He (HJIH ,D;a 3ary6H) crpacTHo JKeJIa-
Ha Bem;; H3rrOJI3BaHe Ha <p06HH ... )
21. HerrpHKpHTO JKeJIaHHe 3a nOJIyqaBaHe Ha HH<p0pMaU;H5I B 3aM5IHa.
(TexHHKaTa "TaHTO 3a TaHTO" HJIH "BO,D;eHe 3a Hoca".)
22. CTpacTeH crpeMeJK Ha 06eKTa ,D;a y6e,D;H B Hem;O, ,D;a H3MeHH OT-
HOIlIeHHe K'bM Hem;O (HJIH H5IKOro),,D;a nO,D;6y.D;H K'bM orrpe,D;eJIeHH ,D;eMC-
TBH5I. (MeTO,D;HTe "HaJIanBaHe Ha B'b,D;Hu;aTa" H ,,06paTHo Bep6ysaHe".)
KaTo ce pa36epe nCHXOJIOrH5ITa Ha COH,D;HpaHH5I 06eKT H ce OTKP05lT
MOTHBHTe, OT KOHTO ce P'bKOBO,D;H TOM, MoraT ,D;a ce npHJIOJKaT KOHK-
peTHH HaqHHH H MeTO,D;HKH, cnoc06HH ,D;a "pa3qyn5lT" onpe,D;eJIeH qO-
BeK.
5. Memogu 3a aKmuBHo nOAytlaBaHe Ha LlHcpopMau,ufI
CBe,D;eHH5ITa OT rrepcrreKTHBHHTe HH<popMaTopH MoraT ,D;a ce nOJIy-
qaT HJIH e,D;HOKpaTHO, HJIH CJIe,D; 3aBep6YBaHe - rrOCT05lHHO.
E<peKTHBHHTe Cpe,D;CTBa 3a H3BJIHqaHe Ha HH<popMaU;H5I OT cy6eKTH-
Te ca CJIe,D;HHTe:
1. IIo,D;KYII (06em;aHHe HJIH npe,D;aBaHe Ha napH H ,D;pyrH MaTepHaJIHH
u;eHHOCTH, KaKTO BnpOqeM H OKa3BaHe Ha C'b,D;eMCTBHe 3a Hem;o).
2. IIIaHTaJK (B'bpXY peaJIHOTO, B'bpXy C<pa6pHKYBaHOTO, B'bpXy 06eK-
THTe Ha Y5l3BHMOCT ... ).
3. TB'bp,D;a 3anJIaXa HJIH <pH3HqeCKO HJIH nCHXOJIOmqeCKO B'b3,D;eMCT-
BHe.
4. CneU;H<pHqeH <popcHpaH pa3rrHT (cJIe,D; npe,D;BapHTeJIHO OTBJIHqa-
He HJlH Ha,D;XHrp5lHe);
- pa3IIHT C H3Te3aHHe (nOCTeneHHO HarHeT5IBaHe Ha ycem;aHeTO H
OqaI<BaHeTO 3a 60JIKa);
- ceKcpa3nHT (OCHryp5lBaHe H eKCnJIOaTaU;H5I Ha HenpeO,D;OJIHMO no-
JlOBO JKeJIaHHe);
- pa3rrHT C HrJIa (npe,D;H3BHKBaHe Ha HapKOTHqeH rJIa,D; H 06em;aHHe,
qe me 6'b,D;e 3a,D;OBOJIeH);
- HapKopa3nHT (BKapBaHe B opraHH3Ma Ha oc06eHH HapKOTHqHH
npenapaTH H "pa3qynBaHe" npH rrOMpaqeHO C'b3HaHHe).
- XHnHopa3IIHT (npe,D;H3BHKBaHe Ha 6e3nOMom;HO C'bCT05lHHe, xapaK-
TepHO C H3qe3BaHe Ha C'b3HaHHeTO, C nOMOIIJ;Ta Ha XHI1H03a).
5. CeKcYaJIHa 3aBHCHMOCT (MoTHBHpaHe Ha HHTHMHH5I napTHbOp 3a
B'b3npHeMaHe Ha nOJIe3Ha HH<p0pMaU;H5I HJIH 3a C'b,D;eMCTBHe 3a npHJIa-
raRe Ha ,D;pyrH HaqHHH 3a e<peKTHBHO BJIH5IHHe KaTO IlIaHTaJK, pa3nHT,
yroBapme ... ).
6. Hrpa C eMOIJ;HHTe (pa3rraJIBaHe Ha m060B, HeHaBHCT, peBHocT,
m;eCTJIaBHe H ,D;pyrH 3aCJIeI15lBaIIJ;H qyBcTBa, rro,D; qHMTO HaTHCK ,D;eJIH-
,t.. 6 "" " KaTHaTa 'l'aKTYpa ce C'bO m;aBa "OT rJIynocT ,,,B 51,D;a CH HJIH "HarryK
Ha H51KOro).
7. "YJIOB Ha ThMHO" (H3BJIHqaHe Ha HH<p0pMaU;H5I B rrpou;eca Ha ,J):OB-
KO npOBe,D;eH pa3nHT HJIH pa3roBop):
- "MeJK.D;y ,D;pyroTo" (noOm;p5lBaHe Ha C'bCT05lHHeTO Ha eCTeCTBeHa
HJlH HHcnHpHpaHa pa3rOBOpJIHBOCT);
- "Hfpa Ha KocBeHH" (peaKU;H5ITa Ha 06eKTa Ha CneU;HaJIHO rrO,D;rOT-
BeHH B'bnpocH);
- ,,6JI'b<pHpaHe" (C'b3,D;aBaHe Ha BrreqaTJIeHHe, qe 3HaeTe Hem;O nOBe-
qe, B pe3YJITaT Ha KoeTO qOBeK'bT He BHJK,D;a He06xo,D;HMOCT ,D;a KpHe no-
HaTaThK OHOBa, KoeTO My e H3BeCTHO);
- "rrapaJIeJI" (npOKapBaHe Ha TeMa, K05lTO 51BHO e cnoc06Ha ,D;a
npe,D;H3BHKa y 06eKTa H5IKaKBH acoU;HaU;HH cOHoBa, KoeTO BH HHTe-
pecyBa;
- "KOHCYJITaU;H5I" (MoJI6a 3a C'b,D;eMCTBHe Ha Bac HJIH H51KOMY CJIe,D;
06pa60TKa Ha 06eKTa ,D;O C'bCT05lHHe Ha 6JIarO,D;YIlIHe H ,D;pYJKem06He);
--
20 AHATOJH.11i1 T APAC
BaRInI, KOIITO 6lIXa nOMOrHaJIII 3a pernaBaHeTO Ha KOHKpeTHII np06JIe-
MIl KaKTO Ha opraHII3aI}II5ITa, TaKa II Ha P'hKOBO,I:(IITeJIIITe M.)
10. ITy6JIIIK)'BaHe Ha MaTeplIaJI B'hB BeCTHIIK IIJIII cnlIcaHlIe (BaplI-
aHT - 1I3,I:(aBaHe Ha KHlIra IIJIII 6powypa) C'hC C'h3ByqHO, C'hlf)'BCTBeHO
IIJIII nepCneKTlIBHO OT rJIe,I:(Ha TOqKa Ha npOTIIBHIIKa C'h,I:('hp)l(aHlIe II 1I3-
nOJI3BaHeTO My KaTO nponYCK 3a npOHIIKBaHe B IIHTepeCYBaIl(aTa BH
crpYKTYpa.
3a nO-6'hp30TO npOHHKBaHe B'hrpe B rpynHpoBKaTa e He06xo,I:(HMO:
- ,I:(a np05IBHTe aKTHBHOCT B ,I:(ellIOCTTa Ha rpynaTa H ,I:(a 6'h,I:(eTe MHoro
H3n'hJIHHTeJIeH CJIY)l(HTeJI;
-,I:(a 06'hpHeTe BHHMaHHeTO K'hM ce6e CH Ha H5IKOM OT P'hKOBO,I:(HOTO
3BeHO Ha eKHna C nOMOIl(Ta Ha HerOBH npH5ITeJIH H PO,I:(HHHH, B'hPXy
ecpeKTHBHOCTTa H KOJIOpHTHOCTTa Ha c06CTBeHHTe CH ,I:(eMCTBH5I, Ha Bep-
HOCTTa CH K'hM Hero, KaTO nOOIl(p5IBaTe CJIa60CTHTe MY ... ;
- C ,I:(P'h3KH H 5IpKH aKQHH ,I:(a npH):(06HeTe 3HaqHTeJIHa nonYJI5IpHOCT
cpe,I:( "C'hpaTHHQHTe";
- ,I:(a ce nOCTapaeTe ,I:(a CTaHeTe He3aMeHHM, KaTO nOCTeneHHO KOH-
QeHrpHpaTe B p'hQeTe CH Ba)l(HH onepaTHBHH CPYHKQHH;
- ,I:(a CTe OTJIIfqHO HHcpopMHpaH no HaM-pa3JIIfqHH B'hnpOCH, 3a ,I:(a
MO)l(eTe B'hB BceKH MOMeHT ,I:(a npe,I:(OCTaBHTe He06xo,I:(HMHTe H5IKOMY
CBe,I:(eHH5I HJIH ,I:(a ,I:(a,I:(eTe Hy)l(HH5I pa3YMeH C'hBeT;
- ,I:(a npHTe)l(aBaTe T O ~ ,I:(OCHeTa Ha BCIfqKH, KOHTO HMaT onpe,I:(e-
JIeH aBTopHTeT B opraHH3aQH5ITa, H npH He06xo,I:(HMOCT ,I:(a OKa3BaTe
B'hPXy T5IX ,I:(03HpaHO B'h3,I:(eMCTBHe;
- ,I:(a 3aJIO)l(HTe Ha nepcneKTHBeH CJIY)l(HTeJI H KaTO ce np05IBHTe KaTO
He06xo,I:(HM 3a Hero qOBeK, ,I:(a nOMorHeTe 3a H3,I:(HraHeTO My cpe,I:( JIH-
,I:(epHTe;
- ,I:(a onpe,I:(eJIHTe He,I:(06po)l(eJIaTeJIHTe CH H CJIe,I:( KaTO ,I:(06pe OC'h3-
HaeTe npIfqHHaTa 3a T5IXHaTa HenpH5I3'hH, ,I:(a ,I:(HCKpe,I:(HmpaTe Te3H JIHQa
(nYCKaMKH onpe,I:(eJIeHH CJIYXOBe) HJIH ,I:(a rH npeB'hpHeTe B CBOH ,I:(06po-
)l(eJIaTeJIH (no MeTO,I:(a "Ha T05IraTa H MOpI<OBa").
He06xo,I:(HMHTe ,I:(aHHH, C'h,I:('hp)l(aIl(H ce B H5IKOH ,I:(OK)'MeHTH, MO)l(e-
Te ,I:(a nOJIyquTe, KaTO ce cHa6,I:(HTe C'hC CaMH5I opHrHHaJI HJIH C HerOBO
KonHe HJIH KaTO ce 3an03HaeTe C'hC C'h,I:('hp)l(aHHeTO My no OT,I:(eJIHH ,I:(OC-
TOBepHH CBH,I:(eTeJICTBa.
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3YJHa8aHe U CUzypHocm 21
A. nOllY4a6aHe Ha gocmbn go gOKYMeHmu
TIpH Ha6aB5IHeTO Ha He06xo,I:(HMHTe ,I:(OKYMeHTH e npHeTO ,I:(a ce H3-
nOJI3BaT CJIe,I:(HHTe HaqHHH:
_ TaMHO npOHHKBaHe Ha M5ICTOTO, K'h,I:(eTO ce C'hXpaH5IBa HOCHTeJI5IT
(no B'h3MO)l(HOCT, 6e3 ,I:(a ce OCTaB5IT HHKaKBH CJIe,I:(lI. ITo npHHy,I:(a MO)l(e
,n:a ce HMHTHpa 06HKHOBeHa Kpa)l(6a);
- "pa3neQaTBaRe" B M5ICTOTO Ha C'hXpaH5IBaHe nOCpe,I:(CTBOM C'h3,I:(a-
BaHe HJIH HMHTaQH5I Ha aBapHMHa (nO)l(ap, HaBO,I:(HeHHe ... ) cHTYaQH5I H
npOHHKBaHe B'hrpe no,I:( cpopMaTa Ha cnaCHTeJI;
- KpaTKorpaMHO npeB3eMaHe Ha ~ H O T O nOMeIl(eHHe;
- H33eMBaHe (KproK6a, H3Hy,I:(BaHe, rpa6e)l(, nO):(I<)'n ... ) Ha ,I:(OK)'MeH-
Ta npH npenpaIl(aHeTO My HJIM rrpe,I:(aBaHeTO My (TeXHHKaTa 3a OC'h-
Il(eCTB5IBaHe Ha H33eMBaHeTO BC'hIl(HOCT 3aBHCH OT H3nOJI3BaHOTO 3a
aKQH5lTa 3BeHO no n'hT5I Ha npeMeCTBaHeTO Ha HOCHTeJI5I, qHeTO npen-
paIl(aHe MO)l(e,I:(a 6'h,I:(e KaKTO 3anJIaHHpaHO, TaKa H HHcnHpHpaHO);
- BKJIlOqBaHe Ha rpem JIHQa (KOHTaKTbopH IIJIH rrpocpeCIIOHaJIHCTH),
KOHTO ,I:(a 6'h,I:(aT 3aHHTepeCOBaHH OT ,I:(OCTaB5IHeTO 3a Bac (a MO)l(e 6H H
3a ce6e CH) Ha H5IKaK'hB ,I:(OK)'MeHT;
- MOIl(eH HaTHCK (rnaHTa)l(, no,I:(Kyn ... ) B'hPXY qOBeKa, KOMTO HMa
,I:(OCT'hn ,I:(O HOCHTeJI5I Ha HHcpopMaQH5I HJIH ,I:(O M5ICTOTO Ha C'hXpaH5IBa-
He;
- H3HCKBaHe Ha ,I:(OK)'MeHTa HJIH Ha KonHe OT Hero C npaB,I:(ono,I:(06HO
060CHOBaHHe - C'hBMeCTHa pa60Ta, COQHaJIHa CHrypHOCT, Be,I:(OMCTBeH
KOHTpOJI ... - Ha He06xo,I:(HMOCTTa 3a npHTe)l(aTeJIHTe MY.
3a ,I:(a ce 06'hpKa KaKTO npHTe)l(aTemrr, TaKa H OH3H, KOMTO rp5I6Ba
,I:(a BH cHa6,I:(H C ,I:(OK)'MeHTa, He 6H 6HJIO JIorno HCKaHaTa cpaKTYpa ,I:(a ce
B3eMa 3ae,I:(H0 C 6e3nOJIe3HH HOCHTeJIH.
TaMHOTo KonHpaHe - KcepoKc, cpOTorpacpH5I ... - rp5I6Ba ,I:(a ce H3nOJI-
3Ba, aKO e:
- Ba)l(HO,I:(a ce CKpHe cpaKT'hT, qe O ~ O onpe,I:(eJIeH ,I:(OK)'MeHT 5IBHO e
3aHHTepeCYBaJI H5IKOrO H cera ce e OKa3aJI Y ,I:(pyr;
- He06xo,I:(HMO ,I:(a ce nO,I:(clIryplI ,I:(OCTaBqHK HJIH MeTO,I:( 3a nOJIY'fa-
BaRe Ha HOCHTeJI5I;
- Ba)l(HO e caMO C'h,I:('hp)l(aHHeTO, a He CaMH5IT OPHfHHaJI.
AKO BH HHTepecYBa caMO c'h,I:('hp)l(aHHeTO Ha ,I:(oK)'MeHTa HJIH ITbK
CaMH5IT cpaKT Ha C'hIl(eCTBYBaHeTo MY, MO)l(eTe ,I:(a H3nOJI3BaTe "MeH-
TaJIHOTO KOllHpaHe", npocTo 3anOMH5ITe cpaKTYpaTa Ha HOCHTeJI5I H nOCJIe
Sf cpHKcHpaT Ha XapTH5I. XapaKTepHH HaqHHH npH TOBa ca:
- OCPHQHaJIHO nOCeIl(eHHe Ha Barn areHT, KOMTO ce npe,I:(CTaBSf3a JIllQe
............ ................. .........
22
AHATOJlVllil TAPAC HapbLfHUK 3a pa3yJHaBaHe U CUZypHOCm 23
OT T'bprOBCKa IfJIlI ,ll;'bp)KaBHa cJIY)K6a (JIeKap,
peKJIaMeH areHT, CO.QHOJIOr, 6H3HeCMeH, )KypHaJIHCT . ) C Han'bJIHO pe-
,ll;OBHa MOJI6a,ll;a nperJIe,ll;ae,ll;HH HJIH ,ll;pyrH ,ll;OKYMeHTH, Cpe,ll; KOHTO e H
BH;
- BKJIIOqBaHe Ha C'bTpYAHH.QH MH KOHTaKTbOpH Ha 06eKTa (H3nOJI3-
Ba ce CaMO TOraBa, KOraTO Te HMaT npeKpaCHa naMeT H BM,ll;MMH
npHqMHM 3a npe,ll;aTeJICTBO HJIM ,ll;a BM H3JI'b)KaT 3a TOBa KaKBO ca BM,ll;e-
JIH).
E. npexBaw,aHe U nepllycmpaupfl Ha nUCMama
,[(a ce C,ll;06MeTe C qy)K,[(O nOCJIaHMe - nMCMO, 6aH,ll;epOJI,
KOJIeT - e B'b3MO)KHO:
- OT (Kpa)K6a C Ha KOHTaKTbOpM MJIM npO<peCMO-
HaJIHCTM, rpy60 Hana,ll;eHHe C .QeJI rpa6e)K, H33eMBaHe Ha OT
KyTIDITa npM OnepaTHBHO BM3yaJIHO Ha6JIIO,ll;eHMe Ha 06eKTa, pa3JIH':IHM
OT KJIOH ... );
- no (no,ll;KYll Ha KYPMepa, CHJIOBO M33eMBaHe HJIH OTBJIH':IaHe
Ha KOJIa ... );
- OT nOJIyqaTeM (B KJIOH, C nO,ll;KYn Ha
OT no BpeMe Ha ir Ha6JIIO,ll;e-
HMe; B ,ll;OMa Ha a,ll;pecaTa, qpe3 HerOB KOHTaKTbOp ... ).
I1PH TaiiHO M3BJIMqaHe Ha HH<popMa.QM5.! OT 06HKHOBeHH 3aneqaTaHH
nMCMa (T. e. ce H3nOJI3BaT CJIe,ll;HHTe MeTO,ll;H:
- CHJIHO H 3aCHeMaHe Ha nHCMOTO, 6e3 ,ll;a ce
nJIHK'bT (3a ,ll;a MoraT ,ll;a ce qeTaT nOJIyqeHHTe no T03H HaqHH e
He06xo,ll;HMO ,ll;a HMaTe H3BeCTeH HaBHK, pe,ll;OBeTe ca qaCTH':IHO
06'bpHaTtf H ce HaCJIafBaT e,ll;HH B'bpXy ,ll;pyr);
- BpeMeHHO (3a 30-HHa ceKYH,ll;H) Hanp'bCKBaHe C'bC cne.QHaJIeH cnpeii
(PK 705, lA-4 ... ) C .QeJI nJIHK'bT,ll;a CTaHe np03paqeH;
- rpy60 C Ha nJIHK H C
<paJIll1H<pH.QHpaHe Ha neqaT H nO,ll;nHC;
- JIOBKO H3M'bKBaHe Ha IlHCMOTO, HaBHTO Ha HrJIa OT KOCT, npe3 MaJIKa
AYll'iH.Qa B 'bf'bJIa Ha nJIHKa;
- BHHMaTeJIHO OTBap5.!He H rpH)KJIHBO 3aneqaTBaHe Ha nOCJIaHMeTO.
He)KHOTO Ha nJIHKOBeTe oTKpaii BpeMe ce npaBH C
Ha HHcTpYMeHTH OT KOCT H 06HKHoBeHa BO,ll;Ha napa. B ,ll;a,ll;e-
cJIyqaii nO-,ll;06pe e ,ll;a ce H3nOJI3Ba nJIOCKa, OT,ll;OJIY no-
B'bPXHOCT. B'bpxy ce CJIara HaBJIa)KHeHa nonHBaTeJIHa XapTH5.!,
IIpM Harp5.!BaHe OT,ll;eJI5.! napa H pa3MeKBa JIenHJIOTO. B'bpxy BCMq-
KO TOBa ce CJIara IIHCMOTO, KoeTO IIO,ll;JIe)KH Ha OTBap5.!He.
BapHaHT e, KOfaTO HaBJIa)KHeHH JIeHTH IIOIIlIBaTeJIHa
HJIH AYHanpeH ce CJIafaT caMO B'bpXy 3aJIeIIeHHTe nOB'bpXHOC-
TH, a 3a C'b3,ll;aBaHe Ha IIapa ce H3n0JI3Ba 06HKHoBeHa IOTH5.!. Haii-npoc-
TOTO BIIpOqeM e ,ll;a ce H3IIOJI3Ba IIapaTa, OT qyqypa Ha KH-
qaiiHHK.
AKO HMa nO,ll;03peHHe, 'Ie nO,ll;aTeJI5.!T e yrrOTpe6HJI HeBH,[(HMO Mac-
THJIO, H3Ba,[(eHOTO OT nJIHKa IIOCJIaHHe BHHMaTeJIHO ce CJIara Me)K,ll;y
ABa IIpe,ll;BapHTeJIHO 06pa60TeHH C napa JIHCTa H TaKa
" " a "caH,[(BH':I ce npeCOBa, 3a ,ll;a MO)Ke qaCT OT ,ll;
OCTaHe B'bpXy KOIIHeTO IIO,ll;JIO)KKa, C KoeTO ce pa60TH 3a Ha
TaiiHOIlHca. TIPH TOBa OpHrHHaJI'bT B'bHIIIHO He ce npOMeH5.!.
CJIe,ll; KaTO ce H3BJIeqe H KaTO ce npeKOIIHpa IIHCMO-
TO, nJIHK'bT rpH)KJIHBO ce 3aneqaTBa C Ha MeKH TaMIIOHH OT
naMYK H IIp03paqHO (HO He CHJIHKaTHO!) JIeIIHJIO.
B. 06pa6omKa Ha ,,60KllYKa"
TIO,ll; ,,60KJIYK" 06HKHOBeHO ce HMaT npe,ll;BH,ll; pa3JIHqHHTe 6eJIe)KKH
B'bpXY H3IIOJI3BaHH .QHrapeHH KYTHH H napqeH.Qa OT BeCTHH.QH, CMaqKa-
HH H pa3K'bCaHH JIHCTOBe, B'bpXy KOHTO TeKCT'bT MO)Ke ,ll;a 6'b,ll;e 3aqep-
TaH HJIH 3aJI5.!T C O.QBeTHTeJIH, pa3Ho06pa3HH JIHCT':IeTa, OKa3aJIH ce CJIY-
qaHHO (HJIH cne.QHaJIHO CJIO)KeHH ... ) no,ll; HOCHTeJI5.! npH 3aIIHca Ha OPH-
rHHaJIa, H3nOJI3BaHa KonHpHa XapTH5.! H JIeHTH OT nHIIIeI.I(H MaIIIHHH.
TIopa,ll;H <paKTa, 'Ie Ha ,,60KJIYK" P5.!,ll;KO ce oc06e-
HO BHHMaHHe, H33eMBaHeTO MY e IIOqTH He3a6eJIe)KHMO H CTaBa 3Ha':IH-
TeJIHO nO-JIeCHO KaKTO OT 3aTBOpeHO (OT nOCeTHTeJI, Maiic-
TOp no peMOHTa, qHCTaqKa, C'bTpy,ll;HHK ... ), TaKa H H3B'bH TaKOBa (Ha
... ). 3a npO':IHT Ha HaMepeHHTe no T03H Ha':IHH MaTepHaJIM
ce IIpHJIaraT CJIe,ll;HHTe MeTO,ll;H:
B'b3CTaHOBHBaHe Ha HaK'bCaHIITe )J;OK)'MeHTII:
- M3fJIa,ll;eTe H pa3rJIe,ll;aiiTe BCMqKM CK'bCaHH napqeH.Qa fPH)K-
JIMBO fM COpTHpaMTe no .QB5.!T H no THna Ha HOCHTeJI5.!, no .QBeTa Ha
XHTe M no HaqHHa Ha HanMCBaHe;
- oT6epeTe pa3HM napqeH.Qa C paBHH M KaTO HaMeCTHTe y,ll;06-
HO no 'bfmne OHe3H OT T5.!X, KOHTO ca Cp5.!3aHM Ha 'bf'bJI, HanpaBeTe OT
T5.!X paMKa;
24
AHATOJH11it T APAC Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUZypHOCm 25
- rpIDKJIMBO 3arrhJIHeTe 06pa3YBaJIOTO ce npOCTPaHCTBO C no.n;xoM-
lQM qaCTMQM, KaTO ce opMeHTMpaTe no JIMHMMTe Ha crbBaHe M CKbCBaHe,
no nOJIO)KeHMeTO Ha lQPMXMTe M Cb.n;bp)KaHMeTO Ha TeKCTa .
,lJ;06pe e, aKO Ta3M pa60Ta ce M3BbpllIBa BbPXY napqe CThKJIO, a cJIe.n;
KaTO npMeMJIMBO ce Bb3CTaHOBM .n;oKYMeHTbT, BHMMaTeJIHo.n;a ce npM-
TMCHe C .n;pyro CTbKJIO M .n;a ce <pMKcMpa CbC CKOq.
Ha B.n;JI'b6HaTH CJIe.n;H B'bpXy
- CJIO)KeTe .n;OKYMeHTa TaKa, qe HaCOqeHM5IT JIbq CBeTJIMHa.n;a ce OKa-
)Ke OTCTPaHM, nepneH.n;MKYJI}.IPHO Ha OCHOBHMTe nOCOKM Ha B.n;JI'b6HaTM-
Te lQPMXM M no.n; OCThP 'hr'hJI K'hM <pOHOBaTa nOB'hpXHOCT Ha nO.n;JIO)KKa-
Ta. TaKa TeKCTbT MO)Ke npocTo .n;a ce npOqeTe, a npM Heo6xo.n;MMOCT - M
.n;a ce 3aCHeMe.
IIapaJIeJIHM}.IT BapMaHT e C M3n0JI3BaHe Ha Me.n;MQIIHCKO )KeAA30 Ha
npax, B'b3CTaHOBeHO C BO.n;OPO.n;, M "MarHMTHa qerqMQa". IIpaxTa ce
nOCMnBa B'hPXY M3CJIe.n;BaHaTa nOB'hpXHOCT, C nOMOlQTa Ha MarHMT ce
oTcTPaH}.IBa M3JIMlliHOTO )KeJI}.I30 M ToraBa TeKCTbT CTaBa BM.n;MM.
Ha'lHHH 3a '1eTeHe Ha 3a'lepKHaTH H 3aJIeTH TeKCTOBe:
- orJIe.n;aiITe .n;oKYMeHTa npM cTPaHIfqHO OCBeTJIeHMe OT JIMQeBaTa M
OT o6paTHaTa cTPaHa (ToBa e QeJIeC'h06pa3HO, aKO lQPMXMTe Ha TeKCTa
MMaT H}.IKaK'hB peJIe<p);
- OrJIe.n;aMTe .n;OKYMeHTa npM OCBeT}.IBaHe KaTO Ha peHTIeH (TOBa e
e<pMKaCHO, KoraTO OQBeTMTeJI}.IT Ha lQPMXMTe Ha TeKCTa P}.l3KO KOHTPac-
TMpa C OQBeTMTeJIMTe Ha neTHOTO);
- orJIe.n;aii:Te .n;oKyMeHTa B OTPa3eHa MJIM npeMMHaBalQa CBeTJIMHa, KaTO
M3nOJI3BaTe CBeTO<pMJITbP OT C'hI.QmI QB}.IT, KaK'hBTO e neTHOTO (TOBa .n;aBa
pe3YJITaT, lQPMXMTe Ha TeKCTa M neTHOTO ca pa3JIIfqHO OQBeTeHM);
- onMTaMTe ce .n;a npeMaXHeTe MJIM .n;a HaMaJIMTe rOpHM}.I CJIOM Ha
OQBeTMTeJI}.I, KaTO .n;o6pe npMTMCHeTe 3a KpaTKO K'hM Hero H}.IKaKBa KO-
nMpalQa - CYPOB KayqYK, BJIa)KHa eMYJICM}.I Ha <pOTOJIeHTa ... - nOB'hpX-
HOCT (TOBa nOMara, KoraTO TeKCTbT e 3aqepTaBaH C rpa<pMTeH MOJIMB);
- 06pa6oTeTe 3aM'hpCeHM yqaCTbQM C no.n;XOMlQ pa3TBopM-
TeJI (aQeTOH, 6eH30JIOB cnMpT, eTbP) Ha OQBeTMTeJI}.I (TOBa e nepcneK-
TMBHO, aKO MallIMHOnMCHM}.IT TeKCT no.n; MH.n;Mro e 3aqepKHaT C qepHa
XMMMKaJIKa).
B'b3CTaHOBHBaHe Ha TeKCT no HH.n;Hro:
- CJIO)KeTe M3nOJI3BaHOTO MH.n;Mro B'hPXY CTbKJIO cpelQY CBeTJIMHaTa
M npOqeTeTe (MJIM <pOTorpa<pMpaMTe) TeKCTa;
_ aKO 6YKBMTe ce BM)K.n;aT JIOllIO, M3n0JI3BaiiTe CTPaHMqHO OCBeTJIe-
RIle, KoeTO na.n;a B'hPXY JIMCTa no.n; OCThP 'hr'hJI;
_ aKO HH.n;HrOTO e H3nOJI3BaHO MHOrOKpaTHO, HanpaBeTe OT Hero
<jJOTO- H KcepOKonHe H 3aqepKHeTe C qepeH <jJYJIMaCTep HJIH C MeKa ThHKa
qerqHQa 6eJIHTe IIqJHXH Ha BCHqKH 3anHCH, KOHTO no HaqHHa HM Ha
pa3nOJIaraHe B'hPXY HH.n;MrOTO HBHO He ce OTHaCHT .n;o HHTepeCYBalQMH
BH TeKCT.
5. CHeMaHe Ha It1H<popMau,lt151 OT CBbP304HIt1
cpeACTBa
EJIeKTPOHHMTe cpe.n;CTBa 3a KOMYHHKaQHH KaTO TeJIe<jJOH, <jJaKC, Te-
JIerpa<p, CJl)')Ke6HO-JIHqHH pa.n;HOCTaHQHH .n;Hec ca nOBceMeCTHO pa3n-
pOC1paHeHH H .n;aBaT B'h3MO)KHOCT .n;a ce nOJIyqH orpOMHa Maca .n;eJIOBa
H HHTHMHa HH<jJopMaQHH 3a H3CJIe.n;BaHHH 06eKT. IIJ.e pa3rJIe.n;aMe no-
no.n;p06HO KaK ce npaBH TOBa, KaTO OCTaBHM HacTPaHa BHe.n;p}.lBaHeTO B
KOMnIOT'hpHHTe Mpe)KH, npOBe)K.n;aHH no TeJIe<pOHHHTe JIHHHH
(T. e. OHOBa, C KoeTO ce 3aHMMaBaT xaKepHTe ... ).
A. npex6aw,aHe Ha paguopa3206opu
Pa.n;HOqeCTOTHOTO o6lQYBaHe CTaBa KaTO npaBHJIO C nOMOlQTa Ha
cneQHaJIHH pa.n;HocTaHQHH H pa.n;HoTeJIe<jJoHM, KOMTO .n;eMcTBaT npe.n;MM-
HO B .n;nana30Ha Ha YJI1paK'hCHTe B'hJIHH (YKB).
TIo.n; pa.n;HoTeJIe<jJoH ce pa36Hpa pa.n;HocTaHQHH, .n;eMcTBalQa 3ae.n;HO
C TeJIe<jJoHHa JIHHHH. TIPH TOBa Ta3H CHCTeMa MO)Ke .n;a 6'b.n;e KaKTO a6-
COJIIDTHO HH,Il;HBH.n;yaJIHa (pa.n;nOY.IJ;'hJI)KHTeJIH), TaKa H rpynoBa (CHrHaJI-
HooxpaHHTeJIHa H npeHOCHMa).
TIpaKTHKaTa Ha pa.n;Hoo6lQYBaHeTO 3aBHCH OT KOHCTPYKQHHTa Ha
anaparypaTa H ce OC'hlQeCTBHBa KaKTO Ha e.n;MHHa, 06lQa qeCTOTa, TaKa
H Ha pa3JIHqHH; KaKTO e.n;HOBpeMeHHO, T. e . .n;ynJIeKCHO, 6e3 npeBKJIlOq-
BaHe Ha "npHeMaHe-npe.n;aBaHe", TaKa H nope.n;HO (T. e. CHMnJIeKCHO, C
npeBKJIlOqBaHe ).
B .n;HelliHa PYCHH e pa3pellieHa JIHqHa pa.n;HOBp'h3Ka B .n;Hana30Ha
27 MHz, MaKap H .n;a ce CpelQaT npOH3Be.n;eHH B qY)K6HHa pa.n;HOCTaH-
QHH, eKCnJIOaTHpalQH .n;Hana30HHTe 49-50 MHz H 140-170 MHz. IIJ.o
ce OTHaCH .n;o pa.n;HoTene<poHHTe, 06HKHoBeHo KJIeThqHaTa Bp'h3Ka CTa-
26 AHATOJIt.1!i1 T APAC
Ba Ha qeCTOTII 300, 800 II 450 MHz, a npeHocIIMaTa - Ha 330 H 350
MHz.
3a ,I.(a OC'bru;eCTBIITe npeXBaru;aHe Ha pa,I.(IIOnperoBopII, Tp5I6Ba ,I.(a
3HaeTe Hoceru;aTa qeCTOTa Ha npe,I.(aBaTeJI5I, no K05ITO ,I.(a HacTpoIITe
anaparypaTa. AKO T5I 06aqe e a6COJIlOTHO HeII3BeCTHa (,I.(OH5IK'b,I.(e OPII-
eHTaI.J;II5I B CJIyqa5I 6IIxa MOrJIII ,I.(a ,I.(a,I.(aT ra6apiiTIITe II KOHCTPYKQII5ITa
Ha II3n0JI3BaHIITe aHTeHII .. ), onIITaihe ca,I.(a II35ICHIITe (IIJIII ,I.(a npoBo-
KIIpaTe ... ) MOMeHT Ha pa,I.(IIoc'b06ru;eHIIe II BHIIMaTeJIHO cKaHIIpaihe
QeJIII5I ,I.(IIana30H C nmpOKOB'bJIHOB pa,I.(IIOnpIIeMHIIK ( cKaHep), 3aCIIqaM-
KII He06xo,I.(IIMaTa BII B'bJIHa no moaHcIITe Ha pa3roBopa IIJIII rJIaca Ha
06ru;YBaru;IITe. I10H5IKOra nO,I.(06HO npeXBaru;aHe MO)l(e ,I.(a CTaHe noc-
pe,I.(CTBOM TeJIeBII3IIOHeH II II3JI'bqBaru; qM-npIIeMHIIK, IIJIII C'bC 3ana,I.(eH
"CeK'bH,I.(-XeH,I.(" pa,I.(IIOTeJIe<poH. YHIIKaJIHII B'b3MO)I(HOCTII 3a nO,I.(CJIYIll-
BaHe lIMa pa,I.(IIOTeJIe<pOH'bT "AJITaM", npOII3Be)l(,I.(aH OT 3aBO,I.(a B 6eJIo-
PYCKII5I rpa,I.( MOJIo,I.(eqHo.
KaTO ce 3Hae, qe npIIeMaHeTO II npe,I.(aBaHeTO MHoro qeCTO CTaBaT
Ha pa3JIIfqHII qeCTOTII, QeJIeC'b06pa3HO e ,I.(a IIMaTe nO,I.(p'bKa ,I.(Ba pa,I.(II-
onpIIeMHIIKa, BceKII OT KOIITO CJIe,I.(II OT,I.(eJIHaTa IIBIIQa Ha ,I.(IIana30Ha,
nO,I.(JIe)l(aru; Ha KOHTPOJI.
I1opa,I.(II TOBa qe pa,I.(IIonpeXBaru;aHeTO He MO)l(e ,I.(a ce 3aCeqe, 3a He-
YTPaJIII3IIpaHe Ha nO,I.(06HO HaMeCBaHe ca pa3pa60TeHII YJIOBKII, KaTO
HanpIIMep KO,I.(IIpaHe Ha pa,I.(IIOCIIrHaJIIITe IIJIII P5I3KO "CKaqaru;a" qeCTO-
Ta. AKO ce C6JI'bCKaTe C nO,I.(06HII XIITPIIHII, no-npOCTO ru;e e, BMeCTO ,I.(a
rii npeO,I.(OJI5IBaTe, ,I.(a npeMIIHeTe K'bM T'bpCeHe Ha ,I.(pyrii n'bTIIru;a 3a
cHa6,I.(5IBaHe C He06xo,I.(IIMaTa IIH<popMaQII5I.
BnpOqeM MO)l(eTe ,I.(a oniiTaTe ,I.(a Ha,I.(XIITPIITe H5IKOII TPIIKoBe. TaKa
HanpIIMep II3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha ,I.(BOMHa MO,I.(yJIaQII5I Ha qeCTOTaTa, KoraTO
IIH<popMaQII5ITa OTHaqaJIO ce MO,I.(yJIIIpa Ha ,I.(OCTa HIICKa (HanpIIMep 90
kHz) qeCTOTa, a nOCJIe oru;e Be,I.(H'b)l( ce MO,I.(YJIIIpa Ha ,I.(OCTa nO-BHCOKa
qeCTOTa (HanpHMep 150 MHz), nopa)l(,I.(a CHfHaJI, KOMTO He MO)l(e,I.(a ce
pa3IllH<PPOBa HHTO OT anapaTa, HaCTPoeH Ha 150 MHz, HHTO OT T03H,
OpHeHTHpaH Ha 90 kHz. I1p06JIeM'bT ce peIllaBa npocTo, KaTO ce 3a-
,I.(eMCTBaT e,I.(HOBpeMeHHo ,I.(Ba anapaTa.
KaTO HaM-H3n0JI3BaHO cpe,I.(CTBO 3a 06IIJ;YBaHe TeJIe<poH'bT npe,I.(Oc-
TaB5I YHIIKaJIHH B'b3MO)I(HOCTII 3a He3a6eJIe)l(IIMO npOHIIKBaHe B JIHqHH5I
H ,I.(eJIOBII5I )I(IIBOT Ha HerOBII5I npIITe)l(aTeJI.
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 27
MoraT ,I.(a ce npOCJIYIllBaT KaKTO BO,I.(eHIITe TeJIe<poHHII pa3roBopn
(npHMOMH 1-3), TaKa H BCIIqKII pa3rOBopH, KOHTO npOTIIqaT B CTa5I
npH 3aTBOpeH TeJIe<pOH (npIIMoMH 4-7). I1pII BTOPII5I CJIyqaM 6H Mor-
JIO ,I.(a ce HaJIO)l(II II3BeCTHO ",I.(oo6pa6oTBaHe" Ha anapaTa (npIIMoMII
6-7), MaKap qe MHoro qeCTO MO)l(e,I.(a ce MIIHe II 6e3 TOBa (npIIMoMII
1-5).
Aoo6pa6oTBaHeTO Ha nepcneKTIIBHII5I TeJIe<poH CTaBa, KaTO ce IIMII-
TIIpa aBapII5I ("IIrpa no JIIIHII5ITa") II nOCJIe,I.(Baru;a o6pa6oTKa no,I.( npIIK-
pIITIIeTO Ha "peMOHT", IIJIII npH HeJIeraJIHO BJIII3aHe B nOMeru;eHIIeTO,
HaMIIparu;o ce no,I.( KOHTPOJI.
Pa3roBopiiTe MoraT ,I.(a ce perIICTPIIpaT KaKTO "Ha CJIYX", TaKa II Ha
3anIIC B'bpXY MarHIITHa JIeHTa, KoraTO 3anIICBaru;II5IT MarHeTO<pOH ce
3a,I.(eMCTBa B MOMeHTa Ha B,I.(IIfaHe Ha CJIYIllaJIKaTa (pearIIpa Ha TOBa, qe
<pIIKCIIpaHOTO Hanpe)l(eHIIe B JIIIHII5ITa ce nOHH)I(aBa OT II3XO,I.(HIITe 60
BOJITa ,I.(O pa60THIITe 5-20 BOJITa), IIJIII CJIe,I.( n05IB5IBaHe Ha 3BYKa OT
rJIaca CIICTeMa VOX, K05ITO ce peaJIII3IIpa B H5IKOII npo-
MIIIllJIeHO II3pa6oTeHH ,I.(IIKTO<pOHII). CaMO,I.(eJIHIITe KOHCTPYKQIIII Ha no-
,I.(06HII YCTPoMcTBa MoraT ,I.(a 6'h,I.(aT II3n'hJIHeHII no cxeMHTe B npIIJIO-
)I(eHIIeTO Ha <pIIf. 14 II 15.
06ru;onpIIeTIITe BapiiaHTII 3a nO,I.(CJIYIllBaHe Ha KOHTPOJIIIpaHII5I Te-
JIe<poH ca CJIe,I.(HIITe:
1. Henocpe,I.(cTBeHo BKJIlOqBaHe B TeJIe<poHHaTa JIIIHII5I:
- HanpaBo B ATIJ" KaTO ce no,I.(KYfiII HeHH C'hTPY,I.(HHK;
- H5IK'h,I.(e no JIIIHII5ITa, Ha npOII3BOJIHO II36paHo M5ICTO Me)l(,I.(Y TeJIe-
<pOHHII5I anapaT II ATIJ,;
2. MH,I.(yKQIIOHHO (T. e. 6e3KoHTaKTHo) BKJIlOqBaHe K'bM TeJIe<p0HHa-
Ta JIHHII5I.
3. I1ocTaB5IHe Ha ,,6p'bM6ap" Ha TeJIe<poHHaTa JIIIHII5I, KaTO TOM ce
BKJIlOqBa:
- B npeK'bCBaHe Ha BepIIraTa;
- napaJIeJIHO Ha BepIIraTa.
4. CJIYIllaHe npe3 3B'hHKOBaTa BepIIra.
5. I10,I.(CJIYIllBaHe B CTa5ITa C II3nOJI3BaHe Ha BIICOKOqeCTOTHa npIIc-
TaBKa.
6. I1ocTaB5IHe Ha ,,6p'hM6ap" B anapaTa, KOMTO ce aKTIIBII3IIpa OT
KO,I.( nOCpe,I.(CTBOM BceKII OT,I.(aJIeqeH TeJIe<p0H. I1PII TOBa KO,I.('hT MO)l(e ,I.(a
6'h,I.(e IIJIII qeCTOTeH (B'hHIlleH 3BYKoreHepaTop ... ) HJIH IIMnYJICIIBeH
(,I.(BYKpaTHo II36IIpaHe Ha HOMepa IIJIII nJIloc oru;e e,I.(Ha QII<ppa ... ).
7. I1ocTaB5IHe Ha ,,6p'bM6ap" B anapaTa, KOMTO BpeMeHHo 6JIOKIIpa
28 AHATOnlll1ll T APAC
nOCTa Ha cnyrnanKaTa npH CnaraHeTO H cne,Il; 06HKHOBeHO Tene<jJOHHO
n03B'bHRBaHe.
,l1,a nO-nO,Il;p06HO BCUqKU nOCOqeHU
npUMepU:
1. HenoCpeOCm8e1l0 8K.!l1Ott8alle KbM mellejOllllama IlUlIWl. TaKoBa
ce npaBH B Tene<jJOHHaTa u;eHTPana FInH Ha BCeKH OT yqac-
ThU;HTe no nHHHRTa OT Tene<jJOHa ,Il;0 u;eHTPanaTa, HaM-qeCTO B pa3npe-
,Il;enHTenHaTa KYTHR B 30HaTa Ha Crpa,Il;aTa, KO,Il;eTO 06HKHOBeHO ce pa3-
KnOHRBa Ka6en'bT. 3a ,Il;a HaMepHTe He06xo,Il;HMHTe BH )KHD;H, BKnfOqeTe
nopTaTHBHaTa cnyrnanKa Tene<jJOH KOM KOMTO H ,Il;a e qH<jJT KOHTaKTH H
KaTO Ha6epeTe HOMepa Ha 06eKTa, onHnaiITe C B'bpXa Ha np'bCTHTe CH, C
HRKaKBa MOHeTa HnH C HeOHOBa naMna H CBeTO,Il;HO,Il;eH np06HHK (<jJHr. 9
B npHnO)KeHHeTo) OT,Il;enHHTe KneMH. TIPH TOBa I.D;e yceTHTe (qpe3 TO-
KOB y,Il;ap, CHnHa HCKpa, RpKO npHCBeTBaHe Ha CBeTO,Il;HO,Il;a) RBHO nOBH-
meHOTO (,Il;0 100 H nOBeqe BOnTa) Hanpe)KeHHe OT n03B'bHRBaHeTO. KaTo
HaMepHTe no T03H HaqHH HCKaHaTa nHHHR, npeXB'bpnRTe OT HeR K'bM
HaM-6nH3KHR nO,Il;CnYlIIBaTeneH nOCT HnH HHCTanHpaH Ha6nH30 MarHe-
TO<jJOH He3a6ene)KHMa )KHqKa, KaTO 3a u;enTa MO)KeTe ,Il;a H3non3BaTe
BHHarH HaMHpaI.D;HTe ce B Ka6ena HeH3non3BaHH
TIopa,Il;H <jJaKTa, qe ATL( npeBKnfOqBa nHHHRTa 3a pa3rOBOp npH
IDyHTHpaHeTO H C'bC C'bnpOTHBneHHe OT nOpR,Il;'bKa Ha 1000 OMa, H3non-
3BaHeTO Ha nO,Il;CnyrnBaTenHa anaparypa C HHCKOOMeH BXO,Il; npe,Il;H3-
BHKBa npeHaToBapBaHe Ha Tene<jJoHHaTa Mpe)Ka H Cna,Il;aHe Ha Hanpe-
)KeHHeTO, npH KoeTO ce YBenHqaBa BepORTHOCTTa ,Il;a 6'b,Il;e OTKPHTO Ba-
meTO BHe,Il;pRBaHe. KaTo ce HMa npe,Il;BH,Il; TOBa, napanenHHRT Tene<jJOH
Cne,Il;Ba ,Il;a ce BKnfOqBa qpe3 C'bnpOTHBneHHe C HOMHHan OT 600 ,Il;0 1000
OMa. 06HKHoBeHHTe ,Il;eMaCKHpaI.D;H npH3HaU;H Ha noma H3n'bnHeHOTO
BKnfOqBaHe ca HaM-qeCTO npaI.D;eHeTO H pe3KHTe npOMeHH B CHnaTa Ha
3BYKa, B'b3HHKBaI.D;H npH pa3roBopa B KOHTPonHpaHHR Tene<jJoH.
2. HlIOYKt{UOll1l0 8KIl1Ott8alle KbM mellejOllllama IlUlIWl. B ,Il;a,Il;eHHR
BapHaHT He ce npH6RrBa ,Il;0 HenOCpe,Il;CTBeH KOHTaKT C Tene<jJOHHaTa
Mpe)Ka, nOpa,Il;H KoeTO BKnfOqBaHeTO ce OTKpHBa ,Il;OCTa TPY,Il;HO. TIPHH-
U;Hll'bT Ha ,Il;eMCTBHe Ha TaKOBa OTKnOHeHHe e Cne,Il;HHRT: npH npeMHHa-
BaHe Ha eneKTPnqeCKH TOK OKono 06HKHOBeHHTe Ka6enH B'b3HHKBa eneK-
TPOMarHHTHO none, KoeTO OTnpaI.D;a HH,Il;YKu;HOHHHR TOK B pa3nOnO)Ke-
HHR Ha6nH30 Ka6en. 3a nonyqaBaHe Ha TaK'bB e<jJeKT e He06xo,Il;HMO e,Il;HH
OT Ka6emITe Ha B'bHmHaTa nHHHR ,Il;a ce HaMOTae Ha MHHHaTfOpHa Ma-
HapbllHUK 3a U CUcypHocm 29
Kapa C MHoro HaMOTKH H <jJepOMarHHTHa C'bpu;eBHHa HnH ,Il;a ce pa3no-
JlO)KH 6nH30,Il;0 nO,Il;06Ha MaKapa B 6pOHHpaHa C'bpu;eBHHa (<jJHr. lOoT
npHnO)KeHHeTO). li3BO,Il;HTe Ha HMnpoBH3HpaHHR TpaHc<jJopMaTOp ce
npHKaqBaT K'bM HHCKOqeCTOTeH YCHnBaTen, ,Il;HKTO<jJOH HnH MHKponpe-
,Il;aBaTen. He,Il;ocTaThK Ha T03H BapHaHT e, qe CHnaTa Ha 3aCnqaHHR CHr-
Han e He3HaqHTenHa H 06HKHOBeHO H3HCKBa ,Il;On'bnHHTenHO YCHnBaHe,
KaKTO H TOBa, qe TaK'bB ,Il;aTqHK HMa RBHaTa CKnOHHOCT ,Il;a pearHpa Ha
CTPaHHqaH eneKTPOMarHHTHH BnHRHHR.
TIPH HanHqwe Ha ,Il;06'bp eneKTPOMarHHTeH ,Il;eTeKTOp nOHRKOra on-
mManHOTO npocnyIDBaHe e B'b3MO)KHO Ha pa3cToRHHe 10-80 CaHTH-
MeTPa OT Tene<jJoHHaTa nHHHR, KaTO BHe CTe B C'bCe,Il;CTBO (B o<jJHca, 3a,Il;
CTeHaTa, ,Il;0 TeJle<jJoHHaTa 6Y,Il;Ka ... ) C KOHTPonHpaHHR anapaT.
3. Paouonpeoa8aU(o 8K.!l1Ott8alle KbM mellejOllllama IlUlIWI. AocTa
qeCTO H3non3BaHeTO Ha ,Il;eMaCKHpaI.D;H OTKnOHeHHR npe,Il;H3BHKBa H3-
BeCTHH 3aTPY,Il;HeHHR H ToraBa HMa CMHC'bn ,Il;a ce H3n0Jl3Ba "pa,Il;H06-
p'bM6ap", KOMTO npeB'b3XO,Il;HO peTPaHcnHpa U;HpKYnHpaI.D;aTa HH<jJOp-
MaU;HR B nO,Il;XOMI.D;O 3a Bac MRCTO. liMa ,Il;Ba HaqHHa 3a TaKOBa BKnfOq-
BaHe, H3BeCTHH KaTO nOCne,Il;OBaTenHO H napanenHO.
B n'bpBHR cnyqaM MHHHaTfOpHHRT npe,Il;aBaTen ce "BKnHHRBa" B npe-
K'bCBaqa Ha nHHHRTa H ce nO,Il;XpaHBa OT HeMHaTa eneKTpoeHeprHR
(<jJHr.1). TOBa n03BOJIRBa Ha BalIIHR ,,6p'bM6ap" ,Il;1) ,Il;eMCTBa HeorpaHH-
qeHO ,Il;'bnro, HO n'bK CTaBa H3BeCTHO nOHH)KaBaHe Ha Hanpe)KeHHeTO B
Mpe)KaTa, nOpa,Il;H KoeTO TOM 6H MOr'bn,Il;a 6'b,Il;e OTKpHT.
B'bB BTOpHR CTaH,Il;apTeH BapHaHT npe,Il;aBaTenRT ce oCHrypRBa C'bC
C06CTBeHO 3axpaHBaHe H ce BKnfOqBa napanenHo.Ha nHHHRTa (<jJHr. 2).
TaKOB 06pa3eu; nO-CnO)KHO ce oTKpHBa (TOKOB y,Il;ap CTaBa caMO B MO-
MeHTa Ha BKnfOqsaHe ... ), HO nepHO,Il;'bT Ha aBTOHOMHaTa MY pa60Ta e
OrpaHnqeH OT MOI.D;HOCTTa Ha H3non3BaHHTe 6aTepHH (KORTO BC'bI.D;HOCT
ce xapqw caMO B nepHO,Il;a Ha 3a,Il;eMCTBaHe Ha Tene<jJOHa).
B KOHCTPYKTHBHO H3n'bnHeHHe BCHqKH Te3H YCTPoMCTBa npe,Il;CTaB-
MBaT CJla60MOI.D;HH, npe,Il;HMHO TPaH3HcToPHH reHepaTopH Ha ynTPa-
K'bCH B'bnHH (27-900 MHz), MO,I1;YnHpaHH OT npoMeHHTe Ha TOKa, B'b3-
HHKBaI.D;H B nHHHRTa npH Tene<jJoHeH pa3roBop. Te ,Il;eMCTBaT Ha qeCTO-
THTe Ha pa,Il;HOpa3np'bCKBaI.D;HR ,Il;Hana30H (66-74 MHz H 88-108 MHz),
KoeTO ,Il;aBa B'b3MO)KHOCT npe,Il;aBaHHRTa HM ,Il;a ce npHeMaT OT 06HKHO-
BeHH YKB pa,Il;HOanapaTH, B pa,Il;Hyc ,Il;eCeTKH-CTOTHU;H MeTPH, MaKap
"Ie B T03H cnyqaM BCnqKO, KoeTO ce npe,Il;aBa, MO)Ke ,Il;a ce cnyma H OT
,Il;pym. HaM-npocTHqKH cxeMH 3a HanpaBa Ha CaMO,Il;enHH pa,Il;H06p'bM-
6apH ca nOKa3aHH B npHnO)KeHHeTO Ha <jJHr. 11 H 12.
no B'b3MO)KHOCT HMa CMHC'bn ,Il;a ce MOHTHpa MHHHaTfOpeH npe,Il;a-
30
AHATOJIvll1t T APAC
BaTeJI HanpaBO B TeJIe<pOHHIDI anapaT, 3a,n:a MO)Ke TOM,n:a JIOBH He caMO
TeJIe<pOHHHTe, HO H BCHqKH pa3rOBopH, npOBe)K,n:aHH B ,n:a,n:eHaTa CTaH.
He e JIOIllO ,n:a ce 3Hae, qe MHor06poMHHTe BH,n:OBe TeJIe<poHH C 6y-
TOHH ca H3TOqHHK Ha napa3HTHH pa,n:HOH3JI1,qBaHHH, TaKa qe pa3rOBO-
pHTe, npOBe)K,n:aHH npHMepHO C H3n0JI3BaHe Ha anapaTa BE<I> TA-12,
MO)Ke ,n:a 6'h,n:e 3aCeqeH Ha qeCTOTa,[(B ,n:Hana30H (OKOJIO 150 kHz) H OT
OT OKOJIO CTOTHHa H nOBeqe MeTpa.
Pa3JIIfqHHTe npe,n:aBaIIUf YCTpOMCTBa 06HKHOBeHO ce pa3n03HaBaT no
npOMeHHTe B Hanpe)KeHHeTO B TeJIe<pOHHaTa JIHHIDI, no OTpa)KeHHeTO Ha
COH,n:HpaIQIDI CHrHaJI OT pa3JIIfqIfHTa B MeCTaTa Ha BHe,n:pHBaHe MJIH C
nOMOIQTa Ha CKaHHpaHe B YKB ,n:Harra30Ha. KaTo HaqIIH 3a rrp0<pMJIaKTH-
Ka ce H3nOJI3Ba no,n:asaHeTo Ha MOIQeH BHCOKOBOJITeH HMITYJIC B H30JIH-
paHaTa TeJIe<pOHHa BepIrra, KOllTO "B3pHBHBa" BCeB'h3MO)KHHTe YCTpOMC-
TBa. 3a e<peKTHBeH MeTO,n: Ha 3aIQHTa e npHeTO ,n:a ce CMHTa H npeBaHTHB-
HOTO nOCTaBHHe Ha YJITPa3BYKOBa MJIH HHCKOqeCTOTHa 6apHepa, HO Te
HeYTpaJIH3HpaT caMO nOCJIe,n:OBaTeJIHHTe npe,n:aBaTeJIH nJIlOC BCIfqKH
OHe3H, KOHTO H3nOJI3BaT KaTO aHTeHa )KHJIOTO Ha JIHHHHTa.
4. Ilo{)cAyut6afle ttpe3 36bllK06ama 6epuza. KoraTo TeJIe<poHHaTa
CJIyrnaJIKa e CJIO)KeHa B'hPXY JIOCTa, eJIeKTpHqeCKH e C'he,n:HHeH
C JIHHHHTa, KOMTO 6HBa eJIeKTPoMarHHTeH HJIH KancYJIeH (nHe30eJIeKT-
pHqeCKH HJIH eJIeKTpO,n:HHaMIfqeH). IT'hPBHHT e BKJIlOqeH B JIHHHHTa npaK-
TWIeCKH npHKo, ,n:OKaTO BTOpIDIT - qpe3 pa,n:HocxeMa. Henocpe,n:cTBe-
HOTO (qpe3 KOH,n:eH3aTop) BKJIlOqBaHe Ha eJIeKTp0MarHHTHlffi
n03BOJIHBa ,n:a ce nOCTHrHe 06paTHMocT HJIH "MHKpo<poHeH e<peKT", T.
e. B'h3HHKBaHe B Hero Ha eJIeKTpIfqeCKH TOK npH pa3JIIfqHH MeXaHHqHH
(B TOBa qHCJIO H OT 3BYKa Ha rJIaca) Ha no,n:BH)KHaTa qaCT Ha
AMnJIHry,n:aTa Ha B'h3HHKBaIQIDI CHrHaJI ,n:OCTIrra IDI-
KOJIKO MHJIHBOJITa, KOHTO ca ,n:OCTaThqHH 3a nO-HaTaThIllHaTa My 06pa-
60TKa, KOHTO BnpOqeM ce npOBe)K,L(a He MHoro ,n:aJIeq OT H3nOJI3BaHIDI
anapaT (<pIrr. 3).
He,n:ocTaThK'hT Ha MeTo,n:a e B TOBa, qe nOCTHrHaTHHT e<peKT MHoro
npocTo MO)Ke ,n:a 6'h,n:e HeYTPaJIH3HpaH, aKO ce BKJIlOqaT nOCJIe,n:OBaTeJI-
HO C'hC (a npaKTHqeCKH Ha Bxo,n:a Ha TeJIe<poHa) qH<pT KpeMHH-
eBH ,n:HO,n:H, CB'hp3aHH napaJIeJIHO Kp'hCTOCaHO, KOHTO HMaT TB'hp,n:e ro-
JIHMO C'hnpOTHBJIeHHe 3a He3HaqHTeJIHH Hanpe)KeHIDI. Cxo,n:Ha 3aIQHTa
nOHHKora ce H3nOJI3Ba B OT,n:eJIHH Ha npOMHIllJIeHO npOH3Be)K-
,n:aHaTa anaparypa.
5. IlO{)CAYUl6afle 6 cmaH C U3nOA36alle lIa 6UCOKOtteCmOn11la nOMna.
TOBa e oIQe e,n:HH OpHrHHaJIeH BapHaHT, KOMTO n03BOJIHBa ,n:a ce no,n:c-
JIYIllBa BCHqKO, KoeTO CTaBa B CTaHTa npH 3aTBOpeH TeJIe<poH. AKo ,n:eMc-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
31
TBaTe no ,n:a,n:eHaTa MeTo,n:HKa, TpH6Ba ,n:a BKJIlOqHTe K'hM e,n:HH OT Ka6e-
JIHTe Ha JIHHHHTa IDIKaKBa 06IQa Maca HJIH OTOl1JIH-
TeJIHa Tp'h6a, MeTaJIHH <pparMeHTH OT B'hTpeWHOTO O<popMJIeHHe HJIH
MeTaJIHa qaCT OT OCHOBaTa Ha crpa,n:aTa), perYJIHpyeMa OT B'hTpeWHO-
To(50,n:o 300 kHz) BHCOKOqeCTOTeH reHepaTop H KaTO B'hpTHTe KOrrqe-
TO Ha HaCTpOMKaTa, OpHeHTHpaMKH ce no HMrryJICHTe Ha TOKa, YJIaBHTe
ToqKaTa Ha pe30HaHca MY C TeJIe<pOHa. HaMepeHaTa no TaK'hB HaqIfH
qeCTOTa e pa60THaTa. MaKap qe CnyWaJIKaTa KaTO qe JIH e H3KJIlOqeHa
OT anapaTa, B'hHIllHHTe BHCOKOqeCTOTHH KOJIe6aHHH qpe3 BCHKaKBH KOH-
CTpYKTHBHH eJIeMeHTH npOHHKBaT B cxeMaTa MY H aKTHBHO Mo,n:yJIH-
paT MHKPO<p
OHa
, KOMTO pearHpa Ha B CTMTa. I13n'hJIHeHHHT C
HH<popMaQHH CHrHaJI Qpe3 napaJIeJIHIDI Ka6eJI Ha JIHHHHTa CTHra,n:o CTaH-
,n:apTHHH aMl1JIHry,n:eH ,n:eTeKTOp, CJIe,n: KoeTO ce YCHJIBa H ce no,n:asa K'hM
nOCTa 3a no,n:cnyIllBaHe HJIH K'hM 3anHCBaIQOTO YCTpOMCTBO Ha ,n:HKTO-
<p
OH
(<p
Irr
. 4). 3a HOpMaJIHaTa pa60Ta Ha onHcaHOTO YCTpOMCTBO TpH6-
Ba TO ,n:a 6'h,n:e BKJIlOqeHO B'h3MO)KHO nO-6JIIBO (B pa,n:Hyc OT OKOJIO ,n:e-
ceTHHa MeTpa...) ,n:o KOHTpOJIHpaHIDI anapaT, a He06xo,n:HMHTe C'he,n:H-
HeHHH ,n:a ce npaBHT caMO C eKpaHHpaH npOBo,n:HHK, KaTO no TaK'hB Ha-
QHH ce H36HrBa He)KeJIaTeJIHaTa
ITo no,n:06eH HaqHH ce H33eMBa H OT 6HTOBa anapary-
pa (pa,n:HOTOqKH, eJIeKTPIfqeCKH npOTHBOnO)KapHa CHrHa-
.. ), npH HaJIIfqHeTO Ha Ka6eJIeH H3BO,n: OT nOMeIQeHHeTO.
ITopa,n:H TOBa qe onHcaHaTa no-rope CHCTeMa BC'hIQHOCT e naCHBHa,
TPY,n:HO ce OTKpHBa H3B'hH MOMeHTa Ha H3nOJI3BaHeTO ll, HO n'hK He e
TOJIKOBa CJIO)KHO TH ,n:a 6'h,n:e eJIHMHHHpaHa, KaTO napaJIeJIHO Ha MHKpO-
<pOHa ce BKJIlOqH C'hOTBeTCTBaIQ (0,01-0,05 MK<I KOH,n:eH3aTop, KOMTO
HaK'hCO C'he,n:HHHBa BCeB'h3MO)KHH BHCOKOqeCTOTHH KOJIe6aHIDI.
6. ,,pbM6ap" C KO{)060 6KA10tt6alle npe3 6ceKU meAeifjOll. B ynpoc-
TeH BapHaHT B cxeMaTa Ha TeJIe<poHHIDI anapaT ce BKapBa MaJIKO pe30-
HaHCHO peJIe, BHHMaTeJIHO HacTpoeHo Ha orrpe,n:eJIeHa qeCTOTa. KaTO
H36HpaTe HOMepa Ha a60HaTa OT BceKH ,n:pyr TeJIe<poH, ,n:06JIH)KaBaTe
,n:o CBOHTa cnywaJIKa nopTaTHBeH 3BYKOH3JI'hqBaTeJI (6Hnep), qHMTO TOH
C'hOTBeTcTBa Ha qeCTOTaTa Ha 3a,n:eMCTBaHe Ha peJIeTO, TaKa qe TO TOq-
HO rn;e ce npeBKJIlOqIf, npe,n:H ,n:a ce nOHBH KOMTO Be,n:Hara IQe
6b,n:e H3KJIlOqeH OT JIHHHHTa, a CJIywaJIKaTa IQe 6'h,n:e B,n:HrHaTa 3a Pa3-
rOBOp (<pHr. 5).
Ta3H cxeMa HMa HHKOJIKO paBHHIQa Ha ThHKOCT: OT KJIaCIfqeCKOTO
YCJIO)J(HHBaHe Ha nYCKOBHH KO,n: (KoeTo 06HKHoBeHo 3aTpy,n:IDIBa HaMH-
paHeTo) ,n:o H3n0JI3BaHeTO Ha YCHJIBaTeJI H MHKPO<p
OH
(3a
3HaqHTeJIHO nOBHwaBaHe Ha KaqeCTBOTO Ha 3BYKa). CJIe,n:Ba,n:a ce oT6e-
!-III ------ II1II----------
32 AHATOJU1li1 T APAC Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUZypHOCm 33
JIe)l(M, qe rrOIDIKOra TeJIe<pOH'bT ycmlBa ,D;a 3B'bHHe, rrpe,D;M ,D;a ce rrpeBK-
JIlOqM pe30HaHCHOTO peJIe, M TaKOBa JIeKO rr03B'bmlBaHe e HaMeK 3a YM-
HIDI rrpMTe)l(aTeJI Ha TeJIe<pOHa, qe Bep05lTHO ro rrO,D;CJIYlIlBaT. }J;orr'bJI-
HMTeJIeH CMrHaJI 3a C'bIll;OTO e M KOraTO pa60THaTa JIMHM5I rrpO,D;'bJI)I(M-
TeJIHO ,D;aBa 3aeTO B rrepMO,D;M, rrpe3 KOMTO rro rrpMHQMrr 6M TP5I6BaJIO ,D;a
e CB060,D;Ha.
I1orrYJI5IpHM5IT BapMaHT C BKJIlOqBaHeTO Ha ,D;Orr'bJIHMTeJIeH MMKpO-
<pOH 3a rrO,D;cnylIlBaHe Ha rrOMeIll;eHMeTO qpe3 rrapaJIeJIHO M36MpaHe Ha
HOMepa M3MCKBa 3a,D;eHCTBaHeTO Ha rrO-CJIO)l(Ha, HO Harr'bJIHO OC'bIll;eCT-
BMMa rrpM He06xo,D;MMOCT arraparypa.
7. "SpbM6ap " C 61lOKUP081W lIa IlOcma lIa cllYUlallKama clleO Kpam-
K08peMe1l1l0mO it 80UZa1le 3a omZ080p lIa 06UK1I08e1l0 n038b1lJl8alle.
}J;a,D;eHOTO rrpMcrroc06JIeHMe, KoeTO ce MOHmpa B TeJIe<poHa, oCMryp5l-
Ba pa6oTeIll; MMKPO<pOH Ha JIMHM5ITa, CJIe,D; KaTO CTOrraHMH'bT e rrpOBeJI
pa3roBopa M e CJIO)l(MJI CJIYIlIaJIKaTa Ha JIOCTa. I1PM TOBa cnyIlIaJIKaTa
He ce M3KJIlOqBa ,D;O MOMeHTa, ,D;OKaTO M CJIYIlIaIll;IDIT Ha rrpOTMBorro-
JIO)l(HM5I KpaH Ha JIMHM5ITa He CJIO)l(M CB05ITa CJIyIIIaJIKa. OT ATl{ Ill;e
TP'brHaT cBoeo6pa3HM CMrHaJIM 3a OT6oH, KOMTO ce 3aCMqaT OT MOHTM-
paHaTa B KOHTPOJIMpaHIDI arrapaT pa,D;MOCXeMa, K05lTO B Kpa51 Ha KpaM-
Ill;aTa Bp'bIll;a TeJIe<pOHa B M3XO,D;HOTO MY rrOJIO)l(eHMe. He,D;OCTaT'bK'bT Ha
T03M MeTO,D; e, qe TOH MO)l(e ,D;a 6'b,D;e OTKpMT C'bBCeM CJIyqaHHo OT Bce-
KM, KOHTO rr03B'bHM Ha C'bIll;M5I HOMep, KaKTO M rro ,,3ara,D;'bqHaTa" 3ae-
TOCT Ha JIMHIDITa 3a BCJIqKM OCTaHaJIM a60HaTM.
6. nOl\Y4asaHe Ha l!1H<popMau,l!151
4pe3 npOCl\eA5ISaHe
I1pM aKTMBHaTa pa3pa60TKa Ha M3yqaBaHM5I 06eKT e HeB'b3MO)l(HO ,D;a
ce MMHe 6e3 TaHHO Ha6JIIO,D;eHMe Ha JIMqHM5I M ,D;eJIOBM5I My )l(MBOT, Koe-
TO ce OC'bIll;eCTB5IBa HaH-qeCTO C BM3yaJIHM (CJIe,D;eHe) M aKYCTMqHM (rro,D;-
CJIYIlIBaHe) MeTO,D;M. I1pOCJIeMBaHeTO ce rrpaBM KaKTO errM30,D;MqHO (c
QeJI M351CH5IBaHe Ha orrpe,D;eJIeH <paKT), TaKa M rrOCT05lHHO (3a opMeHTa-
QM5I B TeKYIll;aTa cMryaQM5I M peaJIHMTe iI rrpOMeHM).
A. Ha6t'\logeHue Ha cmau,uoHapeH 06eKm
Ha6JIIO,D;eHMeTO Ha cTaQMoHapeH 06eKT - H5IKaKBO rroMeIll;eHMe, crpa-
,D;a, OTKpMTa rrJIOIll;a,D;Ka - ce M3rrOJI3Ba:
- 3a ,D;a ce M351CH5IT rroCeTMTeJIMTe;
- 3a ,D;a ce HaMepM T'bpCeHM5IT qOBeK;
- ",D;a ce pa3pa60TM" C'bIll;M5IT 06eKT 3a rrpOBe)l(,D;aHe Ha KOHKpeTHa
aKQM5I.
I1peQM3HOTO KOHTPOJIMpaHe Ha rrOCeTMTeJIMTe TP5I6Ba ,!l;a ce OC'bIll;eC-
TB5IBa OT ,D;o6pe rrO,!l;6paHo M5ICTO, OT KoeTO rrpeB'b3XO,!l;HO ce Ha6JIIO,!l;a-
BaT BCJIqKM B'b3MO)l(HM rrO,!l;XO,D;M K'bM 06eKTa M K'b,!l;eTO rrpO,!l;'bJI)I(MTeJI-
HOTO rrpe6MBaBaHe Ha Herr03HaTO JIMQe He 6M MOrJIO ,!l;a rrpe,!l;M3BMKa
He)l(eJIaTeJIHM rrO,!l;03peHM5I (Maca B HacpeIll;HOTO Ka<peHe, crrMpKa Ha
rpa,D;CKIDI TPaHcrropT, MMMTMpaHe Ha pa60TeH MJIM T'bprOBCKM rrYHKT ... ),
a rrOIDIKora M M3Q51JIO He3a6eJIe)l(MMO (TaBaH, rrOKpMB MJIM )l(MJIMIll;e B
rro,!l;XOMIll;a KoorrepaQIDI ... ). AKo TaHHOTO HaCTaH5IBaHe Ha ,!l;a,!l;eHO M5ICTO
e CB'bp3aHO C orrpe,!l;eJIeHM TPY,!l;HOCm, TP5I6Ba rrO-qeCTO ,!l;a ce CMeH5IT
xopaTa, ,!l;a ce rrpM651rBa ,!l;0 CJIe,!l;eHe OT KOJIa MJIM ,!l;a ce MMMTMpa aBapIDI
C He51 M rrOCJIe,!l;BaIll; peMoHT.
KoraTo CTe B pa,60THOTO rroMeIll;eHMe, rrycHeTe JIeKM rrep,!l;eTa Ha
rrp030PQMTe M rJIe,!l;aHTe OT ,!l;'bJI60qJIHaTa Ha CTa5ITa, a 3a,!l;a He ce M3,D;a-
,!l;eTe C pe3KMTe ,!l;eMaCKMpaIll;M ,,3aHqeTa" OT OI1TMKaTa, M3rrOJI3BaHTe TaKa
HapeqeHMTe "CBeTJIMHHM ryHeJIM".
B CJIyqaH Ha Heo6xo,!l;MMOCT MO)l(eTe ,D;a <pMKcMpaTe rrOCeTMTeJIMTe C
rrOMOIll;Ta Ha <pOTO- M BM,D;eOCHMMKM, KaTO He3a6eJIe)l(MMOCTTa Ha TaKM-
Ba ,D;eHCTBM5I ce oCMryp5lBa OT M3rr0JI3BaHeTO Ha rropTaTMBHa arrapary-
pa, ,D;'bJIro<pOKYCHM 06eKTMBM M pa3JIJIqHM (B TOBa qMCJIO MMrrpoBM3Mpa-
HM) rrpMcTaBKM 3a cTPaHMqeH 0630p (<pMr. 6).
I1PM <poTorpa<pMpaHe B 3,D;paq ce M3rr0JI3BaT MH<ppaxpOMaTMqHM
MaTepMaJIM 3ae,!l;HO C'bC CBeTKaBMQa C qepeH CBeTO<pMJIT'bP MJIM rr'bK
pa3JIMqHM MeTO,!l;MKM 3a P5l3KO rrOBMIlIaBaHe Ha CBeTOqYBCTBMTeJIHOCTTa
Ha 06MKHOBeHMTe JIeHm ,!l;0 He06xo,D;MMMTe 2000-4000 e,!l;MHMQM rro
,!l;'bp)l(aBHM5I CTaH,D;apT.
3a QeJITa MoraT ,!l;a ce M3rr0JI3BaT CJIe,D;HMTe HaqMHM:
- rrpoMMBaHe Ha JIeHTaTa C'bC cry,!l;eHa BO,D;a rrpe,D;M eKcrrOHMpaHeTO
(qyBCTBMTeJIHOCTTa ce rrOBMIlIaBa 2 rr'bTM);
- rrpoMMBaHe Ha JIeHTaTa B cJIa6 aMOH}1qeH pa3TBop (rroBMIlIaBaHe
Ha \{yscTBMTeJIHOCTTa 3 rr'bTM);
- JIeKO OCBeT5IBaHe Ha Beqe 3aCHeTaTa JIeHTa rrocpe,D;CTBOM rrpeHa-
MOTaBaHeTO iI B'bB <poToarrapaTa rrpM OTKpMT 3aTBop B rrOJIYT'bMHa CTa5I
(rroBMIlIaBaHe Ha qYBCTBMTeJIHOCTTa 5-6 rr'bm);
- ,!l;OCTa rOJI5IMO YBeJIMqaBaHe (,!l;0 10-13 MMHym) Ha BpeMeTo 3a
np05lB51BaHe B'bB <peHM,!l;OH-XM,!l;POXMMOHOB rrp05lBMTeJI) (rroBMIlIaBaHe 4-
6 IT'bTM);
34
AHATOnVlIii T APAC
- H3rr0J13BaHe Ha npOHBHTeJI - 6e3BO)J.eH HaTPHeB CYJI-
<PHT (100 r), XH)J.POXHHOH (5 r), 60paKC (3 r), 60pEi:a KHCeJIHHa (3.5 r),
KaJIHeB 6pOMH)J. (1 rp), <peMH)J.OH (0,2 r), BO)J.a ()J.o 1 JI), KOMTO n03BOJIH-
Ba )J.a ce perYJIHpa CTeneHTa Ha rrOBHllIaBaHe Ha qYBcTBHTeJIHOCTTa Ha
JIeHTaTa B C'bOTBeTCTBHe C BpeMeTo Ha npoHBHBaHe ()J.o 10-15 n'bTH
npH 20-30 MHH).
npH pa3pa60TBaHeTo Ha 06eKT 3a KOHKpeTHa
ce H3HCHHBaT:
- Il'bTHru;a, BO)J.eI.IJ;H K'bM Hero;
- nepCneKTHBHH n'bTHru;a 3a H3M'bKBaHe H KpHeHe;
- )J.HeBHHHT pe)l(HM Ha 06HTaTeJIHTe H C'bCe)J.HTe;
- rpa<pHK'bT Ha )J,BH)I(eHHe Ha MHHaBaru;HH Ha6JIH30 TPaHcnopT;
- BpeMeHHHTe MOMeHTH Ha 3BYKOBO npHKpHTHe (IIIYM Ha MHHaBaru;
BJIaK HJIH yqHJIHru;eH KaM6aHeH 3B'bH ... );
- CHCTeMaTa 3a oxpaHa;
- B'bTPeIIIHaTa nJIaHHpOBKa Ha 06eKTa.
B'bTPeIIIHaTa nJIaHHpOBKa Ha 06eKTa C )J.OCTaThqua TOqHOCT ce on-
pe)J.emI:
- KaTO npOCTO ce Ha)J.HHKHe npe3
- npOHHKBaMKH B nOMeru;eHHeTO HJIH Ha )l(eJIaHaTa IIJIoru;a)J,Ka, Mac-
KHpaHH KaTO 06HKHOBeH nOCeTHTeJI, qOBeK OT 06CJIY)I(Baru;HH nepco-
HaJI, H3BHKaH 3a peMOHT MaMCTOp HJIH BceKH )J.pyr nepCOHa)l(, KOMTO He
6H rrpHBJIHK'bJI BHHMaHHe;
- OpHeHTHpaMKH ce no CXO)J.HH 06eKTH C )J.OCThneH BXO)J.;
- rro )J.yMHTe Ha 3HaeI.IJ;H xopa (06HTaTeJIH, CTpOHTeJIH, 06CJIY)I(Baru;
rrepCOHaJI, KOHTaKTbOpH .. );
- rro pa60THH qepTe)l(H OT apXHBHTe (OT 6IOPOTO rro TeXHHqeCKa
HJIH OT apXHTeKTypHO-CTPOHTeJIHOTO yrrpaBJIeHHe Ha
06I.IJ;HHaTa ... ) .
5. Ct1egeHe Ha omget1eH lfoBeK
CJIe)J.eHe Ha xopa ec KOHKpeTHa
- )J.eTaMJIHOTO HM pa3pa60TBaHe rropa)J.H npe)J.nOJIaraeMO Bep6YBa-
He, IIIaHTa)I(, pa306JIHqaBaHe HJIH JIHKBH)J.HpaHe;
- nOJIyqaBaHe Ha )J.OCThn )J.O ThpCeHO KoeTO Bep05ITHO KOH-
TaKTYBa (HJIH 6H MOrJIO)J.a KOHTaKTYBa) C 06eKTa;
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 35
- H3HCHHBaHe Ha MHCTOTO, K'b)J.eTO ce c'b6Hpa TbpCeHaTa rpyrrHpOBKa;
- 3aCHqaHe Ha Ha 06eKTa.
lJoBeK'bT, Komo OC'bru;eCTBHBa Ha6JIIO)J.eHHeTO, no j3'b3MO)l(HOCT TPH6-
Ba )J.a HMa C HHru;O HenpHBJIHqaru;a B'bHIIIHOCT, BeJIHKOJIenHa naMeT,
orrTHMaJIHa H3)J.P'b)l(JIHBOCT, )l(eJIH3HO ThpneHHe, MHrHOBeHa
3peHHe, CJIyx, HpKO H3pa3eHO YMeHHe )J.a HMnpo-
BH3Hpa H )J.a ce OpHeHTHpa B
KaTo ce HMa npe)J.BH)J., qe nepHO)J.HqHaTa rrOHBa Ha e)J.HH H C'bru;H
MO)l(e )J.a yC'bMHH 06eKTa, TPH6Ba )J.a ce pa3Ho06pa3HBaT cpe)J.CT-
BaTa Ha MaCKHpOBKa - <pHKTHBHH OqHJIa, HKeTa C )J.Be
cr'bBaeMH qaHTH H Top6HqKH, npOMeHHI.IJ;H ce IIIarrKH - H OT BpeMe Ha
BpeMe )J.a ce CMeHHT.
B rr'bpBOKJIaCHOTO Ha6JIIO)J.eHHe KaTO npaBHJIO yqacTBaT OT 3 )J.O 8
)J.yIIIH H HHKOJIKO KOJIH. B'bB BCHKa OT KOJIHTe eKHII'bT e 06HKHoBeHo OT
3-Ma )J.yIIIH, B TOBa quCJIO nOHe e)J.Ha )l(eHa. AreHTYpaTa CH 06ru;YBa
nOMe)l()J.y CH nocpe)J.CTBOM Pa)J.HOBp'b3Ka (KoeTo rrOHHKora e TPY)J.HO rrpe)J.
xopa, rrocpe)J.CTBOM TeJIeyrrpaBJIeHHe Ha JIOKaJIHH eJIeKTPH-
qeCKH y)J.apH H, pa36Hpa ce, rrocpe)J.CTBOM YTOBopeH npe)J,BapHTeJIHO
BH3YaJIeH KO)J..
BCHqKH Ha H3n0J13BaHHH npH CJIe)J.eHeTO KO)J. TPH6Ba )J.a H3r-
JIe)I()J.aT eCTeCTBeHH )l(eCTOBe H e)J.HH OT a<pHIIIHpaHHTe BapHaHTH H3r-
JIe)l()J.a rrpHMepHO TaKa:
- ,,06eKT'bT CTOH" - ca CKp'bCTeHH Ha r'bp6a;
- ,,06eKT'bT ce 06'bpHa HaMBO" - JIHBaTa p'bKa ce onHpa Ha JIHBOTO
6e)J.po;
- ,,06eKThT ce 06'bpHa HaMcHo" - )J.HcHaTa p'bKa ce orrHpa Ha )J.HC-
HOTO 6e)J.po;
- ,,06eKThT rrpeCHqa - nOJIy06p'bru;aHe HacTPaHH, KaTO
e)J.HaTa p'bKa ce Cr'bBa Ha r'bp)J.HTe;
- ,,06eKT'bT ce 06'bpHa H B'bpBH B 06paTHa rrocoKa" - e)J.HaTa p'bKa ce
B)J.Hra K'bM r JIaBaTa;
- ,,06eKThT ce H3nJI'b3Ha OT KOHTPOJI" - )J.BeTe ce B)J.HraT K'bM
fJIaBaTa;
- "TPH6Ba )J.a Me CMeHHTe" - BTPeHqBaHe B qaCOBHHKa H
Ha yqy)J.BaHe.
rrOrr'bJ13HOBeHHH Ha 06eKTa H KOHTaKTHTe My (HOMepaTa Ha
KOJIHTe, MapIIIpYThT, pa3IlHcaHHeTo Ha BJIaKOBeTe ... ) ce )J.HKTYBaT no
B'b3MO)I(HOCT Ha )J.)I(06eH )J.HKTO<pOH, a cJIe)J. npHKJIIOqsaHe Ha Ha6JIIO)J.e-
aHeTO TOqHO ce <pHKCHpaT Ha xapTHH.
36 AHATOm1lii T APAC
qOBeK'bT, KOMTO H3B'bpIIIBa CJIe));eHeTO, ));a YMee ));a 3aCHqa
06eKTa CH B ThJInaTa OT xopa H KaTO ce opHeHTHpa no C'b6paHaTa ));OTO-
raBa npeKpaCHO ));a 3Hae rap));ep06a MY, nOXO));KaTa, npe));-
nOqHTaHHTe MapIIlpyTH, MeCTaTa Ha npe6HBaBaHe (BHJIa, PO));HHHH,
n03HaTH ... ); pe)KHM Ha qeCTHTe KOHTaKTbopH, Map-
KHTe, u;BeTOBeTe H HOMepaTa Ha H3nOJI3BaHHTe KOJIH ...
CJIe));eHeTO Ha BH qOBeK ));a ce npe)J;I1pHeMa
C onpe));eJIeHa 3a));aqa, 3aII.J;OTO 06II.J;aTa ));HpeKTHBa 3a Ha6JIIO));eHHe BH-
HarH e nO-HenpO));YKTHBHa, OTKOJIKOTO KOHKpeTHaTa. MeTO,r(bT Ha BH-
KOHTPOJI 3aBHCH C'bII.J;eCTBeHO KaKTO OT BaIIlHTe c06CTBeHH
B'b3MO)KHOCTH H u;eJIH, TaKa H OT C'bn'bTCTBaII.J;HTe B TOBa qJ1C-
JIO H OT CTeneHTa Ha yceT (pacpHHHpaHOCT) Ha 06eKTa.
TIPH CJIe));eHe Ha neIIleXO));eu; ce H3nOJI3BaT CPOPMH Ha Ha6JIIO));eHHe
KaTO:
1. "Bepuca ". CaMO e));HH qOBeK CJIe));Ba 06eKTa, OCTaHaJIHTe ca Ha-
pe));eHH B'bB BepHra CJIe)); Hero, npH TOBa BceKH CJIe));BaII.J; ce opHeHTHpa
no KOHTaKThT Me)K)J;y 3BeHaTa ce no pa));H-
HJIH no BH3YaJIeH KO));, a Me)K)J;y 3aBHCH
OT KOHKpeTHHTe B'bHIIlHH (Ha no-nyCTH YJIHU;H TO e no-
Ha nO-MHOrOJIIO));HHTe - nO-MaJIKO ... ). TIPH CJIyqaMHo pa3n03-
HaBaHe Ha areHT TOM Be));Hara OTCThIIBa CH Ha BTO-
H KaTO ce H3M'bKBa OT BH3yaJIeH KOHTaKT, H3nOJI3Ba cpe));cTBa 3a
JIHqHa MacKHpoBKa.
2. "j{aouHa aepuca ". BapHaHT ce H3nOJI3Ba Ha MHoro-
JIIO));HH yJIHU;H H ce xapaKTepH3Hpa C TOBa, qe Ha6JIIO));aBaII.J;HTe
OT ));BeTe CTPaHH Ha rJIaBHOTO Tpace, KaTO OT BpeMe Ha BpeMe npeMH-
HaBaT OT e));HaTa CTPaHa Ha ));pyraTa. MoraT ));a ce )J;BH)KaT no
ycnOpe));HH YJIHU;H, 06eKTa CH Ha Kp'bCTOn'bTHII.J;aTa H
nOM'bp)KaMKH Bp'b3Ka C areHT no
3. "C U3npeaapaaHe ". TIpeCJIe));BaqHTe nepHO));HqHO H3npeBapBaT
KJIHeHT, KOMTO no TaK'bB HaqHH ce OKa3Ba Me)K)J;y
KoeTO npe));eJIHO nJI'bTeH, a CJIe));OBaTeJIHO H no-ecpeKTHBeH
KOHTPOJI.
4." C alUlJOIfaaHe ". Ha6JIIO));aBar:u;uTe 3aeMaT (KaTO npaBHJIO ce npex-
OT e));Ha KOJIa B ));pyra) MeCTa no rrpe));nOJIaraeMHH
n'bT Ha 06eKTa H aKTHBHO ce BKJIlOqBaT B CJIe));eHeTO B pa3JIuqHH TOqKH
Ha )J;BH)KeHHeTO My. rOBa e nepCneKTHBeH HaqHH TaM, K'b));eTO e MHoro
Tpy,n;HO ));a He ce npHBJIeqe qY)K,n;o BHHMaHHe.
5. "MpeJICa ". B MOMeHTH Ha HeOqaKBaHa 3ary6a Ha
06eKTa OKOJIeH paMOH ce 06XBaII.J;a KaTO B cBHBaII.J; ce 06p'bq,
b
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm 37
J(oMTO cJIe)); HaMHpaHe Ha 3aBeTHaTa u;eJI OTHOBO ce B n'bpBOHa-
qaJIHaTa CTaH));apTHa BepHra.
6. "JIAbnmo CbC 3acmpaXoaafte ". B MeCTaTa, K'b));eTO HMa MaKCH-
MaJIHa Ha xopa (rapH, Mara3HHH, MeTPOTO ... ) MO)Ke ));a
He ce nJI'bTHOTO ));06JIH)KaBaHe ));0 06eKTa, KoeTO 06HKHOBeHO
ce npaBH OT e));HH-,n;BaMa Ha6JIIO));aTeJIH B MOMeHT, KoraTO OCTaHaJIHTe
ca HaB'bH H naCHBHO KOHTPOJIHpaT HaJIHqHHTe Bxo,n;OBe H H3XO));H. B T03H
CJIyqaM, BnpOqeM KaKTO H BHHarH, He ce npenOp'bqBa ));a ce cpeII.J;a nor-
JIe,IJ;'bT Ha
7. "EoHoKpamHo C npamKa ". qOBeK'bT OT rpyrraTa 3a CJIe));eHe BJIH-
3a 3ae,n;HO C 06eKTa B KacpeHe, Kp'bqMuqKa H peCTOpaHT, HaCTaIDIBa ce
He,n;aneq OT Hero H 06HKHOBeHO, 6e3 ));a 3aB'bp3Ba HHKaKBH pa3rOBopH,
HarrYCKa 3aBe,n;eHHeTO 3ae));HO C Hero. CJIe)); H3JIH3aHeTO KJIHeHThT "ce
npe,n;aBa" Ha ));pyrH areHTH, a KOHTaKTbOp no B'b3MO)K-
HOCT ce CHeMa OT nO-HaTaThIIlHO Ha6JIIO));eHHe.
ce CJIyqBa qOBeK ));a np06Ba ));a ce "npOBe-
pH", KaTO ce CTPeMH ));a BH));H OKOJIO ce6e CH ce
JIHu;a HJIH ));a OTKpHe cTPaHHOCTH B nOBe));eHHeTO Ha OT));eJIHH
xopa HaOKOJIO. HacpeII.J;HoTo ce C npHBJIH-
qaHe Ha ));pyr HH,D;HBH)]; HJIH KaTO ce H3nOJI3BaT OKOJI-
HUTe nOB'bpXHOCTH (BUTPHHH Ha Mara3HHH ... ), Ha6JIIO));eHHe OT Crpa));H
(OT np030peu;a Ha anapTaMeHT HJIH OT CThJI6HII.J;HaTa nJIOII.J;a));Ka ... ) H
npocTO qpe3 060cHoBaHo 3aB'bpTaHe Ha rJIaBaTa (pa3rJIe)K));aHe Ha CTO-
KH Ha Ha 3ary6BaHe Ha IDIKaK'bB npe));MeT ... ). He-
06HKHoBeHoTo B nOBe));eHHeTO Ha ));a));eH qOBeK ce
Ba C pe3KH ,,3Hr3a3H" Ha ));BHJKeHHeTO (HeOqaKBaHa Ha TeMno-
TO H nOCOKaTa, HanYCKaHe Ha KHHOTO B HaqanOTO Ha ... ),
npH KoeTO ce CJIe));H Ha OKOJIHHTe.
CJIe,n;eHeTO Ha )J;BH)KeII.J; ce aBTOM06HJ1 BC'b:r.u;HOCT rrpOC-
Ha neIIleXO));eu;. 06HKHOBeHO ce H3nOJI3BaT KOJIH,
Pa3JIuqHH no H OT He6HeII.J;a Ha 0qJ1 MapKa, qaCT OT KOHTO ce )J;BH)KaT
no ycnOpe)J;HH YJIHu;H H ce BKJIlOqBa B pa60THaTa C nOMOII.J;Ta
Ha pa,D;HOBp'b3Ka. ,,):(a Ce));HIIl Ha onaIIlKaTa" Ha ompe)); 06eKT
e ,n;onYCTHMO caMO B npO,r(bJIJKeHHe Ha CTOTHu;H, HaH-MHoro - ));0 ,n;Be
MeTPa, CJIe)); KoeTO HenpeMeHHO KOJIaTa ce H K'bM CJIe));e-
HeTO ce BKJIlOqBa CJIe)J;BaII.J;aTa. 3a ));a ce H36erHaT ));Oca));HHTe H3HeHa));H,
OTJIuqHO ));a ce BCuqKH TeXHuqeCKH B'b3MO)KHOCTH (6'bp3H-
Ha Ha Ha6HpaHe Ha CKOPOCT, pa));Hyc Ha 3aBoM ... ), ll'bTHHTe oc06eHOCTH
Ha panOHa, CTeneHTa Ha MaMCTOpCTBO H HaBHu;HTe Ha IIlocpbopa.
KoraTo onHTeH 06eKT e HaII.J;peK HJIH ce OT HeII.J;O, TOH MO)Ke
~ - - - - - - ........ - - - - ~ .. ----..............
38
AHATOnvllii T APAC
,n;a ce OnHTa ,n;a ce H3MbKHe OT OqaKBaHHH KOHTPOJI, H3nOJI3BaHt<H llIa6-
JIOHHH MeTO,n;H, KOHTO HaH-qeCTO ce OCHOBaBaT Ha: npOMHHa Ha PHTh-
Ma, nOCOKaTa H THna Ha ,n;BIDKeHHe; Cb3,n;aBaHe Ha onpe,n;eJIeHH 6apHepH
cJIe,n; ce6e CH; npHCnHBaHe Ha 6,n;HTeJIHOCTTa Ha CbnpOBO)I(,L(arnHTe fO ...
MHoro qeCTO B TaKHBa CJIyqaH ce npHJIafaT CJIe,n;HHTe TPHKoBe:
1. ilpo,n;bJDKHTeJIHO MOTaeHe B MHOrOJIIO,n;HH MeCTa (MeTPO, na3a-
pH, rapH .. ).
2. fhnoJI3BaHe Ha Bxo,n;OBe, )KlfJIHllIa HJIH ,n;BOpOBe C ,n;Ba H3xo,n;a H
BCHqKH npOqHe "qepHH" xo,n;OBe.
3. qecTa CMma Ha TPaHCnOpTa.
4. ilpeKaqBaHe B MeTPoTo OT e,n;Ha JIHHHH Ha ,n;pyra.
5. IhnoJI3BaHe Ha JIa6HpHHTHH MapllIpyrn.
6. I'13HeHa,n;Barno YCKopHBaHe Ha KpaqKaTa CJIe,n; 3aBOH Ha bfbJI C
HaMepeHHe ,n;a ce npH,n;BH)KHTe MHOfO no-,n;aJIeq OT OqaKBaHOTO npH
06HKHoBeHa CKOPOCT Ha ,n;BIDKeHHe.
7. CKaqaHe OT nbryBarn TPaHcnopT, ,n;OKaTO 3a KpaTKO e H3nycHaT
OT OKOTO Ha KOHTPOJIbOpa.
8. HeOqaKBaHO npeMHHaBaHe Ha qepBeHa CBeTJIHHa HJIH no,n; cnyc-
HaTa 6apHepa.
9. Cb3,n;aBaHe Ha BneqaTJIeHHe y cbnpOBO)I(,L(arnHTe 3a ,n;BIDKeHHe B
,n;06pe H3BeCTHa 3a THX nOCOKa H HeOqaKBaHO HanycKaHe Ha npe,n;noJIa-
raeMHH MaprnpYT.
10. KaqBaHe H CJIH3aHe B 06rneCTBeHHH TPaHcnopT B MOMeHTa Ha
3aTBapHHe Ha BpaTHTe.
11. I13MeHeHHe Ha BbHllIHHH BH,n; H noxo,n;KaTa B KpaTKHTe MOMeHTH
Ha 060cHoBaHo H3qe3BaHe OT BH3YaJIHHH KOHTPOJI (B TOaJIeTHa, B HHKOH
BXO,n;, npH npHHTeJIH . ).
12. 5IBHa arpecHBHocT no OTHOllIeHHe Ha Ha6JIIO,n;aBarnHTe C nepc-
neKTHBa 3a npe,n;H3BHKBaHe Ha CKaH,lJ;aJI.
I1PH BHe3anHOTO H3qe3BaHe Ha 06eKTa 3a npe,n;nOqHTaHe e ,n;a He ce
nyTaTe He06MHCJIeHO HanOCOKH, a KaTO H3qaKaTe MaJIKO, BHHMaTeJIHO
,n;a npOKOHTPOJIHpaTe BCHqKH MeCTa Ha Bb3MO)KHaTa My nOHBa.
B. TaUHO nogCl,ywBaHe Ha pa3zoBopu u npezoBopu
qY)K,n;HTe pa3rOBopH MoraT ,n;a ce no,n;CJIYllIBaT HJIH Henocpe,n;CT-
BeHO, KoraTO CTe He,n;aJIeq OT pa3fOBapHIIJ;HTe, HJIH KaTO H3nOJI3BaTe
TeXHHqeCKH cpe,n;CTBa H ce HaMHpaTe Ha npHJIHqHO pa3CTOHHHe OT
06eKTHTe.
b
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHocm 39
AKO HHTepeCYBaIIJ;HHT BH pa3rOBOp CTaBa Ha OTKpHTO, ce H3nOJI3BaT
eJIe,n;m1Te Bb3MO)KHOCTH:
1. ABoHKa 6e3JIHqHH "llIJIHeIIJ;H ce" C nepHo,n;Hqsa pOTaIJ;HH HeHaT-
pant{lfBO 06HKaJIH OKOJIO pa3fOBapHIIJ;HTe, CHKallI ce 3aHHMaBa CbC CBOH
eM pa60TH, HO HKCHpa qy)K,n;HTe ,n;YMH Ha CJIYX, C pa,n;HOMHKpOOH, a
rIOHHKora H C nopTaTHBeH ,n;HKTOOH. ilbJIHHHT pa3rOBOp B TaKHBa cny-
qaH ce nOJIyqaBa OT 3anHCHTe Ha HHKOJIKO yqacTHHIJ;H B aKIJ;HHTa.
2. I-l3noJI3BaHe Ha oCTPoHaCOqeHH - napa60JIHqsIf (Hr. 7) HJIH op-
raHHH (Hr. 8) MHKpOOHH. Te3H YCTPoHCTBa MO)KeTe ,n;a HanpaBHTe
MHoro npOCTO H caMH (KaTo npHMepHo ce CBHe ,n;bJIra - OKOJIO 2 Me'rpa
_ TPb6a OT "Ka,n;HeHa" XapTHH H B oTBopa C ,n;HaMeThp 10-15 CM ce
nOCTaBH ,n;OCTaThqHO qyBCTBHTeJIeH MHKpOOH ... ). TOBa H306peTeHHe
me BH nOMorHe ,n;a no,n;CJIyllIBaTe pa3foBopH OT pa3cToHHHe ,n;o 150
MeTPa. 3a,n;a ce nOBHllIH ",n;bJIr060HHocTTa", B cxeMaTa Ha CJIe,n;BarnHH
YCHJIBaTeJI MOfaT ,n;a ce H3nOJI3BaT T. Hap. CeJIeKTHBHH HJITPH, HJIH
Ka3aHO no-npOCTO - 6HTOBH eKBaJIaH3epH (MHOrOnOJIIOCHH perYJIaTO-
pH Ha TeM6bpa), KOHTO aKTHBHO OT,n;eJIHT TeCHHTe HBHIJ;H Ha qeCTOTH-
Te. He,n;OCTaThKbT Ha T03H MeTO,n; e, qe TPH6Ba ,n;a ce HaMepH nOTaHHa H
y,n;06Ha TOqKa, B KOHTO 6H MOrJIa ,n;a ce HaMeCTH ,n;OCTa CneIJ;HIfqHaTa
H ra6apHTHa anaparypa.
3. 060pY,n;BaHe Ha npe,n;nOJIaraeMOTo MHCTO Ha pa3roBopa C pa,n;Ho-
no,n;cnyrnBaTeJIHH YCTPOHCTBa HJIH nOpTaTHBeH ,n;HKTOOH.
4. ilpHBJIHqaHe Ha TPeHHpaHH H ynpaBJIHBaHH no pa,n;HOTO (HJIH C
YJITPa3BYKoBH CHrHaJIH) )KHBOTHH, npe,n;HMHO ~ e T a , CbC 3aKpeneHH
no THX MHKponpe,n;aBaTeJIH.
5. qeTeHe Ha TeKCTa no MHMHKaTa Ha YCTHHTe. T03H BapHaHT ce
H3nOJI3Ba caMO npH HaJIHqHeTO Ha He06xo,lJ;HMaTa onTHKa, no,n;xo,n;H-
rno pa3nOJIO)KeHHe Ha IJ;eJIeBHTe 06eKTH H, pa36Hpa ce, Ha qOBeK, KOH-
TO ,n;a BJIa,n;ee MaHCTopCTBOTO Ha rJIYXOHeMHTe. Pa3llIHPOBaHeTO
CTaBa KaTO npaBHJIO HJIH npHKO HJIH no npe,n;BapHTeJIHO HanpaBeH BH-
,n;e03anHC.
3a no,n;CJIyrnBaHe Ha pa3rOBopHTe Ha ny6JIHqHO MHCTO - B KaeHe,
peCTopaHT, Ka3HHO, TeaThp .. - ca eeKTHBHH CJIe,n;HHTe HaqIfHH:
1. ilpHMHTHBHO no,n;CJIYllIBaHe, KoraTO CTe 6JIH30 ,n;o pa3rOBapHIIJ;H-
Te (Ha HaH-6JIH3KaTa Maca, 3a,n; napaBaH, np030peIJ;, CTeHa ... ). 3a no-
,n;06pHBaHe Ha Bb3npHHTHeTo Ha peqra B TaKHBa YCJIOBHH ce npenOPbq-
Ba npe,n;H no,n;06Ha aKIJ;HH,n;a B3eMeTe Ta6JIeTKa (0,2 r) 6ap6aMHJI.
2. I13noJI3BaHe Ha OCTPOHaCOqeH MHKPOOH, CKpHT B no,n;xo,n;Hrn 3a
06JIHKa BH H cHryaIJ;HHTa 6acryH HJIH qa,n;bP.
40
AHATOJH11it T APAC
3. TaHHo B paHoHa Ha pa3roBopa Ha
TeJI.
4. IIpe.n;BapIITeJIHO Ha WIKaKBO MHCTO C Ka6eJIHlI MIIK-
PO<pOHII IIJIII C 6e3IlIYMeH a C
TeJIHII YCTpoHcTBa, KaTO ce rrOrpIDKlITe pa3rOBOp'hT .n;a
CTaHe IIMeHHO TaM, BII Tp5l6Ba.
5. IIplIBJIIlqaHe Ha )KIIBOTHII C'hC 3aKperreHlI rro THX
plIo
6. qeTeHe Ha TeKCTa rro MIIMIIKaTa Ha YCTHIITe, rrplI YCJIOBlIe qe CTe
ce pa3rrOJIO)KIIJIII BlI3YaJIHO 6JIlI3KO pa3rOBap5ll.QlITe.
7. Ha KeJIHeplI IIJIII Ha 06CJIY)KBalQ rrepCOHaJI, KOHTO
MO)Ke <pparMeHTII OT pa3roBopa, oClIryplI
HaCTaH5IBaHeTO Ha 06eKTlITe Ha crreQlIaJIHO rrOWOTBeHO IIJIII 3a
M51CTO, CJIO)K1I ...
KoraTO Tp5l6Ba ce pa36epe Ha H5IKaK'hB pa3roBop
B 3aTBopeHo rrOMelQeHlIe, QeJIeC'h06pa3Ho e ce 060py.n;Ba 1I3rrOJI3Ba-
HaTa CTM C'hC crreQlIaJIHa arraparypa (BaplIaHTII 1-4), MaKap II qeCTO
H51Ma OT TOBa (BaplIaHTII 5-8). 06lQorrplIeTlI II
Ta e<peKTIIBHII rrplI TOBa ca:
vi. Cmal1uOl-tapHu MUKpOifjoHU. TaKIIBa MIIKPO<pOHII ce MacKlIpaT B
HalI-HeOqaKBaHII MeCTa Ha KOHTpOJIlIpaHOTO rrpocTpaHCTBo II ce CB'hP-
3BaT C MHoro T'hHKII )KnqKII C'hC Ha6JIlI30 rryHKT 3a rrpOC-
JIYIlIBaHe. OTJIlIqHII MeCTa 3a MoraT rrJIOC-
KOCTIITe Ha MaclI, IlIKa<poBe II rrOJIIIQII 3a KHlIrlI C 3aJIerreHlI Ha
T5IX rrlIe30KplICTaJIII. MHoro T'hHKIITe )KlIqKII ce rrpoKapBaT Tarre-
TIITe IIJIII B rrepBa3lITe Ha II 06lIKHoBeHo 1I3JIlI3aT OT CTaHTa 3a-
e.n;HO C TeJIe<pOHHaTa IIJIII JIIIHlI5I. >lBeH
TaT'hK B cJIyqa51 e ce BJIe3e B Ha-
6eJI5I3aHOTO rrOMelQeHlIe II ce pa60TlI - H5IKOJIKO
qaca, MaKap qe orrepaQIIH MO)Ke ce OC'hlQecTBII II rrplIK-
plITlIeTo Ha peMoHT B )KIIJIlIlQeTO.
2. PaiJuo6p'bM6apu. TOBa ca B Ha YKB,
KOIITO MoraT CTaQlIoHapHlI IIJIII CTaQIIOHapHlITe
Mo.n;eJIlI ce 3axpaHBaT OT eJIeKTpnqeCKaTa Mpe)Ka II 06lIKHoBeHo ce rroc-
TaBHT B JIaMrrIIOHII, TeJIeB1I30plI, eJIeKTplIqeCKII KOHTaKTII, rrOJIIIJIelI II
.n;pyrlI eJIeMeHTlI OT 06CTaHOBKaTa. 06-
pa3QII ce rrOCTaB5IT rrplI TaHHO IIJIII JIeraJIHO rrOCelQeHlIe Ha u;eJIeBoTo'
rrOMelQeHlIe (OT rrOCeTlITeJIII, OT OT rrOMaraqlI, OT BCeB'h3-
MO)KHII KOHTpOJIHlI IIJIII peMOHTHII CJIy)K61I ... ) B HaH-cKplIIIIHlITe MeCTa
KHlIrlI, B TarrlIQeplI5lTa Ha Me6eJIlITe ... ) II
HapbLiHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U cUcypHocm 41
ce MaCKlIpaT B'hB Ha XIIMIIKaJIKII, KlI6plITeHlI KYTIIII, II
,npyrlI C'hBCeM 06lIKHoBeHlI BelQlI. MoraT ce rrO)J,Hac5IT KaTO CYBeHlIplI
(MHKpOKaJIKYJIaTOpH, 3arraJIKH ... ), .n;a ce 06pa3QlI
(Kauu;eJIapCKII ... ), a rroWIKora ce rrpe3
nOJIYOTBopeHoTo MaJIKO rrp030pqe.
fJIaBeH Ha rrOBeqeTO OT KOHCTpYKQIIII e orpa-
HHqeHH5IT - .n;o HeKOJIKOCTOTIIH qaca - Ha aBTOHOMHaTa lIM pa-
60ra, B qaCTHOCT 3aBlICelQ OT 1I3JI'hqBaHaTa B rrpOCTpaHCTBOTO MOlQ-
HOCT (OT qaCTH.n;o CTOTHQH MeraBaTa ... ) H KarraQIITeTa Ha H3rrOJI3BaHII-
re 6aTepHH. CaMHTe pa3rOBopH ce YJIaBHT Ha pa3CTOHHHe OT 5 30
Merpa, ,nOKaTO pa.n;nyC'hT Ha Ha HH<popMaQlI5lTa e OT
KH .n;o CTOTlIQH MerplI, rrpH TOBa 3a YBeJIHqaBaHe Ha pa3cToHHHeTo ce
rrpHJIaraT rrpOMe)K)J;ynqHH peTpaHCJIaTOplI, a rrOHHKora 6p'hM6apHTe
ce rrOCTaB5IT B'hPXY MeTaJIHH - Tp'h6H,
aropH, 6HTOBH eJIeKTpHqeCKH rrplI60pH - KOHTO cny)KaT KaTO ,norr'hJIHH-
reJIHa rrpe,naBaTeJIHa aHTeHa.
<l>HpMeHHTe pa60T5IT Ha HaH-pa3JIHqHH qeCTOTH,
or .n;eceTKH MHz, HO 3a qy)K)J;ecTpaHHHTe 06pa3QH HaH-xa-
paKTepHH ca 20-25 MHz, 130-174 MHz, 400-512 MHz ...
nOBHIlIaBaHeTo Ha pa60THaTa qeCTOTa YBeJInqaBa Ha
TBHe B 6eTOHOBHTe HO 3a TaKHBa CJIyqaH ce H3HCKBaT crreQIIaJI-
HH HJIH rrpe06pa3YBalQH YCTpOHcTBa (KoHBepToplI)
K'hM 6HTOBHTe YKB 3acTpaxoBaHKH ce OT CJIyqaHHo
OTKpHBaHe Ha arraparypaTa, rrpo<pecHOHaJIlICTHTe rrOH51KOra H3rrOJI3BaT
XBaTKH KaTO: He06lIKHoBeHo pa3TerJI5lHe Ha crreKT'hpa Ha
CHrHaJI, rrapaJIeJIHa MO.D;yJIaQlI5I Ha HocelQaTa qeCTOTa, HaMaJI5lBaHe Ha
H3xO)J,HaTa MOI.QHOCT C rrOMOl.QTa Ha rrpOMe)K)J;ynqeH peTpaHCJIaTOp,
CKoKo06pa3HlI H3MeHeHlI5I Ha HOCelQaTa qeCTOTa ...
MHoro e<peKTHBeH H rrpocT HaqHH 3a cHryPHocT e pa60TaTa B
0.n;Harra30Ha (66-74 MHz HJIH 88-108 MHz) B 6JIH-
30CT B'hJIHaTa Ha MOlQHa B TaK'hB CJIyqaH pa.n;HorrpH-
eMHlIQIITe C aBTOMaTlIqHa HacTpoHKa Ha qeCTOTaTa (AHq) 06HKHoBe-
HO He pearHpaT Ha CJIa6H5I CHrHaJI CHJIHH5I, a B rrpHeMHHKa Ha
rro.n;CJIYIlIBalQH5I ce H3KJIlOqBa CHCTeMaTa AHq, 3a .n;a ce oClIrypH 3Ha-
lfHTeJIHO H30cTp5lHe Ha H36HpaTeJIHOCrra Ha rrpHeMaHeTo.
Tp5l6Ba ce HMa qe aKO OrrHTHlI5IT 06eKT HaMepH pa.n;lIo-
6P'hM6apa, B'h3MO)KHO e rro KaHaJIa Tp'hrHe IIJIII,
aKO 06eKT'hT rrpeQeHH HerOJI5IMaTa My CTHfHe
3arrnCBalQaTa arraparypa H HarrpaBH TaM B OqaKBaHe
B3eTa KaceTaTa HJIH 3aM5IHaTa II C HOBa. AKO JIH rr'hK BMeCTO MarHeTO-
.. ----------.. .. ------... --------
42
AHATOJU111 T APAC
CPOH ce HaMepH peTpaHCnaTOp, nOH5IKOra ,lJ;0 Hero ce HHCTanHpa reHe-
paTOp 3a pa,lJ;H03arnYIIlaBaHe, 'IIDITO MO.w;HOCT nOCTeneHHO ce YBenH-
'IaBa, KaTO nOpmK,lJ;a Y nO,lJ;cnYI..llila.w;H5I Bne'IaTneHHe 3a "H3,lJ;HIIlaHe" Ha
6aTepHHTe HnH H5IKaKBH HeH3npaBHOCTH B npH60pa. Pa3quTa ce Ha TOBa,
'Ie MO)l(e 6H CTOnaHHTe Ha anaparypaTa .w;e ce 51B5IT, 3a ,lJ;a OTCTpaH51T
nOBpe,n;aTa.
Pa,JJ;HoycTpoikTBa MO)l(eTe ,n;a CH HanpaBHTe H caMH, KaTO
HanpHMep ce OpHeHTHpaTe no npaKTHqeCKHTe cxeMH, npe,JJ;nO)l(eHH B
npHnO)l(eHHeTO Ha cpHr. 13.
3. Mpe:>IC08U npeOa8ameJlu. Te ,lJ;eHcTBaT B HHCKO'IeCTOTHH5I B'bn-
HOB ,lJ;Hana30H (5-3000 kHz), MOHTHpaT ce B eneKTponpH60pH, a KaTO
nHHH5I 3a aKTHBHa Bp'b3Ka ce H3non3BaT )l(HIWTe Ha TOKa. IIpe,lJ;aBaHH5IT
CHrHan MO)l(e ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e ynoBeH OT BceKH C'bCe,lJ;eH KOHTaKT, HO caMO ,lJ;0
CMOBH5I TpaHccpopMaTOp, KOHTO cTa6HnHO 6nOKHpa npe,lJ;aBaHeTO no-
HaTaT'bK.
4. TeJleifjoflflu 6p'bM6apu. Te3H MOHTHpaHH B TenecpoHa YCTpoHCTBa
ca npe,lJ;Ha3Ha'IeHH ,lJ;a npe,lJ;aBaT pa3roBopHTe, KOHTO ce BO,lJ;5lT B CTa5I
npH 3aTBopeHa cnyIIlanKa 'Ipe3 TenecpoHHaTa nHHH5I. Be'Ie cnOMeHax-
Me KaK ce npaBH TOBa, a ,lJ;OCTa npOCTO e ,lJ;a ce HeYTpanH3HpaT 6p'bM6a-
pHTe: Tp5l6Ba ,lJ;a ce H3Ba,JJ;H .w;enCen'bT Ha TenecpOHa OT KOHTaKTa. Bnpo-
'IeM He 6HBa ,lJ;a ce 3a6paB5I, 'Ie B'bB BceKH TeJIecpOH MO)l(e ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e MOH-
THpaH pa,lJ;H06p'bM6ap, ,lJ;eHCTBa.w; He3aBHCHMO OT TeJIecpOHHaTa JIHHH5I.
5. IlYC1<.afle 8 oeucm8ue fla MUKPOifjOflU. BCuqKH BKJIlO'IBalll;H ce KOM
YCHJIBaTeJI51 MHKpOCPOHH MoraT ,lJ;a HMaT HaH-pa3Ho06pa3Ha KOHCTpYK-
U;H5I, C'bOTBeTCTBa.w;a Ha "aKyCTHqeCKHTe .n;ynKH", KOHTO CTe HaMepHJIH
B HHTepeCYBa.w;OTO BH nOMe.w;eHHe. IIpHMepHo ,lJ;HHaMuqHaTa KanCYJIa
MO)l(e ,lJ;a ce cnycHe npe3 BeHTHJIaU;HOHHaTa Tp'b6a OT nOKpHBa, a nJIOC-
KH5IT KpHCTanuqeCKH MHKpOCPOH - ,lJ;a ce npOMYIIIH no,lJ; BpaTaTa. AKO
H5IMa nO,lJ;06HH npOJIym, 06'bpHeTe BHHMaHHe Ha KOHTaKTHTe, KOHTO B
CTaHTe, HaMHpalll;H ce e,lJ;Ha ,lJ;0 ,lJ;pyra, nOH5IKOra ca ,lJ;BOHKa. KaTO CBa-
JIHTe 3alll;HTHaTa KyTH51 Ha e,lJ;HHH5I KOHTaKT, nOJIyqaBaTe ,lJ;OCT'bn ,lJ;0
,lJ;pyrH5I, a npe3 Hero H K'bM C'bCe,lJ;HOTO nOMe.w;eHHe. IIoH5IKora HMa
CMHC'bJI ,lJ;a HanpaBHTe B CTeHaTa MHoro ManKa (1,5-3 MM) .n;yflqHu;a B
He3a6eJIe)l(HMO 3a qy)l(,lJ;OTO OKO (H5IK'b,lJ;e B 'br'bJIa HJIH Ha BHCO'IHHaTa
Ha nepBa3HTe Ha nO,lJ;a ... ) M51CTO MH ,lJ;a H3n0JI3BaTe KJIJO'IaJIKaTa. 3a
TaKHBa pacpHHHpaHH BapHaHTH c'b.w;eCTByBa T'bHKoTp'b6eH HJIH MHKpO-
CPOH "Hrna", K'bM KOHTO 3ByK'bT H,lJ;Ba no ,lJ;OCTa T'bHKa C ,lJ;'bJI-
)l(HHa OKOJIO TpH,lJ;eCeTHHa caHTHMeTpa. He e CnO)l(HO ,lJ;a HanpaBHTe H
caMH TaKOB MHKpOCPOH (cpHr. 17 B npHJIO)l(eHHeTo), KaTO HMaTe npe,lJ;-
BH,lJ;, 'Ie aKO e TB'bp,lJ;a, ce rronyqaBa nO-,lJ;06'bp 3BYK, HO n'bK
,
b
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 43
f'bBKamtTa MO)l(e ,n;a ce n'bxa B'bB BC5IKaKBH 'brJIH HJIH ,lJ;a ce rrpoKapBa
npe3 KJIJO'IaJIKa.
6. KOflmaKmefl MUKpoifjOH. KaTo nO,lJ;06HO YCTPOHCTBO rrpeB'b3XO,lJ;-
lIO pa60TH HaH-06HI<HOBeH Me,lJ;HU;HHCKH CTeTOCKon, rrO,lJ;CHJIeH, 3a ,lJ;a
ce yseJIH'IH MY, C rrO,lJ;XO,lJ;5l.w;a MHKpocpoJIa Kancy-
JIa, K05lTO e CB'bp3aHa KOM 'IYBCTBHTeJIeH YCHJIBaTeJI (B npOCTHTe CJIy-
'IaH, pa36Hpa ce, MO)l(eTe ,lJ;a MHHeTe caMO C'bC CTeTOCKorra, 6e3 KaKBa-
TO H ,n;a 6HJIO eJIeKTpOHHKa).
MHoro Ka'IeCTBeHH KOHTaKTHH ,lJ;aT'IHU;H ce nonyqaBaT OT nHe30Ke-
paMuqHH r JIaBH OT rpaMocpOHH HJIH OT CTaH,lJ;apTHHTe nHe30H3JI'b'IBaTe-
JIH lIa eJIeKTpuqeCKHTe 'IaCOBHHIW, 3BYKOH3,lJ;aBalll;HTe Hrpa'IKH, cyBe-
HHpH H TeJIecpOHH. IIoHe)l(e ,lJ;a,lJ;eHHTe YCTpOHCTBa 3acuqaT MHKpOKOJIe-
6aHIDITa.Ha KOHTaKTHHTe nperpa,lJ;H, H3HCKBa ce MHoro BHHMaTeJIHO,lJ;a
ce H36Hpa M5ICTOTO Ha rrpHJIaraHeTO HM, KoeTO 3aBHCH OT KOHCTpYK-
THBHHTe oc06eHOCTH (IJ;5IJIa, Kyxa .. ) Ha KOHKpeTHaTa CTeHa. B H5IKOH
CJIy<IaH HMa CMHC'bJI 3,lJ;paBO ,lJ;a ce 3anenH nHe30eJIeMeHT'bT K'bM ,lJ;OC-
T'bIIHaTa CTpaHa Ha CTeHaTa HJIH KOM B'bHIIlHOTO CT'bKJIO (B Kpa51 MY ... )
.u;OpH Ha BTopaTa paMKa. IIpeB'b3xO,lJ;eH aKyCTHqeH CHrHan nOH5IKOra
MO)l(e ,lJ;a ce nOCTHrHe OT Bo.u;onpOBO,lJ;HHTe Tp'b6H H pa,lJ;HaTOpHTe Ha
naplloTo.
7. HMnpo8u3upaHu pe30Hamopu. H 6e3 crreU;HanHa arrapaTYPa 'Iec-
TO MO)l(e ,n;a cenO,lJ;CJIYIIIBaT pa3rOBopH B C'bCe,lJ;HO nOMe.w;eHHe, KaTO ce
H3nOJI3Ba cnyqaHHo OKa3ana ce nO,lJ;p'bKa 'IaIIla 3a BHHO (HJIH 3a PaKH5I),
K05ITO IIJI'bTHO ce npHTHCKa C OTBopa ,lJ;0 CTeHaTa, a ,lJ;'bHOTO (Kpa5lT Ha
CTOJItJeTO) - nJI'bTHO .u;o YXOTO. 3BYK'bT B T03H CJIyqaH MHoro 3aBHCH OT
C'bCT05IHHeTO H CTpYK1YpaTa Ha CTeHaTa, KaKTO H OT KOHcpHrypaU;H5ITa
Ha npH60pa, n'bK H OT MaTepHana (HaH-,lJ;06'bp e KpHCTaJI'bT), OT KOHTO e
HanpaBeH.
8. TeJleifjoHu C aKmu8upaHe Om8'bH. 3a pa3JIHKa OT nOCTaB5IHeTO Ha
TeJIecpoHHHTe 6p'bM6apH, KOHTO ce MOHTHpaT B KOHTpOJIHpaHH5I ana-
paT, B T03H CJIyqaH ,lJ;OpH He ce ,lJ;OKOCBaTe ,lJ;0 TeJIecpOHa. HHcpopMaU;H5I-
Ta ce CHeMa OT TeJIecpOHHaTa JIHHH5I npH 3aTBopeHa cnyIIlaJIKa, KaTO
MMKpOCPOH'bT iI ce aKTHBHpa B'bHIIlHO C BHCOKO'IeCTOTHH KOJIe6aHH5I, a
nOH51Kora H qpe3 YJIaB5IHe Ha MHKPOTOKOBeTe, KOHTO ce n05IB5IBaT B eneK-
TpoMarHHTHH5I3B'bHeu; rrpH HaH-JIeKOTO C'bTpeceHHe Ha nO,lJ;BH)I(HHTe My
qaCTH (cpHr. 3 H 4). Tp5l6Ba,lJ;a oT6eJIe)l(HM, 'Ie no rrO,lJ;06eH Ha'IHH MO-
raT ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;aT YJIOBeHH nOJIe3HHTe MHKpoeJIeKTpuqeCKH TOKOBe He caMO
OT TeJIecpOHHH5I, HO H OT 3B'bHeu;a Ha anapTaMeHTa.
Hape,lJ; c nOCO'IeHHTe rro-rope, HMa H ,lJ;pyrH BapHaHTH Ha rro.u;CJIYIII-
BaHe, npH KOHTO ce H3rrOJI3Ba HarrpHMep H3rrpaTeH C .u;ane'IeH H3CTpen
44 AHATOJH11i1 T APAC
"pa,n;HorraTPOH", MO,n;YJIaU;IDI Ha JIa3epeH JI'bq, OT MHKpOBH6paU;HHTe Ha
CThKJIOTO Ha rrp030peu;a, YJIaBHHe Ha CTPaHHqHH eJIeK1'pOMarHHTHH H3-
JI'bqBaHHH OT 6HTOBa pa.n;HOarraparypa, 6e3KOHTaKTHO aKTHBHpaHe Ha
rraCHBHH MHKPOB'bJIHOBH H3JI'bqBaTeJIH ... BrrpOqeM BCHqKH Te3H MeTO-
,n;H ca rrpO<peCHOHaJIHO CJIO)I(HH H He ce rrperrOp'bqBaT 3a HMrrpOBH3Hpa-
HO H3rrOJI3BaHe.
r. lI/3nO!l3BaHe Ha OIyxoBe
CJIYXOBeTe MoraT ,n;a ce orrpe,n;eJIHT KaTO O<pHIl;HaJIHO HerrOTB'bp)K,lJ;a-
BaHH rro Me)l(,n;YJIHqHOCTHHTe XOPH30HTaJI-
HH KaHaJIH. MHoro OT THX KaTO rrpaBHJIO ca rrpaB,n;orro,n;06HH, a He PH,n;-
KO H ,n;OCTOBepHH, rrpH TOBa ce rrpe.n;aBaT H pa3rrpOCTPaHHBaT .n;OpH OT
xopa, KOHTO He HM BHpBaT.
OTHOllIeHHeTO K'bM BCHKaKBH CJIYXOBe TPH6Ba ,n;a e Kpail:Ho BHHMa-
TeJIHO, 6e3 HHKora .n;a ce 3a6paBH, qe xopaTa ce CTPeMHT ,n;a rrpe,n;CTaBHT
rrpe,n;rrOJIaraeMOTO 3a ,n;eil:CTBHTeJIHO, KaKTO H TOBa, qe HMa BepOHTHOCT
HHKOil: u;eJIeBO ,n;a pa3rrpOCTPaHHBa ,n;e3HH<popMaU;IDI.
IIpH rrpOBe)l(,n;aHe Ha aKTHBHa Hrpa BHHMaTeJIHO rro,n;6paHH CJIYXOBe
qeCTO ce rrYCKaT 3a:
- OrrTHMaJIHO pa3rrpOCTPaHeHHe Ha HCTHHa;
- C'b3,n;aBaHe Ha orrpe,n;eJIeHO MHeHHe 3a C'b6HTHe, cHryaIl;IDl HJIH qO-
BeK;
- rro,n;rOTOBKa Ha OKOJIHHTe (rrocpe,n;CTBOM rrpHThIlHBaHe Ha peaKIl;H-
HTa HM) K'bM Ha6eJIH3aHO ,n;eil:cTBHe;
- 3a06HKaJIHHe Ha 0<pHU;HaJIHaTa u;eH3ypa;
- H3HCHHBaHe Ha OTHOllIeHHeTO Ha xopaTa K'bM HH-
<popMaIl;HH;
- rrpe,n;H3BHKBaHe Ha pa3MHpHU;H, cTPax H HeYBepeHOCT.
Hail:-06HKHOBeHHHT CJIYX ce "pa3TBapH" 3a .n;Be
ce.n;MHU;H, MaKap ,n;eil:cTBHeTO My ,n;a rrpo,n;'bJI)l(aBa H rrO-HaTaThK.
qOBeK rrperrpe,n;aBa ,n;OqyTHTe CJIYXOBe rropa,n;H )l(eJIaHHeTO CH .n;a
ce rrOXBaJIH, 3aTOBa Te MoraT .n;a ce qYHT HaBCHK'b.n;e H OT BceKHro.
MHoro aKTHBHH B TOBa OTHOllIeHHe ca xopa C Hail:-
06llIHPHH COU;HaJIHH H ,n;eJIOBH KOHTaKTH.
He ca He06xo,n;HMH oc06eHH YCHJIHH, 3a ,n;a ce qYHT CJIY-
XOBeTe; rrpOCTO TPH6Ba ,n;a ce HaB'bpTaTe B cpe,n;a H .n;a BO-
,n;HTe HerrpHHY,n;eHH pa3rOBopH, KaTO Me)l(.1l:Y ,n;PyroTo 3aCHraTe pa3pa-
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U
45
60TBaHaTa TeMaTHKa H OT BpeMe Ha BpeMe H3Ka3BaTe JIeKO C'bMHeHHe
no rrOBO,n; qYTOTO.
7. npt1HLJ,vtnt1 3a OLJ,eHKa t1 aHal\t13
Ha t1HcpopMaLJ,t151Ta
TIonyqeHHTe rro pa3Ho06pa3HH HaqIfHH ,n;aHHlf CTaHaT rrOJIe3Hlf
e.n;Ba CJIe,n; KaTO 6'b,n;aT rro,n;JIO)l(eHlf Ha He06xo,n;lfMlfH aHaJIlf3 If rrpe,n;eJI-
HO TOqHO ThJIKYBaHe. IIplfqIfHaTa 3a MHoro .n;eJIOBlf Heycrrexlf e He B
lfrHoplfpaHeTO Ha lfH<pOpMaI.J;lfHTa, a B rrorpellIHlfH if aHaJIlf3.
KaTO rrpaBlfJIO CBe.n;eHIDlTa ce ou;eHHBaT rro .n;OCTOBepHOCT, 3Haqlf-
MOCT, C'brJIaCYBaHOCT, ITbJIHOTa, B'b3MO)l(HOCT 3a lf3rrOJI3BaHe.
A. AocmoBepHocm U CUzypHocm Ha MamepUaIlume
BCHKa OTB'hH lfH<popMaIl;IDl ce xapaKTeplf3lfpa C orrpe,n;eJIe-
Ha CTerreH Ha .n;OCTOBepHOCT, B qaCTHOCT OT CTerreHTa Ha Ha-
,n;e)l(.1l:HOCT Ha lf3TOqHlfKa If OTK'h,n;e 51 e rroJIYqIfJI.
3a .n;a ce OTKPOHT TaKlfBa rrOKa3aTeJIlf, rrOJIe3HO e BceKlf perlfCTPlf-
paH <paKT .n;a ce .n;orr'hJIBa C'hC crreu.lfaJIeH 6YKBeHO-Il;H<PPOB lfH.n;lfKaTOp,
nplf KoeTO C 6YKBlf ce 0603HaqaBa CTeneHTa Ha Ha.n;e)l(.n;HOCT Ha lf3TOq-
HlfKa, a C U.lf<pPlf - OTK'h.n;e e B3eJI CBe,n;eHlfHTa.
IIplfeTo e Ha Ha.n;e)l(.1l:HOCT Ha lf3TOqHlfKa ,n;a ce KO,n;Hpa
no CJIe,n;HlfH HaqlfH:
A - a6COJIlOTHO Ha.n;e)l(.1l:eH If KOMneTeHTeH;
Ii - 06lfKHoBeHo Ha.n;e)l(,n;eH;
B - He C'hBCeM Ha.n;e)l(.n;eH;
r - HeHa.n;e)l(.n;eH;
A - Heonpe.n;eJIeH.
HaqlfH'hT, no KOMTO lf3TOqHlfK'hT e nonyqlfJI rrpe.n;CTaBeHlfTe .n;aHHlf,
ce oT6eJIH3Ba TaKa:
1 - caM e BIfMJI;
2 - qyJI e OT HHKoro, Ha KorOTO MO)l(e .n;a ce BHpBa;
3 - CJIyxoBe.
HlfKora He 6lfBa .n;a ce 3a6paBH, qe lf3TOqHlfK'bT, KOil:TO He rrpe.n;lf3-
46
AHATOm11i1 T APAC
BHKBa C'bMHeHIDI (A), nOH5IKOra e cnoc06eH ,n:a npe,n:aBa 51BHa ,n:e3HH-
<popMaI(H5I, a C'bBCeM HeHa,n:e)l(.IJ:eH mn Cr), ,n:a c'b06lI(H MHoro I(eHHli
CBe,n:eHH5I. OT'lHTaMKH TOBa, nOH5IKOra ,n:BY3HaqHIDIT HH,n:eKC ce ,n:on'bJI-
Ba C pHMcKa I(H<ppa, K05lTO COqH npe,n:nOJIaraeMaTa ,n:ocToBepHocT Ha
<paKTa:
I - nOTB'bp)K,n:aBa ce OT Apym <paKTH;
II - Bep05lTHO e npaB,n:HB (3 K'bM 1);
III - MO)Ke 6H e npaB,n:HB (1 K'bM 1);
IV- C'bMHHTeJIeH (3 cpemy 1);
V - HenpaB,n:ono,n:06eH;
VI - Heonpe,n:eJIIIM.
MapKHpoBKaTa III-52 HanpHMep 03HaqaBa, qe <paKTYpaTa e npo-
,n:OCTaBeHa OT ,n:OCTa Ha,n:e)K,n:eH HH<popMaTop (:6) no ,n:YMHTe Ha 3HaelI(
qOBeK (2) H MO)Ke 6H - ,,50 Ha 50", e npaB,n:HBa (III).
I1PH HaM-MaJIKHTe C'bMHeHH5I B ,n:OCTOBepHOCTTa Ha nOJIyqeHHTe ,n:aH-
HH nOJIe3HO e,n:a rH OCTaBHTe 3a pe3epB B OqaKBaHe Ha ,n:pyrH nOTB'bp)K-
,n:aBalI(H HJIH onpoBepraBalI(H rH <paKTH.
5. l13Kpu6f16aHe Ha uHopMau,uflma
U ge3uHopMau,ufI
CJIe,n:Ba ,n:a ce OT'IHTa, qe ,n:OCTHralI(aTa ,n:o Bac <paKTYpa MO)Ke ,n:a
6'b,n:e:
- np06yTaHa Ha H3TOqffHKa ,n:e3HH<popMaI(H5I;
- npe,n:HaMepeHO H3KpHBeHa OT Hero;
- npOMeHeHa - npOH3BOJIHO HJIH HenpOH3BOJIHO - B npOI(eca Ha npe-
,n:aBaHeTO n.
YCTHHTe C'b06lI(eHIDI, I(HpKYJIHpalI(H no XOPH30HTaJIHHTe If He<pOp-
MaJIHHTe KaHaJIH, ca no-mino,n:aTJIHBH Ha H3KpHB5IBaHe, a HH<popMaI(H5I-
Ta, ,n:OCTaB5IHa "rope", nO-qeCTO ce pa3KpaC5IBa (nopa,n:H 51BHOTO )KeJIa-
HHe ,n:a ce yrO,n:H, ,n:a ce nOJIyqH B'b3Harpa)l(.IJ:eHHe, ,n:a ce H36erHe HaKa-
3aHHe ... ), OTKOJIKOTO 06paTHOTO.
I1PH npe,n:HaMepeHa ,n:e3HH<popMaI(H5I ce H3nOJI3Ba KaKTO qHCTa
JI'b)Ka, TaKa H H3T'bHqeHa nOJIYHCTHHa, K05lTO THXOM'bJIKOM OTBe)K,n:a
B'b3npHeMalI(HTe 51 K'bM JI'b)KJIHBH C'b)K,n:eHH5I. HaM-pa3npOCTPaHeHHTe
HaqHHH ca:
- np5lKO CKpHBaHe Ha <paKTHTe;
- TeH,n:eHI(H03eH no,n:60p Ha ,n:aHHHTe;
- HapYlI1aBaHe Ha JIOrHqHHTe H BpeMeBHTe Bp'b3KH Me)K.n:y C'b6HTH-
51Ta;
b
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 47
- no,n:aBaHe Ha HCTHHaTa B TaK'bB KOHTeKCT (C ,n:06aBKa Ha JI'b)K-
JIIiB <paKT HJIH HaMeK ... ), qe,n:a ce B'b3npHeMe KaTO JI'b)Ka;
- H36p05lBaHe Ha HaM-Ba)KHHTe ,n:aHHH Ha 51pKIDI <pOH Ha
BHlfMaHHeTO CBe,n:eHIDI;
- CMeCBaHe Ha pa3Hopo,n:HH MHeHIDI H <paKTH;
- C'b06lI(aBaHe Ha HH<popMaI(IDITa C .n:yMH, KOHTO 6nxa MOrJIH,n:a ce
1I3T'bJIKYBaT no pa3JIHqeH HaqHH;
- HecnOMeHaBaHe Ha KJIlOqOBH no.n:po6Hocm OT <paKTa.
I13KpHB5IBaHH5ITa, B'b3HHKBalI(1I B npOI(eca Ha peTPaHCJIaI(IDI Ha H3-
XO.IJ:HHTe ,n:aHHH, HaM-qeCTO CTaBaT IIOpa,n:H:
- npe,n:aBaHe caMO Ha qaCT OT C'b06lI(eHHeTO;
- npepa3Ka3 Ha qyTOTO C'bC CBOH .n:yMH ("pa3BaJIeH TeJIe<poH");
- nporrycKaHe Ha <paKTYpaTa npe3 npH3MaTa Ha
HOCTHH OTHOlI1eHIDI.
3a ycnelliHaTa 6op6a C Bep05ITHaTa ,n:e3HH<popMaI(IDI CJIe,n:Ba:
- ,n:a ce pa3JIHqaBaT <paKTHTe OT MHeHH5ITa;
- ,n:a ce pa36epe ,n:aJIH HH<popMaTOp'bT no CB051 CTaTYT e cnoc06eH ,n:a
lIMa ,n:OCT'bn ,n:o C'b06lI(aBaHHTe <paKTII;
- ,n:a ce OT'lIITaT cy6eKTHBHHTe (caMOMHeHlIe, <paHTa3IDI .. ) xapaK-
TeplICTMKH Ha II3TOqHMKa H npe,n:nOJIaraeMOTO OTHOlI1eHlIe K'bM C'b06-
lI(eHHeTO, KoeTO HOCH;
- ,n:a ce npHJIaraT .n:y6JIMPalI(II KaHaJIH 3a IIH<popMaI(IDI;
- ,n:a ce H3KJIlOQBaT H3JIMlI1HII npOMe)K.IJ:YT'bqHH 3BeHa;
- ,n:a ce nOMHH, qe oc06eHO JIeCHO ce B'b3npHeMa OHa3H ,n:e3HH<popMa-
I(M5I, K05lTO npe,n:nOJIaraTe IIJIH )KeJIaeTe ,n:a qyeTe.
B. TeXHUKa 3a UHmepnpemupaHe Ha gaHHume
110JI3aTa OT HaJIlIQHIITe MaTepHaJIH P5l3KO HapaCTBa, aKO ce H351CH5IT
3HaqeHII5ITa lIM; IICTHHaTa 06HKHOBeHO ce KpHe He B H3xo,n:HHTe ,n:aHHH,
a B TOqHOTO lIM T'bJIKYBaHe, 3alI(OTO KOHKpeTeH <paKT MO)Ke ,n:a 6'b,n:e
li3}!CHeH caMO B C'bQeTaHlIe C ,n:pyrHTe <paKTH.
06pa60TKaTa Ha HH<popMaI(IDITa CJIe,n: npe,n:BapHTeJIHO C'b6HpaHe Ha
<paIGypaTa H KOHKpeTHOTO nOCTaB5IHe Ha 3a,n:aqaTa npe,n:nOJIara:
a) CHCTeMaTH3aI(IDI Ha <paKTHTe, KOIITO ce copTHpaT cnope,n: CTeneH-
Ta liM Ha OTHOlI1eHHe K'bM e,n:IIH MJIII ,n:pyr B'bnpOC;
6) OTKp05lBaHe Ha KJIlOqOBIITe MOMeHTII B'b3 OCHOBa Ha c06cTBeHaTa
BII IIHTyIII(H5I;
48 AHATOJlI1Iii T APAC
B) 1l3rpIDK,l1;aHe Ha IIpe,l1;IIOJIO)l(eHIHl, OCHOBHMTe <paKTH;
r) IIOJIyqaBaHe IIpM He06xo,l1;MMOCT Ha ,l1;OII'bJIHMTeJIHM ,l1;aHHM;
,l1;) O<pOpM5IHe Ha M3BO,l1;MTe M IIpOBepKaTa MM 3a C'bOTBeTCTBMe Ha
,l1;pym <paKTM.
qecTo Ha OT,l1;eJIHM B'bIIPOCM MO)l(eTe ,l1;a rrOJIyqMTe rrp5lK H Harr'bJIHO
Orrpe,l1;eJIeH OTrOBOp, a rro ,l1;pyrM - rrpHHY,l1;MTeJIHO ,l1;a ce OrpaHMqHTe
caMO C rrpe,l1;rrOJIO)l(eHH5I.
I1HT)'HTHBHO TP5I6Ba ,l1;a ce pa36Hpa KOM MOMeHTH ca HaM-BIDKHH, a
He BHHMaHMeTO,l1;a ce KOHQeHTPHpa B'bpXy MHoro TaKHBa, KoeTO BO,l1;lf
,l1;0 6JIOKMpaHe Ha pa60TaTa Ha qOBellIKH5I M03'bK.
IIoH}1Kora e rrOJIe3HO rrOJIyqeHaTa HH<popMaQH5I ,l1;a ce rrycHe cpe,l1;
JIHQa, KOHTO MMaT H}1KaKBO OTHOIIleHHe K'bM He}1, rrpe,l1;rrOJIaraMKH, qe
Te 6Hxa MOrJIM ,l1;a HaMep}1T Bp'b3KM C H5IKaKBa CTpaHMqHa MH<popMa-
QM5I.
CJIe,l1; M3Ka3BaHeTO Ha orrpe,l1;eJIeHO rrpe,l1;rrOJIO)l(eHMe BHMMaTeJIHO ce
rrpOBep5lBa ,l1;OKOJIKO TO ce Bp'b3Ba C BCIfqKH ,l1;aHHM M KoraTO ce OKa)l(e,
qe MMa 3HaqIfTeJIHO pa3MHHaBaHe, a <paKTMTe ca 51BHO IIpaB,l1;MBM - Ha-
JIara ce C'b)l()1;eHMeTO ,l1;a ce IIpOMeHM.
HeB}1pHaTa MHTepIIpeTau;H5I Ha <paKTypaTa e BepO}1THa, aKO:
- He ca IIpe,l1;CTaBeHM BCMqKH MaTepMaJIH;
- IDIKOM <paKTM, KOMTO ca BM IIO,l1;p'bKa, ca C'bMHMTeJIHM;
- IVIJIOTO BHMMaHMe ce C'bCpe,l1;OTOqaBa caMO B'bpXy OHe3M
HM5I, KOMTO rrOTB'bp)l(,l1;aBaT OqaKBaHIDITa M rrpe,l1;rrOJIO)l(eHHHTa Ha aua-
JIMTMKa.
3a ,l1;a CH M3}1CHMTe B'b3MO)l(HMTe 3a pa3BMTHe Ha M3XO,l1;HaTa
cMryaQlf}1, TP5I6Ba MHoro 51CHO ,l1;a CM rrpe,l1;CTaB}1Te:
- KJIIOqOBHTe <PMrYPM Ha rrpOTHBHMKa;
- OHOBa, K'bM KoeTO TOM ce cTPeMH (KaKTO MaKCMMaJIHO,
TaKa M MHHMMaJIHO);
- ,l1;aJIM HMa orrpe,l1;eJIeHa CMCTeMa B ,l1;eMCTBM}1Ta My;
- Koe e rrOBeqe B T}1X: JIOrMKaTa, eMOQMMTe, TPa,l1;MQMMTe HJIM CJIy-
qaMHOCTMTe;
- JIM TaK'bB C'b103HMK, C KorOTO rrpOTMBHMK'bT He 6H CK'b-
caJI;
- 51BHHTe rpaHHQH Ha ,l1;OrrYCTHMOTO B ,l1;eMCTBlf}1Ta My;
- Y5l3BHMHTe MeCTa Ha rrpOTHBHHKa;
- KaK OQeH}1Ba cHryaQH}1Ta;
- BepO}1THaTa peaKQlf}1 Ha ,l1;eMCTBlf}1Ta Ha BC}1Ka OT CTPaHHTe.
l
HapbLlHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm 49
B H}1KOM CJIyqaM 3a H3rpa)l()1;aHe Ha XMrrOTe3aTa e rrO-IIepcrreKTMBHo
)la ce TP'brBa He OT <paKTHTe, a OT XMrrOTe3aTa K'bM HaJIMqHMTe <paKTM.
HarrpHMep, KaTO 3HaeTe KJIIOqOBaTa <pMrypa Ha rrpOTMBHMKa, MMCJIeHO
ce rrOCTaBeTe Ha HerOBO M}1CTO M IIpeQeHeTe KaKBa "XHTpa" Mrpa 6M
Mor'bJI TOM,l1;a Hrpae. KaTO H3XO)l()1;aTe OT TOBa, OqepTaMTe pe,l1;Hu;a IIpe,l1;-
rrOJIO)l(eHH5I 3a HaMepeHM}1Ta My M orrpe,l1;eJIeTe ,l1;eMCTBHHTa MY, KOMTO
6M TP}16BaJIO ,l1;a rrOCne,l1;BaT rrpH BC}1KO OT T}1X. KaTo C'brrOCTaBHTe rrpe,l1;-
nOJIaraeMHTe cMryaQMM C HaJIHqHMTe peaJIHOCTH, M36epeTe OHa3H XH-
rroTe3a, KOHTO C'bOTBeTCTBa Ha nOBeqeTO OT H3BeCTHHTe BH <paKTH.
OrrTHMaJIHa rrpH o6pa6oTKaTa Ha IIo,l1;o6Ha MH<popMaQH}1
MO)l(e ,l1;a BH OKIDKe BceKH KOMrrlOT'bp, KOMTO He cTPa,[(a OT cy6eKTMBH3-
Ma H OrpaHHqeHOCTTa Ha qOBeIIlKH5I yM.
c1

i
LJacm Bmopa
MeTOAl!1 3a TbpCeHe
l!1 sep6Y,saHe Ha
l!1 HcpOpMaTOpl!1
3a BO)J,eHe Ha aKTlIBHa BmKHa Mrpa ca Heo6xo)J,MMM CBOM xopa B CTa-
Ha Ha rrpOTlIBHMKa.
CBOMTe xopa MoraT)J,a 6'h)J,aT KaKTO BHe)J,peHM (MO)l(e 6M cJIe)J, rrpe)J,-
BapMTeJIHO Bep6YBaHe) B HY)I(HaTa rpyrra, TaKa M 3aBep6YBaHM cpe)J,
'lJIeHOBeTe H.
HMBOTO, 3aeMaHO OT CBOM xopa B rpyrraTa, MO)l(e)J,a 6'h)J,e:
- BMCOKO (qOBeK OT P'hKOBO)J,HOTO 3BeHO, Komo B3eMa Herrocpe)J,CT-
BeHO yqaCTlIe B M3pa60TBaHeTO Ha Ba)l(HM peIIIeHlUl);
- cpe)J,HO C )J,OCThrr )J,O YCTHa MJIM )J,oryMeHTMpaHa MH<popMa-
IUUI);
- HMCKO (xopa, rroceIII;aBaIII;M MeCTaTa, K'h)J,eTO ce qJIeHOBe-
Te Ha rpyrraTa MJIM ce HaMMpaT ThpCeHM )J,oryMeHTM, HO 6e3 )J,a MMaT
)J,OCThrr)J,o caMMTe )J,OKYMeHTM);
- crrOMaraTeJIHO (Ka)J,pM, KOMTO H5IMaT OTHOIIIeHMe K'hM )J,a)J,eHaTa
cTPYKTYpa, HO crroc06HM)J,a OKa3BaT M3BecTHO C'h)J,eMCTBMe).
5ICHO e, qe KOJIKOTO e rrO-BMCOKO paBHMIII;eTO Ha CB051 qOBeK B pa3pa-
60TBaHaTa rpyrra, TOJIKOBa rrO-IIIMpOKM ca B'h3MO)I(HOCTMTe MY M TOJI-
KOBa TOM e
CBoMTe xopa ce M3rr0JI3BaT BHMMaTeJIHO 3a peIIIaBaHe Ha pa3Ho06-
pa3HM 3a)J,aqM, KaTO ce B'h3MO)l(HOCTlITe MM, C'h06pa)l(eHM5ITa
3a cMrypHocT M rrOTPe6HOCTlITe Ha )J,a)J,eHM5I MOMeHT:
- 3a rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha
- 3a M3MeCTBaHe Ha B )J,eMHoCTTa Ha B HY)I(-
HaTa HacoKa;
l
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CU2ypHocm
- 3a C'h)J,eMCTBMe B oC'hIII;eCTB5IBaHeTO Ha orrpe)J,eJIeHM C u;eJI
Ha rpyrraTa (rrpe)J,HaMepeHM rpeIIIKM ... ), rr'hJIHO MJIM qac-
TWIHO pa3rra)J,aHe Ha rpyrraTa (pa3rraJIBaHe Ha )J,p5l3rM M
BO .. ), BHe)J,p5lBaHe Ha CBOM xopa B rpyrraTa M M3)J,MraHeTO MM Ha Heo6-
xO)J,MMOTO paBHMIII;e (rrpeHape)l()J,aHe Ha rpyrraTa .. );
- 3a MOHTlIpaHe Ha rro)J,CJIYIIIBaTeJIHM YCTpOMCTBa MJIM )J,06MBaHe
Ha )J,oryMeHTM qpe3 TaMHo KorrMpaHe (Kceporpa<pMpaHe, rrpeCHMMa-
He . ) MJIM Herrocpe)J,CTBeHaTa MM Kpa)l(6a;
- 3a rrOMOIII; rrpM peIIIaBaHeTO Ha H51KOM rrpOMe)I()J.YThqHM 3a)J,aqM ()J,O-
nYCK B HY)I(HOTO nOMeIII;eHMe, CBe)J,eHM5I 3a Heo6xo)J,MM qOBeK, npe)J,aBa-
He Ha TaeH naKeT .. ).
CJIe)J,Ba )J,a ce pa3JIlJqaBaT M )J,a He ce 6'hpKaT )J,Be KaTeropMM CBOM
xopa:
- ('lJIeHOBe Ha BaIIIM51 eKMII);
- areHTM (M3n0JI3BaHM).
B 3aBMCMMOCT OT TOBa K'hM K051 KaTerOpM51 crra)J,a CB05lT qOBeK, ce
M36Mpa TaKTMKaTa Ha B3aMMO)J,eMCTBMe C Hero.
KaqeCTBeHOTO Bep6ysaHe npe)J,nOJIara CJIe)J,HMTe eTanM Ha pa60Ta C
o6eKTa:
- HaMMpaHe;
- pa3pa60TKa;
-
- npMBJIlJqaHe;
- npOBepKa;
- HaCOqBaHe Ha )J,eMHOCTTa;
- 3a)J,'hp)l(aHe;
- rrpeK'hCBaHe Ha KOHTaKTa.
ITo-)J,06pe e, aKO no BpeMe Ha pa3JIlJqHMTe eTanM Ha pa60Ta C o6eK-
Ta ce 3aHMMaBaT pa3JIlJqHM xopa, KOMTO Ha np'hB norJIe)J, He ca CB'hp3a-
HM nOMe)l()J,y CM. ITPM CTaH)J,apTHM5I TPMCTeneHeH no)J,xo)J, TOBa ca:
- HaBO)J,qMK (ameHTMpa Ha rrpe)J,BapMTeJIHOTO M3yqaBaHe Ha o6eKTa,
YCTaHoB5IBa C Hero JIMqeH KOHTaKT, M3B'hpIIIBa )J,on'hJIHMTeJIHa pa3pa-
60TKa C TeCTBaHe M )J,aBa 3aKJIlOqeHMe )J,OKOJIKO e M3-
nOJI3BaHeTO Ha )J,a)J.eHM5I qOBeK, KaKTO M 3a nepCneKTMBHMTe HaCOKM 3a
B'h3)J,eMCTBMe B'hPXy Hero);
- Bep60BqMK (YCTaHOB5IBa HOB KOHTaKT C o6eKTa, HaM-qeCTO HeCB'hp-
3aH c npe)J,xo)J,HM5I; B rro)J,XO)J.5lIII; MOMeHT TOM ce pa3KpMBa M OqaKBa pe-
Ha c'h6ece)J,HMKa, KaTO npe)J,BapMTeJIHO CM oCMryp5lBa n'hT 3a
OTCThnJIeHMe);
AHATOJl"A TAPA<: r
, HapbL/HUK 3a pa3yJHa6aHe U CUzypHocm
52
53
- BO;a;ern; (npaBM MHCTpYKTa)J( M OC'brn;eCTBHBa nO-HaTanw-
HO p'bKOBO;a;CTBO, HaCO'lBarn;O ;a;eMHocTTa Ha 06eKTa).
Iloco'leHaTa no-rope cxeMa He e TB'bp;a;a, TaKa 'Ie C npe;a;BapMTeJIHa-
Ta no;a;rOTOBKa (TeCTBaHeTO) Ha MH;a;MBM;a;a MO)J(e;a;a ce 3aHMMaBa C'b-
mMHT 'IOBeK, KOMTO BnOCJIe;a;CTBMe OC'bmeCTBHBa Bep6YBaHeTO (npMB-
JIM'IaHeTO). Ha CBOM pe;a; OH3M, KOMTO e Bep6YBaJI, MO)J(e ;a;a npO;a;'bJIilCH
M nO-HaTaT'bK ;a;a KOHTaKTYBa C'bC 3aBep6YBaHMH, HaCO'lBaHKH TeKy-
maTa My ;a;eMHOCT. Pa36Mpa ce, ;a;onYCTMMM ca M BCM'IKH OCTaHaJIH
BapMaHTM.
KOHKpeTeH 'IOBeK ce Ha6eJIH3Ba ;a;a 6'b;a;e Bep6ysaH nopa)J;H:
- JIH'lHHTe MY Ka'leCTBa;
- HBHaTa onepamBHa He06xo;a;MMOCT;
- ;a;aJIHOBH;a;HOTO )J(eJIaHMe ;a;a pa3nOJIaraTe C pe3epB.
11360p'bT Ha nO)J;XOMm 06eKT (KaH;a;M)J;aT 3a Bep6YBaHe) CTaBa B ;a;Be
HaCOKM:
- npeU:M3HO ce no;a;6Mpa nOJIe3eH no CBOHTa HHq,OPMHpauOCT (HJIH
;a;pyrM B'b3MO)J(HOCTH) 'IOBeK H e;a;Ba CJIe;a; TOBa ce onpe;a;eJIRT Ha'lHHHTe
3a no;a;Xo;a; K'bM Hero;
- 06CTOiiHo ce pa3rJIe)J()J;a onpe;a;eJIeH KOHTMHreHT xopa H OTTaM ce
H36Hpa HaH-;a;OCnnHHRT no YH3BHMOCT HJIH JIH'IHH KOHTaKTH 'IOBeK.
Il'bpBaTa HHq,0PMaU:MH, npMBJIM'Iama ICbM KaH;a;M)J;aTa, ce nOJIy'la-
Ba OT:
- HerOBMTe npMRTeJIM M n03Ham;
- B npou:eca Ha HenOCpe;a;CTBeHOTO 06rn;ysaue;
- Ha6mo;a;aBaMKM ;a;eMcTBMHTa M nOCnnKHTe MY;
- no ny6JIMKYBaHMTe (HeroBM MJIM 3a Hero) CTaTMH, nMCMa, ;a;o-
KJIa;a;M ...
HemaTa, KOMTO npMBJIM'IaT BHMMaHMeTO KOM 'IOBeKa, ca:
- MaJIKM M rOJIeMM HeycnexM;
- nOJIHTM'IeCKM CMMnaTMM;
- MHq,opMMpaHOCT;
- CJIyqaMHo M3nYCHaTM 3a6eJIe)J(KM M M3Ka3BaHMH;
- npOHBHBaHa eK3aJITaU:MH (BJIe'leHMe);
i
..
- He;a;OBOJICTBO;
_ He06uKHOBeHo nOBe;a;eHMe (,,3a;a;p'bCTeH" 'IOBeK, pa3nYCHaTOCT,
ceKCYaJIHO 06rnyBaHe ... );
- HaUUOHaJIHOCT;
- peJIMrU03HOCT;
_ MnCTO Ha nOCTonHHa MJIM BpeMeHHa pa60Ta M onpe;a;eJIeHM
BP'b3KU ...
HaH-nO)J;XoMlllH 3a Bep6YBaHe ca OHe3U, KOHTO:
_ npHTe)J(aBaT U3BeCTHHMOPaJIHU He;a;'b3H (CTPaCT K'bM aJIKOXOJIa,
)
"
K'bM ceKCYaJIHHTe pa3BJIe'leHHR, HapKOTHUHTe... HJIH n'bK "onemeHa
6Horpaq,HR;
- UMaT )J;'bJIrOBe;
- CUJIHO ca npUB'bp3aHU K'bM HHKoro (Hemo);
- no HnKaKBU npUq}{HH (TPy;a;Hocm B KapHepaTa, CJIO)J(Hocm B JIH'I-
HWI ilCUBOT, B'b3rJIe)J;H 3a npOBe)J(;a;aHaTa nOJIHTHKa ... ) ca CHJIHO pa3;a;-
palHeHH.
Ha T03H eTan ce npOBe)J()J;a npeUH3HO npoyqaaHe Ha H36paHUR '10-
DeK, TOTaJIHa npOBepKa Ha My cnoc06Hocm M B'b3-
MOiICHOCTU.
Pa3pa60TKaTa Ha ce OC'brn;eCTBnBa no )J;Ba Ha'lHHa:
- O'iHO (npu JIH'lHO 06rnyBaHe);
- 3a;a;O'lHO (6e3 npnK KOHTaKT).
QnJIaTa nOJIyqaBaHa HHq,opMaUHH ce HaHacn B'hB q,OPMaJIH3HpaHO
.r.ocue, .r.aHHHTe OT KoeTO ce. H3nOJI3BaT npH:
-' 8ep6YBaHeTO Ha 06eKTa;
- npe;a;CKa3BaHeTO Ha ;a;eHCTBHnTa Ha 06eKTa;
- nCUXOJIoru'leCKa U <iJH3H'IeCKa HeYTpaJIH3aUHH Ha 06eKTa.
A. npeg6apumeAHO npoylf6aHe
KaTo Ha'laJIO no B'b3MO)J(HOCT ce C'h6HpaT cBe;a;eHHn, 6e3 ;a;a ce BJIH-
3a B Henocpe.r.cTBeH KOHTaKT C 06eKTa. XapaKTepHH H3TO'lHHUH Ha Ta-
Ka8a Huq,opMaUHH MoraT ;a;a 6'b;a;aT:
- BCeB'b3MOiICHH Oq,UUHaJIHH KHU)J(a H ;a;OKYMeHTH (CJIY)J(e6HH ;a;OCH-
eTa, TPy;a;OBH KHH)J(KH, apXUBH, aBT06Horpaq,HH, ;a;OMOBH KHHrH, Me)J;H-
54 AHATOJlVlIi1 T APAC
l(IIHCKH II ,lJ;pyrlI perIIC1'pal(IIOHHII KapTII, HarreqaTaHII (OT Hero IIJIII 3a
Hero) CTaTlI1I II crrOMeHaBaHII5I ... );
- IIHTIIMHa KOpeCrrOH,Il;eHl(II5I;
- CJIyqaMHo IIJIII Crrel(lIaJIHO rrO,lJ;CJIyrnaHII TeJIeOHHII (II ,lJ;pym .. )
pa3rOBopH;
- TaMHO B'bHlIlHO Ha6mo,lJ;eHHe, BH,lJ;eOCHHMKII IIJIH OTOrpalIpaHe;
- KOHTaKTbOpH (xopa OT Kp'bra Ha 06ll()'BaHe Ha 06eKTa).
IIpH Ol(eHKaTa Ha qOBeKa rro ,lJ;YMRTe Ha rr03HaTHTe My CJIe,lJ;Ba ,lJ;a ce
HMa rrpe,lJ;BII,lJ;:
- ,lJ;0 KaKBa CTerreH OCBe,lJ;OMRTeJI5IT rr03HaBa OH31I, 3a KorOTO rOBoplI
(T. e. KOJIKO ,lJ;'bJIro, HHTeH3HBHO II 3a,lJ;'bJI6oqeHO ca 06ll()'BaJIlI);
- B KaKBII OTHOlIleH1I51 ca TeCTBaIl(1I5IT C aTeCTlIpaHII5I (aKO OTHOlIle-
HlI5lTa ca JIOlIllI, xapaKTepHCTHKaTa Il(e e B HeraTHBeH rrJIaH, aKO ca ,lJ;py-
)Kem06HII - Il(e e rrOYKpaCeHa);
- CHTyal(HHTe, rrpH KOHTO ca Ha6mo,lJ;aBaHH C'b06Il(aBaHRTe oco6e-
HOCTH (eKCTPeMaJIHH, B OTHOlIleHHe C C BHClIleCT05lIl(lI-
Te . );
- KaK e pa3BHTO y HHopMaTopa KaqeCTBOTO, 3a KoeTO TOM c'bo6Il(a-
Ba (HaM-qeCTO 'WBeK B3eMa 3a eTaJIOH ce6e CII H KoraTO crrOMeHaBaHa-
Ta qepTa e 5IpKO H3pa3eHa rrpH Hero, Ol(eHKaTa, K05lTO ,lJ;aBa, Il(e e 3aHH-
)KeHa, H 06paTHOTO).
CJIe,lJ; KaTO 6-b,lJ;aT C'b6paHII H aHaJIH3HpaHH ,lJ;aHHHTe 3a KaH)J;lI)J;aTa
OT pa3Hoo6paJHH ,lJ;OCThIlHH H3TOqHHl(H, MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce rrpeMHHe K'bM cJIe,lJ;-
BaIl(H5I eTarr: pa3pa6oTKa Ha ,lJ;a,lJ;eHII5I 06eKT rrpH rrp5lKO 06Il(YBaHe. TYK
BJIII3aT:
- YCTaHOB5IBaHe Ha KOHTaKT (3arr03HaHCTBO);
- 3a,IJ;'bJI6oqasaHe Ha KOHTaKTa (rrO,lJ;rOTOBKa Ha rrOqBaTa);
- TeCTBaHe (3a,lJ;'bJI6oqaBaHe Ha ,lJ;OCHeTO);
- Ol(eHKa (rrepCrreKTHBHOCT Ha Bep6ysaHeTO).
5. VcmaHoBflBaHe Ha KOHmaKm
3arr03HaHCTBOTO e CB'bp3aHO C'bC C'b3,lJ;aBaHe Ha 6JIarOrrpH5ITHH CH-
ryal(HlI, MHoro OT KORTO MoraT ,lJ;a B'b3HIIKHaT C'bBCeM cnyqaMHo, H r JIaB-
HOTO e ,lJ;a He ce 1I3rrYCHe rrO,lJ;XO,lJ;5IIl(II5IT MOMeHT.
OrrTHMaJIHIITe BaplIaHTH 3a 3arr03HaHCTBO 3aBIIC5IT OT rrpoeCII5ITa,
rrOJIa, B'b3paCTTa, Hal(IIOHaJIHOCTTa, COl(lIaJIHOTO rrOJIO)KeHlIe, KYJIryp-
HOTO paBHIIIl(e, xapaKTepa, HaBIIl(HTe II BClIqKII OCTaHaJIlI HH,lJ;IIBlI)J;yaJI-
HII oc06eHOCTII Ha qOBeKa, a OCBeH TOBa - OT HaCTPoeHlIeTO MY, M5ICTO-
l
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHocm 55
TO Ha ,lJ;eMCTBlIe, OKOJIHaTa 06CTaHOBKa II ,lJ;pyrlI, BJIII5IeIl(1I B pa3JIn:qHa
CTerreH aKTOplI.
IIplI 3arr03HaBaHeTO Be,lJ;Hara ce 1I36IIpa rrporpaMa 3a 06Il(YBaHe:
CIIMeTpn:qHa IIJIII ,lJ;Orr'bJIHIITeJIHa. CIIMe1'plIqHII5IT MO,lJ;eJI rrpe,lJ;rrOJIara
paBeHCTBO - B'b3paCTOBO, IIHTeJIeKTYaJIHO, COl(HaJIHO . - Ha 06ll()'Ba-
IUlITe CTpaHII, aKT, KOMTO 5ICHO ce perJIaMeHTHpa II rrO-HaTaThK yqac-
THIIl(IITe peBHOCTHO CJIe)J;5lT ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e crra3BaH (KaKBOTO e rr03BOJIeHO Ha
e)J;HHlI5I, TOBa e pa3pelIleHO II Ha ,lJ;pyrII5I . ). )l;orr'bJIHHTeJIHaTa rrporpa-
Ma yTB'bp)K,lJ;aBa HepaBeHCTBOTO II IIKClIpa ,lJ;IICTaHll;II5I rrpH 06ll()'BaHe-
TO, K05lTO rrO-HaTaThK c1'poro ce crra3Ba. IIplI 3arr03HaHCTBOTO C'bOT-
BeTHaTa rrporpaMa ce YCTaHOBHBa MOMeHTaJIHO, rrOCJIe e ,lJ;OCTa TPY)J;HO
T5I ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e rrpOMeHeHa.
IIopa,lJ;1I aKTa, qe rrOBeqeTO OT xopaTa CII C'bCTaB5IT MHeHlIe 3a
HOB lITe CII rr03HaTII rro rr'bpBOHaqaJIHOTO, HO MHoro TpaMHO BrreqaT-
JIeHHe, OrrTIIMaJIHa II MHoro Ba)KHa l(eJI e oCIIryp5lBaHe Ha He06xo-
,lJ;IIMOTO B'b3rrpH5ITlIe. T'bpCeHII5IT eeKT ce rrOCTlIra, KaTO ce rrpel(e-
HII ,lJ;06pe 1I360p'bT (oplIeHTHpaMKH ce rro CHMrraTHIITe H aHTHrraTIIH-
Te Ha 06eKTa II Ha BClIqKH OCTaHaJIII rrCHXOJIOrlIqeCKH 3aKOHOMep-
HOCTII) Ha B'bHlIleH BH,lJ;, Ha OCHOBHH5I MaHHep Ha rrOBe,lJ;eHlIe, Ha CII-
Tyal(II5ITa Ha 3arr03HaHCTBOTO. CJIe,lJ;Ba ,lJ;a ce HMa rrpe,lJ;BII,lJ;, qe 55%
OT rr'bpBOTO BrreqaTJIeHlIe 3a qOBeKa 3aBHC5IT OT BII3yaJIHOTO BrreqaT-
JIeHHe, 38% - OT HaqlIHa Ha pa3roBop, II caMO 7% OT OHOBa, KoeTO
TOM rOBopH.
OT rrCIIXOJIOrn:qeCKHTe lllOaHclI, KOHTO c'bIl(eCTBeHO BJIIDffiT Ha rr'bp-
BOTO BrreqaTJIeHHe, He e JIOlIlO ,lJ;a ce 3Ha5IT CJIe)J;HHTe:
- 6JIarO,lJ;apeHlIe Ha "eeKTa Ha opeOJIa" (KoraTO e,lJ;HO KaqeCTBO OC-
BeT5IBa BClIqKH OCTaHaJIH) 06Il(OTO 6JIarOrrplI5ITHO BrreqaTJIeHHe 3a
qOBeKa OCHryp5lBa rrOJIO)KHTeJIHII Ol(eHKH 3a HerOBH OIl(e HelI3BeCTHII (B
qaCTHocT - MOPaJIHII) KaqeCTBa; II 06paTHOTO;
- 5IBHaTa 1I3lIqeCKa rrpHBJIeKaTeJIHOCT rro,lJ;06p5IBa rrOJIO)KHTeJIHaTa
Ol(eHKa KaKTO 3a qepTHTe Ha JIJIqHOCTTa, TaKa II 3a OT,lJ;eJIHHTe rrOCThrr-
KH ("eeKT Ha KpaCOTaTa");
- aKO ,lJ;06pe 06JIeqeHa )KeHa C'bC CIIMrraTJIqHa B'bHlIlHOCT rrplI,lJ;py-
)l(aBa M'b)Ka, TOM ce ol(eH5lBa rro-BHcoKO, OTKOJIKOTO aKO e C'brrpOBO)K-
,lJ;aH OT HeKpaCIIBa II He6pe)KHO 06JIeqeHa )KeHa;
- M'b)KeTe Ol(eH5IBaT rrO-MaJIKO, OTKOJIKOTO rrpe,lJ;rrOJIaraT )KeHRTe,
TexHIITe ,lJ;eJIOBII II IIHTeJIeKTyaJIHII KaqeCTBa, a )KeHHTe rrO-MaJIKO, OT-
KOJIKOTO rrpe,lJ;rrOJIaraT M'b)KeTe, Ol(eH5lBaT Il31IqeCKaTa lIM rrpIlBJIeKa-
TeJIHOCT;
- KoraTO ce CpeIl(aT M'b)K II )KeHa, B3aIlMHIITe lIM Ol(eHKIl ca B epo-
56 AHATOmH1 T APAC
Tll'IHfI TepMllHll, MaKap 'Ie p;06pe B'b3nllTaHllTe xopa He np05IB5IBaT eMO-
QllllTe Cll;
- JIeKO 3araTHaTaTa CTeCHllTeJIHOCT Hep5IP:KO ce B'b3np"eMa KaTO
np"BJIeKaTeJIHa II p;a)Ke ceKcyaJIHO B'b36Y)Kp;alQa;
- np"BeTJI"BaTa P;06pO)KeJIaTeJIHa YCMllBKa e cnoc06Ha p;a npep;ll3-
BllKa p;OBep"e, eJIllMllHllpaHKll Hep;OBep"eTO II ll3BeCTHOTO HeP;Opa36ll-
paHe;
- 'IeCTHOTO, 3p;paBO P'bKOCTllCKaHe B C'b'IeTaHlle C OTKpllT norJIep; B
O'IMTe ce xapeCBa nO'ITll Ha BCMtIKll;
- eHeprMtIHOTO ll3pa3MTeJIHO )KeCTMKyJIllpaHe OTpa351Ba nOJIO)KI1TeJIHH
eMOQRll II 3aTOBa ce B'b3np"eMa KaTO np"3HaK Ha 3allHTepeCYBaHOCT II
p;pY)Kemo6lle;
- C'b6eCeP:HllK'bT, KORTO rJIep;a npaBO B O'illTe, e CllMnaTMtIeH, HO
BTpeH'IeHll5IT llJIll HeYMeCTeH nor JIep; B O'IMTe C'b3p;aBa He6JIaronpll51T-
HO Bne'IaTJIeHlle, 3aIQOTO ce B'b3np"eMa KaTO np"3HaK Ha Bpa)KP;e6HOCT;
- xopaTa, KOllTO no BpeMe Ha pa3rOBOp HaBe)KlJ:aT T5IJIOTO Cll Ha3ap;
MJIll n'bK ce OTnYCKaT B KpeCJIOTO, ce xapeCBaT 3HatIMTeJIHO nO-MaJIKO
OT OHe3M, KOMTO HaBe)Kp;aT T5IJIOTO Cll K'bM C'b6eCep;HMKa, 3aIQOTO noc-
JIep;HOTO ce B'b3np"eMa KaTO 3aMHTepecysaHOCT;
- 06MKHOBeHO )KeHaTa, K05ITO ceP:M B cnOKOHHa n03a, 6e3 p;a Kp'bC-
TOCBa p'bQe II KpaKa, e xapeCBaHa nOBe'Ie;
- CKp'bCTBaHeTO Ha p'bQeTe Ha r'bpP:MTe 'IeCTO pa3pymaBa Be'Ie yc-
TaHOBeHM5I KOHTaKT M OT6JI'bCKBa C'b6eCeP:HMKa;
- ll3pa3eHllTe KpaHHOCTM B 06JIeKJIOTO (MHoro Mop;epeH MJIM TB'bpp;e
OCTap5lJI KOCTIOM ... ) KaKTO M npeKaJIeHO 6e3BKYCHaTa p;pexa nOpa)KlJ:aT
OTpMQaTeJIHO Bne'IaTJIeHlle; oc06eHO 6ll51T Ha O'IM OBeXTeJIMTe MJIM
MP'bCHM 06YBKM, KaKTO II CMa'iKaHaTa llIanKa, M np.;
- )KeHMTe OQeH51BaT M'b)Ka 3a 45-60 ceKYHp;M, KaTO npM TOBa 06p'b-
lQaT oc06eHo BHMMaHlle Ha rOBopa MY, O'IMTe, npMtIeCKaTa, p'bQeTe,
06YBKMTe, p;pexMTe (MMeHltO B Ta3M nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHOCT);
- 06MKHOBeHO "no p;pexMTe" 'IOBeK He caMO ce nocpelQa, HO M My ce
OKa3Ba p;OBepMe;
- 06CTaHOBKa, BKYCHaTa xpaHa, npM5lTHaTa M)r3MKa,
HeO'IaKBaH K'bCMeT II npO'Ille MOMeHTM, OT KOllTO cy6eKThT ll3nap;a B 6JIa-
rOlJ:YllIHO HaCTpoeHlle, BllHaru p;onpllHaC5IT 3a 6JIarOnpI15lTHOTO B'b3npM-.
eMaHe Ha HOBI15I n03HaT ("ecpeKThT Ha npeHacme Ha qysCTBaTa");
- ll3KJIIO'IllTeJIHa CllJIa 3a C'b3p;aBaHe Ha p;06po HaCTpOeHlle M C'bOT-
BeTHO 3a npep;pa3nOJIaraHe Ha C'b6eCep;HllKa K'bM Bac llMa KOMnJIllMeH-
TOT, KORTO Me)Kp;y p;pyroTo e no-ecpeKTllBeH OT aHTllKOMnJIllMeHT K'bM
CaMll51 ce6e Cll.
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
57
[OJI5IMO Bne'IaTJIeHlle npaB5IT II n'bpBllTe Bll cppa3ll; llMeHHO Ha'IaJI-
IllITe 1I3pe'IeHll51 nOpa)Kp;aT y Hero )KeJIaHlle llJIll He)KeJIaHlle p;a 6'bp;e
opO)1;'bJIJKeH 3anO'IHaTMHT pa3rOBOp. TIocTapaHTe ce p;a ll36HrBaTe:
_ 1I3BllHeHllH II npOHBa Ha np"3HaQ" Ha HeYBepeHOCT (OCBeH cneQll-
aJIHll XBaTKll);
_ P;Opll HaH-MaJIKM npOHBll Ha HeYBa)KaHlle llJIll npeHe6pe)KeHlle K'bM
C'b6eCep;HllKa;
_ KaK'bBTO M p;a 6MJIO HaTllCK B'bpXy c'b6eCep;HllKa, KORTO 6ll ro npll-
ay)1;MJI p;a 3aeMe oT6paHMTeJIHa n031IQll51.
3a p;a 1I36epeTe OnTllMaJIHllH MaHllep Ha 06lQysaHe, TpH6Ba p;a
C'bo6pa3MTe C p;06pe 1I3BeCTHll (llJIM npep;nOJIaraeMll) lIHp;llBI1P:yaJIHll
oco6eHOCTM Ha 06eKTa, npM KoeTO npenOp'b'IllTeJIHO e CJIep;HoTo:
_ C oc06eHO qyBCTBMTeJIHMTe II 60JIe3HeHO paHMMllTe p;a ce ll3651rBa
BClI'IKO HenpMHTHO 3a THX, KaTO BnpO'IeM ce cna3Ba M5IpKa, llHa'ie Te ce
opeBp'blQaT B rttpaHll;
_ C Hep;OBep'IllBMTe M nOp;03p"TeJIHMTe p;a CTe KpaHHO BHllMaTeJIHll
H T'bpneJIMBlI;
_ C'bC CBaP:JIMBMTe p;a CTe TB'bPP;ll II pellIllTeJIHll, a aKO e He06xop;ll-
MO - M p;a MM p;ap;eTe oroop;
_ C KanpM3HMTe pa3roBapHifTe C'bC cnOKoeH TOH, 6e3 p;a 06p'blQaTe
BHllMaHMe Ha Kanp"3"Te liM;
_ C npeKaJIeHO caMOYBepeHllTe H caMOXBaJIKOBQllTe ll3nOJI3BaHTe
HpOHmlTa;
_ C npMTeCHllTeJIHMTe llJIll xopa 6e3 'IYSCTBO 3a XyMOp H36HrBaHTe
KaKBaTO II p;a 6HJIa "POH"51.
He 61IBa p;a 3a6paBHTe, 'Ie Ha BCeKll 'IOBeK My xapeCBa, KoraTO TaK-
THtIHll5IT C'b6eceP:HllK:
_ C'bnpH'IaCTHO ro ll3CJIyrnBa II ro B'bop;YllIeBHBa p;a rOBOp" 3a ce6e
CM (HlIIQO He JIaCKae TaKa napTHbOpa, KaKTO BHlIMaHMeTO ... );
_ 3anO'IBa pa3rOBOp no llHTepecysalQaTa ro TeMa (llJIM 3ap;aBa B'bn-
POCll, Ha KOHTO Mye npM5ITHO p;a OTrOBapH ... );
_ HBHO My p;aBa p;a nO'IYBCTBa HerOBaTa 3Ha'illMOCT II npeB'b3XOp;CT-
BO B p;ap;eHa 06JIaCT, npll TOBa ro npaBll MHoro llCKpeHO (p;OCTa PHP;KO
CPaJIllI'bT MO)Ke p;a ce cKp"e H TOH ce B'b3np"eMa KaTO OCK'bp6JIeHlle ... );
_ npOHB5IBa K'bM Hero rOJIHMa 3allHTepeCYBaHOCT (a He ce CTapae p;a
ro 3aHllMaBa C'bC ce6e CM);
- BllHarll nOMHll HMeTO My;
- He 3JIoynoTpe6HBa C Hen03HaTll p;yMll;
_ cnOp;eJIH MHeHlle, nop;06HO Ha HerOBOTO c06CTBeHO.
TICllXOJIOrMtIeCKa XBaTKa, KO}lTO 06JIer'IaBa ll'bpBOHa'IaJIHllH KOHTaKT,
d
58 AHATOnl-1C1 T APAC
e 0 6 r:u; Y BaH e T 0 C 0 6 e K T a KaT 0 C 'b C C Tap rr 0 3 HaT. Ta311
XBaTKa 06aqe MO)l(e p;a ce 113rrOJI3Ba caMO rrpll C'bOTBeTHaTa rrCllXOJIO-
rll51 Ha qOBeKa H rrop;xop;51r:u;a cHrya:U;H51.
B CJIyqaHTe, KoraTO H51Ma HHKaKBO BpeMe 3a rrpe)J;BapHTeJIHa (3a-
p;OqHa) pa3pa60TKa Ha qOBeKa, rp5l6Ba 6'bP30 p;a ce aHaJIH3HpaT B'bHUl-
HHTe My p;aHHH (JIH:u;eTO, tPHrypaTa, 06JIeKJIOTO ... ) H eMO:U;HOHaJIHlUe
(MaHHep'bT p;a rOBopM, p;a )l(eCTHKYJIMpa ... ) rrpH3Ha:U;M H p;a ce p;eHCTBa B
C'bOTBeTCTBHe C'bC c06CTBeHMTe rrpep;rrOJIO)l(eHH5I.
H a q M H M T e 3 a 3 a rr 0 3 H a H C T B 0, OCMryp5lBaI.I.J;H OIITHMaJIeH
rrOBOp; 3a HaqaJIHa 06M5IHa Ha tPpa3H, 6Mxa MOrJIM p;a ca CJIep;HMTe:
1. ilP080KUpaJ-Ie 1-Ia 06eKma oa 8U OKa:JJCe l-IflKaK8a nOMoUf:
- cMMYJIMpaHe Ha rrap;aHe Ha YJIM:u;aTa, HaBeXBaHe Ha KpaKa, BHe3an-
Ha CJIa60CT M p;pyrH CMMIITOMM, CB'bp3aHM C'bC 3p;paBeTo;
- MMHTan;H51 Ha HeJIOBKOCT, KaTO B yp;06eH MOMeHT H3rrycHeTe Her:u;o
OT p'b:u;eTe CH;
- ,,3a6paB5IHe" Ha H51KaKBa Ber:u; 6JIH30 p;o 06eKTa;
- MOJI6a 3a Of'bHqe llJIH 3a H51KaKBa p;pe6Ha MHtP0pMa:U;M5I (YJIM:u;a,
Mara3MH, KOJIKO e qaC'bT ... );
- rrpep;M3BHKBaHe Ha C'bqYBCTBHe C MMHTan;H51 Ha 6e3rrOMOI.I.J;HOCT
(aBapH51 Ha KOJIaTa, Te)l(KM Ber:u;M, 06'bPKaROCT Ha YJIM:u;aTa ... ); TOBa e
)l(eHCKM BapHaRT.
2. ilpu6Rz8a1-le 00 nOMOU(, KORmo 8ue OKa38ame 1-Ia 06eKma:
- TOqHO H3rr0JI3BaHe Ha c.rryqaHHa (HJIM opraHM3MpaHa) HeJIOBKOCT
Ha 06eKTa B'bB Bp'b3Ka C Hep;OCTaThqHa HHtP0pMa:U;H51 3a Her:u;o (p;a ce
rrOCOqM orrpep;eJIeHO M5ICTO, p;a ce 0651CHH KaK p;a ce HarrpaBH Her:u;o ... );
- JIOBKO 3ap;eHcTBaHe Ha c.rryqaHHa (MO)l(e M HarJIaCeHa) rrorpe6HocT
Ha 06eKTa OT H51KaKBa yCJIyra (p;a MY rrOMorHeTe p;a rrorrpaBM KOJIaTa
CH, p;a MY rrpep;JIO)l(MTe 6HJIeT 3a Her:u;o, p;a ro OTKapaTe H51K'bp;e ... );
- rrpeMaraTe ce6e CH KaTO He06xop;MM B p;ap;eH MOMeHT KOMrraHbOH
Ha 06eKTa (3a rrHeHe, 3a Mrpa Ha KapTH MJIM Ulax, ,,3a H3JIHBaHe Ha P;y-
UlaTa" ... );
- B cMTYa:U;HH, KOMTO BOMT p;o HapYllieHMe rrpaBllJIHHKa
3a p;Blf)I(eHHe rro rr'bTIIll\aTa ("crraC5IBaHe" Ha 06eKTa ... );
- MMHTMpaHe Ha Harrap;eHMe B'bpXy 06eKTa OT KpMMHHaJIHM eJIeMeH-
TM M "CrraC5IBaHeTO" My B Ta3M cMrya:U;H51;
3. 3an031-1a1-lCm80 'ipe3 06u(u n031-1amu:
- orrpep;eJIeHM rro BpeMe Ha rocryBaHe JIM:u;a, qeCTO rrocer:u;aBaHM OT
06eKTa;
- Herrocpep;cTBeHa MOJI6a K'bM 06r:u; rr03HaT p;a BH 3arr03Hae;
- HaBe)l()J;aHe Ha 06r:u; rr03HaT K'bM MMC'bJITa p;a BH cpeI.I.J;He KaTO xopa
HapblfHUK 3a pa3yJHaBaHe U CUzypHocm 59
C 06r:u;0 YBJIeqeHMe (X06M) MJIM crroc06HM p;a 6'bp;aT rrOJIe3HM ep;lIH Ha
.upyr (rrpM TOBa 6e3 rrp5lKa MOJI6a);
- 3aMHTpMrYBaHe Ha 06r:u;M5I BM rr03HaT C JIMqHaTa My M3rop;a p;a BII
3arr03Hae C 06eKTa.
4. 3an031-1aT-lCm80 T-Ia pa31lU'i1-lU K)lllmypT-lu UJlU cnopn11-lu A'teponpU.fl-
mWl (KMHO, Teanp, KOH:u;epT, JIeKn;H51, cTap;MoH ... ), KaTO CM OCMrypMTe
C'bce,IUIO C 06eKTa M5ICTO, M3rrOJI3BaHKM "M3JIlIllIeH" 6lweT, 6H.HCTI1 OT
06r:u; n03HaT llJIll H5IKaK'bB p;pyr rpllK:
- rrpep;pa3nOJIaraHe Ha 06eKTa K'bM eMO:U;lIOHaJIHO pearllpaHe Ha 3pe-
JIHr:u;eTO;
- HHc:u;eHllpaHe Ha "HOBaK", KOHTO ce HHTepecysa OT MHeHMeTO Ha
"crre:u;naJIllCTa" ;
- 6e3ap;pecHll 3a6eJIe)l(KH, KOMTO 611xa MOrJIM p;a 3allHTpHrYBaT
06eKTa;
- KpaTKOBpeMeHHo HarrycKaHe Ha M5ICTOTO C MOJI6a K'bM 06eKTa p;a
fO na3H.
5. 3an031-1a1-lCn180 1-Ia onatUKama (3a KOHKpeTHa CTOKa, 6MJIeTll 3a
TeaThp llJIM 3a rpaHcnopT, 3a B1l3a, npll JIeKap5l ... ), KaTO ce HMa npep;-
BllP;, qe 06I.I.J;HOCTTa Ha cMrya:U;H51Ta no H51KaK'bB HaqllH C6JIlf)I(aBa xopa-
Ta:
- opraHM3HpaHe Ha 06r:u; pa3roBop no H51KaKBa aKryaJIHa TeMa (c
nOp;XB'bpJI5IHe Ha 6e3ap;pecHH peIlJIHKM HJIH peaKn;H5I Ha TaKllBa);
- KpaTKoBpeMeHHo HarrycKaHe Ha onaUlKaTa C MOJI6a 06eKT'bT p;a BH
na311 pep;a MJIM H51KaKBa Ber:u;.
6. 3an03T-1aT-lCm80 1-Ia OCT-I08ama 1-Ia x06u:
- ep;HoBpeMeHHo atPHUlllpaHo 3aHllMaHlIe C Her:u;o 3aep;HO C 06eKTa
(651faHe no YJIlI:u;aTa, lIrpa Ha tPYT60JI lIJIlI BOJIeH60JI, rpeHMpaHe Ha
YUlY ... );
- neplIOp;lIqHO rrecer:u;eHlIe Ha MeCTaTa, K'bp;eTO ce C'b6MpaT xopa C
onpep;eJIeHO X061I (cne:U;lIaJI1I31IpaHlI 1I3JIO)l(61I, MeCTHlI KJIy60Be, KOHK-
peTHlI MecTa ... );
- :u;eJIeBO 06p'br:u;aHe K'bM HY)I(HH5I qOBeK rro HeqM5I rrpenOp'bKa (rrpep;-
JIO)l(eHlIe 3a nOKynKa llJIlI pa3M5IHa, Ky'IeUlKa "cBaT6a", MOJI6a 3a KOH-
cyJITa:U;H51 ... ).
7. 3an031-1a1-lC1I180 'ipe3 oet(mna (B'bB BJIaKa, B napKa, B p;eTCKaTa rpa-
MHa, B KatPeHeTO ... ):
- KOHTaKT Me)l()J;y "CBoeTO" p;eTe II p;eTeTO Ha 06eKTa (lIrpa, qeprre-
He, nOp;ap'bK ... ), pe3YJITaT OT KoeTO e ,,3an03HaHCTBO" C pO)J;HTeJIlITe;
- OKa3BaHe Ha p;pe6Ha nOMOr:u; Ha p;eTeTO rrpep; OqHTe Ha pOp;MTeJIM-
Te My;
60 AHATOm-l1il T APAC
- IIHCQeHIIpaHO II3qe3BaHe Ha ,lJ;eTeTO II pa3IIrpaBaHe pOJUrra Ha cna
CIITeJI.
8. Ilpeou38uK8a/-te Na UNmepec KbM ce6e cu (B T03II cnyqau IIHH1Ufam
BaTa 3a 3aTI03HaHCTBO TP5I6Ba,lJ;a II)J;Ba OT o6eKTa):
- KaTO 3HaeTe Hj')K,lJ;IITe II cJIa60cTIITe Ha ,lJ;a,lJ;eH qOBeK, npHBJIHqaTe
aKTIIBHOTO MY BHIIMaHIIe C nOMOrn;Ta Ha 06JIeKJIo, merH, BIIQOBe, cpo.
KyCII, CJIYXOBe II CnJIeTHII, OpIIrIIHaJIHII pa3C'b)l(,I(eHII5I, HHTepecHa HH
cpopMaQII5I, rrpIIBJIeKaTeJIHII HaMeQH 3a B'b3MOIKHOCTHTe BH Hern;O ,lJ;a
HaMepIITe, ,lJ;a pa36epeTe, H51K'b,lJ;e ,lJ;a ro Bpe,lJ;IITe ...
- ,lJ;a ce nOpa3XO,lJ;IITe H5IKOJIKO n'bTII B nOJIe3peHHeTo Ha 06eKTa, 6e3
06aqe ,lJ;a ce HaTParrBaTe, a KoraTO TOU BH norJIe,lJ;He, ,lJ;a ce B
MeIK.D;yBeJK)J;lIeTO II MHCJIeHO ,lJ;a My 3anOB5I,lJ;aTe: "MCKaTe ,lJ;a ce 3an03
HaeTe C MeH, a3 BII qaKaM!"
9. Ily61luKY8aNe Na lfflKaK8a 06.Fl8a (B'bB BeCTHIIK, B'bB BXO,lJ;a Ha IKH
JIHrn;eTO, Ha YJIIIQaTa, T. e. TaM, K'b,lJ;eTO HenpeMeHHO rn;e 6'b,lJ;e BH,lJ;}I-
Ha), K05ITO 6II MOrJIa,lJ;a 3aIIHTpHrYBa HYIKHH5I BH qOBeK:
- 3a rrpo,lJ;aIK6a;
- 3a nOKynKa;
- 3a pa60Ta;
- 3a He06xo,lJ;IIMOCT OT rrOMOrn;;
- 3a rrpe.D;JIaraHe Ha yCJIYrII.
10. H3npaU[aNe Na nUCMO, KoeTO, KaTO ce HMa npe)J;BH)]; JII{qHOCTTa
Ha o6eKTa, HenpeMeHHo 6II ro 3aHHTepecYBaJIO H 6H npe,lJ;H3BHKaJIO
IKeJIaHIIe ,lJ;a OITOBOPH IIJIII ,lJ;a rronpcH rrp5lK KOHTaKT C Bac (nOH51KOra e
nepCneKTIIBHO nOCTeneHHOTO 3aCIIJIBaHe Ha HHTepeca C'bC CepH5I cne
QIIaJIHII rrOCJIaHII5I ... ). MOlKeTe ,lJ;a ,lJ;a,lJ;eTe CB051 06paTeH a)J;pec (npSlK
IIJIII MeIK,lJ;IIHeH) Be,lJ;Hara IIJIII CJIe,lJ; H51KOJIKO rrHCMa. fJIaBHOTO B T03II
cnyqau e ,lJ;a He rrpeIIrpaeTe.
3a YCTaHOB5IBaHe Ha cTa6IIJIHO 3an03HaHCTBO ce nO,lJ;6HpaT H51KOJIKO
Y,lJ;06HII - OCHOBeH II ,lJ;Ba-TpII pe3epBHH.
>IBHO II3pa3eHaTa HenpII5I3'bH Ha qOBeKa qeCTO ce 06S1CH5IBa C TOBa,
qe C'b6eCe,lJ;HIIK'bT (IIJIII cHryaQmrra) MY HarrOMH5I 3a HSiKoro (IIJIH 3a
Hern;o), C KorOTO (HJIH C KoeTO) CB'bp3Ba OTpIIQaTeJIHH eMOQIIH IIJIH OqaK
BaHII5I (HerrpII5I3'bH Ha HaQIIOHaJIHa rrOqBa, peJIHrII03HH npe,lJ;pa3C'b)J;'b-
QII, JII{qHa BpaIK,lJ;a ... ).
Il'bPBIIHT KOHTaKT HaU-qeCTO npIIKJIlOqBa C BeIKJIIIBa, HO He06B'bp3-
Barn;a yroBopKa "rn;e ce qyeM". He 6IIBa ,lJ;a ce npoHBSlBa II3J1HmHa 3aIIH-
TepecYBaHocT OT HOBII cpern;II c o6eKTa.
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
B. 3agM6oIJa6aHe Ha KOHmaKma
61
B Ta3II cpa3a Ha pa3pa6oTKa Ha 3arr03HaHCTBOTO TpH6Ba ,lJ;a C(;) C'b3,lJ;a-
paT nOBO,lJ;lI 3a nOBTopHII cpern;II, 3arn;OTO KOJIKOTO rrOBeqe ca cpern;IITe,
TOJIKOBa nO-rOJIHMa e BepOHTHOCTTa o6rn;yBaID;IITe ,lJ;a ce xapecaT. TPH6-
pa 06aqe ,lJ;a ce CTpeMIITe IIHIIQIIaTIIBaTa 3a CJIe,lJ;BaID;II cpeID;II ,lJ;a II,lJ;Ba
OT o6eKTa.
AKO 06eKThT pemII, qe n03HQIIHTa Ha HerOBHSI C'b6eCe,lJ;HIIK C'bOT-
peTCTBa Ha OqaKBaHIIHTa MY, 3an03HaHCTBOTO ce 3a,lJ;'bJI6oqaBa, rrOHBH-
paT ce 06ID;II TeMH 3a pa3roBop, B'b3HHKBa 06ID;HOCT B'b3 OCHOBa Ha IIH-
,llHBH.D;yaJIHH npe)J;flOqHTaHHH H eMOQIIOHaJIHH C'bnpeIKHBHBaHH51; y o6eK-
Ta ce nOHBHBa aKTIIPHa CHMnaTH5I K'bM napTHhopa.
KaTo OCHOBHH nO,lJ;6Y,lJ;H 3a nO-qeCTII cpeID;II MoraT ,lJ;a nocnyIKaT:
- nOTpe6HOCT OT ,lJ;OMHHHpaHe;
- nOTpe6HOCT OT B'bTpemeH KOMCPOPT (cHrypHocT);
- nOTpe6HOCT OT caMoYTB'bp)l(,I(aBaHe;
- nOTPe6HOCT OT C'bqyBCTBHe H pa36HpaHe;
- nOTPe6HOCT OT "rH,lJ; 3a pa3BJIeqeHH5I";
- HarnCK OT cTPaHa Ha APyrH xopa;
- IKeJIaHIIe 3a C'bBMeCTHa ,lJ;eHHOCT (.D;eJIOBO
TOquOTO KOHKpern3HpaHe Ha MOTIIBaQH5ITa 3aBHCH OT IKHTeucKIITe
cHryaQIIH Ha qOBeKa H nCIIXOJIOrl{qeCKHTe KaqeCTBa Ha JII{qHOCTTa My.
HaqIIHIITe 3a 3a,lJ;'bJI6oqaBaHe Ha 3arr03HaHCTBOTO HaU-qeCTO ce OC-
HOBaaaT Ha nOOrn;pHBaHe Ha rrO,lJ;6Y,lJ;HTe B ,lJ;a,lJ;eHH5I MOMeHT II 6IIBaT
CJIe,lJ;HHTe:
1. OpraHII3IIpaHe Ha "CJIyqauHII" cpern;II Ha KIIHO, Ha Teanp, Ha
YJIHQaTa, Ha BeqepIIHKa, Ha 6pIIcpIIHr II T. H.
2. Cnope,lJ; BKyCOBeTe, Hj')K,lJ;lITe II CJIa6IITe MeCTa Ha 06eKTa My ce
yr8)l(,I(a, KaTO MY ce npe,lJ;JIaraT: napII Ha 3aeM, 6IIJIern 3a Teanp, BII,lJ;e-
03anHCH, HarnyMeJIII KHIIrH II cneQIIaJIII3IIpaHII CnIICaHH5I, HBHO npec-
TIDKHa HHcpopMaQH5I ...
3. TIpe,lJ;II3BHKBaHe (HJIII II3rr0J13BaHe) Ha HenpHHTHOCrn H TPY,lJ;HOC-
TH B ,lJ;eJIOBH5I HJIII P JIIIqHH5I IKHBOT Ha o6eKTa, KaTO, 6e3 ,lJ;a My ce HaT-
panBa, MY ce npe.D;JIara rrOMOrn; 3a rrpeO,lJ;OJIHBaHeTO HM. (TpH6Ba ,lJ;a ce
3Hae, tIe aKTHBHHTe xopa B cHryaQIIH Ha Heycrrex ca CKJIOHHH K'bM pa3-
lUHpflBaHe Ha Kp'bra Ha 06rn;YBaHe, a rraCHBHIITe - K'bM pa3C'bIK,lJ;eHIIH.)
4. CTHMYJIIIpaHe Ha rrOCTOHHeH IIHTepec Ha o6eKTa K'bM Bac II IKe-
JIaHIIe ,lJ;a o6rn;YBa, KaTO ce II3nOJI3BaT MaliHIITe My (KOJIeKQIIOHepCTBO,
PH60JIOB, KIIHeJIOrIlH, IIrpa Ha KapTII, max, KOMrrlOnp, cnopT, MY3HKa,
62 AHATOmH1 T APAC
epOTIIKa, JIIITepaT)'Pa ... ). MaHIIIITe ce 3a,n;eiIcTBaT no CJIe,n;HIITe Ha'IlI-
HII:
- KaTO MHoro )KIIB IIHTepec K'bM 06C'h)K)J;aHaTa TeMa;
- KaTO npaBlITe Ha 06eKTa ,n;pe6HII, HO m060mITHII no,n;ap'h'IeTa, CB'hP-
3aHH C YBJIe'IeHIIeTO MY, HJIH My ,n;aBaTe nOJIe3Ha HH<pOpMarurn no Te-
MaTa;
- KaTO JIaCKaeTe CaMOJI106HeTO Ha 06eKTa, yTB'hp)K)J;aBaiIKII HerOBa-
Ta 3Ha'IHMOCT H n'hpBOCTel1eHHa B ,n;a,n;eHa 06JIaCT (ry6HTe napTlliI
TeHIIC, HCKaTe C'hBeT no TeMa ... ).
5. I13nOJI3BaHe Ha TPeTII (6JIII3'hK 'IOBeK, po,n;HHHa, KOJIera IIJIlI
Ha 06eKTa), KaTO ro HaKapaTe ,n;a npoHBH 3aHHTepecysaHocT
OT nO-HaTaTOUIHHTe BH cpem;II C HY)KHHH IIH)J;IlBH,n;.
AKo TPH6Ba ,n;a C'hKpaTIITe )J;IICTaHrurnTa Ha 06m;yBaHe (TOBa
lIMa CMIIC'hJI npH YCTaHOBHBaHe Ha KOHTPOJI HM BOJIHTa Ha 06eKTa npll
,n;IIpeKTHOTO Bep6YSaHe), 'IeCTO ce K'bM <pOPCHPaHH TPIIKOBe,
cnope,n; KOHTO TPH6Ba:
1. ,D;a ce nOKa3BaTe npe,n; o6eKTa OTK'bM OHa3H cTPaHa, KOHTO npe-
,n;II3BHKBa Y Hero 6JIarOrOBeiIHa B'h3XHTa:
- ,n;eMoHcTpaU;HH Ha nOTPecaBam;O YMeHHe H xpa6pOCT npII HHcu;e-
HIIpaHo KpIIMHHaJIHO Hana,n;eHIIe;
- ,n;eMoHcTparurn Ha OC06eHHTe CH "TaJIaHTH" II HHTeJIeKT npe,n; xdpa
IIJIH (B 3aBHCIIMOCT OT nCHXOJIOrHHTa Ha 06eKTa) HacaMe.
2. ,D;a Y KOHTPOJIHpaHHH 'lOBeK 3a,n;'hJI60'leHO C'h'IYSCT-
BIle H C'hnpII'IaCTIIe:
- KaTO CH aBT06IIorpa<pII'lHII H3JIHHHHH (,n;OBepHeTO no-
pa)K,n;a OTBeTHO ,n;OBepHe .. );
- HHcu;eHIIpaHe Ha 60JIeCT (60JIKaTa II npe,n;H3BllKaHHTe OT HeH cTPa-
,n;aHIIH 'leCTO ,n;onpIIHaCHT 3a np06Y)K,n;aHe Ha CIIMnaTHH K'hM cTPa,n;a-
H qyBCTBO Ha C'hnpII'IaCTHOCT C Hero);
- HMHTaU;IIH Ha HenpHHTHOCTII (,n;a ce OnJIa'IeTe, HO 6e3 ,n;a npeKaJIH-
BaTe).
3. ,D;a npe,n;II3BHKaTe Y HH,n;HBH,n;a oCTpa Heo6xo)J;IIMOCT OT BalliaTa
nOMOIU;;
- ,n;oKapBaHe Ha 'IOBeKa ,n;o pa3HOTIInHII H Ha np'hB norJIe)J, 6e3Ha-
,n;e)K,n;HH KaTO My HaCa)K)J;aTe MIIC'hJITa, 'Ie caMO BHe MO)Ke-
Te,n;a ro cnaCIITe (II, pa36lIpa ce, npaBIITe TOBa . ).
I1360p'hT Ha C'hOTBeTHaTa "B'h,n;IIu;a" ce 06YCAABa OT TOHKO pa361I-
paHe Ha Ha 06eKTa B C'h'leTaHlIe C BalliIITe B'h3MO)KHOCTlI
II B'h3HIIKHaJIaTa clIryaU;HH.
I1peU;1I3HaTa O'lHa pa3pa60TKa Ha 06eKTa npe,n;nOJIara nOCTOHHHII
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUc:ypHocm 63
KOHTaKTII C Hero, KOIITO 6Hxa MOrJIII,n;a 6'h,n;aT 06JIeK'leHII, aKO n03Ha-
BaTe HHKOII nCIIXOJIOrII'IeCKII HIoaHCII, onlIcaHII B 'laCT TpeTa.
r. T eXHUKa Ha mecm6aHemo
IIpII JIII'lHOTO 06m;ysaHe II CneU;HaJIHO npe,n;1I3BHKaHHTe cHryaU;IIH
MaJIKO no MaJIKO ce pa3KpHBaT B'h3rJIe)J;IITe Ha 06eKTa, HerOBIITe B'h3-
MO)KHOCTII, CJIa60CTII, CKJIOHHOCTII, u;eHHocTH, no,n;6y,n;II, cnoc06HoC-
TIl, nCHx0<p1I3H'leCKII H HHTeJIeKryaJIHII Ka'IeCTBa . TOBa, KoeTO KOHK-
peTRO IICKaTe ,n;a pa36epeTe 3a 06eKTa, ce onpe,n;eAA OT u;eJITa Ha pa3pa-
60TKaTa My (Bep6YBaHe, MaHIInYJIHpaHe, . ) II e opIIeH-
TIlpaHO K'hM YHII<pIIu;IIpaHaTa Ta6JIIIu;a Ha ,n;OCHeTO. .
BceCTPaHHOTO npoyqBaHe Ha 06eKTa e HaiI-,n;06pe,n;a CTaBa no on-
pe,n;eJIeHa cxeMa (Bll)K Ta6JIHu;aTa), CJIe)J;BaiIKn ce Ha6eAA3Ba H ce
peaJIH3IIpa 3aKO)J;IIpaHa aKu;HH, npOCJIe)J;HBa ce KaKBa e peaKu;n-
HTa Ha HeH, npaBII ce 1I3BO,n; II B'h3 OCHOBa Ha T031I 1I3BO,n; ce npOBe)K,n;a
KOHTPOJIHO TeCTBaHe.
AKlJ,H5I PEAKlJ,H5I H3BO,n:
TeManlqeH HAOEEKTA S'b3 OCHosa Ha
pa3rosop HJJH
H
KaKTO sep6aJJHH, H npOqHT Ha eMOl\HHTe
TaKa H Hesep6aJJHH, 3a 06eKTaH H3XO)J,HH-
C AYMa, C )KeCT, Te 3HaHHlI 3a o6eKTa
nOCT'bnKa
I1pe,n;H OCHOBHOTO CJIe,n;Ba ,n;a ce npOBe,n;e npe)J;BapHTeJIHO COH)J;IIpa-
He, KoeTO ,n;a IIH)J;IIBII)J;yaJIHIITe oc06eHOCTII II peaKIIHII Ha 'IOBe-
Ka Ha 3Ha'lIIMa 3a Hero IIH<popMaU;HH.
I1poBe)K,n;aiIKH TeCTBaHe, ce npaBII Ta6JIIIu;a C 'leTIIplI KOJIOHKII ("aK-
TTua" 6"" 6
,,,peaKIIHH Ha 0 eKTa ,,,H3BO,n; ,,,3a eJIe)KKII"), B n'hpBaTa KOJIOH-
Ka Ha KOHTO ce HaHaCHT TeMHTe Ha pa3roBoplI IIJIII TPII-
KOBe. BCII'IKII CJIe,n;Bam;H KOJIOHKII ce 3an'hJIBaT cnope,n; npOBe)K)J;aHeTO
Ha u;eJIeBOTO COH,n;HpaHe, nplI TOBa B KOJIOHKaTa ,,3a6eJIe)KKII" ce perIIC-
TpHpaT OHe3H B'hHlliHII YCJIOBHH, KOIITO 611xa MOrJIII ,n;a Ha
pe3YJITaTHTe OT Ha6JIlO,n;eHlIeTO.
B npou;eca Ha no,n;rOTOBKaTa 3a TeCTBaHeTO TPH6Ba:
- ,n;a ce onpe,n;eJIII II B C'hOTBeTCTBHe C Hero - u;eJITa, TeMa-
"fa II MeTo,n;'hT (pa3rOBOp HJIH TpHK) Ha COH,n;a)Ka;
- ,n;a ce no,n;6epe COH,n;IIpam;aTa I1H<popMaU;IIH;
L .......
64 AHATOJlVltil TAPAC
- ,Ua ce f136epe CTHJI H TaKTHKa (pe,U H HaqHH) 3a Ha
Ta3H
- ,Ua ce HaqaJIHaTa H 3aKmOqHTeJIHaTa <ppa3a npH 06IlJ,Y-
BaHeTO (TOBa e He06xo,UHMO, 3a ,Ua ce 3aneqaTa B C'h3HaHHeTO Ha 06eK-
Ta HY)I<HaTa BH BepCIDI Ha pa3rOBOpa, KaKTO H 3a ,Ua ce CTHMYJIHpaT no-
HaTaThIlIHH KOHTaKTH C Hero).
B npo[(eca Ha Ha6mo,UeHHe ce npOCJIeMBaT:
- HeBep6aJIHOTO nOBe,UeHHe (MHMHKa, Ha norJIe,UH, BCHqKU
Ha )KeCToBe );
- napanHHrBHCTuqHOTO nOBe,UeHHe (TOH H TeM6'hp Ha rJIaca, naY3u
B peqTa .. );
- nOBe,UeHHe (.uyMH, cHHTaKcHc);
- ,UBIDKeHHeTO B npOCTpaHCTBOTO.
OCHOBHOTO npaBHJIO 3a TeCTBaHe nOBeMBa: "I1oBeqe Ha6mo,UaTeJI-
HOCT - nO-MaJIKO npe.uy6e)K,UeHIDI."
CTeneHTa Ha rpy60cT Ha cOH,Ua)Ka (nJIaBHO HaBJIH3aHe B pa3roBopa,
<paKT . ) ce OT C'h06pa3HTeJIHOCTTa Ha 06eKTa, JIHqHa-
Ta MY qyBCTBHTeJIHOCT H cHTYa[(IDITa. OTHollIeHHeTo Ha OH3H, KORTO
npOBe)K,Ua TeCTBaHeTO, K'hM OCHOBHaTa TeMa Ha COH,UHpaHe ,Ua
e ,UOCTaThqHO HeYTPaJIHO, 3a ,Ua MO)Ke B cnyqaii Ha oTpH[(aTeJIHa
peaK[(IDI OT cTpaHa Ha 06eKTa ,Ua "BJIe3e B TOH" HJIH ,Ua npeMHHe Ha
,Upyra TeMa, 6e3 TOR ,Ua nocTpa,Ua.
I1PH 3an'hJIBaHeTO Ha ,Ua,UeHaTa Ta6JIH[(a HHKora He npaBeTe npH-
6'hp3aHH H3BO,UH, BHHarH npe,UeJIHO TOqHO peruCTpHpaRTe aCneKTHTe
("peaK[(IDI Ha 06eKTa"), B'h3 OCHOBa Ha KOHTO npaBHTe H3BO,UHTe.
I1PH npOBe)K,UaHe Ha TeCTBaHeTO CJIe,UBa ,Ua ce HMa npe,UBH,U CJIe,U-
HOTO:
- a<pHIlIHpaHHTe nocTYJIaTH Ha xopaTa 06HKHoBeHo ca ,Uaneq OT He-
Bep6aJIHOTO HM nOBe,UeHHe e,UHO, a B'hpllIaT 'upyro . );
- eMO[(HHTe, npe,UH3BHKaHH OT 3a,UOqHaTa O[(eHKa Ha
ca nO-CHJIHH, OTKOJIKOTO B'h3HHKBaIlJ,HTe npH peaJIeH KOHTaKT
C TaKaBa
- qOBeK, KORTO e 6'hP3, CMeJI H peaKTHBeH npH pa3roBop, MO)Ke ,Ua
ce OKa)Ke C'hBCeM ,Upyr B KpHTHqHa
- BOJIHO HJIH HeBOJIHO, qOBeK ce pa3KpHBa, KaTO rOBopH 3a ce6e CH;
- C'h6eCe)J.HHK'hT ce on03HaBa npH cnop;
- "HHIlJ,O ,Upyro He TOJIKOBa ,U06pe xapaKTepa Ha qOBe-
Ka, KOJIKOTO OHOBa, KoeTO TOR HaMHpa 3a cMeIlIHo";
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
65
- pa3roBopHTe Ha npOH3BOJIHa TeMa ,Ua ce
HHTeJIeKThT H Ha c'h6ece,UHHKa, ,UOKOJIKO TOR e C'h06pa3HTe-
JIeH H Haxo.uqHB;
- 3a ,Ua pa36epeTe CHMnaTHHTe H aHTHnaTHHTe Ha o6eKTa, npHeM-
JIHBHTe 3a Hero 06JIaCTH H MOTHBa[(IDITa MY, He e JIOIliO
,Ua OTHOllIeHHeTO My K'hM pa3JIuqHH HCTOpHqeCKH H JIHTepa-
TYpHH JIuqHOCTH;
- KOJIKOTO nO-TB'hp,U e CTepeOTHn'hT, TOJIKOBa eMO[(IDI
npe,UH3BHKBa BceKH onHT TOR ,Ua 6'h,Ue nO,UJIO)KeH Ha C'hMHeHHe;
- OTBeTHaTa Ha TB'hp,UeHHe BHHarH c'h,U'hp)Ka nOBeqe HH-
OTKOJIKOTO oTrOBOp'hT Ha TOqHO <pOPMYJIHPaH B'hnpOC;
- (BJIOlliaBaHe) Ha BpeMeTo qeCTO npe,UH3BHKBa anaTIDI
H Ha peaK[(HHTe;
- He 6HBa M'hJIqaHHeTO ,Ua ce ThJIKYBa KaTO BHHMaHHe; TO MO)Ke ,Ua
03HaqaBa, qe qOBeK'hT e nOThHan B c06CTBeHHTe CH MHCJIH;
- KoraTO npO[(eC'hT Ha pa36HpaHe B'hPBH TB'hp,Ue rJIa,UKO, HMa BCHq-
KH OCHOBaHIDI ,Ua He ce Ha TaKOBa pa36HpaHe;
- xapaKTepHa rpellIKa Ha Ha6mo,UaBal[(HTe e MHeHHeTO 3a Y)K C'h-
IlJ,eCTBYBaIlJ,a B3aHMOBp'h3Ka Me)K,D.y WIKOH (KOJIKOTO qOBeK e no-arpe-
CUBeH, TOJIKOBa e no-eHepruqeH .. ) C'hBCeM pa3JIuqHH KaqeCTBa;
- 3a qOBeKa e xapaKTepHO ,Ua npeyseJIuqaBa HH<popMa[(HOHHaTa CTOR-
HOCT Ha C'h6HTIDITa, nOTB'hp)K,lJ.aBal[(H HerOBaTa xHnOTe3a, H ,Ua He,Uoo-
[(eWIBa C'h,U'hp)KaIlJ,a ce B npOTHBOpeqaIlJ,H Ha xHnOTe-
3aTa My <paKTH;
- qOBeK nO-JIeCHO 06c'h)K,lJ.a C06CTBeHHTe CH CJIa-
60CTH H He,UOCTaTh[(H, OTKOJIKOTO TpeBO)KHOCTTa 06HK-
HOBeHO ce B nOBe,UeHHe, KoeTO 6H MOrJIo,Ua ce Hapeqe H30C-
TpeHa qyBcTBHTeJIHOCT K'hM ,Upa3HHTeJIHTe;
- JIOIliO <P0pMYJIHpaH B'hnpOC MO)Ke ,Ua HaKapa c'h6ece,UHHKa ,Ua "Ha-
OCTpH YIlIH";
- ,Ua ce nOMHH, qe c'h6ece,UHHK "qysa" H pa36Hpa
nO-MaJIKO, OTKOJIKOTO HCKa ,Ua nOKa)Ke;
- IlJ,OM HH,UHBH,U'hT ce B KaTO JIH,Uep, B
,UpyrH C'hIlJ,O IlJ,e 6'h,Ue B'h3npHeMaH KaTO JIH,Uep;
- 06IlJ,HTeJIHH H )KH3HeHH xopa npe,UnOqHTaT YCTHaTa peq, a
BrJI'h6eHHTe B ce6e CH, npHTeCHHTeJIHHTe H CpaMe)KJIHBHTe - nHCMeHa-
Ta;
- aKO nOBe,UeHHeTOHa napTHbOpa e cTporo <pHKCHpaHO OT npaBHJIa,
aBTOpHTeTH HJIH ,UpyrH H3TOqHH[(H, cy6eKThT He e oco6eHo B'b3npHeM-
tIHB K'hM HerOBaTa H He ce OnHTBa ,Ua ce npe,UCTaBH B Hail:-
-
66 AHATonllllil T APA(
,lJ;o6pa CBeTJUma; KOraTO rrOBe,lJ;eHIIeTO Ha rrapTHbOpa II3rJIe)K,lJ;a CBO-
60,lJ;HO, 06IIKHOBeHO ce Ha6JIIO,lJ;aBa 06paTHIDIT e<peKT;
- XOpaTa, CIIJIHO YBa)KaBalI\II ce6e CII, ce ,lJ;'bp)KaT He3aBIICIIMO no
OTHOllIeHIIe Ha c06CTBeHaTa CII "penYTaIJ;H5I", MaKap H ,lJ;a ce
OpIIeHTIIpaT no xopaTa C'bC cJIa60 caMOYSa)KeHIIe ce npII,lJ;'bp)KaT
K'bM "peITYTaIJ;IDI";
- IIH,lJ;IIBII,lJ;IITe ce IICTIIHCKII caMO B C'bCTaBa Ha Hero-
JIeMII, ce Ha pa36IIpaHe rpynII;
- nOBe,lJ;eHIIeTO Ha qOBeKa Hall:-qeCTO ce npe,lJ; ny6JIIIKa
B cpaBHeHIIe C rrOBe,lJ;eHIIeTO, KoraTO e caM; TO ce C'bIIJ;O II B
3aBIICIIMOCT OT TOBa e CB'bp3aHO C <paKTa, qe BceKII
qOBeK e 3aIIHTepeCYBaH OT BneqaTJIeHIIeTO, KoeTO npaBII Ha OKOJIHII-
Te, II 3aTOBa nycKa B ,lJ;eifcTBIIe e,lJ;Ha OT ,lJ;BeTe C'bIIJ;eCTByBaIIJ;II CTpa-
TerIIII:
- "y6JIa)KaBaIIJ;a" ce K'bM aY,!J;IITOpIDITa);
- "ce6eYTB'bp)K,!J;aBa.ru;a" C06CTBeHOTO CII "A3" II OllIIT-
Ball:KII ce ,lJ;a HanpaBII ,lJ;06po BneqaTJIeHIIe 3a CMeTKa Ha KaqeCTBaTa,
II,lJ;eaJIHOTO "A3");
- )KeHIITe II MHoro OT HaIJ;IIOHaJIHIITe rpynii 06IIKHOBeHO ca no-ro-
JIeMII KOH<P0PMIICTH.
Hape,lJ; C OIJ;eHKaTa Ha nOBe,lJ;eHIIe Ha cy6eKTa, rrpii 06.ru;y-
BaHe C Hero TP5I6Ba ,lJ;a ce aHaJIII3IIpaT II ,lJ;ell:CTBIDITa MY B Hall:-pa3JIIIq-
HII npe,lJ;II3BIIKaHII (TPIIKOBe) IIJIII caMonpOII3BOJIHII ()KIIBOT'bT) cIIrya-
IJ;IIII. I1PII TOBa ce qe:
- nO-JIeCHO xapaKTep'bT ce np05IB5IBa B npIIBIIqHII cnryaIJ;IIII;
- 3a KOHKpeTHO CBOll:CTBO Ha TeMnepaMeHTa ,lJ;OCTa rOBopii
Ha6JIIO,lJ;eHIIeTO My B Hall:-TPY,lJ;HII 3a np05IBaTa My YCJIOBIDI;
- npii C6JI'bC'bK C TPY,!J;HOCTH qOBeK nO-OTKpOBeHO II3pa35IBa qysCT-
BaTa CII;
- B 3aBIICIIMOCT OT TOBa npii KaKBII KOHKpeTHII 06CT05ITeJICTBa II3y-
qaBaHOTO JIIIIJ;e ry6II caMOKOHTPOJI II 3,lJ;paB pa3yM, MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce pa36epe
,lJ;OKOJIKO 3HaqIIMII ca 3a Hero Te3II 06CT05ITeJICTBa, IICTIIHCKIITe My IIH-
TepeCII, TeMnepaMeHT, HaBIIIJ;II. .. ;
- aKO IIH,!J;IIBII,lJ;'bT TB'bp,lJ;e TOqHO II3n'bJIIDIBa II3IICKBaHIDITa Ha pa3IIr-
paBaHaTa OT Hero pOM, TOBa He rOBopii HIIIIJ;O 3a HerOBaTa JIIIqHOCTHa
xapaKTepIICTIIKa; aKO Toll: ce OTKJIOIDIBa OT pOMTa - TOBa ro xapaKTe-
pII3IIpa.
MHoro ,lJ;06pa IIH<popMaIJ;II5I MO)Ke ,lJ;a ,lJ;a,lJ;e aHaJIII3'bT Ha nIICMaTa Ha
06eKTa, nOHe)Ke Te 06pIICYBaT qOBeKa B OTHOllIeHIIeTO My K'bM ,lJ;pyr
qOBeK, T. e. B H5IKaKBa KOHKpeTHa cIIryaIJ;IDI. I1PII TOBa e Heo6xo,lJ;IIMO
Hapbf.{HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm 67
,ua ce 3Ha5IT YCJIOBIDITa, npe,lJ;II3BIIKaJIII Ha6JIIO,lJ;aBaHaTa KopeCnOH,lJ;eH-
nII51, II KaKBII ca OTHOllIeHII5ITa Me)K)J;y aBTopiiTe. ,[(OCTa 3ape,lJ;eHII C IIH-
<p
o
pMaIJ;H5j: ca pa3JIIIqII5ITa B KopeCnOH,lJ;eHIJ;II5ITa Ha e,lJ;HO II C'bIIJ;O JIIIIJ;e C
pa3HII a,lJ;peCaHTH.
,[(on'bJIHIITeJIHII 3a eMOIJ;IIOHaJIHO-BOJIeBIITe II ,lJ;pyrii Ka-
qecTBa Ha 06eKTa MoraT ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;aT nOJIyqeHII OT aHaJIII3 Ha nOqepKa
(rpa<pOJIOrII5I ... ), MaKap qe npii II3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha XIIMIIKaJIKII MHoro
OT HIOaHCIITe Ha IIH<popMaIJ;II5ITa ce ry65IT. He e JIOllIO ,lJ;a ce 3Hae,
qe:
- aKO JI5IBOTO nOJIe Ha rrIICMOTO e nO-rOJI5IMO OT rrIIllIeIIJ;II-
5IT e HaCTPoeH K'bM llOJIyqaTeM II HIIIIJ;O He OKa3Ba Ha-
ruCK B'bpXy nCIIXIIKaTa My;
- aKO nOJIe Ha nIICMOTO e rrO-rOJI5IMO OT JI5IBOTO - nOCJIaHII-
eTO 3a Hero e caMO e,lJ;Ha <P0PMaJIHOCT;
- aKO JI5IB0TO rrOJIe Ha,lJ;OJIY ce pa3llIIIp5IBa, nIICMOTO e nIIcaHO B Harr-
perHaTa 06CTaHOBKa, MO)Ke 6II npii OrpaHnqeHO BpeMe IIJIII B'bTPellIHO
)l(eJIaHIIe ,lJ;a ce npIIKpIIe peaJIHOTO nOJIO)KeHIIe Ha HeIIJ;aTa;
- aKO pe,lJ;OBeTe 3a6eJIe)KIIMO B'bpB5IT Harope, TOBa e npII3HaK Ha 5IBHO
nOBIIllIeHO HaCTPoeHIIe Ha IIHllIelI\II5I, aKO e 06paTHOTO - Ha nOHII)l(eHO;
- nO,lJ;nIIC'bT cJIe,lJ; npII5ITHII C'b6IITIDI e BIIHarii no-e,lJ,'bp, OTKOJIKOTO
cJIe,lJ; HerrpII5ITHII.
Onpe,lJ;eJIeHa nporHOCTIIqHa CTOll:HOCT (oc06eHo aKO e JIIInCBaJIa 3a-
,lJ;oqaa pa3pa60TKa Ha o6eKTa) MOraT,lJ;a rrpe,lJ;CTaBJI5IBaT HerOBIITe <pII-
3nqeCKII (P'bCT, TeJIOCJIO)l(eHIIe, Koca, OqII ... ) ,lJ;aHHII. Ho 6II 6IIJIO ce-
pII03Ha rpellIKa ,lJ;a ce OCJIaIDITe caMO Ha T5IX.
I1opa,!J;II <paKTa, qe BC5IKO qOBellIKO nOBe,lJ;eHIIe ce Onpe,lJ;eM OT emm
IIJIII H5IKOJIKO MOTHBa (nO,lJ;6Y,lJ;II), KOIITO He BIIHarii ca OC'b3HaTII, MHoro
Ba)l(HO e ,lJ;a ce Onpe,lJ;eMT IICTIIHCKIITe MOTIIBII Ha 06eKTa.
CJIe,!J;Ba ,lJ;a ce IIMa npe,!J;BII,!J;, qe MOTIIBIITe ca 5IpKO CTeneHYBaHII II
nOH5IKOra ca npOTIIBOnOJIO)l(HII (,,60p6a Ha MOTIIBIITe" ... ). He
BIIHarii e B'b3MO)KHO ,lJ;a ce npe,lJ;CKa)Ke rrOCT'bllKaTa Ha qOBeKa caMO no
e,!J;IIH OT MOTIIBIITe. ,[(eMoHcTPIIpaHoTo OT IIH,lJ;IIBII,lJ;a nOBe,lJ;eHIIe ce on-
pe,lJ;eJl5I OT:
- TOBa, KoeTO TOll: 6II IICKaJI,lJ;a HanpaBII ()l(eJIaHIIeTO);
- TOBa, KoeTO TOll: CM5ITa 3a He06xo,lJ;IIMO ,lJ;a HanpaBII (COIJ;IIaJIHII
liOPMII, IIrpa Ha pOJI5I);
- TOEa, KoeTO TOll: 06IIKHOBeHO npaBII (HaBIIK);
- OqaKBaHIITe OT nOBe,lJ;eHIIeTO (nJIIOCOBe II MIIHYCII);
- pa3JInqHII oc06eHOCTH ml (B'bHllIHII 06CT05ITeJICTBa).
llPII II35ICIDIBaHe Ha MOTIIBaIJ;II5ITa ce IIMaT npe,!J;BII,lJ;:
L
68 AHATOJlI.1M T APAC
- H35IBJIeHlUITa Ha 06eKTa (KaTO He ce 3a6paB5I o6aqe, qe e B'b3-
MO)l(Ha KaKTO npe.n;HaMepeHa, TaKa H HenpOH3BOJIHa - C [(eJI nOJIyqa-
BaHe Ha CO[(HaJIHO o.n;o6peHMe - .n;e3MHcpopMa[(M5I);
- BCMqKM HeBOJIHO M3rrycHaTM .n;yMM M rpelIlKM Ha 06eKTa;
- B'b3HHKBal.[(H y Hero aCO[(Ma[(MM;
- npe.n;nOqMTaHM TeMM 3a pa3rOBOp;
- 3HaHHe 3a HepeaJIM3MpaHH .n;eMCTBM5I (HaMepeHM5I) Ha o6eKTa;
- nOBe.n;eHMe Ha o6eKTa npM KOHKpeTHM cMrya[(MM;
- CTeneHTa Ha HaCTOMqMBOCT npM C6JI'bC'bK C H5IKaKBa npeqKa (rOJIe-
MHHaTa Ha YCMJII15ITa, KOMTO rrpHJIara npMnpeo.n;OJI5IBaHeTO iJ:);
- CYMMpaHOTO BpeMe, KoeTO 06eKT'bT H3nOJI3Ba 3a onpe.n;eJIeHM .n;eMc-
TBI15I MJIM pa3roBopH;
- aK[(eHTMpaHe Ha BHMMaHHeTO My B'bpXy KOHKpeTHM cpaKTopH Ha
cMTya[(I15ITa;
- TMn H MHTeH3MBHOCT Ha eMO[(HOHaJIHHTe peaK[(MH.
4. CbCTaS51He Ha AoclIIe
nOJIyqeHaTa no BpeMe Ha pa3pa6oTKa HHcpopMa[(M5I ce HaHaC5I B
.n;OCHe, KoeTO 3a y.n;06CTBO ce 3arr'bJIBa no onpe.n;eJIeHa cxeMa, C'b.n;'bp-
)l(am;a )];Ba OCHOBHM pa3.n;eJIa:
- .n;aHHM M cpaKTM OT )l(MBOTa Ha qOBeKa;
- XapaKTepHH oco6eHOCTM Ha JIJ1qHOCrra (cpM3MqeCKM, CPYHK[(MOHaJI-
HH, 06m;M, nCMXJ1qeCKM H MHTeJIeKryaJIHM).
npe.n;CTaBeHaTa B .n;OCMeTO HHcpopMa[(MR KaTO npaBMJIO ce .n;on'bJIBa
C )];Be n05ICHeHHR:
- OTK'b.n;e e B3eTa MHcpopMa[(M5ITa (H, pa36Mpa ce, CTeneHTa iJ: Ha Ha-
.n;e)l(.n;HOCT) ;
- KaK KOHKpeTHO T5I 6M MOrJIa.n;a ce M3n0JI3Ba.
B nO-npe[(M3HOTO .n;OCMe nOHRKOra ce BKJIlOqBa M Cne[(MaJIeH pa3.n;eJI
C KOH[(eHTPHpaHM CBe.n;eHM5I, OCMrypRBam;M OnTHMaJIeH HaTMCK B'bpxy
06eKTa B HY)l(HHR MOMeHT.
TMnOBM5IT BapMaHT Ha pa60THOTO .n;OCMe ce cpopMMpa 06MKHOBeHO
no CJIe.n;HI15I HaqMH:
i
I
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
JII1QHO ,lJ;OCI1E
I. ,11;aHHH H 4>aKTH OT Ha
69
(3a opMeHTMp K'bM BCeKM cpparMeHT ce npMJIara KOMeHTap, oT6e-
]ln3Bam; (A) - OTK'b.n;e MoraT .n;a ce nonyqaT Te3M CBe.n;eHM5I, M (0) - C
KaKBO MoraT Te .n;a 6'b.n;aT nOJIe3HM.)
1. MMe, npe3uMe, ifjaMUIlUfl
(A) - JIJ1qHM,n;oKYMeHTM, ,n;eJIOBM M JIMqHM KHJ1)I(a, nom;a, KOHTaKTbO-
pH ...
(0) - opMeHTa[(HR 3a Ha[(MOHaJIHOCT, PO)J;HHHH Mnpe)l;[(H, npe.n;CTaBa
3a rrpeTeH[(HHTe H B'b3rJIe)J;HTe Ha po.n;HTeJIHTe, C'b.n;eMCTBHe npH KOH-
TaKTH ...
2. IIapaAell1-lu UMe1-la, np038uU{a, nCe8001-lUMU U mJlX1-Iomo U3n01l3-
aa1-le (Kora, K'b,n;e, 3am;O, CTeneH Ha KpMeHeTo MM, npJ1qHHM ... )
(A) nHCMa, JIHqHH KHH)I(a, TeJIecpoHHH H 06MKHoBeHH pa3roBopH,
KOHTaKTbOpH ...
(0) 3a onpe.n;eJIeHO B'b3,n;eMcTBHe (.n;a ce H3HeHa,n;a C OCBe.n;OMeHOCT,
,n;a ce 3anJIalIlH ... ), 3a M3xo.n;eH KOHTaKT (napoJIa nOTB'bp)l()l;eHHe ... ), npH
H3RCHRBaHe Ha KOHTaKTbOpHTe ...
3. pama 1-Ia pa:JICoa1-le, 300UaKaAe1-l 31-1aK U 8b3pacm (no HaJIJ1qHI15I
nacnopT, cpaKTJ1qeCKH, CTeneH Ha KpMeHe, npJ1qMHH ... )
(A) JIJ1qHH .n;oKYMeHTH, KOHTPOJIHa KapTa (B pa60TaTa, B .n;OMOyn-
paBJIeHHeTO, B naCnOpTHI15I OT.n;eJI, B'bB BoeHHOTO oKp'b)l(Me, 60JIHH[(a-
Ta, 6H6JIMOTeKaTa, MHCTHTYTa ... ); KOHTaKTbopM, no.n;ap'b[(M, n03.n;paB-
JIeHHR;
(:0) npe.n;nOJIaraeMM B'b3rJIe.n;M (KoHcepBaTM3M'bT Ha cTapocTTa,
pOMaHTH3M'bT Ha MJIa,n;ocrra, pa[(HOHaJIH3M'bT Ha 3peJIOCrra ... ) M MO-
THBa[(MH (ceKc, KapHepa, )l(eJIaHMe 3a cnoKoMcTBMe ... ), CPH3HOJIOrMq-
HH B'b3MO)l(HOCTH Ha opraHH3Ma (cpH3HqeCKa CMJIa, 060H5IHMe, CJIyx,
naMeT, H3,n;P'b)l(JIHBOCT ... ), BpeMe 3a OnTHMaJIHO B'b3,n;eMcTBMe (6HO-
pHTMHKa ... ), nOBO.n; 3a C6JIM)I(aBaHe (BM3MTa; n03.n;paBJIeHHe, no,n;a-
p'bK ... ).
4. Mflcmo 1-Ia pa:JICoa1-le (CTPaHa, CeJIMm;e, KJIMMaT, npJ1qJ1HH ... )
(A) JIHqHM .n;oKYMeHTH M KOHTPOJIHM KapTM, KOHTaKTbopM, CaMI15IT
TOM ...
(:0) npe.n;cTaBa 3a HRKOM oc06eHocTM Ha JIJ1qHOCrra (ceKcyaJIHOCT,
arpecMBHocT, CKJIOHHOCT K'bM onpe.n;eJIeHM 60JIeCTM ... ), nOBo.n; 3a C6JIM-
)KaBaHe (3eMJI5I[(M ... ), ThpCeHe Ha )l(M3HeHM nepHneTMM ...
5. Hal{uo1-lall1-locm (no HaJIMqHrnl nacnopT, cpaKTMqeCKM, CTeneH Ha
KpHeHe, npJ1qMHa, qYBCTBO 3a 06m;HoCT ... )
L
70 AHATOnll1Iii T APA(
(A) JIIIqHII .Il:OKYMeHTII II KOHTPOJIHII KapTlI, KOHTaKThOp", B'bHrnHM,
CaM1I5IT Toil...
(E) rrpe.Il:CTaBa 3a H5IKOII oc06eHocTII Ha JIHqHOCrra (II B'b3MO)l(HM
MOTIIBan;IIII) (KOH<POPM1I3'bM, "CaMO)l(IIBOcT" ... , qyB-
CTBO 3a eJIHTapHOCT, JIOKaJIHa Bpa)}(.Il:e6HOCT . ) 3a 3MeMCTBaHe Ha 06eKTa
1I MaHIIrryJIan;IIH .
6. Pooumellu (IIMe, rrpe3IIMe, <paMIIJIII5I, .Il:aTa Ha pa)l(,Il;aHe, a.Il:pec,
<l>aMIIJIHII rrpe.IJ:II 6paKa, MlIKpOCpe.Il:a, rrpo<pecII5I, CTeneH Ha 6JIII30CT,
aBTOpHTeTHocT .. )
(A) JInqHII .Il:oKYMeHTII (cBM.Il:eTeJICTBO 3a pa)l(,Il;aHe), JInqHO .Il:OCIIe
(aBT06IIorpa<pII5I), .Il:OMOBII KHHrII, KOHTPOJIHII KapTH (BoeHHo OKp'b)l(IIe,
BY3), pa3JIHqHH aHKeTH, KOHTaKTbopII, CaMII5IT TOM ..
(E) pa36IIpaHe Ha orrpe.Il:eJIeHH oco6eHocTII Ha (B'b3rrlI-
TaHHe), Cpe.Il:CTBO 3a B'b3.Il:eMcTBIIe Ha o6eKTa (rnaHTa)l(, BJIII5IHIIe .. ),
Ha IIH<p0pMaIJ;II5I.
7. CeMeUl-lO nOIlOJICel-lue (C'bCTaB, C Koro )l(IIBee, .Il:aTa Ha cBaT6aTa,
Han;IIOHaJIHOCT Ha C'bnpyraTa (c'brrpyra), KpaTKII .Il:aHHII 3a qJIeHOBeTe
Ha ceMeHcTBoTO, B3aIIMOOTHOrneHII5I, TOH Ha 06rn;ysaHe (aBTOpHTap-
HOCT, paBHOrrpaBIIe ... ), 06rn;a aTMoc<pepa .. )
(A) JIIIqHII .Il:oKYMeHTII II KHll)l(a, IIHCMa, KOHTPOJIHII KapTH, KOHTaK-
ThOpH (pO.IJ:HIIHII, rr03HaTII, pO.Il:IITeJIlI, C'bCe.Il:lI . ), rrO.Il:CJIyrnaHII pa3ro-
BOPII, Ha6JIIO.Il:eHII}I, CaMII5IT TOM .
(E) Cpe.Il:CTBa 3a B'b3.Il:eHCTBHe B'bpXy 06eKTa (rnaHTa))(, 3aBOaJIIIpa-
HO BJIII5IHIIe ... ), II351CH5IBaHe Ha MOTIIBan;lIIITe (ceKcYaJIHa HeY.Il:OBJIeT-
BopeHocT, JII060B K'bM .Il:en;aTa . ), TOqHII II3TOqHHn;II Ha IIH<popMan;II5I,
H5IKaKBII B'b3MO)l(HOCTII 3a C6JIll)l(aBaHe ..
8. POdl-lUl-lCKU apb3Ku u n03l-lal-lCmaa (6IIBlIlii c'brrpyrII II JII06oBHH-
n;H, )l(IIBeern;H OT.Il:eJIHO .Il:en;a, rrpII5lTeJIII OT .Il:eTlIHCTBO, KOJIerii OT pa6o-
TaTa, rr03HaTII rro X06II, rr03HaTII", PO.Il:HIIHII OT e.IJ:HaTa 1I OT
.Il:pyraTa cTPaHa ... , TeXHIITe IIMeHa, a.Il:peCII, TeJIe<poHII, B'b3paCT, o6pa-
30BaHIIe, 3aHIIMaHIIe, CTeneH 1I rrpnqIIHa 3a 6JIII30crra ... )
(A) rrO.Il:CJIyrnaHII pa3roBopH II oTBopeHII rrHCMa, Ha6JIIO.Il:eHIIe, KOH-
TaKThOpII, JIIIqHlI crrOMeHaBaHII5I, qaCTHlI KHII)l(a (Te<pTepqeTa, cTapH
nHCMa II KapTHqKH, rrapqeHn;a OT 6eJIe)l(KH II HOM epa Ha TeJIe<pOHII B'bp-
xy pa3JIHqHII HOClITeJIII) ...
(E) HOBII II3TOqHIIn;II Ha II351CH5IBaHe Ha H5IKOII MOTH-
Ban;IIII, <paKTopii 3a B'b3.Il:eMCTBIIe (qpe3 T5IX, qpe3 3anJIaXa 3a T5IX ... ),
Cpe.Il:CTBa 3a nOrra.Il:aHe Ha 06eKTa II B'b3MO)l(HOCT 3a C6mI)l(aBaHe C Hero,
JI'b)l(JIIIBa CJIe.Il:a rrpii HeyrpaJIII3IIpaHeTO My ...
9. flapmui:mocm u peIlUZU03l-l0Cm (qJIeHCTBO, aKTIIBHOCT, "CM5IHa
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
71
aa napTIIHHOCrra" II npIIqIIHa 3a TOBa, OTHOrneHIIe K'bM .Il:pyriiTe nap-
TIIH II TeXHIITe JIII.Il:epH ... )
(A) JIHqHH .Il:OKYMeHTH H KOHTPOJIHII KapTII, YJIOBeHH pa3roBopii II
cnyqaHHII Ha6JIIO.Il:emrn, KOHTaKTbOpii H CaMII5IT TOH, CJIYXOBe II npe-
ca ...
(E) H35ICH5IBaHe Ha H5IKOH II qepTII Ha xapaKTepa (II.Il:
ea
-
JIH3'bM, KapIIepII3'bM, Han;IIOHaJIH3'bM ... ), cpe.Il:CTBa 3a B'b3.Il:eHCTBlIe
(JIIaHTa)lmpaHe qpe3 .Il:HCKpe.Il:IITHpaHe, nOTHCKaHe C aBTOpHTeT .. ), H3-
BeCTHII B'b3MO)l(HOCTII 3a C6JIH)l(aBaHe, nOBO.Il: 3a BKJIIOqBaTe B HrpaTa,
JI'b)l(JlHBa CJIe.Il:a npH HeyrpaJIH3IIpaHe ...
10. 06pa30aal-lUe u cneLfualll-locm (KaKBo, K'b.Il:e, Kora, C Koro, OTHO-
JIIeHHe K'bM TOBa, BaJIII.IJ:HOCT Ha .Il:IInJIOMaTa, .Il:aJIII e pa60THJI no Ta31I
3arn;0 He, IICKa JIll .Il:a pa60TH .. )
(A) JInqHII .Il:eJIa, KOHTPOJIHlI KapTII (BoeHHo OKp'b)l(He, nacrropTeH
OT.Il:eJI ... ), TPY.Il:0Ba KHll)l(Ka, KOHTaKTbOpII, CJIyxoBe II CrrJIeTHII, CaMII5IT
TOH ...
(E) rrpe.Il:CTaBa 3a B'b3MO)l(HOCTHTe B KapHepaTa H B'b3r-
JIe.Il:H 3a )l(lIBOTa, rrOrra.Il:aHe Ha Bep05ITHII KOHTaKTbopii (C'bCTY.Il:
eHTII
,
rrperrO.Il:aBaTeJIII ... ) 3a H3rr0JI3BaHeTO IIM KaTO IIH<popMaTopH IIJIII cpe.Il:-
CTBO 3a C6JIII)l(aBaHe, II35ICH5IBaHe Ha rroKpoBIITeJIIITe, nOBO.Il:H 3a B'bB-
JInqaHe B IIrpaTa ..
11. 06Yl lel-lUe nOl-laCmOflU{eM (K'b.Il:e, KaK, 3arn;0, no Koe BpeMe, C Koro)
(A) JInqHII .Il:OCIIeTa, KOHTaKTbOpII, CJIYXOBe, CaMII5IT TOH ...
(E) H351CH5IBaHe Ha H5IKOH opIIeHTan;HII II qepTII Ha xapaKTepa, H5IKOII
B'b3MO)l(HOCTII 3a CJIll)l(aBaHe, 060cHoBKa 3a BKJIIOqBaHe B IIrpaTa, II3-
61IpaHe Ha MOMeHTII 3a KOHKpeTHII aKn;IIII ...
12. Biladeel-le l-la e3uLfu (KaKBII, KaK, K'b.Il:e, CTerreH Ha npIIKpHBaHe
HJIII rop.Il:OcT)
(A) JIlIqHH .Il:OCHeTa (aHKeTa, aBT06IIorpa<pII5I), rrpe.Il:HIJ1HII MeCTO-
)l(HTeJICTBa, qIITaTeJICKII KapTII OT 6II6JIIIOTeKII, nOJIyqaBaHa II KYnyBa-
Ha rrpeca, Ha6JIIO.Il:eHHe, KOHTaKTbOpII, CaMII5IT TOH ...
(E) KaKBII ca B'b3MO)l(HOCTIITe 3a C6JIII)l(aBaHe (.Il:eJIOBII rrpe.Il:JIo)l(e-
HII5I, C'b.Il:eHCTBHe B II3yqaBaHeTo ... ), HeJIOJII rrpe.Il:JIor 3a B'bBJInqaHe B
MrpaTa ...
13. flpocj5ealfl, Mecmopa6oma, cilYJICe6l-lu 3aObllJICel-lUfl (B HaCT05l-
llJ,II5I MOMeHT, B MIIHaJIOTO, KOJIKO e pa60TIIJI, Kora e HarrycHaJI, rrpIIqlI-
HM 3a HarrycKaHe (o<pHn;HaJIHII II peaJIHH), OTHOrneHH5I C KOJIerHTe, paB-
HMrn;e Ha rrpo<pecHOHaJIII3'bM, OTHorneHIIe K'bM pa60TaTa, rpa<pHK Ha
pa60Ta, paBHIIrn;e Ha .Il:0nYCK, HOMepa Ha CJIY)l(e6HHTe TeJIe<po
HlI
, a.Il:-
Ll
72
AHATOJlI.1111 T APAC
(A) JIHqmI )J,ocMeTa, KOHTPOJIHM KapTM, TpY)J,oBa KHM)KKa, KOHTaK-
TbOpM (pO)J,HMHH, n03Ham, KOJIerH OT pa60TaTa ... ), CJIyxoBe, Ha6JIIO)J,e-
HMe, caMMHT Toil...
(6) M3HCHHBaHe Ha HHKOM MOTMBaQMM, qepTM OT xapaKTepa, B'b3rJIe-
)J,M 3a )KMBOTa, cTpeMe)KM, YH3BMMM MeCTa; M3HCHHBaHe Ha KOHTaKTbO-
pMTe 3a nOJIyqaBaHe Ha MHcpopMaQMH (KOJIem OT pa60TaTa), M3HCHHBa-
He Ha n'bmr:u;aTa 3a C6JIM)KaBaHe, cpe)J,CTBaTa 3a B'b3)J,eMCTBMe, HHKOM
B'b3MO)KHOCm 3a OTCTpaHHBaHe, nOBO)J,M 3a B'bBJInqaHe B MrpaTa, JI'b)K-
JIMBa CJIe)J,a npM HeYTPaJIM3aQMH ...
14. IlepcneKmu8ume Ha Kapuepama (npocpecMOHaJIH3'bM, JIMqHOCT-
HM KaqeCTBa, HeqHH nO)J,Kpena .. )
(A) KOHTaKTbOpM (KOJIem OT pa60TaTa M CJIe)J,BaHeTO, PO)J,HMHM, CTa-
pH n03Ham, 6JIM3KH npHHTeJIM, eKcnepTH), CJIYXOBe, npeQM3eH aHaJIM3
Ha )J,eMHOCTTa M JInqHOCTTa.
6) cpe)J,cTBa 3a B'b3)J,eMcTBMe Ha 06eKTa, )J,06PM B'b3MO)KHOCTM 3a
C6JIll)KaBaHe, JI'b)KJIMBa CJIe)J,a npM HeYTPaJIM3aQHH ...
15. Ilpe/loMHu emanu 8 6uozpauflma (Kora, 3ar:u;0, KaK ca nOBJIMH-
JIM . )
(A) JIMqHO )J,OCMe (aBT06MorpacpMH), TpY)J,oBa KHM)KKa (Ka)J,poBa
cnpaBKa), nepCOHaJIHM )J,oKYMeHTM (perMCTpaQHM B nacnopTa, neqam
B'bB BoeHHaTa KHll)KKa ... ), JIWiHM apxMBM (cTapM nMcMa, CHMMKH .. ), KOH-
TaKTbOpM, cnyxoBe, caMHHT TOM ..
(6) M3HCHHBaHe Ha HHKOM qepTM OT xapaKTepa, acneKm Ha YH3BH-
MOCT ..
16. Jb060numHu MOMeHmu om 6uozpauflma (Kora, KaKBO, yqacT-
HHQH, nocJIe)J,HQH, acpHllIHpaHocT HaBpeMeTo, KOM or:u;e 3Hae, KOM He
6
" "
HBa )J,a 3Hae, CTeneH Ha KpHeHe ... )
(A) nO)J,CJIYIlIBaHe Ha TeJIecpoHHH H Ha 06HKHoBeHH pa3roBopH, OT-
BapHHe Ha nHCMa, H3yqaBaHe Ha npecaTa, cnyxoBe, npoHHKBaHe C 06HCK
(Ha K'bCMeT), MHeHHe Ha KOHTaKTbOpHTe, H3yqaBaHe Ha 6eJIHTe neTHa B
aBT06HorpacpHHTa H TpY)J,oBaTa KHll)KKa, JIOBKO pa3KpHBaHe npH pa3-
nHT .
(6) cpe)J,cTBa 3a CHJIHO B'b3)J,eMcTBHe, BapHaHT 3a HeYTpaJIH3aQHH ...
17. 30pa8e u 60/lecmu (Kora, OT KaKBO, He e JIM XPOHMqHO 60JIeH,
)J,McnaHcepM3MpaH JIM e, C'bOTBeTCTBa JIM Ha B'b3paCTTa, K'b)J,e M npM Koro
ce JIeKYBa, OTHOIlIeHMe K'bM HeTpa)J,MQMOHHaTa Me)J,MQMHa .. )
(A) Me)J,MQMHCKM KapToHM, KOHTaKTbopM, caMMHT TOM, B'bHIlIeH BM))"
JIeKYBar:u; JIeKap.
(6) npe)J,cTaBa 3a qepTMTe Ha xapaKTepa, cpe)J,cTBa 3a B'b3)J,eMCTBMe,
HHKOM B'b3MO)KHOCTM 3a C6JIll)KaBaHe (06r:u;HOCT, HOBM JIeKapCTBa, HaM-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CU2ypHocm
73
)1,06POTO JIeqeHMe, Bp'b3KH C JIeKapM M JIeqMTeJIM, n'bT 3a "mxo" HeYTpa-
JlH3HpaHe .. )
18. MeCTO)KMBeeHe (cera, B MMHaJIOTO, npMqMHa 3a CMHHaTa, )J,aJIM
)I<HBee TaM, K'b)J,eTO e perMCTpMpaH, a aKO He - TO K'b)J,e, MOTMBM 3a
TOBa, MeCTa Ha BpeMeHHO 06MTaBaHe (npHHTeJIM, PO)J,HMHM, KBapmpM
no)J, HaeM .. )
(A) JIlfqHM )J,oKYMeHm, KOHTpOJIHM Kapm, nacnopTeH OT)J,eJI, KOHTaK-
Tbopn, CaMHHT TOM, ATIJ. (no HOMepa Ha TeJIecpOHa), npOCJIeMBaHe ...
(6) cpe)J,cTBa 3a B'b3)J,eMcTBMe (JIOKaJIeH Tepop ... ), B3eMaHe no)J, BHM-
MaHMe B MrpaTa (3a nOHBa HaOKOJIo .. ), B'b3MO)KHOCm 3a C6JIM)KaBaHe
(pa3xOp;Ka Ha KyqeTa .. ), "e)J,HO HaYM" npM HeYTPaJIM3aQMH (mn Hana-
)J,eHMe . ), T'bpCeHe npM He06xo)J,HMOCT ..
19. Eumo8u yC/l08Uf1 u Ol{eHKama UM (6pOM Ha CTaMTe, MeTpa)!(, mn
Ha anapTaMeHTa, KOJIKO p;yllIH )KllBeHT (no )J,OKYMeHTM M cpaKTlfqecKH), Ha
Koro npMHa)J,JIe)KM, KaK e nonyqeH, 06CTaHOBKa M Y)J,06cTBa, npecTll)K-
HOCT M Y)J,06cTBO Ha paMoHa .. )
(A) KapToTeKM Ha )KMJIMr:u;HMTe OT)J,eJIM, )J,OMOBM KHMrM, KOHTaKTbO-
pM (C'bce)J,H, n03HaTM, OT KOMYHaJIHMTe M cepBM3a,
)J,eQa .. ), caMHHT TOM, aHaJIOrMH (CTaH)J,apTHOCT Ha anapTaMeHTMTe ... ),
HapOqHO M3npaTeH noceTHTeJI.
(6) M3HCHHBaHe Ha OT)J,eJIHM qepTM OT xapaKTepa (o6cTaHoBKaTa) M
MomBaQHMTe (pa3nOJIO)KeHMe), nOMOr:u; npM npoHMKBaHe B nOMer:u;eHM-
eTO c pa3JIMqHM QeJIM (TaMHO )J,a ce M33eMe MJIM )J,a ce CJIO)KM Her:u;o, )J,a
ce MOHTMpaT ,,6p'bM6apM", )J,a ce HeYTPaJIM3Mpa qOBeK .. )
20. Ha/lUllUe Ha 8U/la (paMoH, napQeJI, TMn Ha crpa)J,aTa, C'bCe)J,M,
KyneHa MJIM nocTpoeHa, c KaKBM cpe)J,cTBa, KOM M Kora H M3nOJI3Ba, KOM
MMa KJIlOqOBe, KaK ce CTMra)J,O MHCTOTO ... )
(A) OT)J,eJI 3a pemcTpaQMH, KOHTaKTbOpn, caMHHT TOM, npOCJIeMBa-
He... .
(6)J,a ce MMa npe)J,BM)), B MrpaTa, 06JIeKqaBaHe Ha KOHTpOJIa, nOBO)J,
3a 3an03HaHCTBO, BapMaHT 3a HeYTPaJIM3aQHH ...
21. MamepuallHu YCIl08Uf1 (3anJIaTa, HaCJIe)J,CTBO, cTpaHnqHM M3TOq-
HMQM Ha )J,OXO)J,M, KOJIKO M Kora nOJIyqaBa, KOJIKO M Ha Koro e )J,JI'b)KeH, OT
Koro 06MKHoBeHo B3eMa Ha 3aeM ... )
(A) CqeTOBO)J,CTBO, KOHTaKTbOpM, CaMMHT TOM, npOCJIe)J,HBaHe ...
(6) M3HCHHBaHe Ha B'b3MO)KHMTe MOTMBaQMM (nOJIyqaBaHe Ha napM,
)KeJIaHMe)J,a ce CKpMHT peaJIHOCTMTe M KOHTaKTMTe ... ), cpe)J,cTBo 3a B'b3-
)J,eMcTBne B'bpXY 06eKTa (lliaHTa)K, no)J,Kyn ... )
22. C06cm8eHuK Ha KOlla (Mo)J,eJI, HOMep, MHCTO Ha perMcTpaQMH
(rpa)J,), Ha MMe e pemcTpMpaHa, KOM M KaK H Kapa, KOM 51 M3nOJI3Ba,
74 AHATOmlIil T APAC
Kora e r<yIIeHa, KOJIKO e ImaTeHO, OTKb,Il;e ca napHTe, HMa JIH TPY,Il;HOCTI1
C peMOHTa H pe3epBHHTe qaCTH, Kb,Il;e CTOH, HMa JIH rapa:>K, npOBepeHa
JIH e 3a Kpa)J(6a, THn CHrHaJIH3alUUI, Kapa JIH C He5I ,Il;pyrH xopa ... )
(A) KOHTaKTbOpH (pO,Il;HHHH H n03HaTH, xopa OT aBTocepBH3a) ... npoc-
JIeMBaHe, KAT, caMH5IT ToiL.
(E) cpe,Il;CTBO 3a HanICK, 06JIeKqaBaHe Ha BH3YaJIHH5I KOHTPOJI, B3e-
MaHe npe,Il;BH,Il; B HrpaTa, H3BeCTHH (H5IKOH) Bb3MO)J(HOCTH 3a C6JIH)J(a-
BaHe, BapHaHT 3a HeYTPaJIH33QH5I ...
23. Te./le01i (HoMepaTa Ha ,Il;OMallIHH5I, cny)J(e6HH5I H Ha MeCTaTa,
Kb,Il;eTO qeCTO rrpe6HBaBa)
(A) KOHTaKThOpH (npH5ITeJIH, PO,Il;HHHH H n03HaTH, o6cny)J(Barn; nep-
COHaJI, KOJIerH OT pa60TaTa H no X06H, cneQHaJIHO H3npaTeH noceTH-
TeJI ... ), CaMH5IT TOH, KOHTPOJIa no JIHHH5ITa, ATl( ...
(E) H3pnqHO 3a aHOHHMHO 06rn;yBaHe, rrpH MOHTHpaHe Ha no,Il;cnyur-
BaTeJIHH YCTPOHcTBa, 3a HaTHCK C nOMOrn;Ta Ha 3HaHHeTO, B TeXHHKHTe
3a HeYTPaJIH3aQH5I ...
24. Pa3HU (Bep05ITHO yqaCTHe B oco6eHH MepOnpH5ITH5I, npaBlITeJIC-
TBeHH Harpa,Il;H, M5ICTO Ha BoeHHaTa cJIY)K6a, BOHHCKO 3BaHHe H npo<pe-
CH5I, Bpb3KH C KpHMHHaJIHH JIHqHOCTH, HaJInqIIe Ha Kyqe H KOMnlOTbp,
nO,Il;po6HOCTH OT nbTYBaHH5I B qY)J(6HHa ..
II. Oco6eHocTH Ha JIHqHOCTTa
TIo3HaBaHeTo Ha <pH3HqeCKHTe KaqeCTBa 06JIeKqaBa B3aHMO,Il;eHC-
TBHeTO C o6eKTa, HaMeKBa 3a HerOBaTa npe,Il;pa3nOJIO)J(eHOCT (KbM
60JIeCTH, 60JIKH, aKTHBHoCT .. ), YTOqH5IBa BapHaHTHTe 3a H3nOJI3Ba-
He Ha 06eKTa. BHHMaTeJIHOTO on03HaBaHe Ha <PYHKQHOHaJIHHTe Ka-
qeCTBa e npocTo HeOQeHHMo 3a YCTaHOB5IBaHe peaKQH5ITa Ha o6eKTa
Ha ,Il;a,Il;eHO cbo6rn;eHHe HJIH cb6HTHe (npOM5IHa Ha nOXO,Il;KaTa, Ha
rJIaca, Ha peqTa ... ). 06rn;HTe HlOaHCH OCHryp5IBaT MaKCHMaJIHO on03-
HaBaHe Ha 06eKTa H OCBeTJI5IBaT nCHXOHHTeJIeKTyaJIHH5I pa3,Il;eJI, Bb3
OCHOBa Ha KOHTO ce rpa,Il;H "nCHXOJIOrHqeCKH5IT nopTpeT" Ha HH,Il;H-
BH,Il;a - H3TOqHlIK Ha CBe,Il;eHH5I, 3a npeQH3Ha nO,Il;rOTOBKa Ha neqe-
JIHBurH cxeMH 3a Bep6YBaHe, MaHHnYJIHpaHe, <pH3HQeCKa HJIH ,Il;eJIo-
Ba HeYTpaJIH3aQH5I ... )
A. (J)U3UlfeCKU oco6eHocmu
1. PbCT (HHCbK - Cpe,Il;eH (165-175) - BHCOK).
2. TeJIOCJIo)J(eHHe (aTJIeTHQHO, Ha6HTo, Cpe,Il;HO, cJIa60, ,Il;e6eJIo).
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm 75
3. TerJIo HJIH rrbJIHOTa (MaJIKa, cpe,Il;Ha, rOJI5IMa).
4. OqH (QB5IT, rOJIeMHHa, ,Il;e<peK1'H, oco6eHocTH).
5. Koca (QB5IT, THrr, rrJIeurHBocT, oco6eHocTH).
6. 3b6H (pa3Mep, QB5IT, HaJInqHe Ha ,Il;e<peKTH, THrr Ha H3KYCTBeHH-
Te ... ).
7. Oco6eHH 6eJIe3H (HerrpOrrOPQHOHaJIHH pa3MepH Ha OT,Il;eJIHHTe
qaCTH Ha THJIOTO, 6eJIe3H H TaTYHpoBKH, xapaKTeplUI 6eHKII, HeeCTeCT-
BeH QBHT Ha KO)J(aTa.
5. (J)YHKu,uoHaAHu oco6eHocmu
1. TIoxO,Il;Ka (TeMrro, ,Il;BIDKeHH5I Ha pbQeTe, oc06eHOCTH).
2. )l{eCTHKyJIaQH5I (HHTeH3HBHoCT, HaCOQeHOCT Ha )J(eCTOBeTe, oco-
6eHOCTH).
3. MHMHKa (6oraTcTBo, 6e,Il;HOCT, rr03hOpCTBO, KOHKpeTHocT).
4. YCMHBKa (rroBO,Il;H 3a rr05IBaTa iI, BrreQaTJIeHHe, oco6eHocTH).
5. [JIac (TeM6bp, CHJIa, QHCTOTa, oc06eHOCTH).
6. PeQ (TeMTIO, )J(aproH, HeQeH3ypHa, oc06eHOCTH).
7. )J;HHaMHKa Ha KO)J(aTa (H3MeHeHHe Ha QBeTa, rrOTJIHBoCT ... ).
B. 06w,u oco6eHocmu
1. )l{HTeHcKH HaBHQH (xapecBaHa MY3HKa H JIHTepaTYPa, J1lO6HMH
HarrHTKH H HCTH5I, THrr Ha H3rrOJI3BaHHTe QHrapH, ,Il;OMHHHparn;O HacTPo-
eHHe, pe)J(HM Ha CbH, QeTeHH BeCTHHQH H CrrHCaHH5I, TeMII Ha pa3rOBOp,
HaqnHH 3a rrpeKapBaHe Ha CBo60,Il;HOTO BpeMe, JIlO6HMH MapurpYTH, HaH-
QeCTO rrocern;aBaHH MeCTa, H36HrBaHH MeCTa, rrpe,Il;rrOqnTaHO 06JIeKJIO,
061ftlaHHa rrpnqeCKa, 6pa,Il;a H MYCTaQH, H3rr0JI3BaHe Ha OQHH JIern;H H
oqnJIa, yKpaureHH5I, TIDI xopa, C KOHTO rrpe,Il;rrOQHTa ,Il;a ce cpern;a, KaK
rrpeKapBa omycKaTa CI1) ...
2. Bb3rJIe,Il;H H T5IXHaTa YCTOllqIIBOCT MOPaJIHH, )J(H-
TeHcKH, eCTeTHQeCKH ... ; ,Il;aJIII ce pa3JIHQaBaT H3Ka3BaHH5ITa B 0<PHQHaJI-
Ha o6cTaHoBKa H B JIHqeH KPbr).
3. OTHoureHHe KbM rrpOTHQarn;HTe cb6HTH5I (6e3pa3JIHQHO, HPOHHQ-
HO, eKcTPeMUCTKo ... ).
4. HaQHOHaJIH3bM (rrpHKpuBaHe Ha HaQHOHaJIHOCTTa, rrpeBb3HaC5I-
He Ha CB05ITa HaQH5I, crra3BaHe Ha HaQHOHaJIHHTe TPa,Il;HQHH, OTHoure-
HHe KbM ,Il;pyrH HaQHOHaJIHOCTH ... ).
5. OTHoureHHe KbM PO,Il;HHHH H 6JIH3KH (cTerreH Ha rrpHBbp3aHocT,
qeCToTa H THrr Ha KOHTaKTHTe ... ).
,....
76 AHATOJll.11i1 T APAC
6. OTHOllIeHHe K'bM ce6e CH (B3HcKaTeJIHOCT, H3JIHllIHa CHH3xo,rurreJI-
HOCT, HPOInf'lHOCT, MHeHHe 3a ce6e CH (a,lJ;eKBaTHO, rOmIMO, HHCKO).
7. B'b3MO)KHOCTH (B'bHllIHH: rrOpa,lJ;H ,lJ;eJIOBOTO rrOJIO)KeHHe, rr03HaH-
CTBaTa, PO,lJ;HHHCKHTe Bp'b3KH ... H B'bTpellIHH: rro CHJIaTa Ha JIHqHOCTHH
KaqeCTBa, o6pa30BaHHe, TPeHHpoBKa ... ).
8. YBJIeqeHlUl, KaTO ce rrpocpecHOHaJIH3M'bT H rrpHBJIeKa-
TeJIHOCrra HM ()KeHH, aJIKOXOJI, KYJIHHapH5I, rrapH, rr'bTellIeCTBH5I, crropT,
KOJIeKQHOHHpaHe,rropHorpacpH5I, MY3HKa, TeaT'bp, TeJIeBH30p, KOMrrlO-
T'bP, XPHCTH5IHCTBO, e3HqeCTBO, H3TOqHH peJIHrHH, a3HaTCKO 60HHO
H3KYCTBO, HeTPa,lJ;HD;HOHHa Me,lJ;HD;HHa, OKYJITH3'bM, HCTOPH51, aCTPoJIO-
rH51,HOra,
BO, HapO,lJ;HH 3aHMTH ... ).
9. BCeB'b3MO)KHH YMeHH5I (,lJ;a Kapa KOJIa, ,lJ;a peMOHTHpa KOJIa, ,lJ;a
rrHJIOTHpa CaMOJIeT, ,lJ;a peMOHTHpa TeJIeBH30p, ,lJ;a ce 6He, ,lJ;a cTPemI, ,lJ;a
IIJIysa, ,lJ;a C'b6JIa3H51Ba )KeHHTe, ,lJ;a 3H,lJ;a KaMHHH, ,lJ;a ce OpHeHTHpa B
MeCTHOCT H rrp., H rrp.
10. CTPaHHOCTH (B5Ipa B nOJInq6H, oc06eHH pH1)'aJIH, Heo6HqaHHOCT
B MaHHepHTe, 06JIeKJIOTO, rrpnqeCKaTa ... ).
11. OTHOllIeHHe K'bM pa3JIfiqRHTe aCrreKTH Ha )KHBOTa ()KeHHTe, aJI-
KOXOJIa, rrapHTe, rrpHKJIIOQeHH5ITa, JIHTepaTYPaTa H H3KYCTBOTO, MO,lJ;a-
Ta, 6H3Heca, MaTepHaJIHaTa H3rO,lJ;a, rrpocTHTYD;H5ITa, xOMoceKcYaJIH3-
Ma, HapKOMaHH5ITa, TepopH3Ma, D;eHHTe, aKD;HHTe, rrpHBaTH3aD;H5ITa,
peJIHrHHTe, rrapTHHTe H rrOJIHTnqeCKHTe ,lJ;eHD;H ... ).
12. MOTHBaD;H51 H HepapXH5lTa ir (rrOTPe6HOCT OT cHrypHocT H pa3-
6HpaHe, JIlO6oB K'bM ,lJ;eD;aTa, ceKcYaJIHa He3a,lJ;OBOJIeHocT ... ).
13. CJIa60CTH H Y5l3BHMOCT (B'bTPellIHH: CJIa60CTH Ha xapaKTepa,
cpH3nqeCKH He,lJ;OCTaThD;H, H51KOH HaBHD;H, ",lJ;pe6HH" pa,lJ;ocTH H rropoD;H,
CHJIHH rrpHB'bp3aHocTH ... H B'bHllIHH: ,lJ;eJIHKaTHH MOMeHTH OT 6Horpa-
cpH5lTa, ,lJ;06pe rrpHKpHBaHH aCrreKTH OT JIfiqRH5I H ,lJ;eJIOBH5I )KHBOT ...
14. 3aTPY,lJ;HeHH5I ceKcYaJIHH, HHcpopMaD;HoHHH ... ).
15. QecTOJIlO6HBH 3aMHCJIH (CTPeMe)K K'bM ,lJ;eJIOBa HJIH rrOJIHTnqec-
Ka KapHepa, TaHHa HJIH 51BHa BJIaCT, BC5IKaKBa H3BecTHocT ... ).
16. Bpa)K,lJ;e6HocT: K'bM QOBeK, opraHH3aD;H5I, cTPaHa, HaD;H5I, HaqHH
Ha MHCJIeHe, orrpe,lJ;eJIeHO rrOBe,lJ;eHHe ... ).
17. HeycrrexH (ceMeHHH,rrpocpecHOHaJIHH,,lJ;eJIOBH,JII060BHH,CB'bP-
3aHH C rrpeCTH)Ka ... ).
18. MeTO,lJ;H Ha ,lJ;eHCTBHe (c ,lJ;yMH, C ,lJ;eJIa, C rrp5lKa aTaKa, Qpe3 XHT-
POCT, C KOMrrpOMHC, C qy)K,lJ;H p'bD;e ... ).
19. IIoBe,lJ;eHHe B rrH51Ho C'bCT05lHHe (KOHTPOJIHpyeMocT, C'bJI3JIHBOCT,
,lJ;06pO,lJ;yllIHe, arpecHBHocT ... ).
I
I
Hapbl.JHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm
77
20. IIoBe,lJ;eHHe B eKCTpeMaJIHa cHryaD;H5I ("XB'bPJI5I ce B 60H", 651ra,
H3QaKBa, crroTaHBa ce ... ).
21. IIoBe,lJ;eHHe B rpyrra (cTPeMe)K K'bM JIH,lJ;epCTBO, K'bM rrO,lJ;QHHe-
HHe, K'bM aHapXH5I, K'bM paBHorrpaBHe, K'bM H30JIHpaHocT ... ).
22. EMOD;HOHaJIHa peaKD;H5I (peqeBO rrOBe,lJ;eHHe, CTerreH Ha rrpHKpH-
TOCT Ha qysCTBaTa, xapaKTepHH 3a orrpe,lJ;eJIeHa eMOD;H51 )KeCTOBe H nCH-
XOCPH3HOJIOrnqHH peaKD;HH ... ).
23. CeKcYaJIHH HlOaHCH (cTerreH Ha MOTHBaD;H5I, OTKJIOHeHHe OT HOp-
MaTa, KOHTPOJIHpyeMocT, HaBHD;H ... ).
r. nCUXOAOcUI.JHU U uHmeAeKmyaAHu Kal.JecmBa
:QeJIeC'b06pa3HO e OD;eHKaTa Ha C'bOTBeTHHTe KaQeCTBa ,lJ;a ce rrpaBH
no neT06aJIHaTa CHCTeMa, TOqHO perHcTPHpa.r.u;a CTerreHTa HM Ha H3pa-
351BaHe: "MB" (MHoro BHcoKa), "B" (BHcoKa), "C" (cpe,lJ;Ha), "H" (HHC-
Ka), "MH" (MHoro HHcKa). B CJIyqaH Ha rrOJI5IpeH BapHaHT rro-,lJ;06pe e
,lJ;a ce opHeHTHpaTe rro e,lJ;HH OT rrOJIIOCHTe.
1. MHCJIeHe (KOHKpeTHo-a6cTPaKTHo).
2. Epy,lJ;HD;H5I (06.r.u;a H QacTHa).
3. HHTeJIeKT (,lJ;OrMaTnqHOCT - f'bBKaBocT).
4. Crroco6HoCT 3a aHaJIH3 - rrOB'bpXHOCTHO B'b3rrpH5ITHe.
5. C'b06pa3HTeJIHOCT - ThrrOTa.
6. IIpoHHD;aTeJIHOcT - rrOB'bpXHOCTHOCT.
7. KpHTHQHOCT Ha MHCJIeHeTO - JIeKOBepHe.
8. - cpaHTa3bOpcTBO.
9. KOHCepBaTH3'bM - HOBaTopcTBO.
10. PHcKoBaHocT - HepellIHTeJIHOcT.
11. OTCT'bfiqHBOCT - arpecHBHocT.
12. BCeOT,lJ;aHHOCT - rraCHBHOCT.
13. CTPeMe)K K'bM JIH,lJ;epCTBo -
14. IIpHcrroc06JIeHcTBo - He3aBHCHMOCT.
15. MaueBpeHocT - rrpaBOJIHHeHHocT.
16. JIeKoBepHe - rrO,lJ;03pHTeJIHOcT.
17. JIlO603HaTeJIHOCT - 6e3pa3JIHQHe.
18. BHyllIaeMocT - crroc06HOCT,lJ;a ce rrpeO,lJ;OJI5IBa BHYllIeHHe.
19. C'bBeCTHOcT - rrpaKTHQHOCT.
20. IIpHHD;HrrHocT - KOHCPOPMH3'bM.
21. CHH3XO,lJ;HTeJIHOCT - B3HCKaTeJIHOCT.
22. AnTPYH3'bM - erOH3'bM.
23. B5Ipa B ce6e CH - B5Ipa B 06CT05lTeJICTBaTa.
L
78 AHATOJlVlI1 T APAC
24. OTKPIITOCT (eKcrpaBaraHTHOcT) - 3aTBOpeHOCT (lIHrpaBepTHOcT).
25. CKJIOHHOCT K'bM xlIrpYBaHe - rrpocTO,Ifj'IIllIe.
26. XJIa,IJ;HOKp'bBlIe (KaKTo rrplI orraCHOCT, TaKa II B ClIryar.vrn Ha OqaK-
BaHe) -IIMrryJICIIBHOCT.
27. C,IJ;'bp)l(aHOCT (B rrOCT'brrKIITe, B pa3roBoplITe, B rrO,IJ;aBaHeTO Ha
IIH<popMaQmr...) - pa3rrycHaTocT.
28. YBepeHocT B CIIJIIITe - 6e3rroMOrn;HOCT.
29. )l{ecToKocT - MeKYIIIaBOCT.
30. Xpa6pocT - Crpa:xJIlIBOCT.
31. OTHOIIIeHlIe K'bM 3arrJIaXa (HpOCT - 6e3pa3JII:IqlIe - crpax).
32. Pa6oTocrroc06HoCT B crpecoBa clIryan;mI.
33. ITOHOCIIMOCT Ha 60JIKa B crpecoBII CIITYan;IIlI.
34. E'bp31IHa Ha pearIIpaHe (Ha BHe3aIIHa rrpowlHa Ha TeMara Ha
pa3roBopa, Ha OT,IJ;eJIHII ,IJ;eikTBlUI .. ).
35. EMOn;IIOHaJIHa YCToiiqIIBOCT.
36. CIIJIa II rrpo,IJ;'bJI)l(lITeJIHOCT Ha eMOn;IIIITe.
37. Crroco6HoCT ,IJ;'bJIro ,IJ;a KplIe qyscTBaTa ClIo
38. PaBHIIrn;e Ha rrpeTeHn;IIII.
39. Ha6mo,IJ;aTeJIHOcT.
40. 06e3aTeJIHOcT.
41. TpeBO)l(HOcT.
42. JI'b)l(JIIIBOCT.
43. OTM'bCTlITeJIHOCT.
44. qYSCTBO 3a 6JIarO,IJ;apHocT.
45. Trn;eCTJIaBlIe.
46. CeKcYaJIHOCT.
MH<popMan;lUITa, B3eTa OT ,IJ;OClIeTO, o6lfKHoBeHo ce rrplIJIara 3a:
- Bep6ysaHe Ha o6eKTa;
- MaHlIrryJIlIpaHe Ha o6eKTa;
- rrpe,IJ;BII)l(,IJ;aHe Ha ,IJ;eiicTBmrra Ha o6eKTa;
- 1I3qlfCJUIBaHe Ha orraCHocrra, lI):{Barn;a OT 06eKTa;
- HeyrpaJIlI3lIpaHe Ha o6eKTa.
5. TaKmuKa 3a oqeHKa Ha KaHgugama
CJIe,IJ; KaTO BcecTpaHHo ce 1I3yqlI ,IJ;a,IJ;eH qOBeK, MY ce ,IJ;a:Ba rrpe,IJ;eJIHO
rrpeMepeHa rrOTeHn;lIaJIHa On;eHKa OT rr031In;lUITa Ha:
- BepOJITHOCT 3a Bep6YBaHeTO My;
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm
79
- B'b3MO)l(HOCTIITe My KaTO areHT;
- 1I3rO,IJ;aTa OT rrpIIBJII:IqaHeTO MY;
- plICKa OT rrpIIBJII:IqaHeTO My;
- peaJIHIITe HaCOKII 3a 1I3rrOJI3BaHeTO MY.
ITPII On;eHKaTa Ha BepOJITHOCrra 3a Bep6YBaHeTO Ha ,IJ;a,IJ;eHO JIIIn;e ce
B3eMaT IIpe):{BlI,IJ;:
- HaJIlIqlIeTO Ha B'brpeIIIHII (qepTII Ha xapaKTepa, CJIa60CTII, rropo-
n;lf ... ) II B'bHIIlHlf (KOMrrpOMaT, n;eHIIMII <paKTOPII II xopa ... ) yJI3BIIMOC-
TII;
- <paKTOPII rrpeqKlI (qepTlI Ha xapaKTepa, lI,IJ;eiiHa y6e,IJ;eHOCT, BJIlUI-
HlIe Ha 3HaqlIMlI JII:IqHOCTII, rpy,IJ;HOCTlI 3a rrpJIK KOHTaKT ... ) II OrrTIIMaJI-
HlI B'b3MO)l(HOCTII 3a OTcrpaHJIBaHeTO lIM (HaMaJIJIBaHe Ha 3HaqIIMOCT-
Ta, 3ao6lIKaJIJIHe, 06p'brn;aHe B CBOJI rrOJI3a ... );
- Koii, rro KaKBa rrpI:IqIIHa, KaK II KOJIKO e<peKTlIBHO MO)l(e ,IJ;a crroco6-
CTBa 3a Bep6ysaHeTO ...
ITPII On;eHKaTa Ha B'b3MO)l(HOCTlITe Ha 06eKTa KaTO areHT ce B3eMaT
rrpe,IJ;BlI,IJ;:
- B'brpeIIIHIITe KaqeCTBa Ha JlI:IqHOcrra (YM, Ha6mo,IJ;aTeJIHOCT, aK-
TlIBHOCT, paBHlIrn;e Ha rrpeTeHn;IIlITe, KOHTaKTHOCT, CKJIOHHOCT K'bM PIICK,
yrroplIToCT, XJla,IJ;HOKp'bBlIe, CMeJIOCT, ... );
- B'bHIIIIITe <paKTOPII (rrplUlTeJIII, IIMa:IIJ;1I IIH<popMan;IIJI, PO,IJ;HIIHlI II
rr03HaTII, B'b3MO)l(HOCTII 3a BJIlUIHlIe B'bpxy KJIlOqOBII xopa II B'bpXy XO,IJ;a
Ha C'b6IITlUITa rrOpa,IJ;1I aBToplITeTa lIJIlI CJIY)l(e6HOTO rrOJIO)l(eHlIe, 06-
IIIIIpHII KOHTaKTlI ... ).
ITPII On;eHKaTa Ha 1I3rO,IJ;aTa OT rrplIBJIlIqaHeTO (Bep6YBaHeTo) Ha
o6eKTa ce On;eHJIBaT:
- rrOJIe3HOCrra Ha lIH<popMan;IIJlTa II rrpoqee c'b,IJ;eiiCTBlIe, KOIITO ce
npe,IJ;rroJIara ,IJ;a 6'b,IJ;aT ,IJ;o6lITlI;
- CTerreHTa Ha HaJII:IqHIITe II rrOTeHQlIaJIHlITe MY B'b3MO)l(HOCTII ,IJ;a
BJIIIJIe B'bpXy XO,IJ;a Ha C'b6IITIIJITa IIJIII B'bpXy KOHKpeTHII JIIIn;a;
- CTerreHTa Ha rpy,IJ;HOCT ,IJ;a ce rrpOHIIKHe OTB'bH B ,IJ;a,IJ;eHa rpyrra IIJIII
cpe,IJ;a;
- IIIaHCOBeTe 3a 1I3rr0Jl3BaHe Ha 06eKTa 3a BHe,IJ;pJIBaHe Ha CBOII xopa
B opraHII3a:QlUITa;
- aCrreKT'bT Ha 3ary6a B HerOBO JllID;e Ha aKTlIBeH rrpOTlIBHHK.
L
80 AHATOJlItIH T APAC
TIpM OueHKaTa Ha pMCKa OT Bep6YBaHeTO Ha 06eKTa ce rrpeueHHBaT:
- B'b3MO)KHOCTHTe 3a aKTHBHO-HeraTMBHa peaKJJ;H}l Ha rrpe,l1;JIO)KeHH-
eTO 3a C'bTPY)J;HHqeCTBO;
- )J;OKOJIKO e He)KeJIaTeJIHO pa3KpHBaHeTO Ha JIMqHOCTTa Ha Bep6YBa-
IlUlTe (rrpeqKH B 6'b)J;el.I(aTa )J;eHHOCT, "XB'bpJI}lHe Ha C}lHKa" B'bpXY KOH-
TaKTbopMTe ... );
- )J;OKOJIKO e Bpe)J;Ha rrpOHBaTa Ha HHTepeC K'bM KOHKpeTHa TeMa HJIn
opraHH3aUH}l ()J;aJIH l.I(e H30CTPM BHMMaHHeTO, MJIH l.I(e YCJIO)KHH Ha6e-
JIH3aHaTa pa3pa60TKa, )J;aJIH l.I(e rrOCJIY)KH KaTO HHIlIKa 3a aKTHBHa KOH-
TPaHrpa ... );
- CTerreHTa Ha YBepeHOCT, qe 06eKT'bT H}lMa)J;a C'b061.I(H Ha "CBOHTe"
(orraCHOCT OT ,,)J;BOHHa Hrpa" ... );
- pa3Mep'bT Ha rrpe3 KOHTO rrpOTHBHMK'bT 6H MOr'bJI
)J;a ce )J;06epe )J;O Bep6yaal.I(aTa CTpYKTypa, H C'bl.I(eCTBYBaI.I(HTe B'b3-
MO)KHOCTH 3a HaH-6'bp30TO H 3aTBapHHe.
OueHHBaHKH rrepCrreKTHBHHTe rr'bTHl.I(a 3a 3a.n;eHCTBaHe Ha 06eKTa,
ce orrpe)J;eJIH:
- KaK TOH)J;a ce H3rrOJI3Ba HaH-H3rO)J;HO (KaTO HH<popMaTOp, areHT 3a
BJIH}lHHe, )J;e3MH<popMaTOp, HapyrnHTeJI Ha e)J;MHCTBOTO, KaTO CBp'b3Ka,
rrpOBOKaTOp, rrOMOI.I(HHK B aKJJ;HH . );
- )J;amr CM cTPyaa 06eKT'bT )J;a 6'b)J;e H3)J;HraH Ha KJllOqOBO M}lCTO B
HerOBaTa OpraHH3aUHH H )J;OKOJIKO rrOCJIe)J;HOTO e rrOCTH)KMMO.
CJIe)J; KaTO ce HanpaBM aHaJIM3 Ha BCMqKH B'b3MO)KHH rrJllOCOBe H
MHHYCH OT rrpHBJIMqaHeTO Ha 06eKTa K'bM C'bTPy.n;HHqeCTBO H KaTO ce
B3eMaT rrpe)J;BH)J; rrOTPe6HOCTMTe Ha TeKYru;aTa cHryaUH}l, ce rrpaBH C'b-
OTBeTHOTO 3aKJIlOqeHHe:
" (6 JI" - ,,)J;a ce Bep6YBa crrellIHO )J;OpH aKO 0 eKT'bT Ol.I(e He e "Y3PH ,
BpeMeTO He qaKa);
- ,,)J;a ce H3qaKa C Bep6YBaHeTO" (HHMa HBHa He06xo)J;MMOCT, H}lMa
)J;eHCTBeH KOMrrpOMaT, 06eKT'bT He e )J;OBe)J;eH )J;O He06xo)J;HMaTa rOTOB-
HOCT ... );
- "rr'bJIeH OTKa3 OT Bep6YBaHe" (TB'bp)J;e HHI.I(O)l<Ha e BepOHTHOCTTa
OT C'brJIaCHe, rOJIHM e PHCK'bT OT ,,)J;BOHHa Hrpa", He CH cTPyaa . ).
Hapbl.JHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 81
6. npOBe>KAaHe Ha Bep6YBaHeTO
CJIe)J; KaTO e C'bCTaBeH rrCHXOJIOrHqeCKH rropTpeT Ha 06eKTa H ca
npeueHeHH HerOBHTe B'b3MO)KHOCTH, TPY)J;HOCTH H CTPeMe)KH, 06HKHO-
BeHO ce H3}lCHHBaT MOTHBHTe, crroc06HH )J;a CKJIOHHT Ha6eJIH3aHHH qO-
BeK K'bM C'bTPY)J;HHqeCTBO. HaH-qecTO cperu;aHHTe rro)J;6Y)K)J;anur MOMeH-
Tn ca CJIe)J;HHTe:
- rrOJIHTHqeCKH HJIH peJIHrH03HM y6e)K)J;eHH}l;
- CTPeMe)K K'bM BJIaCT;
- rrpe)J;CTaBH;
- HaUHOHaJIM3'bM;
- Tru;eCTJIaBHe;
- rrpeyaemrqeHO MHeHHe 3a c06cTBeHHTe MY crroc06HOCTH;
- M'bCT;
- MaTepHaJIHH TPY)J;HOCTH;
- CTpax (OT KOMrrpOMeTHpaHe, <pM3HqeCKO B'b3)J;eHCTBHe, 3apa)J;M
)J;pyrM xopa.,.);
- aJIqHOCT (KaTO qepTa OT xapaKTepa);
- C'bCTPa)J;aHHe (KaTO qepTa OT xapaKTepa);
- JIl060B CTPaCT;
- 06Hq K'bM )J;euaTa;
- )KHTeHCKH CJIa60CTH H rropOUH (rrH}lHCTBO, xa3apTHH HrpH, )KeHH,
XOMoceKcyaJIH3'bM, HapKOTHUH, cH6apHHCTBO).
6 " MOTHBH 3a Bep6YBaHe Ha HHTeJIeKTYaJIUH, "BMTaeI.I(H B 0 JIaUHTe ,
MoraT )J;a 6'b)J;aT CTPeMe)KHTe HM K'bM:
- TaHHa BJIaCT;
- Hrpa C'bC 3aKOHHTe;
- 3HaHHe Ha HeI.I(O, KoeTO He MoraT )J;a 3HaHT OCTaHaJIHTe;
- rrpOHHKBaHe B TaHHHTe ..
TIOJIe3HO e )J;a ce 3Hae, qe Ha BceKH qOBeK My e TPY)J;HO )J;a rrpeo)J;OJIee
B ce6e CH:
- JIl060BTa CTPaCT;
- 06HqTa K'bM )J;euaTa;
- Tl.I(eCTJIaBHeTO;
- cTPaxa ...
He 6HBa )J;a ce 3a6paBH, qe CHJIaTa Ha rrpoHBa Ha OT)J;eJIHH qYBCTBa
qecTO ce rrpoMeHH C TeqeHHe Ha BpeMeTo H ce rrOMaBa Ha H3BeCTHa
L
82
AHATOJH'IJi1 T APAC
T03H cpaKT TpH6Ba )J;a ce OTqHTa npH nO)J;60pa Ha KOHKpeTHH-
Te MeTO)J;H 3a B'b3)J;eHCTBHe B'bpXY HHJJ;HBH)J;a.
KoraTO npeKpaCHO 3Haern KaKBO My TPH6Ba Ha qOBeKa H IfMarn B'b3-
MO)l(HOCTTa )J;a My ro )J;a)J;ern HJIH OTHeMeIll, MHoro JIeCHO e )J;a CTaHern
HerOB nOBeJIHTeJI.
Bep6YBaHeTO MO)l(e )J;a ce npOBe)l()J;a:
- OT HMeTO Ha Bep6YBarn;aTa
- 6e3 Henocpe)J;cTBeHO H3HCHHBaHe KOH Bep6YBa, npH KoeTO Me)l()J;Y
)J;pyrOTO ce )J;aBa H3BeCTHa B'b3MO)l(HOCT 3a npe)J;nOJIO)l(eHHe ("HaMeK-
Barn;O Bep6YBaHe");
- nO)J; "qy)l()J; cpJIar" HJIH OT IfMeTO Ha C'bBCeM He3a6eJIe)l(HMa CTPYK-
TYpa (qOBeK), KOHTO He npe)J;H3BIfKaT HenpHH3'bH, a )J;OpH 06paTHOTO -
onpe)J;eJIeHa CHMllaTHH (,,3aJI'brBarn;0 Bep6YBaHe").
- OT HMeTO Ha )J;a)J;eHa C nOCJIe)J;Barn;O - KoraTO 06eK-
TbT e Beqe nO)J;KOHTPOJIeH - pa3KpHBaHe Ha peaJIHHH P'bKOBO)J;HTeJI ("CTe-
neHYBaHO Bep6YBaHe").
llO,mcO)J;'bT npH Bep6YBaHe:
- "roperu;" (KoraTO Bep6YBarn;IfHT npaBIf npHKO npe)J;JIO)l(eHHe 3a
C'bTPY)J;HIfqeCTBO, nOHHKora CJIe)J; MHoro )J;'bJIra 06pa60TKa, )J;Pyr ll'bT -
nOqTH Be)J;Hara);
- "CTY)J;eH" (KoraTO Herr03HaT 3a 06eKTa qOBeK rrOCTerreHHO ce c61lH-
)l(aBa C Hero);
- ,,6e3KOHTaKTeH" (KoraTO BJIHHHHeTO B'bpXy 06eKTa ce OC'bru;eCT-
BHBa 6e3 Herrocpe)J;CTBeHO KOHTaKTYBaHe C Hero, KaTO ce If3nOJI3BaT
IIIfCMa, CPaKC H TeJIecpOH);
- ,,06paTeH" (KoraTO 06eKTbT caM npe)J;JIara YCJIyrHTe CH, MaKap
qe 06HKHOBeHO TpH6Ba )J;a My ce "nO)J;CKa)l(e" K'bM Koro )J;a ce 06'bp-
He .. ).
B'bB BCIfqKH nOCOqeHIf BapHaHTH e )l(eJIaTeJIHO )J;a ce rrpe)J;BHMT yc-
JIOBHH 3a nOM'bp)l(aHe Ha Bp'b3Ka, 3arn;OTO )J;OpH qOBeK OTHaqaJIO PH3KO
)J;a ce e OTKa3aJI OT rrpe)J;JIO)l(eHHeTO, CJIe)J; H3BeCTHO BpeMe TOH 6H MO-
r'bJI )J;a pa3MHCJIH.
fJIaBHHTe MeTO)J;H 3a Bep6YBaHe ca:
1. illaHTa)l(.
2. llo)J;KYn.
3. 3anJIaxa 3a cpH3IfqeCKa pa3npaBa.
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUcypHocm
83
5. Pa3rraJIBaHe Ha (OTM'bCTIfTeJIHOCT, He)J;OBOJICTBO, Trn;ec-
TJIaBHe, B'b3TOp)l(eHOCT, peBHOCT, c'bcTPa)J;aHHe .. ).
6. Y6e)l()J;eHIfe.
7. 30M6HpaHe (ncHxonporpaMHpaHe).
8. Oc06eHIf (HapK03aBIICIIMOCT, ceKcMeporrpHHTHH . ).
llpaKTIfqeCKHTe cxeMH 3a Te3H MeTO)J;HKH II KOHKpeTHHTe rrpenop'b-
KIf rro OC'brn;eCTBHBaHeTO HM ca npe)J;cTaBeHH B qaCTTa, B KOHTO ce pa3-
rJIe)l()J;aT HaqIIHHTe 3a B'b3)J;eHcTBHe B'bpXy qOBeKa.
7. nOBeAeHVle CbC 3aBep6YBaHVl5I
CJIe)J; KaTO ce 3aBep6YBa KOHKpeTeH qOBeK, CTPeMe)l('bT e )J;a ce
nOJIyqH OT Hero MaKCIIMaJIHa nOJI3a, a TOBa e B'b3MO)l(HO caMO rrpH
YMeJIO P'bKOBO)J;CTBO, KaTO ce HMaT npe)J;BH)J; nCHXOJIOrIfqeCKHTe OCO-
6eHOCTH Ha JIHqHOCTTa My II CTerreHTa Ha )l(eJIaHHe (HJIH He)l(eJIaHHe)
)J;a )J;eHCTBa. TYK HaKpaTKO rn;e pa3rJIe)J;aMe OT)J;eJIHIfTe acneKTH Ha rro-
,lJ;06HIf B3aIfMOOTHorneHIIH.
A. HacolJBaHe Ha geuHocmma My
CKJIOHeHHHT K'bM C'bTPY,lJ;HIfqeCTBO qOBeK MO)l(e ,lJ;a ce H3rrOJI3Ba:
- e)J;HOKpaTHO;
- cnope)J; He06xoJJ;HMOCTTa;
- nOCTOHHHHO.
qecToTaTa Ha H3nOJI3BaHe Ha areHTa 3aBIfCIf OT:
- CTPeMe)l(a 3a npOCJIeMBaHe Ha TeKYrn;IfTe C'b6HTHH;
- OrrepaTHBHaTa He06xoJJ;HMOCT;
- )l(eJIaHIfeTO TOH ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e 3ana3eH 3a
- CTerreHTa Ha ,lJ;OBepeHaTa My
AreHTbT MO)l(e )J;a
- He3aBIfCIfMO (KaTO npe)J;aBa OHOBa, KOeTO TOH CaMll5IT CMHTa 3a
HY)KHO, If npH TOBa KaTO )J;eHCTBa TaKa, KaKTO TOH CMHTa 3a He06xo)J;If-
MO);
, - aHOHIfMHO (KaTO pa60TH no )J;a)J;eHa 3a)J;aqa, 6e3 )J;a nOM'bp)l(a npo-
4. 3anJIaxa 3a mo6HMIf xopa.
I
, Me)K)J;yTbqHIf KOHTaKTIf C P'bKOBO)J;HTeJIHTe CH);
L -nOJI)'llHIi!1HaTHBHO (KaTO peIID1Ba DOBepeHaTa My 3a,uaqa C'8Mec-
-
84
AHATOm1171 T APAC
THO C P'bKOBO,n:IlTeJUI CII, HO 6e3 ,n:a ce OTKa3Ba OT C.rryqaMHO B'b3HIIKHa-
JIIITe B'b3MO)KHOCTII);
- CTpOrO rro IIHCTPYKQII5ITa (KaTO ce OpIIeHTIIpa caMO rro rrOJIyqeHII-
Te YKa3aHII5I II 6e3 ,n:a ce orrIITBa ,n:a II3JIe3e OT rr'bpBOHaqaJIHO YCTaHoBe-
HIITe paMKH).
3a HaCOqBaHe ,n:eMHocTTa Ha rrpIIBJIeqeHII5I ce II3rr0Jl3BaT KJIaCIIqec-
KIITe MeTo,n:II Ha:
- "T05lraTa" (3arrJIaUIBaHe);
- "p'bKaBIIQaTa" (KOHTpOJI);
- "MopKoBa" (rro,n:KYII).
ITPH TOBa ce rrpIIJIara rrpIIHQIIrr'bT: "HeKa p'bKaTa ,n:a e TB'bp,n:a, HO B
MeKa p'bKaBHQa."
Ee3crropHo KOHKpeTHH5IT qOBeK H3IICKBa a6COJIlOTHO JIIIqeH rro,n:xo,n:,
HO 06IIKHoBeHo P'bKOBo,n:eHeTO My e rro-e<peKTIIBHO, KoraTO e OCHOBaHO
Ha y6e)K,n:eHHe, a He Ha 3arrJIaXII. ITopa,n:II TOBa e rrOJIe3HO ,n:a ce rroM'hp-
)KaT C Hero ,n:pY)KeCKII OTHorneHH51.
Ho C'bC 3aBep6YBaHII51 He 03HaqaBa ,n:a ce 3ary6II HHHQIIa-
TIIBaTa (,n:OMIIHIIpaHeTO), TP5I6Ba HaBpeMe ,n:a ce rrpeCIIqaT BC5IKaKBII
OIIHTH 3a OTHeMaHe Ha rrOCJIe,n:HaTa. B TaK'bB MOMeHT 3HaqIITeJIHa POJUI
IIrpae rrOJIe3HaTa crroc06HOCT ,n:a MO)Kern,n:a II3,n:'bp)KHrn Ha rrorJIe,n:a Ha
rrapTHbopa, 3arn;OTO aKO Bo,n:eIIJ;II5lT He e B C'bCT05lHIIe ,n:a II3,n:'bP)KII rrpe-
KII5I rrorJIe,n: Ha Bo,n:eHII5I, TOM He CTaBa 3a P'bKOBO,n:CTBO.
)];a 3a,n:'bp)KIIrn KOMTO II ,n:a e qOBeK Ha CB051 CTpaHa MO)Ke C'bC:
1. )];06po MaTepIIaJIHO B'b3Harpa)K,n:eHIIe.
2. B3aIIMorroMOrn;.
3. "EaJIaMOCBaHe".
4. CTPax OT B'b3Me3,n:IIe.
5. 30M6IIpaHe.
<I>IIHaHcoBoTO B'b3Harpa)K,n:eHIIe e CBoero po,n:a rro,n:xpaHBarn; <paK-
TOp, C'brr'bTCTBarn; OCTaHaJIIITe CTIIMYJIH. To Tp5l6Ba ,n:a e ,n:06pe 06MIIC-
JIeHO (3a ,n:a He ce 3acerHe 60JIHOTO caMoJIlo6IIe), 3a6eJIe)KIIMO rrpOMe-
H5IHO (B 3aBHCIIMOCT OT rrOJIe3HOCTTa Ha pa60TaTa) II OrrTIIMaJIHO (3a ,n:a
He MoraT ,n:pym ,n:a rro,n:KYrr5lT 06eKTa).
B3aIIMorroMOrn;Ta rrpe,n:rroJIara aKTHBHO C'b,n:eMcTBIIe B pernaBaHeTo
Ha pa3JIIIqHH ,n:eJIOBII II JIHqHII rrp06JIeMII Ha 06eKTa (KapIIepa, "qa,n:'bp",
rrOJIe3HII rr03HaHCTBa, ,n:OXO,n:HII ,n:oroBopII ... ). TOBa e cBoe06pa3Ha 3a-
M51Ha Ha rrp5lKOTO MaTepIIaJIHO B'b3Harpa)K,n:eHIIe.
HapbllHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 85
TaKTIIKaTa ,,6aJIaMOCBaHe" ce OCHOBaBa Ha C'b3,n:aBaHe Ha BrreqaTJIe-
lIHe y areHTa 3a 3HaqHMOCTTa Ha pa60TaTa My OT MOpaJIHa II II,n:eJIOrII-
qeCKa rJIe,n:Ha TOqKa. TOBa 3a6eJIe)KIIMO rrOBIIrnaBa ce6eYBa)KeHIIeTO II
06HKHOBeHO e rro-e<peKTIIBHO OT CTIIMYJIIIpaHeTO caMO C rrapH.
ITpII 3a,n:'bp)KaHe rro,n: cTPax OT B'b3Me3,n:He 3arrJIaXaTa 3a B'b3Me3,n:IIe
BHCH KaKTO Ha,n: JIIIqHOCTTa Ha areHTa, TaKa II Ha,n: 6JIII3KIITe My.
ITpe,n:rrOJIaraeMaTa pa3rrJIaTa MO)Ke ,n:a 6'b,n:e:
- 3a MHHaJIH rpexOBe rro OTHorneHIIe Ha H5IKOrO;
- 3a 51BHO rrpe,n:aTeJICTBO Ha "CBOIITe";
- 3a OqeBII,n:Ha II3HeB5Ipa Ha HOBIITe rocrro,n:apII.
3a ,n:a ca e<peKTIIBHII rro,n:06HII 3aIIJIaXH, e He06xo,n:HM BrreqaTJl5IBarn;
KOMrrpOMaT, rrOJIyqeH rrpII pa3pa60TKaTa Ha qOBeKa (OT errII30,n:IITe OT
MIIHaJIH ro,n:IIHII ... ), KaKTO II rrpH B3aIIMo,n:eMCTBIIeTO C Hero (orrpe,n:eJIe-
HO HerrpOCTIITeJIHII aKQIIII cpern;y "CBOHTe", CBII,n:eTeJICTBa 3a "rrpec-
TbrrHa" Bp'b3Ka C rrpOTIIBHIIKa ... ). )];orr'bJIHIITeJIeH CTIIMyJIIIparn; MOMeHT
e rrepIIo,n:HqHO ,n:a ce 06ern;aBa Ha areHTa, qe rn;e My 6'b,n:aT rrpe,n:a,n:eHII
KOMrrpOMeTIIparn;HTe MaTepIIaJIII.
30M6IIpaHeTO rrpe,II,I10JIara II3KYCTBeHO II3KJIloqsaHe Ha JIIIqHaTa BOJI5I
Ha qOBeKa II 6e3rrpeKOCJIOBHOTO My no,n:qIIHeHIIe Ha 3arrOBe,n:IITe Ha roc-
rro,n:ap5l. 30M6IIpaHeTO ce OC'brn;eCTB5IBa rrocpe,n:CTBOM "rrpOMIIBaHe Ha
M03'bKa" II "TB'bp,n:OTO" My rrperrporpaMIIpaHe Ha crreQIIaJIeH pe)KHM,
KaKTO II rrocpe,n:CTBOM "MeKO" rrperrporpaMIIpaHe C II3rrOJI3BaHe Ha
MHorOCTerreHHa XHrrH03a.
B. Ha4UHU 3a npoBepKa
ITo BpeMe Ha C'bTpy,n:HIIqeCTBOTO C'bC 3aBep6ysaHII5I BIIHam lIMa
orraCHOCT OT ",n:BOMHa IIrpa" IIJIII eJIeMeHTapHO MorneHHqeCTBO. Crra-
ceHHeTO OT rro,n:06HII HerrpII5ITHOCTII e CIICTeMHaTa rJIaCHa (,n:eTeKTOp
Ha JI'b)KaTa) IIJIII HerJIaCHa (,n:y6JIIIpaHe, Ha6JIlo,n:eHIIe, rrpOBOKaQII5I ... )
npOBepKa Ha areHTa.
)];eTeKTOp'bT Ha JI'b)KaTa npOCJIe,n:51Ba pa3JIIIqHIITe nCHxoeMOQIIOHaJI-
HII peaKQIIH (Ha MyCKYJIIITe, KO)KaTa, 3eHIIQIITe, C'bp,n:eqHaTa II ,n:IIxa-
TeJIHaTa CIICTeMa ... ) Ha 3HaqIIMa IIH<popMaQII5I II B ynpocTeH BII,n: 06IIK-
HOBeHO ce 3aMeH51 OT HaM-06IIKHOBeHa eKcnpec,n:IIarHOCTIIKa (OImcaHa
B pa3,n:eJIa 3a 06rn;YBaHeTO) B xo,n:a Ha npOBepOqHII51 pa3rOBOp.
)];y6JIIIpaHeTO ce rrpaBII, KaTO Ha 06eKTa ce ,n:aBa 3a,n:aqa ,n:a c'b6epe
TOtfHO orrpe,n:eJIeHa IIH<popMaQII5I, K05lTO Beqe e II3BeCTHa Ha rocrro,n:a-
pHTe My. 3a QeJITa oc06eHO rro,n:XO,[(5lrn;II ca cBe,n:eHII51, KOIITO areHTbT
no c06cTBeHII npIIqHHH He 6II IICKaJI ,n:a II3,n:aBa.
11
86 AHATOnllH1 T APAC
ilPH Ha6mo.n;eHHeTO ce OC'brn;eCTBHBa nepHO,!l;Hq}fO "OCBeTHBaHe" Ha
3aBep6YBaHHH, KaTO ce <pHKCHpa BCeKH <paKT, CBH.n;eTeJICTBaIU 3a He-
qeCTHaTa My Hrpa. B nO.n;06HH CJIyqaH e<peKTHBHO e BKmOqBaHeTO Ha
napaJIeJIeH areHT.
OO.n; npOBOKaIJ,HH ce no.n;pa36Hpa npe.n;HaMepeHO C'b6JIa3HHBaHe Ha
qOBeKa (HHTPHra, no.n;KYll, nO.n;XB'bpJIHHe Ha HH<p0pMaIJ,HH, KOHTO TOn
6H npennoqeJI na He npenaBa . ) H 3aCHqaHe Ha peaKIJ,HHTe My Ha TOBa.
CTaH,l1;apTeH BapHaHT Ha TB'bpna npOBepKa e "KP'bBHOTO Kp'bIUeHHe",
T. e. KoraTO OT 3aBep6ysaHHH ce H3HCKBa.n;a OC'bIUeCTBH aKTHBHO-arpe-
CHBHO nenCTBHe (nOHHKora H Kp'bBOnpOJIHTHe) cpemy CBOHTe npenHIIl-
HH C'bpaTHHIJ,H.
TpH6Ba na ce oT6eJIe)I(H, qe nOKa3aHaTa OT areHTa BHPHOCT 3HaqH-
TeJIHO 3aBHCH OT MOpaJIHHTe MY YCTOH . .5IBHO nerpa,!l;HpaJIHHT B JIHq-
HOCTeH nJIaH qOBeK He e B C'bCTOHHHe na 6'bne Hane)!(,lJ;eH H3ll'bJIHHTeJI.
ilPH YCTaHOBHBaHeTO Ha "nBOMHa Hrpa" e B'b3MO)KHO HJIH npeK'bC-
BaHe Ha KOHTaKTa, HJIH H3nOJI3BaHe Ha T03H <paKT 3a npOBe)KnaHe Ha
H3HIUHa KOM6HHaIJ,HH HJIH nOnXB'bpJIHHe Ha ne3HH<popMaIJ,HH.
r HalfUHU 3a 8pb3Ka
Bp'b3KaTa C'bC 3aBep6YBaHHH ce CMHTa 3a HaM-YH3BMMHH acneKT Ha
KOHcnHpaTHBHaTa pa60Ta H no CBOH xapaKTep MO)Ke .n;a 6'bne:
- HH<popMaIJ,HOHHa (npHeMaHe H npenaBaHe Ha YKa3aHHH, C'b06rn;e-
HHH, 3a,!l;'bJI60qeHO 06C'b)K.n;aHe Ha pa3JIf[q}fH B'bnpOCH, naBaHe - nOJIy-
qaBaHe Ha Heo6xo.n;HMH npe.n;MeTH ... );
- CHrHaJIHa (ysenOMHBaHe 3a onaCHOCT-6e30naCHOCT, H3nparn;aHe-
nOJIyqaBaHe, rOTOBHOCT-HerOTOBHOCT ).
KnaCHqeCKaTa HH<popMaIJ,HOHHa Bp'b3Ka ce OC'bIIJ,eCTBHBa:
- npH JIf[qHO 06IUysaHe;
- noCpenCTBOM TeXHf[qeCKH cpenCTBa 3a CBp'b3Ka (JIHqHH panHOC-
TaHIJ,HH, TeJIe<pOHH, TeJIe<paKC ... );
- H3nOJI3BaHe "HaCJIHnO" Ha CTpaHHqHH JIHIJ,a;
- nOCpenCTBOM CBp'b3Ka KYpHep;
- qpe3 nOrn;aTa;
- nOnXB'bpJIHHe;
- nOCTaBHHe Ha onpeneJIeHO MHCTO (npenBapHTeJIHO onpe.n;eJIeHH
CKpHIIlHH MeCTa, 6ara)KHH KJIeTKH .. );
- upH MOMeHTHH KOHTaKTH.
ilPH JIHqHOTO 06rn;ysaHe HenpenH3BHKBarn;aTa nOn03peHHH Bp'b3Ka
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 87
uaM-qeCTO ce peaJIH3Hpa, KoraTO BOnern;HHT BJIH3a B Kp'bra Ha BceKHn-
aeBIIIITe KOHTaKTH Ha 3aBep6YBaHH}I (B pa60TaTa, Ha pa3XOnKa C Ky'Ie-
Ta, B cnopTHHH KJIy6 ... ). Bp'b3KaTa MO)Ke na CTaHe H npH nocern;eUIf}! Ha
06II.1,H n03HaTH, KaKTO H B Cnell,HaJIHO Haem KOHcnHpaTHBHH anapTa-
MeUm.
Bp'b3KaTa C H3nOJI3BaHe Ha TeJIe<pOH MO)Ke ,n;a 6'b,n;e KaKTO npHKa,
TaKa H C'bC 3a,n;eMCTBaHe Ha Me)K,n;HHeH anapaT, KaKTO npOCTO CHrHaJIHa,
TaKa H HH<popMall,HOHHO HaTOBapeHa. BHHam TPH6Ba ,n;a ce HMa npen-
BM B'b3MO)KHOCTTa OT no,n;CJIYlIlBaHe H npH He06xo,!l;HMOCT ,n;a ce H3-
nOJI3BaT Ko,n;OBe (KoeTO BnpOqeM Kapa npOTHBHHKa na e HaIUPeK) HJIH
nepHo,n;f[q}fO npOMeHHIUO ce KO,n;OBO 06II.1,YBaHe. ilo C'brn;HH HaqHH, HO C
pa3JIf[qHH 3aIUHTHH npHcnoco6JIeHHH ce eKCnJIOampa H JIf[qHaTa pa,!l;H-
OBp'b3Ka ("YOKH-TOKH").
C H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha CTpaHf[q}fM JIHlI,a (cn'bTHHlI,H, lIla<pHepH BbB Ba-
rOHHTe, npHHTeJIH Ha n03Ham ... ) HaM-no6pe ce npenaBaT MaTepHaJIH,
napH HJIH nHCMa. ilOCJIe,n;HHTe TPH6Ba ,n;a HMaT KOHTPOJIHH 6eJIe3H 3a
OTBapHHe H na C'bA'hp)KaT HH<popMall,If}!, CKpHTa no e.n;HH HJIH npyr Ha-
qHH.
06rn;ysaHeTO qpe3 CBP'b3KH KYpHepH TPH6Ba ,n;a CTaBa C nOTB'bp)Ke-
HHe Ha T}lXHaTa HneHTf[qHOCT (CJIOBeCHH, npenMeTHH H )KeCTOBH napo-
JIH . ). ilpH He)KeJIaHHe 3a JIHqeH KOHTaKT Bp'b3KaTa MO)Ke na 6'b,n;e OC'b-
m;eCTBeHa nocpe,n;CTBOM Me)!(,lJ;HHHO 3BeHO (.n;OPH H 3BeHa).
He e TPYAHO na ce XBaHe nOIUeHCKa KopecnoHneHlI,HH KaKTO B nyHK-
Ta Ha H3npam;aHe, TaKa H npH nOJIyqaBaHeTO H. TOBa MO)Ke ,n;a ce H36er-
He nOH}IKora, KaTO ce H3npaIIJ,aT nHCMa no CTPaHf[qHH xopa (KaKTO H B
npyr rpan) Ha a,n;peCH Ha "HeBHHHH", HO ,n;OBepeHH Ha nOJIyqaTeM JIHlI,a.
B T03H CJIyqaii ce H3n0JI3BaT KOHTPOJIHH 6eJIe3H H KJIaCHqeCKHTe HaqH-
HH (IIlH<p'bP, KO,n;, TaMHO MaCTHJIO .. ) 3a CKpHBaHe Ha KOHKpeTHa HH<POp-
Mall,HH.
ilO,n;XB'bpJImeTO 06HKHOBeHO ce H3n0JI3a, KoraTO anpeCaT'hT He 6HBa
na BH)K,n;a H3npaII.l,aqa HJIH HerOBHH npe,n;CTaBHTeJI. IIpenop'bqBa ce no,n;-
XB'bpJI}lHeTO na CTaBa B nOrn;eHCKaTa KYTHH, Ha pa60THOTO MHCTO, non
BpaTaTa C nOCJIenBarn;O n03B'bH}lBaHe, KaKTO H B ,ll;)Ko6a Ha ,n;pexaTa, T.
e. TaM, K'b,n;eTO e CHrypHO, qe npaTKaTa rn;e cmrHe ,n;o nOJIyqaTeM.
IIpH n'bJIHO He)KeJIaHHe 3a JIHqHH KOHTaKTH MoraT na ce H3nOJI3BaT
6ara)KHH KJIeTKH H pa3HomnHH CKpHBaJIHII.I,a. 3a CKpHBaJIHIUe TPH6Ba
,n;a ce HaMepH He6Hern;O Ha OqH 3aK'hTaHO MeCTeHlI,e (panHaTOp B'bB BXO-
,n;a, Ka3aHqe B 06rn;eCTBeHa TOaJIeTHa ... ), K'bneTO ce CJIaraT MaTepHaJIH-
Te, 3aKpeneHH C JIacmqe, CKOq HJIH BHC}III.I,H. 3a na ce H36erHaT B'b3-
MO)KHH HenpHHTHOCTH, He 6HBa BpeMeTO OT nOCTaBHHeTO H H33eMBa-
,....
88 AHATOnltl1ll T APAC
HeTO Ha MaTepMaJII1Te ,n:a e TB'hp,n:e ,n:'hJIro. OCBeH TOBa TpH6Ba ,n:a ce
C'h06rn;M Be,n:Hara rro e,n:MH MJIM ,n:pyr ,n:OCThrreH B MOMeHTa HaqMH (6e3-
JIIfqHO TeJIecpOHHO 06a)J(,n:aHe, 6eJIH3BaHe Ha KOHKpeTHa TOqKa ... ) KaKTO
3a rrOCTaBHHeTO, TaKa M 3a B3eMaHeTO Ha MaTepMaJIMTe.
MOMeHTHMTe KOHTaKTM ce peaJIM3MpaT B rrpe,n:aBaHe Ha rrpe,n:MeTM M
CTaBaT Ha MeCTa, K'h,n:eTO e MaJIKO BepOHTHO Bce06xBaTHOTO Ha6mo,n:e-
HMe (B rrOTOKa rr'hTHMQM B MeTpOTO, B rr'hJIHMH aBT06yc, B QeHTPaJIHMH
Mara3MH ... ). I1pe,n:aBaHeTO CTaBa OT p'hKa B p'hKa, CHKaII1 rrpM CJIyqaMHo
,n:06JIM)J(aBaHe e,n:MH,n:o ,n:pyr. EcpeKTMBHM BapMaHTM rrpM TaKMBa KOHTaK-
TM MoraT ,n;a 6'h,n:aT: "CJIyqaMHM cpern;M" C rrpe,n:aBaHe rrpM P'hKOCTMCKaHe,
rrpe,n:aBaHe B ThMHOTO B KliHOTO Ha ,n;Ba C'hCe,n:HM CTOJIa, "pa3ceHHa"
pa3MHHa Ha BeCTHMQM MJIM Ha rrpMJIIfqarn;M CM rraKeTM M qaHTM B KacpeHe,
Ha M3JIO)J(6a, Ha rapaTa MJIM Ha rreMKaTa B rrapKa, "cnyqaMHO" M3rrYCKa-
He Ha rrpe,n;MeTa, KOMTO Be,n:Hara ce B,n;Mra, KaTO He3a6eJIe)J(MMO ce rro,n;-
MeHH.
III;0 ce OTHaCH ,n:o CMrHaJIHaTa Bp'h3Ka, MO)J(e ,n;a ce Ka)J(e, qe ca peaJI-
HM BCeB'h3MO)J(HM CPOPMM, 3aBHCern;M OT cpaHTa3MHTa Ha KOHKpeTHMTe
KOHTaKThOpM, KaKTO M OT TeXHHTe B'h3MO)J(HOCTM M OT 06CTOHTeJICTBa-
Ta: pMcysaHa 3HaqKa, 3aKaqeHa Ha orrpe,n:eJIeHO MHCTO, rrOrn;eHCKa Kap-
TMqKa C KO,n;OB Ha,1J;IIMC MJIM ClO)J(eT, ,n:eTaMJI OT ,n:pexaTa MJIH )J(eCT Ha
" ",t.. 11
"CJIyqaeH MMHysaq, "rpeII1Ka rro TeJIe,OHa... 3nOJI3BaHMTe rro rro-
,n:06eH HaqHH CHrHaJIM TPH6Ba ,n:a ca a6COJIlOTHO eCTeCTBeHM, 3a ,n;a He
rrpe,n;M3BMKBaT y OKOJIHHTe He)J(eJIaHO yqy,n:BaHe.
A. npUKJ\IOl{BaHe Ha KOHmaKma
KaTO rrpaBMJIO HaCThrrBa MOMeHThT, KoraTO 06rn;yBaHeTo C'hC 3aBep-
6YBaHMH Beqe ry6H BCHKaK'hB CMHC'hJI, a rrOHHKora ,n:OpM e Bpe,n:Ho.
I1pe,n:eJI'hT B 3a,n:eMcTBaHeTo Ha areHTa 06HKHoBeHo HaCThrrBa, Kora-
TO:
- HHMa Hy)J(,D;a Beqe OT YCJIyrHTe My;
- TOM CTaBa orraceH KaTO cBH,n:eTeJI;
- M3Be,n;H'h)J( CTaBa HCHO, qe Mrpae ",n;BOMHa Hrpa" (JI'h)J(e MH rrpe,n;a-
Ba) M HHMa Heo6xo,lJ;MMOCT T03H cpaKT,n:a ce M3rr0J13Ba 3a KOHTpaHrpa;
- TPH6Ba ,n:a ce "KOHcepBMpa" C HaMepeHMH 3a 6'h,n;ern;e.
I1'hpBa QeJI B ,n:a,n:eHMTe CJIyqaH e HeYTPaJIH3aQMHTa Ha B'h3MO)J(HM
HerrpMHTHoCTM OT 6HBII1MH areHT. Orrpe,n:eJIHrn;OTO 3a HaqHHMTe KaK ,n:a
ce rrOCTHrHe TOBa ca oco6eHOCTHTe Ha HerOBaTa JIMqHOCT, rro3HQHHTa
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 89
MY rro OTHOII1eHMe Ha KYpaTopMTe H CTerreHTa Ha peaJIHO ycern;aHaTa
3anJIaxa.
I1perrOp'hqBa ce KOHTaKThT ,n:a 6'h,n:e rrpHKJIlOqeH rro CJIe,n:HMH HaqHH:
-yqTHBO;
-rpy6o;
- pa,n:HKaJIHO.
I1pH ",n:eJIHKaTHO" rrpeK'hCBaHe Ha KOHTaKTa ce H3Ka3Ba 6JIaro,n:ap-
HOCT M ce ,n:aBa B'h3Harpa)J(,D;eHMe, KoeTO ,n:a He OCK'hp6M HJIH 06M,lJ;H qO-
BeKa. ,l];OpH KoraTO 06rn;ysaHeTO ce rrpeKpaTHBa OKOaqaTeJIHO (rrpMMepHO
rrpM ",n:BOMHa Hrpa" HJIH JI'h)J(a ... ), He 6H 6MJIO JI0II10 ,n:a ce HaMeKHe Ha
areHTa, qe TOBa e caMCl BpeMeHHa MHpKa M HaM-BepOHTHO e "u:eHHHTe"
My ycnyrH ,n:a ca rrOJIe3HH H 3aHarrpe,n;.
I1PM "rpy6o" rrpeK'hCBaHe Ha KOHTaKTa ce M3rr0J13Ba HaM-6JIH3KMHT
rro,n:xo,lJ;H:I.Q rrOBO,n; H KaTO ce OKa)J(e orrpe,n:eJIeHO cpH3IfqeCKO B'h3,n:eMCT-
BHe, TB'hP,n:o ce rOBopM 3a KOMrrpOMaT. T03H BapMaHT e rro,n;XO,lJ;Hrn; 3a
CTPaXJIHB HH,lJ;MBM,n: H rrpH HBHa ysepeHOCT, qe TOM He MO)J(e,n:a npIfqHHM
HenorrpaBHMa Bpe,n:a.
AKo areHThT e orraceH cBM,n:eTeJI H HHMa rapaHQHH, qe rn;e M'hJIqH, ce
rrpHJIaraT pa,n:HKaJIHM HaqHHH 3a 3a:I.QMTa, BKJIlOqBarn;M KaKTO cpM3MqeC-
KOTO Ha o6eKTa (rro B'h3MO)J(HOCT C qy)J(,lJ;M p'hQe MJIM rrpM
"CJIyqaMHH" 06CTOHTeJICTBa), TaKa H oco6eHH HaqHHM 3a ,,3aJIHqaBaHe"
Ha rraMeTTa (BM)J( pa3,n:eJIa 3a MeTO,lJ;MTe Ha BJIHHHMe B'hpxy qOBeKa).
2
Lfacm mpema
MeTOAl!1 3a OCl!1ryp5lBaHe
Ha pe3YJ\TaTHO o6w,YBaHe
1. Teopt.151 t.1 npaKTt.1Ka Ha pe3YATaTHoTo
o6w,ysaHe
He06xo,IWMOTO C HHTepeCYBaI.QIDI BH qOBeK ce H3rproK,r:t;a
OT HH,r:t;HBH,r:t;yaJIHH KOHTaKTH, rrOJI3a MO)l(e ,n;a ce qpe3
PaQHOHaJIHaTa HM opraHH3aQIDl. HaKpaTKO m;e pa3rJIe,n;aMe pa3JIHqHH-
Te acrreKTH Ha Te3H B3aHMOOTHOllieHIDI.
A. Ll,elleHacolfeHO KOHcmpyupaHe
06m;yBaHeTo e pe3YJITaTHO, IIpH YCJIOBHe qe e rro,n;qHHeHO Ha rroc-
THraHe Ha pe,IWQa QeJIH KaTO:
- H3yqaBaHe Ha rrCHXOJIOrIDITa Ha 06eKTa;
- ,n;HamOCTHQHpaHe Ha 06eKTa;
- YCTaHOB5lBaHe Ha rrO-TeCHH KOHTaKTH;
- OCHrypID3aHe Ha
- 06C'b)l(,n;aHe Ha KOHKpeTeH rrp06JIeM;
- rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha He06xo,r:t;HMaTa HHopMaQH}!;
- rrpe,r:t;aBaHe Ha CBO}! aKTypa HJIH ,n;e3HHOpMaQIDI;
- y6e)l(,r:t;aBaHe B Hem;O;
- rrpHHy)l(,r:t;aBaHe 3a Hem;O.
B rrpoQeca Ha rr'bJIHOQeHHOTO B3aHMO,n;enCTBHe MOraT ,n;a 6'b,r:t;aT 060-
c06eHH rrpeJIHBam;H ce e,r:t;Ha B ,r:t;pyra a3H, KOHTO BKJIlOqBaT:
- rrpe,r:t;BapHTeJIHa rro,r:t;rOTOBKa;
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 91
- HaqaJIO Ha pa3roBop C oCHryp}!BaHe Ha rro,r:t;XOMm;a
HanHa Har JIaca Ha c'b6ece,D;HHKa;
- rrpoKapBaHe Ha CBO}! TeMa H rrpOBe)l(,r:t;aHe Ha pa3rOBOpa B rrpe,r:t;Ba-
pHTeJIHO rrpe,n;BH,r:t;eHa HaCOKa;
- IIpHKJIlOqBaHe Ha ,r:t;HaJIOra C'bC 3aTB'bpMBaHe Ha rrOCTHrHaTIDI pe-
3YJITaT.
ETarr'bT Ha rrpe,n;BapHTeJIHaTa rrO,r:t;rOTOBKa ce C'bCTOH OT:
- H3}!CH}lBaHe Ha OHOBa, KoeTO TP}!6Ba,n;a 6'b,r:t;e rrOCTHrHaTO B pe3YJI-
TaT Ha pa3rOBopa, KaTO ce oT6eJI}!3BaT MaKCHMYM H
npHeMJIHBH}!T MHHHMyM;
- nOJIyqaBaHe Ha rr'bpBOHaqaJIHa HHOpMaQIDI (3a rrapTHhOpa H 3a-
C}lfaHIDI np06JIeM);
- 06MHCJI}!He Ha TaKTHKaTa Ha KOHTaKTa (C'b06pa3HO C rrCHXOJIOrIDI-
Ta Ha 06eKTa H ,r:t;pym ,r:t;enCTBam;H B CJIyqa}! aKTOpH);
- OTPa60TBaHe Ha rreqeJIHBllIHTe KOMrrOHeHTH Ha 06m;ysaHe (H36op
Ha rrO,r:t;XOMm; MOMeHT, M}lCTO, 06CTaHOBKa H 06CTO}!TeJICTBa Ha cpe-
m;aTa).
HaqaJIOTO Ha pa3rOBOpa C rrOM'bp)l(aHe Ha C'bOTBeTHaTa rrCHxoeMO-
HarJIaCa y C'b6ece,r:t;HHKa ce rpa,IW B'bpXy HeYTPaJIH3HpaHe Ha
HeraTHBHHTe H eJIHMHHHpaHe Ha BCeB'b3MO)l(HH 6apHepH, 3aT-
py,r:t;H}!Bam;H He06xo,r:t;HMOTO B3aHMopa36HpaTeJICTBO. HeraTHBHHTe
Ha C'b6ece,r:t;HHKa ce rro B'bHllIHH IIpO}!BH (P}!3-
KOCT Ha pa3HTe, rrpHTeCHeHOCT Ha rr03MTe, CBHBaHe Ha 3eHMQHTe ... ) H
ce HeYTPaJIM3MpaT rro rrCMXOJIOrHqeCKH HaqIfHM (rro,r:t;60p Ha
oc06eHO B'b3,r:t;enCTBam;M ,r:t;yMM, MMMHKa, KorrMpaHe Ha TeJIO,r:t;BH)l(eHIDI-
Ta ). .
ilpOKapBaHeTO Ha M36paHaTa TeMa M HaCOqBaHeTO Ha pa3rOBopa
crrope,r:t; KOJIe6aHlf}lTa Ha ,n;MaJIOra ce OCHOBaBaT Ha M3XO,r:t;HaTa TaKTHKa
c rrOCTO}!HHO Ha6JIlo,r:t;eHHe Ha pa3JIHqHHTe ()l(eCTOBe, M3pa)l(eHMe Ha
JIHQeTO, norJIe,r:t; ... ) Ha rrapTHbOpa M KopMrMpaHe Ha c06CTBe-
HOTO CM rrOBe,r:t;eHMe, KaTO ce M3XO)l(,n;a OT Te3M
ilPMKJIlOqBaHeTO Ha pa3rOBopa C'bC 3aTB'bp)J;ID3aHe Ha rrOCTMrHaTM}!
pe3YJITaT 03HaqaBa, qe ,r:t;a,r:t;eHIDlT aKT Ha 06m;YBaHe m;e ce OTpa3M rro
He06xo,r:t;MMH}! HaqMH B'bpXy MMCJIeHeTO M rrOCThnKHTe Ha C'b6ece,r:t;HH-
Ka, 6e3 ,r:t;a ro HaKapa ,r:t;a rrpOMeHM MHeHHeTO CM 3a CBO}! KOHTaKTbOp B
HeraTHBeH rrJIaH.
H}!KOM acrreKTH Ha rrepCOHaJIHOTO B3aHMo,n;enCTBHe 6}!xa M3JIO)l(e-
HM B pa3,n;eJIa 3a Bep6YBaHeTO, TYK m;e rOBopMM 3a H}!KOH rrCHXOJIOrH-
qecKM MOMeHTH, KOHTO YBeJIHqaBaT eeKTHBHOCTTa Ha peqeBOTO 06-
lQYBaHe.
..
92 AHATOJlI.11it T APAC
5. 06U{u npenopbKu no opcaHu3au,U5Ima
IIPIi rrOArOTOBKaTa 3a rrepcrreKTIIBeH KOHTaKT TP5I6Ba Aa ce liMa rrpeA-
BII,11; CJIe,11;HOTO:
- 1.JOBeK pa60TlI rro-,11;06pe npe3 cTY,11;eHIITe II CYXII ,11;HII, ,11;OKaTO
rrpeKaJIeHO TOrrJIOTO II BJIa)l(HO BpeMe 3a6eJIe)l(lIMO rrplIT'brr5lBa IIH-
TeJIeKTa;
- cpern;IITe "Ha Mope" nOpa,11;1I oc06eHOTO B'b3AeMCTBlie Ha CBe)l(lI5I
MOPCKII B'b3,IJ;yX (JIeKO COJIeH II JIeKO MO,11;lIpaH .. ) ca ,11;OCTa 6JIarOrrplI5IT-
Hli 3a rrpOBe)l(,11;aHe Ha ,11;eJIOBIi rrperOBoplI;
- K'bM 19 1.J C'bCT05llIlIe Ha xopaTa CTaBa ,11;OC-
Ta HeycTO:HqIIBO, KoeTO MO)l(e ,11;a ce rrp05lBli B 1I3JIlIIllHa pa3,11;pa3HlITeJI-
HOCT II 1I36yxJIlIBOCT;
- TaM, K'b,11;eTO H51Ma T'bJIl1a II MY3lIKaTa He 3BYQlI MHoro ClIJIHO, pa3-
rOBOp'bT rrO-JIeCHO MO)l(e ,11;a rrplI,11;06lIe IIHTIIMHO-,11;OBeplITeJIeH xapaK-
Tep;
- BC5IKa pa,11;OCT rrOBIIIIIaBa aJITPYII3Ma, 061I,11;aTa IIJIIi pa301.JapOBaHII-
eTO ro HaMaJI5IBaT;
- BIiHarli nO-npIIBJIeKaTeJIHlI ca 3HaeII.J;lITe II OnliTHIiTe xopa;
- 1.JOBeK xapeCBa OH31I, KOHTO CIiMnaTIIqHIITe Ha CaMlI5I Hero
xopa;
- KOJIKOTO rrO-1.JeCTO 06rn;yBaMe C rrapTHbopa, TOJIKOBa nO-rOJI5IMa e
Bep05lTHOCTTa ,11;a ro xapecaMe, rrpeKaJIeHlITe KOHTaKTII 06a1.Je rrOHII)I(a-
BaT HerOBaTa rrpIIBJIeKaTeJIHOCT;
- xopaTa 1.JeCTO ce Ou;eH51BaT caMO AO CTeneHTa, AO K05lTO MoraT ,11;a
rrOMorHaT 3a peaJIlI3lIpaHeTO Ha u;eJIIi Ha napTHbOpa;
- KOJIKOTO rrOBe1.Je H5IKOM IIHAIIBlI,11; liMa BJIaCT, TOJIKOBa nO-MaJIKO
TOM ce cTPeMIi KOM ,11;pY)l(ecKIi KOHTaKTII;
- 1.JOBeK HaM-1.JeCTO crra3Ba rrpIIHU;lIrra: "HeKa ycneX'bT BIiHarli Aa
C'brr'bTCTBa nplI5ITeJIlITe MM, HO B oHoBa, KoeTO e Ba)I(HO 3a MeH - He
nOBe1.Je, OTKOJIKOTO MeH."
IIPIi 3an01.JBaHeTO Ha pa3rOBopa II rrpli OTCTPaH51BaHe Ha B'bTPeIIIHO-
TO Harrpe)l(eHlIe y rrapTHbOpa TP5I6Ba ,11;a ce rrOMHII, 1.Je:
- 3,11;paBOTO YBepeHo P'bKOCTHCKaHe, C'brrpOBO,11;eHO C rrOrJIeA B 01.J1I-
Te, ce xapecBa n01.JTH Ha
- rrOBe,11;eHlIe rrpe,11;l10JIara BHIIMaHlIe,
II eJIeMeHTapHa yqTHBOCT;
- 6aHaJIHOTO Ha1.JaJIO BO,11;1I ,11;0 6aHaJIlI3lIpaHe Ha u;eJIlI5I pa3rOBOp;
- cy6eKT'bT HaM ce 3aC5Ira, KoraTO pa36lIpa, 1.Je He nOMH5IT IIMeTO MY,
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
93
3arn;OTO C TOBa C5IKaIII MY ce HaMeKBa, 1.Je Toil: H5IMa a6COJIlOTHO HIiKaK-
BO 3Ha1.JeHlIe 3a rrapTHbopa;
- xopaTa, rrpeMIiHaJIli rrpe3 eMOU;IIOHaJIHO C'bTPeceHlIe, T'bPC5IT y
C'b6eCe,11;HIIKa caMO "pe30HaTOp", a He C'bBeTHIiK (He JIOIIIO 1I3pa351Ba
pa36lIpaHe II C'b1.JYBCTBlIe, rrpliMepHO C 06lIKHOBeHO ,11;OKOCBaHe Ha P'b-
KaTa . );
- CJIe,11; 3arr01.JBaHe Ha pa3rOBopa ce orrlITaMTe ,11;a opraHlI3lIpaTe 6JIa-
rOrrplI5ITHa aTMoc<i>epa C B'brrpOCII, Ha KOIiTO 1.JOBeK'bT 61I OTrOBopliJI
"Aa" C BII,11;IIMO y,11;OBOJICTBlIe; TaKa ce 3aBOlOBa ,11;o:seplie y napTHbopa;
- ,11;06pO)l(eJIaTeJIHaTa aTMoc<i>epa (a HaH-rrpOCTO Ka3aHO - rOTOBHOCTTa
Aa ce 1I3CJIYIIIa 1.JOBeKOT) rropa)l(,11;a pa3KpenocTeHocT II HerrpIIHY,11;eHocT;
KOJIKOTO rrO-MaJIKO OC'b)l(,11;aMe rOBOpeII.J;lI5l, TOJIKOBa TOil: rn;e 6'b,11;e no-ca-
MOKplITIIqeH II rn;e 1I3pa351Ba MMCJIlITe II qyBCTBaTa Cli MHoro rro-oTKpo-
BeHO, OTKOJIKOTO B CIITyau;IIlITe, KoraTO OC'b3HaBa KOHTPOJIa;
- xopaTa 06lIKHoBeHo ,11;a rOBOp5lT 3a C06CTBeHaTa Cli nepco-
Ha II ,11;a rrO,11;1.JepTaBaT 3Ha1.JIIMOCTTa CII;
- )I(eJIaTeJIHO e ,11;a ce rOBopli C'bC cy6eKTa caMO Ha 3a
Hero "e3IIK", 6e3 ,11;a ce 3JIoyrroTPe651Ba C Herr03HaTli ,IJ;yMII (ToBa ,11;pa3-
HII) II 6e3,11;a ce rOBopli npeKaJIeHO orrpocTeHo (MoraT ,11;a Cli rrOMIICJI5IT,
1.Je Bli JIlIIICBa IIHTeJIeKT);
- B rrpou;eca Ha 06rn;YBaHe Ha npe,11;eH rrJIaH TP5I6Ba ,11;a ce 1I3T'bKBaT
C'b)l(,11;eHlI5ITa II cTPeMe)l(lITe Ha c'b6eCe,11;HIIKa (BMecTo "a3 6lIX IICKaJI ... "
-" Blie IICKaTe . "), 3aII.J;OTO TOM rrO-OXOTHO rro,n:,D;'bp)l(a pa3roBop 3a c06-
CTBeHIITe Cli np06JIeMli II )I(eJIaHlI5I;
- rrplI5lTHo e ,11;a ce rOBopli C xopa C Q)I(lIBeHII JIIIu;a II eKcrrpeclIBHII
)I(eCTOBe, KaKTO II C TaKlIBa, KOIiTO crrOHTaHHO rrplieMaT HerrplIHY,11;eHa
n03a (C'bC cy6eKTII, KOHTO rrpli pa3roBop ce 06JI5IraT IIJIIi ce oTrrycKaT B
KpeCJIOTO, o6lIKHoBeHo ce qyBcTBaIII He oco6eHO ylOTHO);
- 3a ,11;a ce nOCTHrHe rr'bJIHO B3alIMO pa36lIpaHe II ,11;a ce nopO,11;1I He-
rrpIIHY,11;eHOCT rrpli KOHTaKTa, )I(eJIaTeJIHO e ,11;a ce KonlipaT KaKTO rr03aTa,
TaKa II )I(eCTOBeTe Ha C'b6eCe,11;HIIKa; rrO,11;06HO "OrJIe,11;aJIHO" o6rn;yBaHe
HaMeKBa Ha C'b6eCe,11;HIIKa, 1.Je rrO,11;Kperr5lTe MHeHlI5ITa II B'b3rJIe,11;IITe MY,
II rrpe,11;pa3nOJIara 1.JOBeKa KOM Bac;
- nOH5IKOra He e 1I3JIlIIIIHO ,11;a 1I306pa351BaTe eMOU;IIOHaJIHIITe npe-
)I<IIB5IBaHlI5I Ha rrapTHbOpa, KaTO rrOKa3BaTe, 1.Je OTJIII1.JHO pa36lIpaTe nCII-
XII1.JeCKOTO My C'bCT05lHlIe; TOBa e MHoro rrplI5lTHO II rroA06p5lBa ,11;OBe-
plITeJIHIITe OTHOIIIeHlI5I;
- KoraTO 1.JOBeK e eMOIJ;lIOHaJIHO B'b36Y,11;eH, 1.JeCTO TOM ce 1I3pa351Ba
rrpeKaJIeHO eKcrrpeclIBHo II C5IKaIII Harra,11;a c'b6eCe,11;HIIKa, MaKap II C'bB-
ceM ,11;a He e TaKa;
<
94 AHATOJU11i1 T APAC
- TPaeH KOHTaKT C nOrJIe)J, C rOBOpellJ,IUI nOKa3Ba 3aHHTepeCYBaHOCT
H 06eKT K'bM npO)J,'hJDKaBaHe Ha MOHOJIOra;
- HaM-06HKHoBeIIHTe HeYTPaJIHH ,IJ,yMH ("pa36Hpa ce", "TaKa e" ... ),
H3Ka3aHH C'hC C'hqYBCTBallJ,O Ha rJIaBaTa, c'h6e-
ce)J,HHKa H npe)J,H3BHKBaT y Hero )KeJIaHHe 3a npo)J,'hJI)KaBaHe Ha 06UJ,y-
BaHeTO;
- HHllJ,O He ce xapeCBa TaKa Ha napTHbOp, KaKTO npe)J,-
JIO)KeHHeTO )J,a H3Ka)Ke MHC'hJI, KOllO, pa36Hpa ce, BHHMa-
TeJIHO )J,a 6'h)J,e H3CJIYlIIaHa;
- KoraTO qOBeK BH)K)J,a, qe ro CJIYlIIaT, TOM C'hC ce OTHaCH
K'bM C'h6eCe,lJ,HHKa H Ha CBOM pe)J, ce cTapae )J,a ce BCJIYIlla B HerOBHTe
,IJ,yMH;
- BceKH qOBeK 06Hqa )J,a MY C'h06llJ,aBaT HOBHHH, HO oco6e-
HO TOBa )KeHHTe;
- HeMaJIKO 3HaqeHHe 3a )J,06pO)KeJIaTeJIHOTO Ha o6eKTa
BHHarH HMa KOMnJIHMeHT;
- JIaCKaTeJICTBOTO He ce B'h3npHeMa 60JIe3HeHO, KoraTO He H3rJIe)J(-
)J,a KaTO JI'h)Ka;
- He 6HBa )J,a ce pa3qHTa Ha OTKpOBeHOCT B OTIOBOP Ha
<paJIlII, )J,OpH H )J,06pe 3aMaCKHpaH;
- He 6HBa )J,a ce 3a,IJ,aBa H3JIHlIIHO KOJImeCTBO B'hnpOCH, 3allJ,OTO TOBa
MO)Ke )J,a nonpeqn )J,a ce nonyqn Heo6xo)J,HMOTO )J,OBepHe;
- npeKaJIeHOTO H OqeBH,lJ,HO caMOXBaJICTBO KaTO npaBHJIO e Hee<peK-
THBHO, TO 6H MOrJIO)J,a ce H3nOJI3Ba, KoraTO Beqee cneqeJIeHO )J,OBepH-
eTO Ha napTHbopa;
- eHeprHqeH )KeCT, OCHOBHaTa MHC'hJI,
06HKHOBeHO He rrpeqn, HO )J,a H3nOJI3BaTe p'hu;eTe, 3a )J,a
npHBJImaTe BHHMaHHe;
- 3a n05IBaTa Ha Bpa)J()J,e6HOCT HaIl'bJIHO )J,OCTaThqeH e H C)J,'hP-
)KaH TOH npH Ha
- 3a Ha ca He06xo)J,HMH HenpHHY)J,eHOCT H
H306HJIHe Ha C'h06llJ,aBaHHTe
TIPH BO)J,eneTO Ha pa3rOBopa He qe xopaTa 06HKHOBeHO
ce )J,pa3Hll OT:
- HeraTHBeH erou;eHtpH3'hM (KoraTO ce rOBopH 3a C'hBCeM JIHqHH H
HHTHMHH HellJ,a, He3aBHCHMO )J,aJIH TOBa ca 60JIeCTH HJIH
B pa60TaTa);
- 6aHaJIHOCT (6p'hllJ,OJIeBeHe 3a H3BeCTHH Ha BCHl{KH HellJ,a, nOBTa-
Ha H3ThpKaHH lIIerH HJIH a<popH3MH);
, HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm
95
- naCHBHOCT C'hC C'h6ece)J,HHKa H He)KeJIa-
HHe )J,a ce H3Ka)Ke 06MHCJIeHO MHeHHe);
- CaMOBrJI'h6eHOCT (C'hCpe)J,OTOqaBaHe caMO B'hPXY co6CTBeHHTe CH
ycnexH H np06JIeMH);
- HHCKa eMOU;HOHaJIHOCT (HenpOMeHJIHB H3pa3 Ha JIHu;eTO, e,lJ,Hoo6-
pa3eH rJIac, CTPeMe)K)J,a He ce rJIe)J,a napTHhOp'hT B OqnTe ... );
- HaB'hCeHOCT He)KeJIaHHe 3a nOM'hp)KaHe Ha pa3rOBO-
pa, KoraTO "C KJIellJ,H )J,a ce ,IJ,yMHTe OT YCTaTa .. ");
- cepH03HOCT (n'hJIHa JIHnCa Ha YCMHBKa H npHeMaHe Hace-
pH03HO);
- nO)J,Ma3BaqeCTBO (yrO,lJ,HmeCKH TOH, H3KYCTBeHa BeCeJIOCT H no-
Ka3HO )J,pY)Kem06He );
- JIHnCa Ha TaKTmHOCT H npH6'hp3aRH H3BO)J,H (H3JIHlIIHH npeK'hCBa-
HH5I Ha C'h6ece)J,HHKa H cy6eKTHBHH ou;eHKH no n'hpBOTO BneqaTJIeHHe;
TOBa Kapa C'h6eCe,lJ,HHK )J,a 3aeMe oT6paHHTeJIHa n03H-
u;H5I, KOllO npeqH Ha HOPMaJIHOTO 06llJ,YBaHe);
- npeKaJIeHa OTBJIeKaeMOCT (H3M'bKBaRe OT pa3fJIe)K)J,aHH npo6JIeM no
Bcem nOBO)J" H3nOJI3BaHe Ha )KaprOH B pa3rOBopa . );
- npeCTopeHOCT Ha 3aHHTepeCYBaHOCT HJIH C'hnpe)KHB5I-
BaRe; JIHnCaTa Ha KaK'bBTO H )J,a e HHTepeC H CKYKaTa npeKpaCHO ce H3-
nHCBaT Ha JIHu;eTO, KOJIKOTO H )J,a ce CTapae )J,a rH CKpHe CTO-
naHHH, a TOBa ce B'h3npHeMa KaTO OCK'hp6JIeHHe);
- BHCOKOMepHe (Ha)J,MeHHOCT H npeHe6pe)KeHHe K'bM C'h6eCe,lJ,HHKa,
;,npeu;e)K)J,aHe" Ha ,IJ,yMHTe npe3 3'h6H ... );
- rpy60cT H )J,OCTaThquo HeyqTHBO npOTHBOpeqeHe .. );
- 6'h6pHBOCT (OTHOIIIeHHe K'bM pa3rOBopa KaTO K'bM co6cTBe-
HOCT);
- HeThpCeHH C'hBeTH ()J,aBaHe Ha C'hBeTH, KOHTO HHKOM He HCKa, OCO-
6eHo KoraTO H)J,BaT OT qOBeK, KOIITO He pa36Hpa OT B'hn-
pOc);
- peIIIHTeJIHOCT Ha (6e3aneJIaU;HOHHH 3a6eJIe)KKH C
He6pe)J(HO Ha qy)K)J,OTO MHeHHe; TaKOBa OTHOIIIeHHe npe-
)J,H3BHKBa nO)J,C'h3HaTeJIeH npOTeCT H MO)Ke )J,a )J,OBe)J,e )J,O CBa)J,a);
- 3aKpHTH B'hnpOCH (T. e. B'hnpOCH, H3HKBallJ,H e)J,H03HaqeH OTrOBOp
- ,,)J,a" HJIH "He"; Te BO)J,5IT )J,O HanperHaTOCT Ha pa3rOBOpa, 3allJ,OTO
orpaHmaBaT npOCTPaHCTBOTO 3a MaHeBpHpaHe Ha napTHbopa H TOM
MO)J(e)J,a ce KaTO Ha pa3nHT).
PeaJIH3HpaiIKH u;eJIeBaTa )J,HpeKTHBa, He e H3JIHlIIHO )J,a 3HaeTe, qe:
- HaM-qeCTO np'hB e npHHY)J,eH )J,a rOBopH
a
96
T APAC
- 3a )l,a nOM'bp)l(aTe MHTepeCa K'bM ce6e CM, MO)l(eTe )l,a MHTpMryBa- '
Te napTHbopa C'bC CB05lTa OCBe)l,OMeHOCT;
- TOH'bT Ha c06CTBeHM5I rJIac e nOJIe3HO)l,a C'bM3MepBaTe C TOHa Ha
C'b6eCe)l,HMKa: KoraTO nOCJIe)l,HM5IT nOBMIIIaBa TOH, rOBopeTe nO-TMXO,
KoeTO me npMHy)l,M M BaIIIM5IT BM3aBM )l,a nOHlf)l(M CMJIaTa Ha maca CM;
npM TOBa Toii me C'b)l(aJIM 3a C06CTBeHaTa CM pa3naJIeHOCT, KaTO no
TaK'bB Ha':IMH n06e)l,aTa B T03M enM30)l, me e BaIIIa;
- B KOHq)JIMKTHM cMryan;MM Ha)l(e)l(aBaHeTo Ha CTPaCTMTe ':IeCTO MO)l(e
)l,a 6'b)l,e rylliMpaHo, KaTO ce )l,a)l,e B'b3MO)l(HOCT )l,a ':IOBeKa npOCTO )l,a ce
M3Ka)l(e;
- 3a )l,a MO)l(eTe ycneIIIHo )l,a BHYIIIlfTe HemO, TP5I6Ba )l,a YMeeTe )l,a
HaKapaTe C'b6eCe)l,HMKa )l,a BM CJIYIIIa;
- JI'b)l(aTa e n;eJIeC'b06pa3Ha caMO aKO HaMCTMHa He MO)l(e )l,a 6'b)l,e
pa306JIlfqeHa;
- M Haii-)l,pe6HaTa JI'b)l(a e cnOC06Ha)l,a nopo)l,M rOJI5IMO He)l,OBepMe;
- Haii-BepHM5IT HaqlfH )l,a 6'b)l,eTe M3JI'braHM - e )l,a ce CM5ITaTe 3a
OT BClfqKM OCTaHaJIM";
- HeTO':IHO <popMYJIMpaHM5IT B'bnpOC Hep5l)l,KO Kapa C'b6ece)l,HMKa )l,a
"HaOCTPM yIIIM";
- onaCHO e )l,a ce MrHOpMpaT npe,IJ,y6e)l()l,eHM5ITa Ha BaIIIM5I c'b6ece)l,-
HMK;
- nOJIe3HO e )l,a ce )l,aBa IIIaHC Ha napTHbopa )l,a )l,eMOHCTPMpa n03Ha-
HM5ITa CM B'bB BC5IKa 06JIaCT;
- xopaTa 60JIe3HeHO ce OTHaC5IT K'bM cnoMeHaBaHeTO Ha rpeIIIKlI,
KOMTO Te Be':Ie He npaB5IT;
- KPMTlfqHMTe 3a6eJIe)l(KM ce B'b3npMeMaT, aKO 06eKT'bT OC'b3HaBa,
':Ie KPMTMKYBalI(M5IT My C'b':IYBCTBa MJIM KpMTMKaTa e M3Ka3aHa B TaKTM':I-
Ha <popMa;
- e)l,Ha M C'bma KpMTM':IHa 3a6eJIe)l(Ka, npOM3HeceHa C'bC cnOKoeH TOH,
e cnoc06Ha )l,a npe)l,M3BMKa: B'b36Y)l,a y XOJIepMKa, npMJIMB Ha eHepm51 y
caHrBMHMKa, cna)l, Ha HacTPoeHMeTo y MeJIaHXOJIMKa M C'bBCeM )l,a He
B'b3)l,eiicTBa Ha XJIa)l,HOKp'bBHM5I <pJIerMaTMK;
- He 6MBa M'bJI':IaHMeTO )l,a ce B'b3npMeMa KaTO BHMMaHMe; Hep5l)l,KO
TO MO)l(e )l,a 03Ha':IaBa caMO ':Ie ':IOBeK'bTe nOT'bHaJI B C06CTBeHMm Cli
MMCJIM.
TIPM npMKmO':IBaHe Ha )l,MaJIora MMaiiTe npe)l,BM)l" ':Ie:
- M 6e3JIlfqeH Kpaii Ha pa3rOBOpa MO)l(e )l,a pa3cee 6JIaron-
PM5lTHOTO Bne':IaTJIeHMe OT BClfqKMTe BM M3Ka3BaHM5I; u
- nOCJIe)l,HMTe <pparMeHm OT pa3rOBopa ce 3anOMH5IT HaM-CMJIHO,
HapbliHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm 97
- TP5I6Ba )l,a YMeeTe HaBpeMe )l,a cnpeTe, MHa':Ie e<peKTMBHocrra OT
npOBe)l,eHM5I KOHTaKT 3Ha':IMTeJIHO me ce nOHlf)l(M.
B. nCUXOU3U0;10cULfHU acneKmu
3a )l,a nOCTMrHeTe O':IaKBaHaTa peaKn;M5I Ha 06eKTa, TP5I6Ba )l,a pa3-
6HpaTe oc06eHocmTe Ha ':IOBeIIIKOTO B'b3npM51me:
- CMMC'bJI'bT Ha <ppa3MTe, C'bCTaBeHM OT nOBe':Ie OT 13 ,IJ,yMM (no )l,py-
rM )l,aHHM - OT 7 ,IJ,yMM), 06MKHOBeHO He ce B'b3npMeMa OT C'b3HaHMeTO,
3aTOBa e 6e3CMMCJIeHO )l,a rM M3n0JI3BaTe;
- pe':ITa MO)l(e )l,a 6'b)l,e pa36paHa caMO npM CKOPOCT He nOBe':Ie OT
2,5 ,IJ,yMM B ceKYH)l,a;
- <ppa3aTa OT 5-6 ceKYH,IJ,M, npOM3HeceHa 6e3 rraY3M, npeCTaBa )l,a ce
OC'b3HaBa;
- M'b)l('bT cJIYIIIa BHMMaTeJIHO )l,pyrMTe cpe)l,HO 10-15 ceKYH,Il,M, CJIe)l,
KoeTO 3anO':IBa )l,a MMCJIM KaKBO )l,a )l,06aBM K'bM npe)l,MeTa Ha pa3rOBOpa;
- BC5IKa eMOn;MOHaJIHa B'b36Y)l,a (6e3 C'bnpe)l(MB5IBaHe ... ) 06MKHOBe-
DO 3aTPY)l,H5IBa B3aMMHOTO pa36upaHe;
- mnM':IHM5IT c'b6eCe)l,HMK KaKTO qyBa, TaKa M pa36Mpa MHoro no-
MaJIKO, OTKOJIKOTO MCKa )l,a nOKa)l(e;
- xopaTa, KOMTO MMaT CKJIOHHOCT K'bM CaMOaHaJIM3, He)l,Opa36MpaT
OHe3H, KOMTO He YMe5lT)l,a ce BrJI'b651BaT B ce6e CM;
- 6ece)l,BaHKM C M3BeCTeH ':IOBeK B n03Ham CMryaIJ;MM, napTHbopMTe
06HKHoBeHo qyBaT OHOBa, KoeTO npe)l,nOJIaraT, ':Ie me qyn, 3aTOBa H51-
KaKBO C'b06meHMe, He C'bBCeM xapaKTepHO 3a Hero, Haii-':IeCTO MMHaBa
nOKpaii YIIIMTe MM MJIM ce B'b3npMeMa HeB5IpHO;
- HenpaBMJIHM5IT e3MK OKa3Ba OTPMn;aTeJIHO BJIM5IHMe B'bpXy B'b3npM-
eMaHeTO Ha C'b06meHMeTO; HeC'bOTBeTCTBMeTO Ha ynOTPe651BaHM5I M3-
pa3 Ha CTaH)l,apTHOTO MY 3Ha':IeHMe, n'bK M Ha CTMJIMCTlfqHMTe KaHOHM
nOH51KOra npe)l,H3BMKBa HeraTMBHM eMOIJ;MM, KOMTO 3a':IepKBaT IJ;5IJIaTa
nOJI3a OT pa3rOBopa (M3JIMlliHO BMCOKonapHMTe M3pa3M pa3CMMBaT, 6a-
HaJIHMTe - Hep5l)l,K0 )l,pa3H5IT, norpeIIIHaTa JIeKCMKa HacTPoiiBa K'bM MpO-
HM5I ... );
- MH03MHCTBOTO OT xopaTa MMaT H51KaKBM KPMTM':IHM )l,yMM, oc06e-
HO B'b3)l,eiicTBamM B'bpXy nCMXMKaTa, TaKa ':Ie KaTO rM qye, 06eKT'bT BHe-
3anHO ce M ry6M HMIIIKaTa Ha OCHOBHM5I pa3rOBOp;
- MMrHOBeHM5IT npexo)l, OT )l,pY)l(em06Me K'bM HeMOTMBMpaHa Bpa)l(-
Ae6HOCT e cnOc06eH)l,a npe)l,R3BMKa Ofi'bpKaHOCT, Bn;eneHeHMe, cTPax M
AOPM eMOn;MOHaJIeH IIIOK;
- KoraTO TP5IfiBa)l,a ce B'b3)l,eiicTBa B'bpXy ':IYSCTBaTa Ha ':IOBeKa, npe-
98
AHATOJllt11ii T APAC
HMYrn;eCTBeHO Tp5l6Ba .n;a My ce rOBOpH Ha JI5IBOTO yxo, B'bpXy JIOrHKa-
Ta - Ha MCHOTO;
- XOpaTa, 06XBaHaTH OT BHe3aneH rH5IB, MHOrO nO-JIeCHO MOraT ,n;a
6'b.n;aT pa3CMeHH, OTKOJIKOTO aKO ca B HOpMaJIHO HaCTPoeHHe, B TOBa ce
C'bCTOH e.n;HH OT QeHHHTe HaqHHH 3a HeYTPaJIH3HpaHe Ha KOH<pJIHKTH;
- aKTHBHOCTTa Ha B'b3npH5ImeTO .n;o orpOMHa CTeneH 3aBHCH OT cno-
C06HOCTTa Ha nOJIyqeHaTa HH<popMaQH5I .n;a pa3qOB'bpKa B naMeTTa Ha
qOBeKa CTaeHHTe TaM cnOMeHH;
- OHOBa, KoeTO e C'bBCeM HOBO 3a napTHbOpa H no HHKaK'bB HaqHH He
3aC5Ifa HerOBHTe n03HaHH5I, He npe.n;H3BHKBa y Hero oc06eH HHTepec,
HO KOJIKOTO nOBeqe HH.n;HBHA'bT e 3an03HaT C npe.n;MeTa Ha pa3roBopa,
TOJIKOBa nOBeqe ro HHTepecYBaT qaCTHOCTHTe H HlOaHCHTe;
- KoraTO cy6eKT'bT B'b06rn;e He e 3all03HaT C H51KaK'bB B'bnpOC, noc-
JIeABarn;OTO B'b3npH51THe Ha npe.n;MeTa 06HKHOBeHO ce 06yCJI5IBa OT n'bp-
BHqHOTO C'b06rn;eHHe 3a Hero;
- H3BeCTHO e, qe MHoro nOBeqe ce .n;OBep5IBa Ha OHOBa, KoeTO e no-
nyqeHo ll'bPBO, OTKOJIKOTO Ha nO-HaTaThlllHOTO;
- xopaTa 06HKHOBeHO npeYBeJIuqaBaT HH<popMaQHOHHaTa QeHHOCT
Ha c'b6HTH5ITa, nOTB'bp)l()J;aBarn;H T5IXHaTa xnnoTe3a, H He.n;OOQeH5lBaT
npOmBOpeqarn;aTa iI HH<P0PMaQH5I;
- qOBeK H3Ka3Ba 80% OT OHOBa, KoeTO HCKa .n;a K3)Ke, a cJIymaIJJ;HTe
ro B'b3npHeMaT caMO 70% OT HH<popMaQH5ITa, pa36HpaT 60%, a B na-
MeTTa HM OCTaBa OT 10 .n;o 25%;
- 3a .n;a MO)Ke napTHbOp'bT .n;a B'b3npHeMe npe.n;aBaHaTa HH<p0pMa-
QH5I, TP5I6Ba HenpecTaHHo .n;a MY ce nOBTapHT OCHOBHHTe MHCJIH H no-
JIO)KeHH51 B He5l;
- KOJIKOTO no-.n;06pe OC'b3HaBaMe npe.n;MeTa Ha pa3roBopa, TOJIKOBa
nO-JIeCHO ro 3anOMH5lMe;
- "cpe.n;HH5IT qOBeK" 3aA'bP)Ka B naMeTTa CH He nOBeqe OT qeTB'bpT
OT OHOBa, KoeTO MY e 6HJIO Ka3aHO caMO npeAH ABa .n;HH;
- naMeTTa pa60m HaH-.n;06pe Me)K.n;y 8-12 qaca cYTPHHTa H CJIe.n; 9
qaca BeqepTa, HaM-JIOmO - Be.n;Hara CJIe.n; 06M;
- HaM-.n;06pe ce 3anaMeT5IBa nOCJIe)l;HaTa qaCT OT HH<popMaQHHTa,
MaJIKO nO-JIomo - n'bpBaTa, .n;OKaTO Cpe)l;HaTa HaM-qeCTO ce 3a6paB5I;
- naMeTTa Ha qOBeKa e cnoc06Ha .n;a 3alla3H .n;o 90% OT OHOBa, KoeTO
qOBeK npaBH, 50% OT OHOBa, KoeTO BH)I()J;a, H 10% OT OHOBa, KoeTO qysa;
- npeK'bCHaTHTe no e)l;Ha HJIH .n;pyra npuquHa .n;eMCTBH5I ce 3anOM-
HHT ABa ll'bTH no-.n;06pe, OTKOJIKOTO 3aB'bpmeHHTe; .
- npeKaJIeHO rOJIeMH5IT 06eM Ha HaJIHqHaTa HH<p0pMaU;H5I 06'bpKBa
H e npeqKa 3a npepa60TBaHeTo iI;
HapbtfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
99
- HHTeJIeKThT pa60TH HaM-,n;06pe, KoraTO qOBeK e ce)l;HaJI, nO-JIomo
- KoraTO e npaB, H C'bBCeM JIomo - KoraTO e JIerHaJI;
- nO-B'b3paCTHHTe xopa no-.n;o6pe MHCJI5IT CYTPHH, MJIa)l;HTe - Beqep;
- KaTO npaBHJIO xopaTa ca nO-yMHH H no-npeCMeTJIHBH B 8 q cYT-
pHHTa;
- npaBH5IT qOBeK HMa H3BeCTHO nCHXOJIOruqeCKO npeHMYIJJ;eCTBo Ha.n;
ce)l;HaJIH5I;
- npH pa3roBop B MHoro ruyMHa 06CTaHOBKa TP5I6Ba .n;a rJIe.n;aTe
rOBOpern;H5I, .n;a H3nOJI3BaTe caMO .n;o6pe n03Ham .n;yMH, MaJIKO .n;a pa3-
TerJIHTe cpuqKHTe, rJIarOJIHTe OT mna ,,3a6paH5lBaM" .n;a CJIaraTe B Ha-
qaJIOTO Ha H3peqeHHeTO, a OT THlla Ha "pa3pemaBaM" - B KpM;
- "MHC'bJITa ce npoMeIDI B 3aBHCHMOCT OT )l;yMHTe, C KOHTO ce npe-
.n;aBa";
- "pa3noJIo)KeHHTe no .n;pyr HaquH )l;yMH npHA06HBaT .n;pyr CMHC'bJI,
pa3nOJIO)KeHHTe no .n;pyr H a ~ MHCJIH npaBHT .n;pyro BneqaTJIeHHe";
- npH HMllYJICHBHO eMOQHOHaJIHO pearHpaHe o6HKHoBeHo ce pa3-
6Hpa He nOBeqe OT e)l;Ha TPeTa OT B'b3npHeMaHaTa HH<popMaQH5l, 3arn;0-
TO B'b3HHKBarn;H5IT cTPec nOAfOTB5I 3a aKTHBeH OTfOBOP TjiJIOTO (C H3X-
B'bpJI5IHe Ha a.n;peHaJIHH B Kp'bBTa, aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha AHmaHeTO H nYJIca,
3a.n;eMCTBaHe Ha pe3epBHTe OT 3axap H Ma3HHHH . ), KaTO 6JIoKMpa "He-
Hy)KHaTa" pa60Ta Ha M03'bKa;
- )KeHaTa B'b3npHeMa pa3rOBOpa KaTO H a ~ 3a YCTaHOB5IBaHe Ha
KOHTaKT, H3pa351BaHe Ha qyBCTBO Ha CHMllaTH5I-aHTHllaTH5l, a rJIaBHO-
KaTO HaqHH 3a ThpCeHe Ha pemeHHe Ha pa3JIHqRH np06JIeMH;
- M'b)KeTe nOBeqe 06uqaT .n;a rOBOpHT 3a C06CTBeHHTe CH ycnexH,
OTKOJIKOTO .n;a CJIyrnaT 3a qy)I()J;HTe, )KeHHTe - 06paTHOTO;
- Mb)K'bT e 3arpH)KeH 3a JIuqHH5I CH CTaTYT B OqHTe Ha OKOJIHHTe H
rJIe.n;a Ha 06rn;yBaHeTO KaTO Ha B'b3MO)KHOCT 3a pa3M51Ha Ha HH<popMa-
U;H5I, a He Ha npe)KHB5IBaHH5I; TOM )Ka.n;ysa ,n;a YTB'bPAH co6cTBeHaTa CH
He3aBHCHMOCT;
- )KeHHTe ce OpHeHTHpaT K'bM B'bTPelllHoTo c'b.n;'bp)KaHHe (MHCJIH,
HaMepeHH5I, qyBcTBa H OTHOmeHH5I) Ha pa3roBopa, KaTO no.n;o3HpaT Bce-
B'b3MO)KHH HaMeQH B'bB BCHKa 6e306HAHa penJIHKa; 06HKHOBeHo Te B5Ip-
BaT nOBeqe Ha )l;yMHTe, OTKOJIKOTO Ha nOCThnKHTe.
r. CbcmaBHU elleMeHmu Ha o6LyBaHemo
BceKH pa3rOBOp e C'bCTaBeH OT MHoro6pOMHH eJIeMeHTH, 3aBHce-
lQH OT B'bHmHHTe 06CT05lTeJICTBa H cnoeHH OT 06MHCJIeHa CTPaTerH5I.
Q
100
AHATOJU11il TAPAC
Pa3JIHqHHTe aCrreKTH Ha ecpeKTHBHOTO 06[QYBaHe ca rrpe,o;CTaBeHH B
pa3,o;eJIHTe, 06pHCYBa[QH Bep6YBaHeTO H MeTO,o;HTe 3a B'b3,o;ellCTBHe
B'bpXy qOBeKa, TyK [Qe rrOCoqHM CaMO WIKOH OpHeHTHpOB'bqHH rrpeno-
P'bKH:
TIo,o;rOTB5IllKH ce 3a pa3rOBOpa, B3eMeTe rro,o; BHHMaHHe, qe:
- TP5I6Ba rrpeB'b3XO,o;HO ,o;a ce OpHeHTHpaTe B rrp06JIeMaTHKaTa, K05l-
TO ce KaHHTe CepH03HO ,o;a 06C'b)J(,o;aTe; B'b3,o;'bp)J(allTe ce OT He06oCHO-
BaHH C'b)J()J;eHH5I;
- KaTO C5I,o;aTe Ha MaCaTa e)J;HH cpe[Qy ,o;pyr, C'b3,o;aBaTe aTMOCcpepa
Ha KaTO rro T03H HaqHH HaMaJI5IBaTe IIIaHCOBeTe 3a ycrrex
Ha rrperOBopHTe;
- HeHy)J(HOTO rrpHC'bCTBHe Ha He3aHHmpeCYBaHH H BC5IKaKBH
Herrpe,o;BH,o;eHH OTBJInqaHH5I (TeJIecpOHeH 3B'bH, BHe3arreH rnyM, CJIyqaeH
rrOCeTHTeJI ... ) rrpeqaT Ha ,o;OBepHTeJIHOTO 06[QYBaHe, KaTO rrpecnqaT
YCTaHOBeHaTa OT Bac rrOCOKa Ha pa3rOBopa;
- ce,ruIaJIH5IT qOBeK 06HKHOBeHO e rrO-OTKpOBeH OT H3rrpaBeHIDl, HO
aKO ce rrOCTaB5I 3a,o;aqa, pa3qeTeHa Ha peIlIHTeJIHOCT H 6'bp3HHa - HeKa
BaIlIH5IT C'b6ece,o;HHK BHHarH ,o;a CTOH;
- aKO )J(eJIaeTe C'b6ece,o;HHK'bT BH ,o;a 3arrOMHH H51KOll cprucr, rro,o;aiiTe
MY B caMOTO HaqaJIO Ha pa3rOBopa, aKO JIH rr'bK HCKaTe
TOll ,o;a HarrpaBH He[QO - OCTaBeTe MOJI6aTa CH 3a KpM Ha pa3rOBopa.
TIPH 06[QyBaHe C qOBeKa OC'b3HaBallTe, qe:
- qeCTO xopaTa 3arrOqBaT ,o;a MHCJI5IT e,o;Ba B MOMeHTa, KoraTO 3a-
rrOqBaT ,o;a rOBOp5IT;
- KOJIKOTO rro-HeyaepeH B ce6e CH e rrapTHbOp'bT BH, TOJIKOBa rrOBe-
qe ro YCYKBa, ,o;OKaTO ce peIIIH,o;a rrpHCThIIH K'bM rJIaBHOTO;
- H51Ma CMHC'bJI ,o;a rOBopHTe ,o;eJIOBO C B'b36y,o;eH H pa3B'bJIHyaaH
qOBeK;
- orraCHO e ,o;a ce rrOMaBaTe Ha BJIH5IHHeTO Ha Ha c'b6e-
Ce)J;HHKa, HHaqe MO)J(eTe ,o;a H3ry6HTe CMHC'bJI Ha C'b06[QeHHeTO;
- rro,o; rrpecHHra Ha 6'bp3aHeTO HJIH Ha rOJ15lMO )J(eJIaHHe ,o;a OTH,o;e ,0;0
TOaJIeTHaTa cy6eKThT He e B C'bCT05lHHe ,o;a MHCJIH pa3yMHo;
- "KaTO ce rrpeCTPyaaMe, qe CMe rra,o;Ha.JIH B rrOCTaBeHHH 3a Hac Ka-
rraH, rrp05lB5IBaMe HCTHHCKH H3HCKaHa XHTPOCT, 3a[QOTO Hall-JIeCHO e,o;a
H;36y,o;aJIKaTe qOBeKa ToraBa, KoraTO TOll HCKa ,o;a BH H3JI'b)J(e";
Pa3qHTallKH ,o;a rrOJIyqHTe H5IKaKBa He 3a6paB5IllTe, qe:
- B OTrOBOp Ha cpaKTnqeCKO TB'bp,o;eHHe rrapTHbop'bT C'b06[QaBa rro-
Beqe cBe,o;eHH5I, OTKOJIKOTO aKO OTrOBap51 Ha 06HKHOBeH B'brrpoc;
Hapbl./HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 101
- 3a )J(eHHTe e xapaKTepHO, qe B'b3npHeMaT ,o;pe6HHTe C'b6HTH5I KaTO
rOJIeMH;
- H3HeHa,o;BallKH qOBeKa, rrOH51KOra MO)J(eTe ,o;a rrOJIyqHTe ,o;OCTa He-
OqaKBaHH MaTepHaJIH;
- KaTO BMeTBaTe cppa3aTa "He MO)J(e ,o;a 6'b,o;e" B H3Ka3BaHIDITa Ha
napTHbOpa, BHe ro rrpOBOKHpaTe K'bM OTKpOBeHOCT: "xopaTa c'b06[Qa-
BaT HHTepecyBa[QHTe HH CBe,o;eHH5I caMO ToraBa, KoraTO lIM rrpOTHBO-
peqHM";
- aKO C'b3,o;a,o;eTe y6e)J;HTeJIHO BrreqaTJIeHHe, qe 3HaeTe MHoro rrOBe-
qe OT C'b6eCe)J;HHKa BH, TOll caM [Qe BH pa3Ka)J(e BCnqKO, KoeTO 3Hae;
- KaTO H3CJIyrnBaTe )J;yMH H H3pa3H, BHHKBaiiTe B
peaJIHH5I HM CMHC'bJI, a He B'bB cpopMaTa HM;
- BCnqKH TaKa HapeqeHH 3aKpHTH B'brrpOCH (T. e. H3HCKBa[QH rrpocm-
Te OTIOBOPH ",o;a" H.JIH "He") HMaT CBOllCTBOTO ,o;a HapyrnaBaT xo,o;a Ha
MHCJIHTe Ha rOBOpe[QH5l, 3aTOBa rrpe)J;I10'flITaiiTe oTKPHTHTe B'brrpOCH;
- OTKpHTHTe B'brrpOCH ca ,o;06PH rrpH rrOJIO)J(HTeJIHO HJIH HeYTpaJI-
HO OTHOIlIeHHe Ha C'b6ece,o;HHKa, KoraTO BH Tp5l6BaT ,o;orr'bJIHHTeJIHH
CBe,o;eHH5I HJIH e Heo6xo,o;HMO ,o;a ce H351CH5IT peaJIHHTe MOTHBH ,H
Ha 06eKTa; rropa,o;H TOBa qe B TaKHBa CJIy-
qaH ce rrpe,o;aBa Ha rrapTHbopa, CJIe,o;eTe TOll ,o;a He 3aBJIa,o;ee KOHTpO-
JIa B'bpxy pa3rOBOp;
- B'b36y)J()J;aHe Ha CHJIHa (51pOCT, HeHaBHCT .. ), crroco6Ha,o;a
6JIOKHpa HMrryJICa Ha 60JIKaTa;
- OTKJIlOqBaHe Ha C'b3HaHHeTO C H3HCKaHO-MeHTaJIHH (qpe3 KOHD;eH-
H MallTpH ... ) HJIH rpy60-cpH3nqeCKH (c y,o;apH Ha rJIaBaTa B CTe-
Ha ) HaqHHH;
- "H3JIH3aHe B aCTPaJIa" OT T5IJIOTO qpe3 TeXHHKHTe Ha 6y,o;HCTKO-
,o;aoCKH5I TPaHc;
- rrCHXnqeCKa B o6eKT, KOllTO He MO)J(e,o;a H3rrHTBa
60JIKa (o6JIaK, KaM'bK .. ).
3a ,o;a 3arra3HTe Heo6xo,o;HMaTa BH ,o;o6po)J(eJIaTeJIHOCT Ha c'b6ece,o;-
HHKa, rrOJIe3HO e ,o;a 3HaeTe, qe:
- MO)J(eTe ,o;a C'b3,o;a,o;eTe ,o;06po HacTPoeHHe Ha ,o;a,o;eH cy6eKT, KaTO
My HarrpaBHTe MaJIKH OTCThrrKH, KOHTO rro C'b[QeCTBO ca MHoro rro-,o;pe6-
HH, OTKOJIKOTO H3rJIe)J()J;aT Ha rrp'bB rrorJIe,o;;
- rrpH BceKH rro,o;XO)J;H[Q CJIyqall aKmBHO rrpH3HaBallTe rrpaBoTaTa Ha
napTHbOpa, KoeTO MO)J(e ,o;a 6'b,o;e rrOJIe3HO ,o;OpH ToraBa, KoraTO TOll He
e npaB;
- KOJIKOTO rrO-KpHmqHO ce OTHaC5ITe K'bM ce6e CH, KoraTO crpeIlIH-
Te, TOJIKOBa rrOBeqe 06e30p'b)J(aBaTe rrpOTHBHHKa;
102 AHATOJH1lii T APAC
- yqTHBOTO nOBeAeHHe He HaMamIBa HCHOTaTa HHTO Ha Mon6aTa,
HUTO Ha 3anOBeATa, HO npH BCHqKH cnyqaH B'h3npennCTBa nmIBaTa Ha
nOAC'h3HaTenHa C'hnpOTHBa y napTHbopa;
- npe3pUTenaOTO OTXB'hpAAHe Ha apryMeHTHTe Ha c'h6ece,lJ.HHKa, 6e3
npOHBa Ha KaKBOTO H Aa 6HnO )J(enaHHe Aa 6'hAe pa36paR HCTHHCKHfl 11M
CMHC'hn, BnlfjIe AOCTa 3ne B'hPXy aTMoccpepaTa Ha AenOBlfjI pa3rOBOp;
- KoraTO ce H3pa3$a HannnHO HenpHeMnHBa 3a Bac n03HWUI, He
6HBa TH Aa 6'hAe 6e3anenaU;HOHHO OTXB'hpnHHa, nO-A06pe e Aa Ka)J(eTe,
qe 3acera TH 3a Bac e Hepa36HpaeMa.
I1PH C'bCTasmeTO Ha nnaRa 3a KOHTaKTa cneABa Aa ce lIMa npeABHA, qe:
- npH H360pa Ha TaKTHKa H TeXHHKa Ha pa3rOBopa TPH6Ba Aa ce
O ~ U T a T cBoeo6pa3HOTO MHcneHe Ha C'h6eCeAHHKa H nCHXocpH3Hono-
rlfqHHTe My OC06eHOCTH (HanpHMep no-u;eneC'h06pa3HO e Ha )J(eHHTe
Aa ce nOKa)J(e KaKBO e HanpaseHo, a He KaK ce npaBH);
- B'hB BCHKO 06ru;ysaHe TPH6Ba Aa ce npeABHAHT KaKTO "B'hpXOBeTe"
(3a KOHu;eHTPaU;HH Ha BHHMaHHeTO Ha BaIIIlfjI C'h6eCeAHHK), TaKa H "cna-
AOBeTe" (3a opraHH3aU;lfjI H 3anaMeTHBaRe Ha MHCnHTe H aCOU;HaQHHTe)
npH pa3rOBopa;
- A06pe e pa3rOBOp'hT nepHOAHqHO Aa ce peAYBa c 060CHOBaHH na-
Y3H, 3a Aa HMa B'h3MO)J(HOCT 3a KpaTKa nOqHBKa H 3aTB'hp,ll;$aHe Ha noc-
THrHaTOTO;
- YMeno pa3npeAeneHHTe naY3H nOHHKora MoraT Aa OKa)J(aT MHoro
no-rOAAMO BnlfjlHHe, OTKOnKOTO o6Iu;IDlT nOTOK OT ,IJ;yMH;
- TeMnOTO Ha nOAaBaHe Ha MaTepHana H pa3npeAeneHHeTO Ha nay-
3HTe ce onpeAenHT cnopeA nCHXOnOrlfjlTa Ha napTHbopa, npH TOBa Han-
ecpeKTHBHO e "KBaHTOBOTO" (T. e. A03HpaHOTO Ha nopIJ;HH) nOAaBaHe Ha
cpaKTYpaTa;
- )J(enaTenHO e He oco6eHO npHHTHHTe MOMeHTH H cpaKTH Aa ce pe-
AYBaT C 6narOnpHnHHTe, a HaqanOTO H Kpan Ha pa3rOBopa HeC'hMHe-
HO TPH6Ba Aa ca nonO)J(HTenHH;
- npenOp'hqHTenHO e KonKOTO KOHTaKThT Ha6nH)J(aBa K'hM KpaH, Ton-
KOBa Aa e nO-HaCHTeH;
- )J(enaTenao e Aa He ce AonycKa BneqaTneHHe, qe C'h6eCeAHHK'hT ce
e npeAan HnH 3a6ene)J(HMO e OTCThnHn OT C06CTBeHHTe CH n03HU;HH.
AKO )J(enaeTe Aa y6eAHTe napTHbopa CH B HeIQO:
- cTapafiTe ce Aa H3HCHHTe BClfqKH TOqKH Ha B'hTPelliHO Kone6aHHe
HnH OHe3H, KOHTO ca apeHa 3a 60p6a Ha MOTHBH, H HMeHHO B'hPXy THX
KOHu;eHTPHpanTe B'h3AenCTBHeTO CH;
Hapb'1HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
103
- B'h3AenCTBanTe caMO C OHe3H aprYMeHTH, KOHTO qOBeK e cnoco-
6eH Aa npHeMe;
- He ce OrpaHlfqaBanTe C rona U;HTHpaHe Ha cpaKTH H AOBOAH, a HCHO
pa3KPHBanTe CMHC'hna HM;
- OTHaqanO ce onHTanTe Aa OTrOBopHTe Ha aprYMeHTHTe Ha Ba-
Illlfjl C'h6eCeAHHK H qaK cneA TOBa H3Ka3BanTe C06CTBeHHTe CH AOBO-
)1;H;
- He HrHopHpanTe pe30HHHTe AOBOAH Ha C'h6eCeAHHKa CH, a rH
npeAnonO)J(eTe npeABapHTenHO H 06MHcneTe CBOHTe KOHTpaapry-
MeHTH;
- BHHarH HMafiTe pe3epBeH apryMeHT, B cnyqan qe B MOMeIITa Ha
B3eMaHe Ha peIlleHHe 06eKT'hT H3BeAH'h)J( 3anOqae Aa ce Kone6ae;
- none3HO e OTAenHH TB'hpAeHHH Aa ce H3Ka3BaT nOA cpopMaTa Ha
HeYTPaneH B'hnpOC (nOHHKora pHTOplfqeH, a nOHHKora H 3a pa3MHC'hn ... ),
B TaK'hB cnyqan BalIIlfj{T C'h6eCeAHHK HHMa Aa yceIQa ~ HaTHCK H
CB'hP3aHlfjI C Hero A'h:rr6oqaHeH KOHTeKCT H IQe B'h3npHeMa HeIQaTa KaTO
C06CTBeHO MHeHHe;
- B'h3A'hp)J(afiTe ce C B'hnpOCH, Ha KOHTO C'h6eCe,lJ.HHK'hT BH 6H MOr'hn
Aa OITOBOPH C "He" (KoraTO cy6eKThT ny6nlfqHO e c'ho6IQHn MHeHHeTO
CH, TO CTaBa TB'hpAe YCTOfiqasO K'hM aTaKH ... );
- KoraTO ce onHTBaTe Aa CneqenHTe qOBeK Ha CBOH CTPaHa, rneAan-
Te ro B Me)J(AYBe)J(,ll;HeTO H CH npeACTaBme HMeHHO OHa3H peaKU;lfjI,
Kono OqaKBaTe OT C'h6eCeAHHKa;
- He OTCThnBaHTe AOToraBa, AOKaTO C'h6eCeAHHK'hT BH He Ka)J(e He-
eAHoKPaTHO H HCHO peIIIHTenHO "He";
- npOCneAHBafiTe HeBep6anHHTe peaKIJ;HH Ha o6eKTa, KaTO Hara)J(Aa-
Te co6CTBeHOTO CH nOBeAeHHe K'hM nCHXOnOrHqeCKOTO My C'hCTOHHHe
(HanpHMep, aKO Aa,IJ;eH npo6neM ro e 3aHHTepecysan, BaIIIlfjIT c'h6e-
ceAHHK IQe H3Ba,IJ;H IJ;HrapaTa OT YCTaTa CH HnH IQe HaBeAe rnaBa HaCT-
paHH; IQOM 3ary6H HHTepeC K'hM pa3rOBopa, Ton IQe 3anOqHe Aa p;paCKa
B'hPXy xapTlfj{ HnH IQe MeTHe KpaKa CH B'hPXy nOAnaK'hTHHKa Ha Kpec-
nOTO; B MOMeHTa Ha B3eMaHe Ha peIIIeHHe napTHbop'hT norna)J(Aa 6pa-
,ll;lfqKaTa CH, a aKO ce OKa)J(e 3aTPYAHeH H HeYBepeH - nOqeCBa YXOTO,
6Y3aTa HnH Hoca CH, a C'hIQO H ThpKa Oqa ... ).
B MaHHnynHpaHeTO C cpaKTH ce H3non3BaT CneAHHTe HaqHHH:
- CMeCBaHe Ha KneBeTaTa H HCTHHaTa;
- npo6YTBaHe Ha n'h)J(JIHB cpaKT HJIH HaMeK K'hM C'h06IQeHHeTO 3a
peanHH C'h6HTlfj{;
- OTBJIlfqaHe Ha BHHMaHHeTO (Hrpa C eMOIJ;HHTe HJIH C'hC CTPaHHqHa
cpaKTYpa ... ) OT Ba)J(HHTe AaHHH;
-
104 AHATOm1t7t TAPAC
- nO,lJ,MeH5lHe Ha c):>aKTHTe C eMO:QHH;
- H3Be)l()J,aHe Ha rpeIIIHH H3BO,lJ,H OT BepHH <paKTH;
- nOrpeIIIHH 0606r:u;eHH5I (06I:u;H H3BO,lJ,H OT t{aCTeH clJaKT);
- npeHe6perBaHe Ha BpeMeBHTe H JIOmt{eCKHTe Bp'b3KH Me)I\)J,)' c):>aK-
mTe;
- H3nOJI3BaHe Ha MHOr03Hat{HH AYMH;
- JI'b)l(JIHBH n030BaBaHH5I Ha aBTOpHTeTH;
- Hrpa C aCO:QHa:QHHTe ("not{HT K'bM HaYKaTa" ... );
- Hrpa C'bC CaMOJI106HeTO ("KaKTO BHe, pa36Hpa ce, 3HaeTe ... ").
3a ,lJ,a ce pa3Cee peIIIHMOCTTa Ha 06eKTa H ,lJ,a My ce nOnpet{H ,lJ,a
B3eMe He)l(eJIaTeJIHO 3a BaC peIIIeHHe, ce H3nOJI3BaT HeTaKTHl:IHH XBaT-
KH KaTO:
- 3aK'bCHeHHe 3a Cper:u;aTa;
- HaCMelIIKH, OCK'bp6JIeHH5I, 06BHHeHH5I;
- ,lJ,eMOHCTpamBHO npeHe6pe)l(eHHe;
- C'b06r:u;aBaHe Ha Her:u;O HenpH5ITHO;
- HMHTHpaHe Ha "Hepa36HpaHe";
- HaTHCK C "JIHnCa Ha BpeMe";
- cMaiffiaHe C HamCK;
- nOCTaB5IHe Ha HepeaJIHH CpOKOBe;
- npOTaKaHe Ha nperOBOpHTe ...
KoraTO no n03aTa Ha t{OBeKa BH CTaHe Han'bJIHO 51CHO, t{e TOM HMa
HaMepeHHe ,lJ,a npHKJIlOt{Ba pa3roBopa, Be,lJ,Hara B3eMeTe HHH:QHaTH-
BaTa B CBOH p'b:Qe H np'bB npe,lJ,JIO)l(eTe Kpa51 Ha KOHTaKTa, 3ar:u;oTo
TOBa n03BOJI5IBa ,lJ,a CH 3ana3HTe nCHXOJIOrHt{eCKOTO npeHMyr:u;ecTBo
H KOHTpOJIa Ha,lJ, cHTya:QH5ITa.
2. T04HOCT Ha Bb3npl!1eMaHe Ha napTHbopa
no o6w,YBaHe
A. V60gHU 6elle)f(KU
KaTO npaBHJIO xopaTa rOBOp5lT e,lJ,HO, a MHCJI5IT C'bBCeM ,l1,pyro, 3a-
TOBa e MHoro Ba)l(HO ,lJ,a pa36HpaTe HCTHHCKOTO HM C'bCT05lHHe. npH
npe,lJ,aBaHe Ha HH<popMa:QH5I caMO 7 % ce C'b06r:u;aBa nOCpe,lJ,CTBoM AY-
MHTe (Bep6aJIHo), OKOJIO 30 % ce H3pa351BaT C rJIaca (ToHaJIHOCT, HH-
. HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 105
TOHa:QI151 ... ) H nOBet{e OT 60 % B'bpBI1 no ,lJ,pyrHTe HeBep6aJIHI1 (norJIe,lJ"
)l(eCToBe, MI1MI1Ka ... ) KaHaJII1.
3a ,lJ,a MO)l(eTe npaBI1JIHO ,lJ,a pa36epeTe rOBoper:u;I151, )l(eJIaTeJIHO e ,lJ,a
ou;eH51BaTe OHOBa, KoeTO TOM np0I13HaC5I, B Hepa3pI1BHa Bp'b3Ka C AYMI1-
Te,iroBopa, naHTOMHMI1KaTa 11 ,lJ,pyrH "Cn'bTHH:QH" Ha 06r:u;yBaHeTo, KaTO
p;oKapBaTe B'b3npI151TI1eTO CI1 ,lJ,0 H51KaKBa 3aB'bpIIIeHocT.
AYlIIeBHI1Te CI1 eMOlJ,HI1 xopaTa 06I1KHOBeHo I13pa351BaT no CJIe,lJ,HI151
Hat{HH:
- KOHBeH:QHaJIHO (cTaH,lJ,apTHO Ha npHemTe B ,lJ,a,lJ,eHa cpe,lJ,a Hat{HHI1
Ha 06r:u;yBaHe);
- cnOHTaHHO (Henp0I13BOJIHO).
KoraTo napTHbOp'bT ce cTpeMI1 ,lJ,a He ce I13,lJ,a,lJ,e KaK ce OTHaC5I K'bM
C'b06r:u;eHHeTO, BCHl:IKO MO)l(e ,lJ,a ce CBe,lJ,e ,lJ,0 npOCT KOHBeH:QHOHaJIeH
HeBep6aJIeH HaMeK, KOMTO nOH5lKora e I1CTI1HCKH, HO no-t{eCTO - ,lJ,e30-
pI1eHTI1par:u;.
06mrnOBeHO xopaTa Mep5lT AYMHTe CH 11 KOHrpOJII1paT MI1MI1KaTa
CI1, HO t{OBeK e cnoc06eH ,lJ,a CJIe,lJ,I1 e,lJ,HOBpeMeHHO He nOBet{e OT ABe-
rpI1 OT BCHl:IKH B'bTpeIIIHH peaK:QHH. DJIarO,lJ,apeHI1e Ha TaKOBa "I13TI1t{a-
He Ha HHc):>opMa:QH5I" npI1 HaJIHl:II1e y Bac Ha C'bOTBeTHHTe 3HaHH5I 11 OnI1T
I1MaTe B'b3MO)l(HOCT ,lJ,a I13t{I1CJIHTe OHe3H qyBcTBa H CTpeMe)l(I1, KOHTO
06eKThT 611 npe,lJ,llot{eJI ,lJ,a cKpI1e.
CnOHTaHHO B'b3HI1KBaI:u;HTe y xopaTa peaK:u;I1I1 ca I1H)J,I1BH,lJ,yaJIHI1 11
MoraT ,lJ,06pe ,lJ,a 6'b,lJ,aT npot{eTeHI1 caMO npH YCJIOBI1e t{e OTJII1t{HO n03-
HasaTe napTHbOpa. nO,lJ,lJ,eH51BaHeTO Ha T03I1 MOMeHT MO)l(e ,lJ,a ,lJ,OBe,lJ,e
,lJ,0 clJaTaJIHO caM03a6JIY)l(,lJ,eHI1e, t{e n03HaBaTe ,lJ,pym51 t{OBeK.
npI1 O:QeHKaTa Ha JIHl:IHaTa eKcnpeCI1BHOCT ce B3eMaT npe,lJ,BH,lJ, He
caMO BpO,lJ,eHHTe pa3JIHl:IH5I, HO 11 BJII151HI1eTO Ha Tpa,lJ,I1:QHHTe, B'b3nI1Ta-
HI1eTO, cpe,lJ,aTa 11 06r:u;aTa )l(HTeMCKa KYJIrypa.
)I(eJIaTeJIHO e ,lJ,a ce OC'b3HaBaT KaKTO c):>OHOBOTO C'bCT05IHI1e (HaCTpOe-
RI1eTO) Ha I1H)J,I1BH,lJ,a, TaKa 11 peaK:QI1I1Te MY Ha H51KaK'bB n05lB5IBar:u; ce
CTHMYJI (COH)J,I1paHe, nOCThllKa, CI1rya:u;IDl ... ).
)I(eHHTe np05lB5IBaT 3Hat{HTeJIHO nO-51CHO eMO:QHHTe CI1 11 Te ca no-
JIeCHO pa36I1paeMI1, OTKOJIKOTO M'b)l(eTe (MaKap 11 He BI1Ham).
AOKOJIKO ycnelliHo ,lJ,ap;eH t{OBeK MO)l(e ,lJ,a KpI1e t{YBcTBaTa CI1, 3aBI1-
CI1 OT HarypaTa My (3a XOJIepHKa TOBa e nO-Tpy,lJ,HO, OTKOJIKOTO 3a c):>JIer-
MamKa ... ), OT C'bn'bTCTBar:u;I1Te 06CT05lTeJICTBa (3acerHaTOCT, HeOt{aK-
BaHOCT ... ) 11 OnI1Ta Ha B'b3npI1eMar:u;H5I.
npH CTI1MYJII1paHe Ha JIHt{HI1Te qyBCTBa 3a nO-rOJI5IMa y6e,lJ,I1TeJI-
HOCT BCHl:IKI1 eKcnpeCHBHI1 Cpe,lJ,CTBa 06I1KHOBeHO ce I13n0JI3BaT B 1130-
2
106 AHATOJH1111 T APAC
6HJIMe. He 3a6paB5I:HTe T03H <paKT, KaTO OIJ;eWIBaTe HCKpeHocTTa Ha
,ll;PyrHTe H KaTO np06BaTe ,ll;a CBOHTe
nOJIYK'bJI60 Ha M03'bKa eMOIJ;HHTe Ha qOBeKa, a
MBOTO - JIOrHKaTa H peqTa. I1PH TOBa OT nOJIYK'bJI6aTa KOOP,ll;H-
HHpa BHHarH npOTHBOnOJIO)l(Ha, crpaHa Ha ETo 3arn:0
BCnqKO OHOBa, KoeTO qOBeK'bT ce CTapae ,ll;a ,ll;eMOHcrpHpa npe,ll; ,ll;pyrH-
Te, ce H3nHCBa Ha nOJIOBHHa Ha MY, a OHOBa, KoeTO
peaJIHO - Ha MBaTa.
B'b3HHKBarn:H B ,ll;)'IIIaTa Ha ,ll;a,D;eH qOBeK, ce orpa-
B'bpXy 06JIllKa H MY no onpe,ll;eJIeH HaqHH H
no-,ll;ony nO,D;p06HO rn:e pa3rJIe,ll;aMe KaK CTaBa TOBa.
6. MUMuKama Ha Auu,emo
I10,ll; B'b3,ll;eMcTBHe Ha H3nHTBaHHTe OT HH,ll;HBH,ll;a qyBCTBa ce no-
pa)l(,ll;a KOOp,ll;HHHpaHO C'bKparn:aBaHe H pa3cJIa6BaHe Ha pa3JIHqHHTe
JIHIJ;eBH CrpyKTyPH, KOHTO H3pa3a Ha JIHIJ;eTO, npeKpaCHO
eMOIJ;HH. I1opa,ll;H TOBa qe qOBeK JIeCHO
MO)l(e ,ll;a ce HayqH ,ll;a ynpaBMBa JIHIJ;eBHTe MyCKyJIH, TOM ce
onHTBa ,ll;a MacKHpa, ,ll;OpH ,ll;a HMHTHpa eMOIJ;HHTe, B'bpXy
JIHIJ;eTO My.
3a HCKpeHOCTTa Ha qOBeIIlKaTa 06HKHOBeHO CBH,ll;eTeJICTBa
npH Ha qyBCTBaTa B'bpXy JIllIJ;eTO, ,ll;OKaTO
KOJIKOTO e <paJIIIl'bT, TOJIKOBa nOBeqe ce pa3JInqaBa MHMHKa-
Ta Ha MCHaTa H nOJIOBHHa.
)J;OPH JIeCHO pa36HpaeMa MHMHKa MO)l(e ,ll;a e TOJIKOBa KpaT-
KOBpeMeHHa (qacrn OT CeKYH,D;aTa ... ), qe,ll;a OCTaHe 3a,ll;a
,ll;OJIOBHTe, BH ,ll;OCTa npaKTHKa llJIH CneIJ;HaJIHa rpeHHpOBKa.
I1PH TOBa nOJIO)l(llTeJIHHTe eMOIJ;HH (pa,ll;OCT, Y,ll;OBOJICTBHe ... ) CH JInqaT
nO-,ll;o6pe, OTKOJIKOTO orpHIJ;aTeJIHHTe (neqaJI, cpaM, OTBparn:eHHe ... ).
C oco6eHa eMOIJ;HOHaJIHa H3pa3HTeJIHOCT, JIeCHa 3a npOqnT, ce OT-
JInqaBaT YCTHHTe (YCHJIeHaTa MHMHKa Ha YCTaTa HJIH xaneHe Ha YCTHH-
Te HanpHMep CBH,ll;eTeJICTBa 3a 6e3nOKOMCTBO, a H3KpHBeHaTa Ha e,ll;Ha
crpaHa YCTa - 3a CKeTITHIJ;H3'bM llJIH HaCMeIIlKa ... ).
06HKHOBeHO YCMHBKaTa ,D;pY)l(em06He HJIH norpe6HOCT OT
0,ll;06peHHe. 3a M'b)l(a YCMHBKaTa e ,ll;06pa B'b3MO)l(HOCT ,ll;a nOKa)l(e, qe
TOM YMee ,ll;a ce BJIa,ll;ee B'bB YCMHBKaTa Ha )l(eHaTa e
3HaqHTeJIHO nO-HcrnHCKa H HaM-qeCTO C'bOTBeTCTBa Ha <paKffiqeCKOTO
H HacrpoeHHe. I1opa,ll;H <paKTa, qe MOTHBHTe 3a YCMHBKaTa ca HaM-pa3-
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 107
JIHqHH, He e )l(eJIaTeJIHO ,ll;a ce Ha CTaH,ll;apTHOTO HM ThJIKY-
BaHe:
- npeKaJI'eHaTa - norpe6HOCT OT O,ll;06peHHe;
- KpHBa YCMHBKa - 3HaK 3a KOHrpOJlHpaHa HepB03HOCT;
- YCMHBKa C npHnOB,ll;I:IrHarn Be)l(,ll;I:I - rOTOBHOCT 3a
- YCMHBKa C'bC CBHTI:I Be)l(,ll;H - H3pa3 Ha npeB'b3XO,ll;CTBO;
- YCMHBKa 6e3 nOB,ll;HfaHe Ha ,ll;OJIHHTe KJIenaqH - HeHCKpeHOCT;
- YCMHBKa C Ha oqHTe, 6e3 ,ll;a ce 3aTBa-
- 3aTIJIaxa.
H3pa3 Ha JInu;ero, H3nHTBaHHTe eMOIJ;HH, e

- pa,ll;OCT: YCTHHTe ca H3KpHBeHH H 'bf'bmeTaTa HM ca ,ll;p'bnHaTH
Ha3a,ll;, OKOJIO OqHTe ce 06pa3ysaT ,ll;pe6HH 6P'bqHIJ;H;
- HHTepec: Be)l(,ll;llTe ca JIeKO npHTIOB,D;HrHarn llJIH oTnycHaTH, ,ll;OKa-
TO ca JIeKO pa3IIlHpeHH HJIll CBHrn;
- rn:acrne: B'bHIIlHHTe 'bThJIqeTa Ha YCTHHTe ca npHTIOB,D;HrHarn H 06HK-
HOBeHO ca ,ll;p'bTIHarn Ha3a,D;, ca cnoKoiiHH;
- yqy,ll;BaHe: B,ll;HruaTHTe Be)l(,ll;H 06pa3ysaT 6P'bqKH Ha qeJIOTO, OqH-
Te ca pa3IIlHpeHH, a nonyOTBOpeHaTa YCTa HMa 3aKp'brJIeHa <popMa;
- OTBparn:eHHe: Be)l(,ll;HTe ca OTnyCHaTH, HOC'bT e Ha6p'bqKaH, ,ll;OJIHa-
Ta YCTHa e H3,ll;a,ll;eHa Hanpe,ll; llJIH npHnOB,D;HrHaTa H C'be,ll;HHeHa C rop-
HaTa YCTHa, OqnTe ca pa3HOfJIe,ll;H;
- npe3peHHe: e,ll;HaTa Be)l(,ll;a e npHTIOB,ll;HrHaTa, JIllIJ;eTO e H30nHaTO,
rJIasaTa e H3npaseHa, qOBeK'bT fJIe,ll;a OT fope Ha ,ll;OJIY;
TOM KaTO qe JIH ce ,ll;HCTaHIJ;Hpa OT c'b6eCe,ll;HnKa;
- crpax: Be)l(,ll;HTe JIeKO ca B,D;HrHarn, HO ca npaBH no <popMa, B'bT-
peIIlHHTe HM 'brJIH ca CBHTH H qeJIOTO e Ha6pa3,ll;eHO OT XOPH30HTaJIHH
OqHTe ca pa3IIlHpeHH, npH TOBa KJIenaq e HanpefHaT,
a e npHnOB,ll;HfHaT, YCTaTa MO)l(e ,ll;a e OTBOpeHa, a 'bf'bJIqeTaTa
ca ,ll;p'bnHarn Ha3a,ll;, TaKa t.[e 06TMaT H YCTHHTe Ha,ll; 3'b6HTe
nOCJIe,ll;HOTO fOBOPH 3a CHJIaTa Ha eMOu;HHTe ... ); KOfaTO HaJIHIJ;e
e caMO cnOMeHaTOTO nOJIO)l(eHHe Ha Be)l(,ll;HTe, TO 03HaqaBa KOHTPOJIH-
paH crpax;
- MYCKYJIHTe Ha qeJIOTO ca CBHTH HaB'brpe H Ha,ll;OJIY, KoeTO
npH,ll;aBa Ha OqHTe 3acrpaIIlHTeJIeH HJIH HaB'bCeH H3pa3, H03,ll;pHTe ca
pa3IIlHpeHH H KpHJIeTe Ha Hoca ca npHnOB,ll;HfHaTH, YCTHHTe HJIH ca
TIJI'bTHO CTHCHarn, HJIH ca H3,ll;'bpnaHH Ha3a,ll; B npaBO'br'bJIHa <popMa H
OrOJIBaT CTHCHaTHTe 3'b6H, JIHIJ;eTO qeCTO
- cpaM: rJIaBaTa e HaBe,ll;eHa, JIHIJ;eTO e 06'bpHaTO, norJIe,ll;'bT e OT-
MeCTeH, oqHTe ca ycrpeMeHH Ha,ll;OJIY llJIH KJIenaqHTe ca 3aT-
-
108 AHATOJlVlIiI T APAC
BopeHlI, a rrOIDIKora II CTIiCHam; JIIIIJ;eTO e ,D;OCTa 3aqepBeHO, rryJIC'bT e
yqecTeH, ,D;lIlliaHeTO e Ha rrpeceKYJII<II;
- CKp'b6: Be)K,D;IITe ca CBIITII, ca 3aM'brJIeHII, a B'bHllIHIiTe 'bf'bJI-
qeTa Ha YCTaTa rrOIDIKora ca JIeKO OTrrYCHaTIi.
IloJIe3Ho e,D;a 3HaeTe 1I3pa3a Ha JIIIIJ;eTO rrpli pa3JIlIqHlITe eMOIJ;IUf
He caMO 3a ,D;a pa36lIpaTe ,D;PYfIITe, HO II 3a ,D;a YMeeTe BHIIMaTeJIHO ,D;a
oTpa6oTBaTe (061IKHOBeHO rrpe,D; OfJIe,D;aJIOTO) CBOliTe pa60THli lIMlI-
TaIJ;lIli.
B. n0211eg 6 Olfume
3a B'bTpeIlIHIITe rrpe)KIIB5IBaH1I5I Ha qOBeKa OTKpOBeHO fOBOP5lT
OqlITe MY, He cJIyqailuo orrliTHIiTe "lIfpaqlI" ce orrliTBaT ,D;a CKp1I5IT
1I3pa)KeHlIeTO liM 3a,D; CT'bKJIaTa Ha T'bMHII OqlIJIa.
06lIKHOBeHO xopaTa ce 1I3,D;aBaT rro:
- IDIKaKBIi rrpOMeHII B. 061IqaMHlI5I 1I3pa3 Ha OqlITe - B'b3HlIKBaHe Ha
IDIKaKBa eMOIJ;lI5I, CHrHaJI 3a peaKIJ;lI5I Ha CTIIMYJI;
- CrrOHTaHHlI ,D;BlI)KeHlI5I Ha oqIITe (3a6eJIe)KIIMO ,,651fa:w; rrOfJIe,D;")-
TPeBora, cpaM, JI'b)Ka, cTPax, HeBpaCTeHlI5I;
- 6JIeCT5I:W; rrorJIe,D; - TPeCKa, B'b36Y,D;a;
- "CT'bKJIeH rrorJIe,D;" - rrpeKaJIeHa CJIa60CT;
- pa311IlIp5lBaHe Ha 3eHIIu;IITe - yce:w;aHe 3a lIHTepec 1I rrOJIyqaBaHe
Ha y,D;OBOJICTBlie OT IIH<jJopMau;II5ITa, 06:W;YBaHeTO, <pOTOfpa<plIpaHeTO,
rrapTHhopa, xpaHaTa, MY3lIKaTa 1I rrpOqlIe B'bHIlIHlI <paKTOPlI, rrplieMaHe
Ha He:w;o, HO C'b:W;O 1I CliJIHO CTPa,D;aHlIe; yrroTPe6a Ha H5IKaKBIi JIeKapCT-
Ba II HapKOTlIIJ;1I (MaplixyaHa, KOKaIIH ... );
- CBlIBaHe Ha 3eHIIu;IITe - Ha,D;lIfaHe Ha pa3,D;pa3HeHlIe, 3JIo6a, HeHa-
BIiCT II CXO,D;HII OTPIIIJ;aTeJIHII eMOIJ;IIII, HerrplieMaHe Ha He:w;o; ,D;eMCTBlie
Ha orrpe,D;eJIeHII HapKomU;1I (MOP<PIIH, xepOlIH .. );
- XaOTlIqHII ,D;BlI)KeHlI5I Ha 3eHlIu;HTe - 3HaK 3a OrrlI5lHeHlIe (KOJIKOTO
rrOBeqe ca Te31I ,D;BlI)KeHlI5I, TOJIKOBa rrO-rr1I5IH e qOBeK'bT);
- YCIIJIeHO MliraHe - B'b36Y,D;a, JI'b)Ka.
XopaTa BIiHarli rrpe,D;rrOqIITaT ,D;a rJIe,D;aT OT6JIlI30 Te31I, OT KOliTO ce
B'b3xlI:w;aBaT, IIJIIi OHe31I, C KOliTO ca B 6JI1I3KlI B3alIMOOTHOllIeHlI5I;
rrpli TOBa )KeHIITe rrp05IB5IBaT rrO-rOJI5IM BlI3yaneH lIHTepec, OTKOJIKOTO
M'b)KeTe.
B rrpou;eca Ha 06:W;YBaHe qOBeK HaM-qeCTO fJIe,D;a rrapTHhOpa B OqlI-
Te, ,D;OKaTO ro CJIYIIIa, a He KoraTO CaMlI5IT TOM rOBoplI, MaKap qe aKO
Hapb'1HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U-CUcypHocm
109
lICKaTe ,D;a BHylliliTe He:w;o, rrOIDIKora 1I3rrOJI3BaMTe OTKplITlI5I rrorJIe,D;
npaBO B OqlITe B MOMeHTa Ha rrpOBe)K,D;aHe Ha ,D;lIanora.
Cy6eKT, KOMTO Bli rJIe,D;a B OqlITe MHOfO rrO-ManKO OT e,D;Ha TPeTa OT
neplIO,D;a Ha 06:W;YBaHe, IIJIIi e HeqeCTeH, IIJIli ce orrliTBa ,D;a CKplie He:w;o;
OH31I, KOMTO, 6e3 ,D;a KplIe, yrropIITO Bli fJIe,D;a rrpaBO B oqIITe, 1I3rriiTBa
nOBlillieH lIHTepeC K'bM Bac (3eHlIU;IITe ca pa311IIIpeHII), rrp05lB5IBa OTK-
pOBeHa Bpa)K,lJ;e6HOCT (3eHIIu;IITe ca CBlITlI) IIJIli ceCTPeMII ,D;a ,D;OMIIHII-
pa. .
MO,D;1I<pIIKau;H5ITa Ha KOHTaKTa Ha rrOfJIe,D;lITe ce pa311III<PPOBa rro
CJIe,D;H1I5I HaqlIH:
- "OTC'bCTBarn; rrOfJIe,D;" - C'bCpe,D;OTOqeH pa3MlIC'bJI;
- OTMeCTBaHe Ha rror JIe,D;a K'bM TaBaHa lIJIIi K'bM rrpe,D;MemTe HaOKO-
JIO - Crra,D;aHe Ha lIHTepeCa K'bM pa3fOBopa, 1I3JIlillIHO ,D;'bJI'br MOHOJIOr
Ha rrapTHhopa;
- HaCTOll:qlIB II BTPeHtfeH rrorJIe,D; rrpaBO B OqlITe (3eHlIIJ;IITe ca CBII-
m) - rrplI3HaK Ha Bpa)K,lJ;e6HOCT 1I 51BHO )KeJIaHlIe 3a ,D;OMIIHlIpaHe;
- 1I BTPeHqeH rrorJIe,D; B oqIITe (3eHIIU;IITe ca pa311IlIpeHII)
- 3HaK 3a ceKcyaneH lIHTepec;
- OTMeCTBaHe 1I CBe)K,D;aHe Ha rrOfJIe,D;a - cpaM, JI'b)Ka;
- nOfJIe,D; OTCTPaHlI - He,lJ;OBeplIe;
- rrOfJIe,lJ;'bT TY ce OTMeCTBa, TY ce Bp'brn;a 06paTHO - JIlIrrCa Ha C'bf-
JIaClIe, He,lJ;OBeplie.
r. n03ama U HeL/HUme gemaullu
3HaqlITeJIHa IIH<popMaU;lI5I 3a B'bTPeIliHaTa HafJIaCa Ha qOBeKa ,lJ;aBa
CTaTRqHOTO rrOJIO)KeHlIe Ha T5IJIOTO MY. IlPli TOBa qeCTO rrOBTapmaTa
rr03a lIH<popMlIpa 3a YCTOll:qIIBli oco6eHOCTII Ha .JIWIHOCTTa.
llopa,IJ,lI <paKTa, qe rrpli CM5IHa Ha qyBCTBaTa 06lIKHcmeHO xopaTa rro-
,lJ;06pe KOHTPOJIlipaT JIIIu;eTO ClI, OTKOJIKOTO T5IJIOTO, qeCTO He MIiMIIKa-
Ta, a lIMeHHO rr03aTa e crroco6Ha ,lJ;a pa3Ka)Ke 3a IICTIIHCKIiTe rrpe)KIIB5I-
BaH1I5I Ha lIH,lJ;lIBlI)J;a.
B'b3MO)KHlITe 3aBliCliMOCTII Ha rrOJIO)KeHlIeTO Ha T5IJIOTO OT rrCIiXII-
qeCKOTO C'bCT05lHlIe Ha qOBeKa ca CJIe,lJ;HIITe:
- p'bu;eTe ca CKp'bCTeHII Ha r'bp6a, rJIaBaTa e BIiCOKO B,lJ;lIrHaTa, 6pa-
,llJIliKaTa e BlipHaTa - qyBCTBO Ha YBepeHocT B ce6e Cli II rrpeB'b3xo,lJ;CT-
BO Ha,lJ; ,lJ;pyrlITe;
- T5IJIOTO e HaKJIOHeHO Harrpe,lJ;, p'bIJ;eTe ca rrO,lJ;rrpeHII Ha 6e,lJ;paTa -
-
110 AHATOJWlli1 TAPAC
)'BepeHOCT B C06CTBeHI:ITe CH CHJIH H rOTOBHOCT K'bM aKTHBHH ,neiicT-
BH5.!, arpeCHBHOCT, )3'b36y,neHocT rro BpeMe Ha pa3rOBopa, cTPeMe)K 3a
OTCT05.!BaHe Ha rr03HUH5.!Ta ,noKpaM;
- cToeMKH, ce oIIHpa C p'bue Ha MacaTa HJIll Ha CTOJIa - ycelI(aHe 3a
He,nOCTaThqHOCT B KOHTaKTa C rrapTHbopa;
- p'bueTe C pa3TBopeHH JIaKm ca CJIO)KeHH Ha THJIa - C'b3HaHI:Ie 3a
rrpeB'b3xo,nCTBO Ha,n OCTaHaJIHTe;
- rr'bXHaT B ,lJ;)K060BeTe HJIH B KOJIaHa rraJIeu Ha p'bKaTa - 3HaK 3a
arpeCHBHOCT H ,neMOHCTPaTHBHa YBepeHOCT B ce6e CH;
- H3Ba,neHH OT ,lJ;)K060BeTe rraJIUH Ra p'bueTe - 3HaK 3a rrpeB'b3XO,nC-
TEO;
- CKp'bCTeHH KpaKa - CKeIITlI'IRa 3alI(HTHa Har JIaca;
- HeCKp'bCTeHI:I KpaKa H pa3KOINaHO caKO - HarJIaCa 3a ,nOBepHe;
- HaKJIOH Ha rJIaBaTa BCTPaHI:I - Ha HHTepec;
- HaKJIOH Ha rJIaBaTa Ha,nony - OTPHI.J;aTeJIHO OTHOIIIeHHe;
- JIeK HaKJIOH Ha rJIaBaTa Ha3a,D; - 3HaK 3a arpeCHBHOCT;
- ce,neHe Ha Kpa5.! Ha CTOJIa - rOTOBHOCT ,na CKOqH BceKH MOMeHT, 3a
,na CH TP'brHe HJIH ,na ,neMCTBa B C'b3,naJIaTa ce CHTYaUIDl, HJIH ,na yTaJIO-
)KH HaTPyrraHaTa B'b36y,na, HJIH ,na rrpHBJIeqe BHHMaHHeTO K'bM ce6e CH
H ,na ce BKJIlOqH B pa3rOBopa;
- KpaK Bp'b3 KpaK H CKp'bCTeHI:I Ha r'bp,I(lITe p'bue - 3HaK 3a "H3KJIlOq-
BaHe" OT pa3rOBopa;
- KpaK'bT e Ha rrO,I(JIaK'bTHHKa Ha KpeCJIOTO (B ce,ruIaJIO rrOJIO)KeHHe) -
rrpeHe6pe)KeHHe K'bM OKOJIHI:ITe, H3ry6BaHe Ha HHTepeca K'bM pa3rOBO-
pa;
- CKp'bCTeHH rJIe3eHI:I Ha Ce)J;5.!lI(IDl- c,n'bp)KaHe Ha Heo,n06pHTeJIHo-
TO OTHOIueHHe, cTPax HJIH B'bJIHeHHe, OIIHT 3a caMOKOHTPOJI, aeraTHB-
HO 3alI(HTHO C'bCT05.!HHe;
- rrOJIO)KeHHe (ce)J;5.!lI(O HJ1H CToeHKH) C KpaKa, opHeRTHpaHH K'bM
H3xo,na - 5.!BHO )KeJIaHHe 3a rrpeKpaT5.!BaHe Ha pa3rOBopa H H3JIH3aHe;
- qeCTa CM5.!Ha Ha rr03HTe, "rro,nCKaqaHe" Ha CTOJIa, cyeTJIHBOCT -
B'bTpelliHO 6e3rrOKOMCTBO, HarrperHaTOCT;
- CTaBaHe - CHrHaJI, qe e B3eTO H5.!KaKBO peIIIeHHe, pa3rOBOp'bT e
OMP'b3HaJI, HelI(O ro e yqy,nHJIO HJIH IIIOKHpaJIO .. ;
- rrperrJIeTeHI:I rrp'bcm Ha p'bueTe - pa30qapOBaHI:Ie H )KeJIaHHe ,na
CKpHe 0TPHuaTeJIHOTO CH OTHOIIIeHHe (rrpH TOBa KOJIKOTO rrO-BHCOKO ca
B,nHrHaTH p'bueTe, TOJIKOBa OTPHI.J;aHHeTO e rrO-CHJIHO);
- KHTKHTe Ha p'bueTe H KpaHlI(aTa Ha rrp'bCTHTe ce ,nOKOCBaT, HO ,nJIa-
HHTe He ce ,norrHpaT - 3HaK 3a rrpeB'b3xo,nCTBO H YBepeHOCT B ce6e CH H
co6CTBeHHTe CH ,D;yMH;
Hapb'1HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
111
- JIaKTHTe ca orrpeHH Ha MacaTa, a KHTKHTe Ha p'bueTe ca pa3rrOJIO-
)J(eHH rrpe,n YCTaTa - cKpHBaHe Ha HCTlIHCKHTe HaMepeHU<T TXT"'pa
" un, ru Ha KOT-
Ka H MHIlIKa C rrapTHbOpa; "
- rJIaBaTa e orrp5.!Ha Ha ,nJIaHTa - cKyKa;
- 6Y3aTa e rro.nrrp5.!Ha C lOMPYK, HO 6e3 ,na e orropa 3a r JIaBaTa _
rrpH3HaK Ha 3aHHTepeC)'BaHOCT;
- rro,nrrHpaHe Ha 6pa,nlI'lKaTa C rraJIeua - 3HaK 3a H3BeCTHa KpHmqaa
oueHKa;
- XBamaHe Ha qaIIIaTa C ,nBe p'bue - MaCKHpaHe Ha HepB03HOCT;
- H3rrycKaHe Ha ,nHMa OT UHrapaTa Harope - rrOJIO)KHTeJIHa HarJIaca
YBepeHOCT B ce6e CH; ,
- H3rrycKaHe Ha ,nHMa OT UHrapaTa Ha,nOJIY - 0TPHuaTeJIHa HarJIaca
C'bC CKpHTH HJIH rrO,n03pHTeJIHI:I MHCJIH.
A. )f(ecmoBe U gBu)I(eHuR Ha mRIIOmO
,,)KeCThT He e ,lJ;BH)KeHI:Ie Ha T5.!JIOTO, a ,lJ;BH)KeHHe Ha ,D;yUIaTa." TOM
lIH<popMHpa 3a )KeJIaHH5.!Ta Ha qOBeKa H 3a TOBa KaKBO H3rrHTBa B ,na,neH
MOMeHT, a H5.!KaK'bB rrpHBHqeH 3a ,na,neH qOBeK )KeCT CBH,neTeJICTBa 3a
qepTa Ha xapaKTepa.
B'bHIIIHO e,ruIaKBHTe )KeCTOBe Ha pa3JIHtIHH xopa MoraT ,na 03HaqaBaT
C'bBceM pa3JIHtIHH HelI(a, HO c'blI(eCTB)'BaT H Th)K,lJ;eCTBeHI:I MOMeHTH:
- aKTHBHOTO )KeCTHKYJIHpaHe qeCTo e KOMIIOHeHT Ha rrOJIO)KHTeJIHI:I-
Te eMoUHH, KOHTO ce TPeTHpaT OT OCTaHaJIHTe xopa KaTO H3pa3 Ha ,npy-
)KeJIlO6He H 3alIHTepec)'BaHocT;
- rrpeKoMepHaTa )KeCTHKYJIaUIDl e H3pa3 Ha 6e3rrOKOMCTBO H HeyBe-
peHocT.
ilPH orrpe,neJI5.!He Ha MHCJIHTe H eMOUHHTe Ha HH,nHBH,na CJIe,nBa
,na ce oT6eJI5.!3BaT caMO HerrpOH3BOJIHHTe )KeCTOBe:
- ,neMOHCTPaUIDl Ha OTBopeHH ,I(JIaHI:I - rrOKa3aTeJI 3a OTKpOBeHOCT;
- CBHBaHe Ha lOMPYUH - B'bTPelliHa B'b36y,na, arpeCHBHOCT (KOJIKOTO
rrO-CHJIHO ca CTHCHam rrp'bCTHTe, TOJIKOBa rrO-CHJIHa e eMOUIDlTa);
- rrpHKpHBaHe Ha YCTaTa C p'bKa (HJIH C qaIIIa B p'bKa) B MOMeHT Ha
rOBopeHe - yqy,nBaHe, He)'BepeHOCT B OHOBa, KoeTO rOBopH JI'b)Ka ITO-
Be 6,h , ,,,",
pHTeJIHO C'bO lI(eHI:Ie, rrpo,,eCHOHaJIHO 3acTPaxoBaHe OT qeTeHe rro
YCTHHTe;
- ,nOKOCBaHe Ha Hoca HJIH JIeKO rrOqeCBaHe - He)'BepeHocT B OHOBa
KoeTO C'b06lI(aBa (KaKTO B ce6e CH, TaKa H B rrapTHbOpa), JI'b)Ka,
He Ha HOB KOHTPaapryMeHT B rrpoueca Ha ,nHCKYCH5.!Ta;
-
112
AHATOmu'1 TAPAC
- nOTpHBaHe Ha KJIenaqa C p'bKa - JI'b)Ka, HO nOH5IKOra H ycern
aHe
3a
nO,lJ;03pHTeJIHOCT H H3MaMa OT CTpaHa Ha napTHbOpa;
- nOTPHBaHe H nOqeCBaHe Ha pa3JIHqHH qaCTH Ha rJIaBaTa (qeJIOTO,
6Y3HTe, THJIa, YXOTO .. ) - yrpH)KeHOCT, CMYrneHHe, HeYBepeHOCT;
- nOrJIa)K,lJ;aHe Ha 6pa,lJ;flqKaTa - MOMeHT Ha B3eMaHe Ha pelIIeHHe;
- cyeTJIHBOCT Ha p'bIJ;eTe (B'bpTeHe Ha HernO Me)K,lJ;y np'bCTHTe, OTBa-
p5lHe H 3aTBap5lHe Ha nHCaJIKaTa, ,lJ;OKOCBaHe Ha qaCTH OT ,lJ;peXaTa . ) -
HarnpeK, HepB03HOCT, CMYrneHHe;
- nOrnHnBaHe Ha ,lJ;JIaHTa - rOTOBHOCT K'bM arpecH5I;
- rpH3eHe Ha HOKTHTe - B'bTPeIIIHO 6e3nOKOHCTBO;
- BCeB'b3MO)KHH ,lJ;BH)KeHH5I Ha p'bKaTa HanpeqHO Ha T5IJIOTO (HaMeC-
TBaHe Ha qaCOBHHKa, ,lJ;OKOCBaHe Ha 6YTOHeJIHTe, Hrpa C KOnqeTO Ha
CaKOTO ... ) - MaCKHpaHe Ha HepB03HOCT;
- nOqflCTBaHe Ha no ;:J;pexaTa - )KeCT Ha Heo,lJ;06peHHe;
- ,lJ;'bpnaHe Ha 51BHO npeqernaTa Ha BpaTa 51Ka - qOBeK nO,lJ;03Hpa, qe
,lJ;pyrHTe ca pa3KpHJIH JI'b)KaTa MY, He,lJ;OCTHr Ha B'b3;:J;yX npH rH51B;
- qHCTeHe Ha CT'bKJIaTa Ha OqHJIaTa HJIH 3axanBaHe Ha ,lJ;p'b)KKHTe Ha
OqHJIaTa - naY3a 3a 06MHCJI5IHe, MOJI6a 3a H3qaKBaHe;
- CBaJI5lHe Ha OqflJIaTa H XB'bpJI5IHeTO HM Ha MacaTa - npeKaJIeHO
OCT'bp pa3rOBOp, TPY,lJ;Ha H HenpH51THa TeMa;
- 3araCBaHe HJIH CJIaraHe HaCTPaHa Ha IJ;HrapaTa - nepHO,lJ; Ha MaK-
CHMaJIHO Hanpe)KeHHe;
- npeKaJIeHO qeCTO TP'bCKaHe Ha neneJITa OT IJ;HrapaTa - T5IrOCTHO
B'bTPeIIIHO C'bCT05lHHe, HepB03HOCT; .
- HaBe)K)J;aHe Ha rJIaBaTa BCTPaHH - C'b6Y)K,lJ;aHe Ha HHTepeC;
- 6'bp3 HaKJIOH HJIH 06p'brnaHe Ha rJIaBaTa HaCTPaHH - )KeJIaHHe 3a
H3Ka3BaHe;
- nOCT05lHHO OTM5ITaHe Ha Y)K npeqernHTe KOCH OT qeJIOTO - 6e3-
nOKOHCTBO;
- 51BeH CTPeMe)K ,lJ;a ce nO)J;llpe HJIH 06JIerHe Ha HernO - ycern
aHe
3a
CJIO)KHOCT H HenpH5ITHOCT Ha MOMeHTa, Hepa36HpaHe KaK ,lJ;a ce H3JIe3e
OT C'b3,lJ;aJIaTa ce cHryaIJ;H5I (BC5IKa onopa nOBHlIIaBa C06CTBeHaTa yBe-
peHOCT).
E. fI1HmoHau,uu Ha zlIaca
fJIaC'bT ,lJ;OCTa TOqHO HH<popMHpa OKOJIHHTe 3a C'bCT05lHHeTO Ha qO-
BeKa (3a npe)KHB5IBaHH5ITa MY, OTHOlIIeHHeTO K'bM <paKTHTe, CaMOqYBC-
TBHeTO, a qeCTO - H 3a TeMnepaMeHTa, 3a qepTHTe OT xapaKTepa).
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
113
TOH'bT Ha rJIaca n03BOJI5IBa ,lJ;a ce ,lJ;OJIOB5IT eMOIJ;HHTe Ha 06eKTa
(nO-JIeCHO - rH5IB H neqaJI, nO-CJIO)KHO - peBHOCT H HepB03HOCT ... ).
B C'bCT05lHHe Ha TpeBora HJIH HepBHO Hanpe)KeHHe y napTHbopa
,lJ;0 H3BeCTHa CTeneH ce npOMeH51 H TEMEbPbT Ha rJIaca. T03H <paKT
e HaMepHJI ,lJ;OCTOHHO npHJIO)KeHHe B 6e3KOHTaKTHHTe (T. e. H3IJ;51JIO
He3a6eJIe)KHMH 3a C'b6eCe,lJ;HHKa) 06pa3IJ;H Ha ",lJ;eTeKTopa Ha JI'b)Ka-
Ta".
IIpH ,lJ;eIIIH<PPHpaHe Ha C'b06rneHHeTO 06p'brnaHTe BHHMaHHe KaKTO
Ha CI1.JIATA, TaKa H Ha BI1.COQI1.HATA Ha rJIaca:
- 51BHO BHCOK - eHrycHa3'bM, pa,lJ;OCT, He,lJ;OBepHe;
- BHCOK, B IIIHpOK ,lJ;Hana30H Ha CHJIaTa, TOHaJIHOCTTa H BHCOqHHaTa
- rH51B H CTPax;
- npeKaJIeHO BHCOK, npOHH3HTeJIeH - 6e3nOKOHCTBO;
- MeK H npHrJIyrneH, C nOHH)KaBaHe Ha HHTOHaIJ;H5ITa K'bM Kpa51 Ha
BC5IKa <ppa3a - M'bKa, neqaJI, yMopa;
- <popCHpaHe Ha 3BYKa - Hanpe)KeHHe, JI'b)Ka.
3HaqHTeJIHa HH<popMaIJ;H5I HOC5IT HeBep6aJIHHTe 3Byn;H:
- nO,lJ;CBHpKBaHe - HeYBepeHOCT HJIH onaceHHe;
- HeC'bOTBeTCTBarn Ha MOMeHTa CHJIeH CM5IX - Hanpe)KeHHe;
- HeOqaKBaHH cna3MH Ha rJIaca - Hanpe)KeHHe;
- nOCT05lHHO nOKalIIJI5IHe - JI'b)KJIHBOCT, HeYBepeHOCT B ce6e CH,
6e3nOKoHCTBO.
)K. Oco6eHocmu Ha lIeKcUKama
3a B'bTPeIIIHOTO nCHxoeMOIJ;HOHaJIHO C'bCT05lHHe Ha qOBeKa HaH-MHO-
ro rOBopH aHaJIH3'bT Ha peqTa MY: KaK ca nOCTaBeHH JIOrHqeCKHTe y,lJ;a-
peHH5I, KOJIKO 6'bP30 ce npOH3HaC5IT ,lJ;YMHTe, KaK ce KOHCTPYHpaT <ppa-
3HTe, KaKBH ca OTKJIOHeHH5ITa OT HopMaTa (HeYBepeH HJIH HeBepeH no,lJ;-
60p Ha ,lJ;YMHTe, npeK'bCBaHe Ha H3peqeHHeTO Ha nOJIOBHH ,lJ;YMa, H3Me-
HeHHe Ha ,lJ;YMHTe, rr05lBa Ha ,lJ;YMH rrapa3HTH, H3qe3BaHe Ha rraY3HTe ... ).
IIpH TOBa:
- 6'bp3a peq 03HaqaBa OqeBH,lJ;HO B'bJIHeHHe HJIH 6e3rrOKOHCTBO OT
HernO, CTpaCTHO )KeJIaHHe ,lJ;a ce y6e,lJ;H HJIH ,lJ;a ce rrpH,lJ;yMa H5IKOH, pa3-
rOBOp 3a JIHqHH TpY,lJ;HOCTH;
- 6aBHa peq - BHCOKOMepHe, YMopa, rrOTHCHaTO C'bCT05lHHe, CKp'b6;
- peq Ha rrpeceKYJIKH - HeYBepeHOCT;
- rr05lBa Ha oc06eHa "rJIa,lJ;KOCT" Ha peqTa - B'b36Y,lJ;a;
-
114 AHATOnIIlli1 T APAC
- JIaKOHlNHOCT M peIllMTeJIHOCT Ha pe<rra - 5IBHa YBepeHOCT;
- 3aeKBaHe - HanperHaTOCT MJIM JI'b)l(a;
- HepeIllMTeJIHOCT npM nO)J;60pa Ha )J,)'MMTe - HeYBepeHOCT B ce6e
CM MJIM HaMepeHMe 3a BHe3anHO ClOpnpM3MpaHe C Her.u;O;
- n05IBa Ha peqeBM He)J;OCTanIJ;M (nOBTOpeHMe MJIM M30naqaBaHe Ha
)J,)'MMTe, npeK'bCBaHe Ha M3peqeHMeTO Ha nOJIOBMH )J;YMa ... ) - HeC'bMHe-
HO B'bJIHeHMe, HO nOH5IKOra M )l(eJIaHMe )J;a ce M3JI'b)l(e;
- nponycKaHe Ha peqeBMTe naY3M - Hanpe)l(eHMe;
- npeKaJIeHO Y)J;'bJI)l(eHM naY3M - He3aMHTepeCYBaHOCT MJIM HeC'brJIa-
CMe;
- n05IBa Ha naY3M, 3aII'bJIBaHM C )J,)'MM napa3Mm ("aMM ... ", "TaKa )J;a
ce Ka)l(e ... ", "aa ... ") - HepeIllMTeJIHOCT M 3aTPY)J;HeHMe npM M3pa35IBaHe
Ha MMC'bJITa, npceHe Ha M3XO)J; OT nOJIO)l(eHMeTO;
- YMaJIMTeJIHO-JIaCKaTeJIHM CYMKCM K'bM npOM3HaC5IHaTa )J,)'Ma (,,5IC-
... ) - eMOIJ;MOHaJIHO MJIM M3lNeCKO Hanpe)l(eHMe;
- HapaCTBaHe Ha 6po5I Ha 6aHaJIHM )J,)'MM, M3rOBap5IHM nO-6'bp30 OT
06MKHOBeHO - eMOIJ;MOHaJIHa B'b36Y)J;a, Hanpe)l(eHMe;
- npeM'bJIqaBaHe MJIM OCK'h)J;HOCT Ha )J,)'MMTe - 06M)J;a;
- nOCT05IHHO npeK'hCBaHe Ha )J;pyrMTe - Hanpe)l(eHMe;
- npeMHHaBaHe Ha B'bTPeIllHaTa peq B'bB B'bHIllHa ("MMCJIM Ha rJIac")
- npeKOMepHO B'bJIHeHMe.
3. HenpoU36ollHU peaKu,uu
06MKHOBeHO Te3M peaKIJ;MM TPY)J;HO ce nOMaBaT Ha KOHTPOJI (MaKap
qe rOBOper.u;M5IT ce OnMTBa )J;a rM MaCKMpa C pa3JIlJqHM TPMKoBe) M 3aTO-
Ba ca )J;OCTa HaCMTeHM C MHOpMaIJ;M5I. OT)J;eJIHM OT T5IX ce YCTaHOB5IBaT
npM anapaTHa )J;MarHocmKa Ha JI'b)l(aTa, K05ITO ce npaBM C ype)J;M, M3Bec-
THM nO)J; 06r.u;OTO Ha3BaHMe ,,)J;eTeKTOp Ha JI'b)l(aTa" (a c'br.u;o M "nOJIHr-
pa").
CTaH)J;apTHM5IT npOqI{T Ha Te3M peaKIJ;MM e CJIe)J;HM5IT:
- nOqepBeH5IBaHe Ha JIMIJ;eTO (nOH5IKOra Ha neTHa) - cpaM, rH5IB;
- n06eJI5IBaHe Ha JIMIJ;eTO - cTPax, npM3HaK 3a BMHa;
- pa3IllMp5IBaHe Ha 3eHMIJ;MTe - MHTepec, Y)J;OBOJICTBMe, c'brJIaCMe,
CMJIHa 60JIKa;
- CBMBaHe Ha 3eHMIJ;MTe - HeY)J;oBOJICTBMe, OTXB'bpJI5IHe;
- YCMJIeHO nyJICMpaHe Ha BeHMTe Ha p'bIJ;eTe MJIM Ha IllM5ITa (noTPen-
BaHe Ha BpaTOBp'b3KaTa Ha IllM5ITa nopa)J;M 3aCMJIeHO C'bpIJ;e6MeHe ... ) -
TPeBora, cTPax, JI'b)l(a;
Hapbl.fHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
115
- nOHM)l(asaHe Ha qeCTOTaTa Ha nyJIca - nOBMIlleHo BHMMaHMe'
- 6'bP30 MJIM nOB'bpXHOCTHO )J;HIllaHe - B'bTPeIllHo
- qeCTO )J;MIllaHe npe3 Hoca - 3JIo6a;
- HapYIllaBaHe Ha )J;MIllaHeTo, Cna3MaTlNHO )J;BI{)l(eHMe Ha rp'bKJI5IHa
M peJIeKTOpHO nperJI'br.u;aHe Ha CJIlOHKaTa - TPeBora, cpaM, JI'b)l(a;
- IIpeC'bXBaHe Ha YCTaTa (nperJI'br.u;aHe, 06JIM3BaHe Ha YCTHMTe, )l(a)l(-
)J;a ... ) - cTPax, M3MaMa;
- BHe3aIIHO OrOJIBaHe Ha 3'b6MTe - npM3HaK 3a 5IPOCT, arpeCMBHOCT;
- M3nonIBaHe - rH5IB, CMyr.u;eHMe, HepB03HOCT, M3MaMa;
- TPenepeHe (Ha np'bCmTe Ha p'bIJ;eTe M Ha KpaKaTa, Ha JIMIJ;eBMTe
MYCKyJIM .. ) - B'bTPeIllHO Hanpe)l(eHMe, CTpax, M3MaMa;
- qeCTO MnraHe - B'b36Y)J;a, M3MaMa;
- K'hpKOpeHe B cToMaxa - cTpax (pa36Mpa ce, He BMHarM ... );
- CK'hpIJ;aHe C'bC 3'b6M - MHoro CMJIHa HepB03HOCT, cTpec, JIHIIca Ha B'b3-
MO)l(HOCT 3a oC'br.u;eCTB5IBaHe Ha Her.u;o 3aMMCJIeHo.
ilo)J;o6HM peaKIJ;MM nO-JIeCHO ce Ha6JIlO)J;aBaT npM M'b)l(eTe, OTKOJI-
KOTO npM )l(eHMTe, KOMTO npM TOBa nO-JIeCHO YCII5IBaT )J;a "B'bPT5IT Ha
np'bCTa CM" )J;eTeKTOpa Ha JI'b)l(aTa.
U. (/)oHo60 HacmpoeHue
ilpe)J;cTaBeHaTa no-rope Bp'b3Ka Me)l()Jy npOCJIe)J;5IBaHMTe B'bHIIIHM
np05IBM M OHOBa, KoeTO qOBeK aKTlNecm npe)l(HB5IBa, e Hen'bJIHa M He
C'bBCeM cnrypHa, 3ar.u;OTO Bcem qOBeK, )J;OpM M C'bBCeM MaJIKO )J;a e, HO
. e YHMKaJIeH.
- C'b3HaHMe 3a C06CTBeHaTa CM CMJIa (YBepeHOCT B ce6e CM). CTa6MJI-
Ha M3npaseHa n03a, )J;on'bJIHeHa OT BMpHaTa 6pa)J;MqKa, IIpM KoeTO p'bIJ;eTe
MoraT )J;a ca XBaHam 3a)J; np6a, pa3noJIo)l(eHM Ha 6e)J;paTa (no)J.IIpeHM),
II1>XHam B )J;)l(06oBeTe C M3Ba)J;eH naJIeIJ;, aKTMBHO )J;a ce )J;eMoHcTpMpa
TMJI'bT Ha KMTKMTe, )J;OKaTO B C'br.u;OTO BpeMe naJIIJ;MTe ca II'bXHam B KOJIa-
Ha ... "OCe)J;JIaBaHe" Ha CTOJIa MJIM He6pe)l(H0 npeMeTHaT B'bpXY nO)J;JIa-
K'bTHMKa Ha KpeCJIOTO KpaK ... TIoH5IKora p'bIJ;eTe ce CJIaraT Ha mJIa MJIH ce
)J;OKocBaT KpaMIIJ;aTa Ha np'bCmTe npM pa3TBOpeHM JIaKTM ... OqlJTe qeCTO
noqrn ca npMKpMm OT KJIenaqMTe, TaKa qe nOrJIe)J;'bT e npM B)J;MrHaTa M
Hase)J;eHa Ha3a)J; rJIaBa ... YCMMBKaTa e C JIeKO HaBe)J;eHM Ha)J;Ony Be)l()J;M ...
Pe<rra e peIllHTeJIHa M ... CK'hnepHlNeCTBO IIpM npe)J;aBaHe Ha
)J;eJIOBa MHOpMaIJ;M5I M pa3TOqlJTeJICTBO Ha aKTypaTa npM YCTaHOB5IBa-
He Ha KOHTaKT ... TIoBHIlleHa 3aMHTepeCYBaHOCT OT np06JIeMMTe, IJ;eJIMTe
Ii 3a)J;'bJI)l(eHM5ITa Ha )J;pyrMTe ... CnoKoikTBMe ...
116
AHATOJlIllti1 T APA(
- C'b3HaHlle 3a C06CTBeHaTa CM CJIa60CT (JIMnCa Ha YBepeHOCT B ce6e
CM). TIpeKoMepHa )J(ecTMKYJIalIM5I, KaKTO M CJIaraHe Ha p'bKaTa Ha r'bp6a,
KaTO npM TOBa p'bKa xBaIIIa KMTKaTa Ha CTPeMe)J( ce
onpe Ha HeIIIo MJIM ce Ha HeIIIo ... YCMMBKa B C'blfeTaHMe C
C'bMHeHMe B Ha M pelf Ha
npeceKYJIKM ... TIpM6'bp3aHOCT M rOTOBHOCT 3a Ha MHcpopMalIH5I,
KaKTO M CKJIOHHOCT K'bM 06CT05ITeJICTBeHO M aprYMeHTMpa-
He Ha nOn'bJI3HOBeHM5ITa CM ... CyeTJIMBOCT ...
-.i?OJI5I 3a C'bnpOTMBa. CMJIa Ha rJIaca, TOH,
5ICHa apTMKYJIaIIM5I, 6aBHO TeMno M PMTMHlfHO JIeeHe Ha pelfTa, TOlfHa
...
- B'bTPelllliO Hanpe)J(eHHe. CKOBaHOCT B n03MTe M cTPe-
Me)J( 3a onMpaHe B'bpXy HeIIIo MJIM Ha HeIIIo, KP'bCTOCBaHe
Ha rJIe3eHMTe rrpM npenJIeTeHM np'bCTM Ha p'blIeTe, M3-
JIMlllliO lfeCTO TP'bCKaHe Ha neneJITa OT lIMrapaTa . IhMeHeHMe Ha TeM-
6'bpa Ha rJIaca, cpopCMpaHe Ha 3BYKa, BHe3aITHM Cna3MM Ha rp'bKJI5IHa,
CK'bplIaHe C'bC 3'b6M, 3aeKBaHe, HeC'bOTBeTCTBaIII Ha MOMeHTa CM5IX, noc-
T05IHHO npeK'bCBaHe Ha . YBeJIMlfaBaHe 6p05I Ha rna6JIOHHHTe
CPPa3M, npOM3HaC5IHM nO-6'bp30 OT o6MKHOBeHo, rrpeHe6perBaHe Ha pe-
lfeBMTe naY3M, M3nOJI3BaHe Ha C JIaCKaTeJIHM M YMaJIMTeJIHM cy-
cpMKCM.
- YMopa MJIM nOTMCHaTOCT. TIOMP'bKHaJI MJIM CThKJIeH 3a6a-
BeHa pelf, MeK M npMrJIyrneH rJIac, C nOHH)J(aBaHe Ha MHTOHaIIM5ITa B
Kpa5I Ha BC5IKO M3pelfeHMe ...
- OT napTHbOpa, CBMBaHe Ha lOMpy-
lIM rrpM CKp'bCTeHM p'blIe, Ha rJIaBaTa M npeK'bCBaHe
Ha pelf .. BTPeHlfeH MJIM HaCTOHlfHB B OlfMTe C P5I3KO
CBMBaHe Ha 3eHMlIMTe .. B'b3MO)J(eH e M BapMaHT, KoraTO e
lfeJIOTO e HaMp'bIIIeHO, 'brJIMTe Ha YCTHMTe ca
- HepB03HOCT M HeYBepeHOCT. CyeTJIMBOCT, lfeCTa npOM5IHa Ha no-
3aTa, npeKOMepHa )J(eCTMKYJIalIH5I, Ha p'blIeTe HanpelfHO Ha
T5IJIOTO ce B3eMe MJIM ce onpaBM HeIIIO .. ), rpM3eHe Ha HOKTHTe,
OTM5ITaHe Ha "npelfeIIIaTa" Ha lfeJIOTO Koca, YCMJIeHa MMMMKa Ha YCTa-
Ta, xaneHe Ha YCTHMTe ... BMCOK M npOHM3HTeJIeH rJIac, 6'bp3 rOBOp,
"M3Ka3BaHe Ha MMCJIM Ha rJIac" ... TIoTeHe ...
- )J;o6po HaCTPoeHMe (nOJIO)J(MTeJIHM eMOlIHH). YCMMBKa, aKTHBHO
)J(eCTHKYJIMpaHe, pa3llIHpeHH 3eHMlIM, pa3KonlfaHO caKO,
BHpKBaHe Ha H5IKaKBa ... TIYCKaHe Ha OT lIMrapaTa Haro-
pe, 06IIIMTeJIHOCT ...
- nomo HaCTpoeHMe (OTpMlIaTeJIHM eMOlIHH). C BJIalfeIIIM
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
117
ce KpaKa, 3a6eJIe)J(MMo CBMTM 3eHMlIM, HaCOlfeH K'bM 3eM5ITa ...
llYCKaHe Ha OT lIMrapaTa 3a6aBeH rOBop, MpalfHo M'bJIl{a-
HHe, rJIac ... XBaIIIaHe 3a C'bBCeM M npe-
,J:UI3BHKBaHe Ha KaBra, HeKOHTaKTHOCT ...
K. MUKpOKOile6aHU7I Ha HacmpoeHuemo
AKo TMnMlfHlITe np05IBM Ha nOBelfe MJIM no-
MaJIKO YCTOHlfHBa cpOHOBa nCMxoeMOlIMOHaJIHa HarJIaCa Ha lfoBeKa, no-
,I:(o.rry IIIe BHMMaHMe Ha aBTOMaTHlfHMTe peaKIIHM Ha o6eKTa Ha
HeOlfaKBaHO B'b3HMKHaJI nOCThnKa, cMryalIH5I . ). KaK-
TO BMHarM ce oT6eJI5I3BaT HJIM rpyna OT nOCOlfeHlITe npH3Ha-
lIM, HJIH HO xapaKTepeH 3a KOHKpeTHH5I cy6eKT:
- npHeMaHe - 3HalfHTeJIHO pa3llIHp5IBaHe Ha 3eHMlIH-
Te, Ha JIHlIeTO 3aCH5IBa YCMHBKa M rJIac;
- OTXB'bpJI5IHe - CBHBaHe Ha 3eHMlIMTe, pe3KH
pH C KpaK no 3eM5ITa H B'bB
- 3aHHTepeCYBaHOCT - HaKJIaH5IHe Ha r JIaBaTa HaCTPaHM, nor
HaKpMBO, C YCMHBKa MJIM JIeKO M3-
Ha lIMrapaTa OT YCTaTa;
- CKYKa - npeMeCTBaHe Ha nor K'bM OKOJIHHTe MJIM
K'bM TaBaHa, C'bBCeM MeXaHHlfHO B'bpXY XapTH5I,
C'bC CKp'bCTeHM KpaKa )J(eHa 3anOlfBa B5IJIO nOKJIaIIIa KpaK;
- CMYIIIeHMe, cpaM - MJIH OTMeCTBaHe Ha M3lfep-
B5IBaHe (nOH5IKOra Ha neTHa) Ha JIMlIeTO, YCMJIeHa rryJICalIH5I Ha Kp'bBTa,
K05ITO MO)J(e ce no BeHMTe Ha p'blIeTe HJIH apTepHHTe Ha
lliH5ITa, M3nOT5IBaHe;
- - CKp'bCTBaHe Ha p'blIeTe nOlfeCBaHe Ha
ropHaTa lfaCT Ha Hoca, OTMeCTBaHe M Bp'bIIIaHe Ha
- M HeC'br JIaCHe - nOKJIaIIIaHe Ha r JIaBaTa OT cTPa-
Ha Ha MaxaHe Ha "KOC'bMlfeTa" OT CKp'bCTBaHe Ha P'b-
lIeTe pa3T5IraHe Ha rOBOpHHTe rraY3M;
- JI'b)J(a - OTMeCTBaHe Ha BCTPaHII M rrOlfeCBaHe Ha
KJIerralfa C rrp'bCT M pa3TPHBaHe Ha TMJIa C ,lVIaH, rrpHKpMBaHe Ha YCTaTa B
MOMeHT Ha rOBopeHe, ,,65IfaIII lfeCTO MHraHe, rrpeC'bXBaHe Ha
YCTaTa (rrperJI'bIIIaHe Ha CJIlOHKaTa, 06JIH3BaHe Ha YCTHHTe, ... ), crrro-
MaTHlfHO Ha r'bpJIOTO, rrpo6JIeMH C YCMJIeHM rryJIca-
IIHH Ha Kp'bBTa, rro BeHHTe Ha p'blIeTe MJIM apTepHHTe Ha IllH5ITa,
H3rrOT5IBaHe, TPeCKa B MYcKYJIHTe Ha T5IJIOTO (rrp'bCTHTe Ha KpaHHIill,HTe,
118
AHATOJllIIliI T APAC
tIacm Ha ... ), B'b3HHKBaHe Ha petIemi He,D;OCTaT'bIUI B ,lJ;HaJIOra, KaTO
nOBTOpeHHe Ha,D;yMH IDIH npeK'bCBaHe Ha <ppa3aTa Ha nOJlOBHH ,lJ;)'Ma (npe-
,lJ;H JI'h:)KaTa), <pOpCHpaHe Ha BHCOtIHHaTa Ha rOBOpa, KaKTO H 3aeKBaHe H
nOKal1.I.JljJHe;
- cTPax - 3a6eJle)I(IfMO n06J1e,D;IDIBaHe Ha JlHQeTO, npeC'bXBaHe Ha
YCTaTa (nperJl'bmaHe Ha CJlIOHKaTa, 06J1H3BaHe Ha YCTHHTe, )Ka:>K,lJ;a . ),
HBHO nyJlCHpaHe Ha BeHHTe Ha p'hQeTe IDIH apTepHHTe Ha lIIHHTa, TPe-
nepeHe Ha np'bCTHTe Ha p'bQeTe H JlHQeBHTe MYCKYJlH, "K'bpKOpeHe" B
CToMaxa, BHCOK rJlaC, "lIIapem" nOrJle,D;;
- BHHa - H3BeCTHH rrpOMeHH B QBeTa Ha JlHQeTO
- 3JIo6a - CBHBaHe Ha IOMpyrurTe, nOmHnBaHe Ha ,D;JIaHTa
" '
"CBHpenO HaTHCKaHe Ha QHrapaTa B neneJIHHKa, pHTaHe HJlH rpy60
Ha HemO, nOTeHe, 3HalfHTeJIHO (nOIDIKOra Ha
neTHa) Ha JlHQeTO, yqecTeHo H rnyMHO ,lJ;HlIlaHe npe3 HOCa;
- BepORTHOCT OT Hana,D;eHHe - n06eMBaHe Ha JIHQeTO, BHe-
3anHO CBHBaHe Ha 3eHHQHTe, OrOJIBaHe Ha 3'b6HTe.
3a ,D;a MO)KeTe TO'fHO ,D;a ,D;OJIaBRTe "H306JIH'laBaI.T.J;HTe" peaKQHH Ha
06eKTa, TPH6Ba ,D;<:l rrpH,D;o6HeTe HaBHKa aBTOMaTH'fHO ,D;a
BCH'lKH B'b3HHKBaI.T.J;H npOMeHH B'bB:
- H3pa3a Ha OlfHTe;
- rOJIeMHHaTa Ha 3eHHQHTe (CBHBaHe HJIH
- QBeTa Ha JIHQeTO HJIH
- nYJICa (Ha lIlIDITa, Ha CJIenOO'fHHTa, Ha KHTKHTe Ha p'bQeTe . );
- ,D;HlIlaHeTO (no ,D;BlI)KeHHeTO Ha KOlIl, KaKTO H IlO B,D;JI'b6-
HaTHHaTa B OCHOBaTa Ha lIIHHTa . );
- CYXOCTTa Ha YCTaTa (no nperJI'bmaHeTO Ha CJIIOHKaTa IDIH 06JIH3-
BaHeTO Ha YCTHHTe ... );
- IlOTJlHBOCTTa Ha KO)KaTa (Ha ,D;JIaHHTe H no JIHQeTO .. );
- TPeMopa Ha MYcKYJIHTe (TPenepeHe Ha p'bQeTe, Ha np'bCTHTe Ha
KpaMHHQHTe H Ha IDIKOH tIaCTH Ha JIHQeTO ... ).
3. HespOAlIlHrSlilCT1Il4HO npOHlilKsaHe
S nClIlxlIl KaTa
HeBpOJIHHrBHCmtIHOTO nporpaMHpaHe (HJIn) ce CMRTa 3a MHoro
e<peKTHBeH HatIHH 3a nOlfTH HeYJIOBHMO npOHHKBaHe B nO,D;C'b3HaHHeTo
Ha lfOBeKa H Ha Ta3H OCHOBa - opraHH3HpaHe Ha e<peKTHBHO B3aHMO-
,D;eMCTBHe C Hero.
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
A. VBOgHU 6elle)f(KLI
119
BCH'lKH xopa HMaT C'b3HaHHe (B'bTpellieH OC'b3HaBaH KoeTO e
B'bB Bp'b3Ka C IlO,D;C'b3HaHHeTO (B'bTPelIIHIDI HeOC'b3HaBaH H <PYHK-
QHOHHpa B onpe,D;eJIeHa cpe,D;a (B'bHlIIHIDI 3ao6HKaMm CBRT).
Cy6eKT'bT ce OT 06pa3H, KOHTO 06HKHOBeHO B'b3HHKBaT
OT HerOB MHHaJI onHT, KaKTO H TaKHBa, C'b3,D;a,D;eHH OT B'bo6pa)KeHHeTO
My H 3ana3eHH B nO,D;C'b3HaHHeTO.
11 H nO,D;C'b3HaHHeTO nOM'bp)KaT Bp'b3Ka C'bC C'b3-
HaHHeTO nOCpe,D;CTBOM TPH OCHOBOnOJIaraI.T.J;H CHCTeMH OT 06pa3H, yce-
maHIDI H npe,D;CTaBH:
- aY,lJ;HaJIHa (Cnyx'bT);
- BH3YaJIHa (3peHHeTO);
- KHHeCTeTH'lHa (MYCKYJIHHTe yce:w;aHIDl, BKYC'bT H 060IDIHHeTO).
B'b3 OCHOBa Ha CHCTeMaTa OT npe,D;CTaBH (KOHTO TYK HapH'laMe "MO-
,D;aJIHOCTH" .. ) BCH'lKH HH,lJ;HBH,D;H MoraT ,D;a ce Ha TPH rpyrrH:
- BH3yamrCTH (MHCJIeI.T.J;H npe,D;HMHO tIpe3 06pa3H);
- aY,D;HaJIHCTH (MHCJIeI.T.J;H npe,lJ;HMHO lfpe3 ,D;yMH);
- iGlHeCTeTHIUI (MHCJIe:W;H Ilpe,D;HMHO lfpe3 yce:W;aHIDI).
XopaTaHe ce pa36HpaT TO'fHO, aKO CH 06MeIDIT HH<popMaQIDI C Tep-
MHHH OT pa3JIH'lHH MO,D;aJIHOCTH; H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha e,D;Ha 06:w;a MO,D;aJI-
HOCT e CIloc06HO ,D;a oCHrypH aBTOMaTH'lHO ,D;OBepHTeJIHH OTHOllieHIDI
Ha IlO,D;C'b3HaTeJIHO paBHH:w;e.
06HKHOBeHO OCHOBHaTa MO,D;aJIHOCT Ha tIOBeKa MO)Ke ,D;a ce Pa3Il03-
Hae IlO:
- cBoe06pa3HeTO Ha OT Hero ,D;yMH: rJIarOJIH, npH-
JIaraTeJIHH, (KOHTO TYK HapHtIaMe "rrpe,lJ;HKaTH");
- ,D;BH)I(eHHeTO Ha OtIHTe My;
- IDIKOH oc06eHOCTH Ha JIHlfHOCTTa.
THIlH'lHHTe BapHaHTH Ha B'b3MO)l(HMTe npe,D;HKaTH ca CJIe,D;HHTe:
- BH3yaJIHH: ,D;a ce BH)I(,D;a, ,D;a ce <pOKYCHpa, ,D;a ce
T'bMeH, M'brMB ... OTlfeTJIHBO, ... ;
- aY)l;HaJIHH: )l;a ce qysa,)l;a 3ByqH,)l;a Kpe:W;H,)l;a OfJIyIIIaBa,)l;a Hac-
TpOMBa, )l;a C'brJIaCYBa .. BHCOK, THX ... 3B'bHKO ... ;
- KHHeCTeTH'fHH: )l;a tIYSCTBa, )l;a CH )l;a XBa:w;a, )l;a ce )l;OKOC-
Ba ... TOIl'bJI, rJIa)l;'bK, TB'bP)l;, Te)l('bK, BKYceH, IlpeceH, JIIOT, roplfHB, CBe)l(,
apOMaTeH ... MHpHlIle, np06Ba ... ;
120 AHATOnltllil T A PAC
- HeyrpaJIHlI: p;a MIICJIII, p;a 3Hae, p;a pa36lIpa, p;a B'b3nplieMa, p;a
nOMHII, p;a BJIpBa ... YBa)J(lITeJIeH, npOMeHJIIIB ...
ITpepa60TBafu<II p;ap;eHa IIHCPOPMaIJ;IIJI, cy6eKThT 06lIKHOBeHO P;BH-
)J(1I OqlITe Cli no CJIep;HIIJI HaqlIH:
- BlI3YaJIliCThT - BJIJIB0-HarOpe IIJIH Bp;JICH0-HarOpe, KaKTO II rrpaBO
Harope IIJIIi no QeHThpa (Ha MJICTO);
- ayp;lIaJIliCThT - HaJIJIBO BCTpaHIi IIJIIi HaMCHO BcrpaHH, KaKTO II
BJIJIBO Hap;OJIY;
- KIiHeCTeTIIK'bT - BMCHO Hap;OJIY II npaBO Hap;ony.
ITo RJIKOIi XapaKTepHII nplI3HaQlI xopaTa ce )J;HarHOCTHpaT TaKa:
- BII3yaJIIICT: paMeHeTe ca 1I3npaBeHH, npH 06I.QYBaHe e CKJIOHeH p;a
Cna3Ba p;IICTaHQIIJI, npep;nOqHTa p;a 3anOqBa 1I3pelIeHlIeTO C MeCTOIIMe-
HlieTO "TIl" Mll "BIle" H rOBopli 6'bP30 H BIiCOKO C MHoro naY31I . oQe-
RJIBa BClIlJ:KO HaOKOJIO, 6e3 p;a ro OTHaCJI 3a ce6e CH .. B KOHCPJIIiKT lIeCTO
e 06BIIHIITeJI .. ;
- ayp;lIaJIlIcT: cJIa60nOp;BH)J(eH, C MlIHlIMaJIHa )J(ecTIlKYJIaQIIJI . npep;-
nOlIliTa p;a He rJIep;a B OlIlITe, a KoraTO pa3rOBapJI, rJIep;a lIeJIOTO Ha
napTHhopa . rOBOp'bT My e MOHOTOHeH H CJIKallI Ha ep;Ha HOTa .. 061IK-
HOBeHO Ka3Ba "OHe3H .. ", "OH31I ... ", KaTO PJIP;KO ynorpe6HBa MeCTOII-
MeHHeTO "a3" .. CTapae ce p;a He ce Har'bp6Ba C OITOBOPHOCT . ;
- KHHeCTeTIIK: paMeHeTe II llIlIHTa ca ycrpeMeHH Hanpep; .. npep;-
nOlIliTa p;a 6'bp;e nO-6JI1I30 P;O napTHhopa II 06HlIa p;a ro p;OKOCBa C
p'bQe, p;'bJIro p;a P;'bP)J(1I HerOBaTa p'bKa B CBOHTa ... 3a6eJIe)J(HMO 3JIOy-
nOTpe6JIBa C MeCTOIIMeHlIeTO "a3" ... B KOHCPJIIiKT e CKJIOHeH K'bM 1I3-
BIIHeHlIe ...
YMeHlIeTO p;a lIyeTe npe)J;HKTIITe II no pecpJIeKTOpHOTO p;BH)J(eHHe Ha
OlIliTe p;a onpep;eJIIiTe P;'bJI60KIITe npe)J(IIBHBaHIIJI Ha lIOBeKa BH p;aBa
B'b3MO)J(HOCT p;a YCTaHOBIiTe p;OBepHTeJIeH KOHTaKT Ha nOp;C'b3HaTeJIHO
paBHlIl.Qe II p;a HaCOlIHTe eHeprIIJITa Ha 06eKTa HaTaM, HaK'bp;eTO Bli rpH6-
Ba.
5. Pa3no3Ha8aHe Ha Hal/uHa 3a o6pa6omKa
Ha LIHopMau,ufI
,ll.BII)J(eHlIHTa Ha OlIlITe Ha BceKIi lIOBeK MoraT p;a pa3Ka)J(aT He caMO
3a HerOBaTa MOp;aJIHOCT, HO II 3a TOBa, KaK TOll pa60TlI C TeKYlQaTa
IIHcpopMaQIIJI.
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 121
me pa3rJIep;aMe 9 nOCOKH Ha norJIep;a II npenOp'bqlITeJIHaTa liM Pa3-
lIIHCPPOBKa:
- BMCHO Harope - BH3yaJIHO KOHcrpYHpaHe (BK);
- npaBO Harope - BlI3yaJIeH cnOMeH (BC);
- BJIHBO Harope - BlI3YaJIeH cnOMeH (BC);
- BJIHBO HacrpaHIi - ay)J;HaJIHII cnOMeHII (AC);
- BJIHBO Hap;ony - ay)J;HaJIHH npep;CTaBIi (An); )];HaJIor C'hC caMIiH
ce6e CH;
- npaBO Hap;OJIY - KHHeCTeTHtIHH rrpep;cTaBIi (KIT);
- BMCHO Hap;OJIY - KHHeCTeTlIlJ:HII npep;cTaBIi (KIT);
- BMCHO HacrpaHIi - ay)J;HaJIHO KOHcrpyupaHe (AK);
- npaBo Hanpep; - BlI3YaJIHii npep;cTaBIi (BIT), "HarpaneHlI" OTB'hH
HJIlI H,11,BaI.QH OT naMeTTa.
8K
AK
(3a 06JIeKlIaBaHe Ha oplIeHTaQHHTa e yP;06HO p;a ce H3nOJI3Ba BelIe
cnOMeHaTOTO CBOllCTBO Ha JIHBaTa CTpaHa, KOHTO e "nO-IiCTHHCKa" OT
p;HCHaTa.) ITPH JIeBaQIITe npOCJIep;HBaHIiTe KapTHHII KaTO npaBIIJIO ca
or JIep;aJIHO npOTIlBOnOJIO)J(HH.
CrpaTerIIJITa Ha pa60Ta C HHcpopMaQIIJITa rrpH ThpCeHeTO Ha OTro-
BOp Ha p;ap;eHB'bnpOC ce C'bCTOH OT rpH nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHH eTana:
- ThpCeHe Ha HHcpopMaQHH B nOp;C'b3HaTeJIHaTa naMeT (KaTO ce H3-
nOJI3Ba T. Hap. BO,ll.EmA CHCTeMa 3a npep;CTaBH);
- npep;OCTaBHHe Ha p;061ITaTa IIHcpopMaQlIH Ha C'b3HaHHeTO (KaTO ce
H3n0JI3Ba T. Hap. PEITPE3EHTATMBHA CIiCTeMa 3a npep;CTaBII);
- OQeHKa Ha p;OCTOBepHOCTTa Ha Ta31I IIHcpopMaQIIH OT C'b3HaHlieTO
(KaTO ce H3nOJI3Ba T. Hap. PE<I>EPEHTHA CHCTeMa 3a npep;CTaBII).
Ha BceKIi OT Te31I eTanli p;ellCTBa CBOJI MOp;aJIHOCT, KOHTO 06IIKHO-
BeHO ce H3HCHHBa no nOCOKHTe Ha ,lJ;BH)J(eHHe Ha OlIlITe, KaTO B xapaK-
TepHaTa nOpep;HQa OT TpH p;B1I)J(eHIIH HalIaJIHOTO 06lIKHOBeHO C'bOT-
122
AHATOJH11i1 T A PAC
BeTCTBa Ha "M3TerJI.SlHe", BTOPOTO - Ha rrpe.nCTaB5IHe, a TpeTOTO - Ha
ou;eHKa.
Mo.naJIHOCTMTe Ha eTarrMTe ce rrpOCJIe.n5lBaT M B peqTa Ha qOBeKa
- B rrOCJIe.nOBaTeJIHOCTTa Ha KOHKpeTHMTe rrpe.nMKaTMBM, rrpeMMHa-
Barn;M B e.nHa <ppa3a. HarrpMMep: "KoraTO ce HaCTpOMM C'brJIacyBa-
HO (ay.nMaJIHO ThpCeHe) K'bM .na.neH rrp06JIeM, 5ICHO rn;e BM.nMM (BM3Y-
aJIHa perrpe3eHTaU;M5I), qe rn;e e .nOCTa Tpy.nHO .na ro peIlIMM (KMHec-
TeTMqHa ou;eHKa)." .
CTpaTerM5ITa Ha 06eKTa rrOH5IKOra ce rrpOMeH5I B 3aBMCMMOCT OT
CMTyau;M5ITa; T5I ce oTPa351Ba .nOCTa 6ip30 B .nBIDKeHM5ITa Ha oqme M, 3a
.na 6'b.ne 3aCeqeHa, e He06xo.nMMa orrpe.neJIeHa rro.nrOTBMTeJIHa TPeHM-
pOBKa.
,[(BIDKeHM5ITa Ha OqMTe qeCTO ce C'bqeTaBaT C'bC cTPaHMqHM, a6co-
JIIOTHO MH.D:MBM.D:YaJIHM peaKU;MM, Komo C'b06rn;aBaT 3a peaJIHOTO OTHO-
IlIeHMe Ha qOBeKa K'bM B'b3HMKHaJIMTe rrpe.n Hero MeHTaJIHM 06pa3M (OqM-
Te TP'brBaT BJI5lBO, a 3eHMIJ;MTe ce CBMBaT - HerrpM5ITeH ay.nMaJIeH crro-
MeH 3a Hern;o ... ).
B. KaAu6pyBaHe Ha napmHbopa no o6w,yBaHe
3a .na rrOJIyqMTe MaKCMMyM rrOJI3a OT Bcem KOHTaKT, )l(eJIaTeJIHO e
.na
- .na orrpe.neJI5ITe rro H51KOM B'bHIlIHM rrpM3Hau;M xo.na Ha MMCJIMTe Ha
c'b6ece.D:HMKa;
- .na OC'b3HaBaTe eMOU;MOHaJIHOTO My C'bCT05lHMe;
- .na ce OpMeHTMpaTe B MCTMHHOCTTa Ha M3Ka3BaHM5ITa My;
- He3a6eJIe)l(MMO .na BHe.np5IBaTe B C'b3HaHMeTO M rro.nC'b3HaHMeTO
My CBOMTe M.D:eM.
3a .na pa36MpaTe .n06pe MMCJIOBHMTe, eMOU;MOHaJIHMTe M
Te OTKJIMKBaHM5I Ha rrapTHbopa, TP5I6Ba .na rrpOBe.neTe TOqHOTO My "Ka-
JIM6pYBaHe" .
KaJIM6pysaHeTO Ha 06eKTa ce rrpaBM, KaTO BrrJIMTaTe B KaHaBaTa Ha
pa3rOBopa H5IKaKBM HeM30CTP5Irn;M BHMMaHMeTO B'brrpOCM, OITO-
BOpM BMe HeC'bMHeHO 3HaeTe M TOqHO .nOJIaB5ITe HeCJIOBeC-
HM peaKu;MM Ha T5IX. fOJI5IMa rrOMOrn; rrpM .neTaMJIHOTO KaJIM6pYBaHe Ha
MH.nMBM.na MO)l(e .na BM OKa)l(e C'b.n'bp)l(aHMeTO Ha pa3.neJIa, B KOMTO ce
pa3rJIe)l(.IJ:a qeTeHeTO Ha MMCJIM M eMOU;MM.
3a .na pa36epeTe CBM.neTeJICTBaTa 3a "C'brJIaCMe M 0TPMu;aHMe",. M3-
rrOJI3BaMTe HaM-rrpOCTM B'brrpOCM, M3MCKBarn;M e.D:H03HaqeH OITOBOP (".na"
MJIM "He") M ThpCeTe H5IKOM B KOHKpeTHaTa peaKU;M5I Ha T5IX.
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm 123
B TaK'bB 6M 'Tp5l6BaJIO .na 3HaeTe OqaKBaHM5I OTrOBOp orn;e rrpe-
,nH .na CTe ro rrOJIyqHJIH CJIOBeCHO.
3a .na pa36epeTe eMOU;HOHaJIHHTe peaKU;MH Ha qOBeKa, 3aC5IraMTe
BHHMaTeJIHO rro.n6paHH TeMH (HJIH crrOMeHaBaHe Ha xopa), rrpH5ITHH H
HenpH5ITHH 3a 06eKTa.
AKO HCKaTe ,!1;a CH H351CHme ,!1;BIDKeHMeTO Ha OqHTe Ha napTHbOpa
(TOKY-BH)l( TO He C'bOTBeTCTBa Ha CTaH,IJ;apTHaTa cxeMa ... ), 3a;o;aMTe JIeKH
TeCTBarn;M B'brrpOCH, Komo 3aC5IraT, pe.D:YBaHKH TY BH3YaJIHaTa ("KaK
H3rJIe)l(.IJ:a .. "), TY aY.D:HaJIHaTa ("KaK 3ByqH ... "), TY ("KaK
ce ycern;a ... ") CHCTeMa Ha B'bTPeIlIHMTe My rrpe,!1;CTaBH .
3a ;o;a pa36epeTe Kora 06eKThT C'b06rn;aBa peaJIHM Hern;a, a Kora CH
H3MHCJI5I HH<popMau;M5ITa, H3rrOJI3BaMTe B'brrpOCH, HaCOqeHH
K'bM crrOMeHa ("KaKBa HMa )l(eHa BH?"), KaKTO H K'bM H3rrOJI-
3BaHe Ha <paHTa3H51 ("KaK H3rJIe)l(.IJ:a BaIlIM5IT H;o;eaJI?").
KaTO ce BCJIYIlIBaTe B rOBopa Ha HH.D:HBH.na, BHHMaTeJIHO rrpOCJIe-
;D;5IBaMTe BCHqKH rrpOM'bKBarn;H ce B Hero Mo.naJIHH rrpe.nHKTH H T5IXHa-
Ta rrOCJIe,!1;OBaTeJIHOCT (CTpaTerH5I 3a pa60Ta C HH<popMaU;H5ITa) B
CTpYKTYpaTa Ha rrpOH3HaC5IHHTe <ppa3H.
r. TeXHUKa 3a MaHunYAupaHe c nOMow,ma Ha HAn
KaTO OC'brn;eCTBHTe KaJIH6pYSaHeTO Ha 06eKTa, BHe Beqe MO)l(eTe .na
pa36epeTe .D:'bJI60KO CKpHTM5I My B'bTPellieH CB5IT H BH OCTaBa caMO ;o;a
ro 3arr'bJIHme C'bC C06CTBeHMTe CH M.D:eH.
,[(YMHTe, Ka3BaHH Ha ;o;a.neH qOBeK, My OKa3BaT H51KaKBO B'b3.neHcT-
BHe caMO 6JIarO;o;apeHHe Ha OHe3H MeHTaJIHH o6pa3H, Komo ca crroco6-
HH.na ce rropoMIT B C'b3HaHHeTO My B TeKYID;M5I MOMeHT.
" M
3a .na rrOJIyqme ThpceHM5I e'l'eKT, HaJIara ce .na ce "Hara)l(;o;aTe K'b
HH,IJ;HBH;o;a, KoeTO CTaBa no rr'bT5I Ha CHHxpOHH3aU;H5ITa, a Ka3aHO no-
rrpOCTO - OTPa35IBam HerOBaTa )l(eCTMKYJIaU;M5I H rOBOp B aKTHBHOTO
nOBe.neHHe Ha MaHMIIYJIHparn;H5I.
MaHHep'bT Ha nO.D:HaC5IHe Ha .nYMHTe (oTTeH'bu;me Ha rJIaca H HHTO-
HaU;H5ITa ... ) e 3HaqmeJIHO rrO-Ba)l(eH OT TeXHH5I o6rn;orrpHeT CMHC'bJI;
PHThM'bT Ha peqTa TP5I6Ba .na e paBeH H .na ce HarO.D:H K'bM qeCTOTaTa Ha
.nHIlIaHe Ha c'b6ece.D:HHKa.
3a .na rrpOKapaTe H5IK05I HY)l(Ha MHC'bJI HJIH H.ne5I, TP5I6Ba .na npHB-
JIeqeTe BHHMaHHeTO Ha rrapTHbopa, KaTO C nOMOrn;Ta Ha HerOBHTe
MO,!1;aJIHH ;o;yMH orrHCBaTe BCHqKO OHOBa, KoeTO TOM HaHcTMHa rrpe)l(H-
( "
B5IBa B ;o;a.neHH5I MHr. IIocJIe, H3rrOJI3BaMKH rrpexo.nHH .nYMH "aKo ,
124
AHATOllVlIii T APAC
"IIO T03H HaqHH", "CJIe,!l;OBaTeJIHO" ... ), "pOKapBaTe (H3IIoJI3BaiIlm H3-
XO,!l;HaTa MO,!l;aJIHOCT) HaTpaIIBaHHTe IIpe,!l;CTaBH, KOHTO B Te3H yCJIO-
BH5I My ce CTOP5lT "CBOH" H HaII"bJIHO y6e,!l;HTeJIHH, MaKap qe MO-
raT ,!l;a 6"b,!l;aT C"bBCeM Hee,!l;HOTHIIHH C HaqaJIHHTe TB"bp,!l;eHH5I.
K.naCHqeCKaTa cxeMa 3a IIOCTeIIeHHO BHe,!l;p5lBaHe B C"b3HaHHeTO H
IIO,!l;C"b3HaHHeTO Ha qOBeKa H3r JIe)l():(a TaKa: H3peqeHH5I -
IIpeXOAHa ,ll;YMa - QJpa3a, K"bM Ha6eJI5I3aHaTa Te3a.
I13Ka3BaHIDITa ce rpa)J;5IT, KaTO ce H3II0JI3Ba B"b-rpelilHaTa c-rpaTerIDI
Ha napTHhOpa (onpe,!l;eJIeHa no npe,!l;BapHTeJIHO H351CHeHHTe ,!l;BH)l(eHIDI
Ha OqHTe MY) C yno-rpe6a Ha ;::J;yMH H B QJpa30Ba nOCJIe-
,!l;OBaTeJIHOCT KaTO HerOBaTa.
ITPH Ha B"b3,!l;eiIcTBHeTo BHHMaTeJIHO rrpocJIelJ:5lBaiI-
Te BC5IKa peaKQR5I Ha 06eKTa Ha npOH3HaC5IHH ;::J;yMH
H KopHrHpaiiTe CB051 HaqHH Ha ,!l;eiIcTBHe ,!l;OTOraBa, ,!l;OKaTO B C"b3HaHH-
eTO Ha BalliIDI C"b6eCeAHHK He ce OQJOPMH Han"bJIHO 3a,ll;OBOJIHTeJIeH 3a
Bac OTKJIHK.
4acm lfemBbpma
MeTOAIII 3a u,eAeHaC04eHO
.....
Bb3AelllCTBlIIe BbPXY 40BeKa
ITo pa3J1HqHH HaqHHH MO)l(e ,!l;a ce B"b3,!l;eiIcTBa B"bpXy YMa H IIOBe,!l;e-
HHeTO Ha qOBeKa, e,!l;HH OT KOHTO H3HCKBaT caMO nO,!l;rOT-
BeHOCT Ha CneQRaJIHCTa (y6e)l(,!l;eHHe, BH)'IIIeHHe, no,!l;KYII . ), a ,!l;pym-
H CneQRaJIHa anapaTYPa (TeXHo-rpOHHH ceKcMepOnpH5ITIDI, 30M-
6HpaHe . ).
MeTO)J;HTe Ha npHu;eJIHO BJIH5IHHe MoraT ,!l;a 6"b,!l;aT (BHYIIIe-
HHe . ) , arpeCHBHH (lliaHTa)l(), "POCTHqKH (3arrJIalliBaHe . ) H paQJHHH-
paHH (30M6HpaHe .. ), -rpy,!l;HO YJIOBHMH nporpa-
MHpaHe . ) (QJapMaKoynpaBJIeHHe .. ).
I1360p"bT Ha MeTO)J;HKaTa 3aBHCH OT:
- peaJIHaTa Y5l3BHMOCT Ha 06eKTa (qepTH Ha xapaKTepa, 6Horpa-
QJHqHH enH30)J;H, HaJIHqHa CHTYaU;H5I .. );
- u;eJIHTe Ha Ha6eJI5I3aHOTO B"b3,!l;eiicTBHe (npOM51Ha Ha MHCJIeHeTO,
npHBJIHqaHe K"bM C"b-rpy,!l;HHqeCTBO, nonyqaBaHe Ha HHQJopMaU;H5I, e,!l;-
HOKpaTHo c"b,!l;eiICTBHe, HaKa3aHHe .. );
- co6cTBeHHTe B"b3MO)l(HOCTH (HaJIHqHe Ha BpeMe, YMeHHe, 3HaHHe,
TeXHHqeCKa arraparypa, He06xo,!l;HMH XHMHqeCKH rrperrapaTH, KOMrre-
TeHTHH );
- JIHqHHTe ,!l;HpeKTHBH Ha H3rr"bJIHHTeJI5I (cTerreHTa MY Ha MOpaJIHa
,!l;OrryCTHMOCT .. ).
B rrpaKTHKaTa HaiI-qeCTO ce H3rr0JI3BaT:
- y6e)l():(eHHe;
126 AHATOJH11i1 TAPAC
- BHyrneHHe;
- XHrrH03a;
- HeBpOJIHHrBHCTlf'fHO rrpOrpaMHpaHe;
-HapKOBn3AeWCTBHH;
- CeKCMeporrpHHTHH;
- cpapMaKoyrrpaBJIeHHe;
- TeXHOTPOHHH Ha':IHHH (YJITPa3BYK, HHcppa3BYK, CBQ-H3JIn':IBaHe,
eJIeKTPOIllOK ... );
- 30M6HpaHe;
- IIOAKyrr;
- 3arrJIaIllBaHe;
- H3Te3aHHH ...
lIHKOH OT oT6eJIH3aHHTe MeTOAHKH 6Hxa 06pHCYBaHH B ApyrHTe
pa3AeJIH, rrO-AOJIY IIJ;e pa3rJIeAaMe OCTaHaJIHTe.
A. V6e)f(geHue
ITOA y6e)l(AeHHe ce rrOApa36Hpa "MeKO" Bn3AeWCTBHe BnpXY HHAH-
BHAa, KOeTO HMa 3a u;eJI paAHKaJIHO Aa KOplITHpa Bn3rJIeAHTe MY, 3a Aa
rrOBJIHHe Ha rrOCJIeABaIIJ;OTO rroBeAeHHe. AaAeHHHT BapHaHT e HaW-em':I-
HHHT Ha':IHH Ha BJIHHHHe, 3aIIJ;OTO HHMa rpy60 HaCHJIHe HJIH KOBapHO
BHeApHBaHe B rrOACn3HaHHeTO Ha 06eKTa.
MeTOAnT 3a y6e)l(AeHHe ce 3aAeWCTBa 3a:
- AnJIrOCpO':IHO H3MeHeHHe Ha rrpeACTaBHTe H AHpeKTHBHTe Ha ':IO-
BeKa B HCKaHOTO HarrpaBJIeHHe;
- rrpHBJIH':IaHe KDM CnTPYAHlfIieCTBO;
- Ha 06eKTa KnM He06xOAHMa rrOCThrrKa.
ITo TeXHlf'feCKO H3rrnJIHeHHe rrpe)];CTaBJIHBa HBHa, rro-
HHKora H CKpHTa AHCKYCHH, AOrrnJIHeHa C HHKaKBO CTHMYJIHpaIIJ;O Bn3-
AeWCTBHe.
BceKH ':IOBeK HMa CBOH HarJIaCa (HJIH rrO-TO':IHO - HaCO':IeHOCT) rro
OTHOIlleHHe Ha HeIIJ;O HJIH Ha HHKoro. CnIIJ;eCTBYBaT TPH rpaAaU;HH Ha
rrO)];06Ha HarJIaca:
- HBHa CHMrraTHH (CKJIOHHOCT KnM rrpHeMaHe Ha HeIIJ;O);
- 6e3pa3JIlf'fHe (c JIeKO H3MeCTBaHe B eAHa HJIH Apyra rrOCOKa)';
- 0TPHu;aHHe (HerrpHeMaHe).
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
127
BCHKaKnB orrHT 3a rpy60 HaJIaraHe Ha )l(eJIaHOTO MHeHHe
)];0 0TPHu;aTeJIeH pe3YJITaT, 3aIIJ;OTO ':IOBeK BHHarH ce CnrrpOTHBJIHBa Ha
orpaHlf'faBaHeTO Ha cB060AaTa MY Ha H360p.
3a Aa rrpOMeHHTe OTHOIlleHHeTO Ha HHAHBHAa KnM HeIIJ;O, TPH6Ba Aa
rrpeOpHeHTHpaTe HarJIaCaTa MY, KaTO HMaTe rrpeABHA CJIeAHOTO:
- B CXBaTKaTa Me)l(AY pa3YMa H OpHeHTau;HHTa BHHarH rr06e)l(AaBa
opHeHTaU;HHTa;
- B rrpou;eca Ha H3MeHeHHeTO Ha opHeHTaU;HHTa TPH6Ba Aa rrOKa)l(eTe
Ha ':IOBeKa HaCOKaTa H CnAnp)l(aHHeTO Ha He06xoAHMHTe H3MeMeHHH;
BCH':IKO TOBa TOW TPH6Ba Aa Bn3rrpHeMe H pa36epe;
- H3MeHeHHHTa IIJ;e ca TOJIKOBa rro-ycrreIllHH, KOJIKOTO ca rrO-Cn3-
ByqHH C rrOTPe6HocmTe H MOTHBaU;HHTe Ha 06eKTa;
- Haw-rrpOCTO ce rrpeYCTPoiiBaT OpHeHTaU;HH, KOHTO HHMaT rrpHH-
U;HIIHO ()l(H3HeHOBa)l(HO) 3Ha':IeHHe 3a ':IOBeKa;
- B cnyqaw Ha HarrnJIHO HeraTHBHa opHeHTau;HH rrpeopHeHTHpaHeTO
06HKHOBeHO H3HCKBa CrreU;HaJIHH YCJIO)l(HeHH MeTOAH 3a HOBOTO rrpor-
paMHpaHe Ha rrCHXHKaTa (T. e. "rrpOMHBaHe Ha M03nU;H" ... ) Ha JIHIJ;eTO.
B 3aBHCHMOCT OT cHryau;HHTa H KOHKpeTHHTe oc06eHocm Ha 06eK-
Ta MO)l(eTe Aa ce orrHTaTe Aa ro y6eAHTe rrpHKO (B XOAa Ha pa3rOBopa)
HJIH KOCBeHO (qpe3 HHcrrHpHpaHH aKU;HH), KaTO rrpH TOBa AeWCTBaTe rro
CJIeAHHH Ha':IHH:
- aKIJ;eHTllpaHO-JIOrH'IHO;
- HMrrepamBHO (KaTerOplf'fHO);
- eKCu;HTaTHBHO Ha rrp06JIeMa AO H360p "HJIH-HJIH").
BCHKO Bn3AeWCTBHe CnAnp)l(a B ce6e CH eJIeMeHTH H Ha BHYIlleHHe,
H Ha HO B pa3JIlf'fHH rrporropu;HH.
ITo-rrpocTO e Aa ce xopaTa CnC:
- HpKO )l(HBO Bn06pa)l(eHHe;
- OpHeHTau;HH rrO-CKOpO KnM ApyrHTe, OTKOJIKOTO KnM ce6e CH;
- AO H3BeCTHa CTerreH 3aHH)l(eHa CaMOOu;eHKa (CTeCHHTeJIHHTe H
cJIa60 AOBepHBaIIJ;H Ha C06CTBeHOTO CH MHeHHe cy6eKm).
TpYAHO ce rrOMaBaT Ha y6e)l(AeHHe JIHIJ;a, KOHTO ca:
- HBHO HaCTPOeHH rro OTHOIlleHHe Ha APyrHTe (rrpOHBH-
BaHaTa CnrrpomBa Me)l(AY ApyrOTO ':IeCTO MO)l(e Aa Bn3HHKBa H KaTO
CJIeACTBHe Ha )l(eJIaHHeTO 3a AOMHHHpaHe HaA OCTaHaJIHTe ... );
- CnC CHJIeH KpHTH':IeH AYX;
- rOTOBH Aa rrpeHHa':IaBaT Bn3rJIeAHTe CH (Ka3aHO rrO-rrpOCTO - cTPe-
MHT ce BHHarU Aa UMaT OIIJ;e eAHa, pe3epBHa rr03HU;U5I ... ).
128 AHATOm11i1 T APAC
IIpe,r(M rrpOBe)l(,[(aHeTO Ha aKTMBHaTa aKUM5I CJIe,r(Ba cTa6MJIHO ,r(a rro,n;-
rOTBMTe qOBeKa C rrOpe,r(Mua HaCOqBaruM rrpe,r(BapMTeJIHH pa3rOBOpM, 3a
,n;a MO)J(e rrO-HaTaThIlIHOTO aKueHTMpaHO B'b3,r(eMCTBHe ,r(a He ce rrpe-
B'bpHe 3a Hero B HerrpM5ITHa H3HeHa,r(a.
IIpM rrJIaHMpaHeTO Ha errM30,r(a Ha y6e)J(,r(aBaHeTO TP5I6Ba :
- BHMMaTeJIHO ,r(a M36epeTe M5ICTOTO, 06Kp'b)J(eHHeTO H MOMeHTa 3a
KOHTaKTa;
- ,r(a CM HarrpaBMTe CMeTKa KaK ,r(a pa3rOBopa, KaK ,r(a CHe-
MeTe rr'bpBOHaqaJIHOTO Harrpe)J(eHMe, KaK ,r(a rrpe,r(M3BMKaTe M3BeCTeH
HHTepec;
- ,r(06pe ,r(a rrpeMMCJIHTe KaK ,r(a HaCOqHTe pa3rOBopa B )J(eJIaHOTO
pyCJIO;
- ,r(a OTPa60THTe U5IJIaTa CM aprYMeHTaUM5I C'b06pa3HO rrCHXOJIOrM5I-
Ta, MOTMBHTe M CTPeMe)J(MTe Ha 06eKTa;
- ,r(a M36epeTe pMThMa Ha pa3rOBopa M pe,r(a Ha rrpeMB5IBaHe Ha ap-
rYMeHTHTe;
- ,r(a M3quCJIHTe B'b3MO)J(HMTe KOHTPaaprYMeHTH M ,r(a rrpeMMCJIMTe
KaK ,r(a rM HeYTPaJIM3MpaTe;
- ,r(a Ha6eJIe)J(HTe pe3epBHM BapMaHTM 3a rrpO,[('bJI)J(aBaHe Ha pa3ro-
Bopa, aKO rrapTHbOp'bT 3a5IBM peIlIMTeJIHO "He!";
- 5ICHO ,r(a CM rrpe,r(CTaB5ITe KaK rue rrpMKJIlOqHTe pa3rOBopa.
(1). vb60p Ha M5ICTO, 06Kp'b)J(eHMe H MOMeHT 3a KOHTaKTa:
- M5ICTOTO, K'b,r(eTO OC'brueCT5IBaTe y6e)J(,r(aBaHeTO, rro B'b3MO)J(HOCT
TP5I6Ba ,r(a C'bOTBeTCTBa Ha 6JIarO,r(YlliHOTO HaCTPoeHMe Ha qOBeKa,
3aruOTO TOBa rrO,r(06p5IBa B'b3rrpMeMqMBOCTTa K'bM C'brr'bTCTBaruOTO
BJIH5IHMe; HarrpMMep, aKO B "pa60THaTa" CTa5I MMa KapTMHH, KOMTO ,r(a
JIaCKa5IT B30pa Ha 06eKTa, 3BYQH xapeCBaHa OT Hero MY3MKa, a Ha
MacaTa e cep"SMpaHa JIl06MMaTa My HarrMTKa - TOM rue e rro-crOBOp-
qMB;
- 06MKHOBeHO He)J(eJIaTeJIHO e rrpMC'bCTBMeTO Ha CTpaHHqHM JIHua,
MaKap rrOH5IKOra OT,r(eJIHM JIuqHOCTH (H5IKOM 60COBe, 3aHHTepeCYBaHM
6JIM3KH ... ) rrp5IKO MJIM KOCBeHO MoraT ,r(a yqaCTBaT B rrpoueca Ha y6e)J(-
,r(aBaHeTO;
- BpeMeTO 3a rrpOBe)J(,r(aHe Ha OCHOBHM5I pa3rOBOp Tp5I6Ba ,r(a ce
C'b06pa35IBa C TaKaBa CMTyaUH5I, rrpM K05ITO H5IKOM rroTpe6HOCTH M Hac-
TpOeHM5I Ha06eKTa ce ,r(06JIM)J(aBaT ,r(0 rrO,r(XB'bpJI5IHMTe My (pa-
30qapOBaHMe OT Heruo, TPY,r(HOCTM B KapMepaTa, pa3JIMqHH C'b6HTH5I,
KOMTO 6Mxa MOrJIH ,r(a ce T'bJIKYBaT KaTO Bep05ITHa 3arrJIaXa OT orrpe-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
129
,r(eJIeHa CTpaHa ... ), MJIH KoraTO TOM Beqe e rro,r(roTBeH OT rrpe,n;BapH-
TeJIHMTe pa3rOBopM.
(2). HaqaJIo Ha pa3roBopa, CHeMaHe Ha Harrpe)J(eHHeTo, rrpe,r(H3BMK-
BaHe Ha MHTepec
IIpM 3arrOqBaHe Ha pa3roBopa Tp5I6Ba ,r(a If365IrBaTe:
- M3BHHeHM5I M ,r(pyrM rrp05IBM Ha HeYBepeHocT;
- HaqaJIO;
- rrp05IBa ,r(OpM Ha HaM-MaJIKO HeYBa)J(eHMe K'bM c'b6ece,r(HMKa;
- Herrocpe,r(CTBeHO rrpMCThrrBaHe HarrpaBO K'bM C'bruMHaTa.
3a CHeMaHe Ha Harrpe)J(eHMeTo M CrreqeJIBaHe Ha ,r(OBepMe e rrOJIe3-
HO:
- ,r(a MMaTe rrpM5ITeH 3a BaIlIM5I c'b6ece,r(HMK B'bHIlIeH BM,r( (06JIeKJIo,
IlIarrKa, rrpuqecKa ... ) M M3pa)J(eHMe Ha JIMueTO;
- ,r(a ce 06p'bruaTe K'bM c'b6ece,r(HMKa rro MMe, KaTO JIeKO ce HaBe)J(-
,r(aTe K'bM Hero rro BpeMe Ha pa3rOBopa;
- ,r(a Ka)J(eTe H5IKOM M ,r(pyr KOMrrJIMMeHT 3a rrpeKpaCHM5I BKYC, perry-
TaUM5ITa M ,r(eJIOBMTe KaqeCTBa Ha 06eKTa;
- ,r(a pa3Ka)J(eTe H5IKaK'bB BMU, KOMTO ,r(a HaKapa C'b6ece,r(HMKa MCKpe-
HO ,r(a ce pa3CMee.
3a 3aCMJIBaHe Ha MHTepeca K'bM proroBopa MO)J(e:
- ,r(a 3a,r(aBaTe B'bIIpOCM, KOHTO ,r(a He KapaT C'b6ece,r(HMKa BM ,r(a Ha ...
OCTP5I ylliM (rrpO<peCMOHaJIHM, )J(MTeMCKM, 3a Xo6HTo ... ), a Ha KOMTO C
Y,r(OBOJICTBMe ,r(a MCKa ,n;a BM OTrOBopM;
- ,r(a pa3rOBap5ITe OT rr03MUM5ITa Ha HHTepeCMTe Ha C'b6ece,r(HMKa MJIM
,r(a 3acerHeTe TeMa, 5IBHO CB'bp3aHa C rrp06JIeMMTeMY ...
(3). HaCOqaaHe Ha pa3rOBopa B HY)J(HaTa rrOCOKa:
- KaTO M3rrOJI3BaTe aCOUMaUHMTe, ,r(a HarrpaBMTe Bp'b3Ka Me)J(.f(y 3a-
pa)l(,[(aHeTO, ,,3axarrBaHeTo" M rrpOKapBaHeTO Ha M,[(e5ITa;
- ,r(a orrMllieTe H5IKaKBO )J(lITeMCKO Ha6JIIO,r(eHMe, YJIuqHa cueHKa MJIM
aHeK,r(OTMqeH cnyqaM, KaTO C5IKalli Me)J(,r(Y ,r(pyrOTO ro CB'bp)J(eTe C )J(e-
JIaHM5I rrpe,r(MeT;
- ,r(a crrOMeHeTe H5IKOJIKO Ba)J(HM 3a rrapTHhopa B'brrpOCM, KOHTO qpe3
rrO,r(XOMruO H3MeCTBaHe Ha aKUeHTa ce Bp'b3BaT C Ha6eJI5I3aHaTa TeMa-
TMKa.
(4).lb6op Ha aprYMeHTaUM5I C'b06pa3Ho JIMqHOCTTa M HacTpOeHM5I-
Ta Ha o6eKTa:
130 AHATOJH.11i1 T APAC
- JIaHCHpaHaTa H)J,eJl BHHarH TpJl6Ba )J,a HaMHpa rr'bT He caMO K'bM
pa3YMa, HO H K'bM eMOIJ;HHTe Ha o6eKTa;
- MaTepHaJI'bT 3a aprYMeHTaIJ;H5ITa ce rrO)J,6Hpa B 3aBHCHMOCT OT THITa
(06pa3HO - JIOrlfl:IeCKO) H KaqeCTBOTO (r'bBKaBO, KOHcepBaTHBHO, KOH-
<pOPMHCTKO, caMOCTOJlTeJIHO ... ) Ha MHCJIeHe Ha C'b6ece)J,HHKa;
- HMa CMHC'bJI )J,a ce rrpHJIaraT caMO OHe3H apryMeHTH, KOHTO )J,a)J,eH
qOBeK e crroc06eH )J,a B'b3rrpHeMe B 3aBHCHMOCT OT JIlfl:IHOCTHaTa CH Har-
JIaca, HaqHHa Ha MHCJIeHe, HHTeJIeKTa H HaJIlfl:IHaTa HH<popMaIJ;H5I;
- B npOIJ;eca Ha y6e)!()J,eHHeTO e )!(eJIaTeJIHO )J,a ce H3rr0J13BaT KaKTO
a6CTpaKTHH H3BO)J,H, TaKa H 3pHMa KOHKpeTHa <paKrypa, B'b3 OCHOBa Ha
KOJITO e rrO-JIeCHO )J,a ce y6e)!()J,aBaT JIHIJ;aTa, JIHIneHH OT a6CTpaKTHO
MHCJIeHe;
- KOH<pOpMHCTHTe B'b3rrpHeMaT rr030BaBaHe Ha aBTopHTeTHH J1lfl:I-
HOCTH, KpaCHBH BHCOKonapHH <ppa3H H Ha6JIJlraHe Ha qYBCTBOTO 3a 06-
IIUIOCT C )J,pyrHTe;
- npH caMOCTOJlTeJIHO MHCJIem; qOBeK ce rrycKaT B XO)J, JIOrHKaTa Ha
060cHoBKaTa C HaMeK 3a B'b3MO)!(HOCT OT J1lfl:IHa H3rO)J,a, KaKTO MaTepH-
aJIHa, TaKa H MOpaJIHa;
- rrpH H3J1BeHO KOHcepBaTHBHO MHCJIeHe e nepCrreKTHBHO )J,a ce rrpH-
JIara pa3naJIBaHe Ha eMOIJ;HHTe C Ha6J15IfaHe Ha eMrrHpHKaTa.
(5). Onpe)J,eJIJlHe pHT'bMa Ha pa3roBopa H pe)J,a Ha rrpe)J,5IBJlBaHe Ha
aprYMeHTHTe:
- TpJl6Ba TB'bP)J,o )J,a BJlpBaTe B HCTHHHOCTTa Ha OHOBa, B KoeTO HC-
KaTe )J,a y6e)J,HTe )J,pyrHTe, 3am;OTO xopaTa rrO)J,C'b3HaTeJIHO )J,OJIaBJlT
OTHOlIIeHHeTO Ha rOBOpem;HJI KOM C'b06m;aBaHaTa HH<popMau;HJI, a Bce-
KH <paJIlli OT6JI'bCKBa;
- PHT'bM'bT Ha peqra TpJl6Ba )J,a e paBeH H )J,a ce CHHXPOHH3Hpa C
qeCTOTaTa Ha ,lJ,HlIIaHe Ha C'b6ece)J,HHKa;
- KaTO HaqaJIO ye)J,HaKBeTe pa36HpaHeTO OT Bac H OT C'b6ece)J,HHKa
BH Ha OCHOBHHTe TepMHHH H H3pa3H;
- He rr03BOJIJlBaHTe )J,a BH OTBJIlfl:IaT OT Ha6eJIJl3aHaTa TeMaTHKa H
caMHTe BHe He ce OTKJIOH5IBaHTe OT HeJl;
- B rrpOIJ;eca Ha apryMeHTHpaHe rr'bpBO ce rOBopH 3a npeHMym;ecT-
BaTa H rrOCJIe ~ 3a He)J,OCTaT'bIJ;HTe;
- e<peKTHBHO e "KBaHTOBOTO" rrO)J,aBaHe Ha C'b06m;eHHeTO, rrpH Koe-
TO CJIe)J, rrpe)J,CTaBJlHe Ha rrope)J,HHJI <paKT HJIH apryMeHT ce rrpaBH MaJI-
Ka rraY3a, 3a )J,a MO)!(e )J,a ce OC'b3Hae H 3aTB'bp)J,H qyrOTO;
- BceKH CJIe)J,Bam; apryMeHT TpJl6Ba )J,a e rrO-COJIH)J,eH OT rrpe)J,xo)J,-
HHJI;
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 131
- 3a)J,a MoraT HOBHTe H)J,eH)J,a ce B'b3rrpHeMaT rro-)J,06pe, Te TpJl6Ba
,na ce rrO)J,aBaT TaKa, qe )J,a ce aCOIJ;HHpaT c Beqe YCBoeHHTe;
- HHKora He ce OrpaHIfqaBaifTe e,lJ,HHCTBeHO C rrpOCTO H3pe)!()J,aHe Ha
apryMeHTHTe, a ce cTapaifTe )J,a pa3KpHBaTe JIorlfl:IeCKH5I HM H eMOu;HOHa-
JIeH CMHC'bJI OT me,lJ,Ha T o ~ a Ha c'b6ece,lJ,HHKa;
- e,lJ,HH H C'bm; apryMeHT rrpHBe)!()J,aHTe HJlKOJIKO rr'bTH, HO KaTO ro
. rrOBTapJlTe C HOBH ,lJ,yMH;
- BHHarH HMaHTe H5IKOH H,npyr pe3epBeH apryMeHT, 3a)J,a ro H3rrOJI-
3BaTe rrpH 3a6eJIe)!(HMH KOJIe6aHH5I B rr03HIJ;HJlTa Ha 06eKTa;
- BHHMaTeJIHO CJIe)J,eTe BClfl:IKH CJIOBeCHH H HeCJIOBeCHH peaKIJ;HH Ha
napTHhOpa H KaTO ce OCHOBaBaTe Ha TJIX, KopHrHpaifTe rrO-HaTaT'blIIHa-
Ta CH aprYMeHTau;H5I;
- H3qHCJIeTe rro peaKu;H5ITa Ha 06eKTa MOMeHTHTe, B KOHTO ce pa-
3Hrpasa ,,60p6a Ha MOTHBHTe", H C'bCpe)J,OTOqeTe B'bpXy TJlX IJ;JlJIOTO CH
B'b3)J,eHCTBHe - e,lJ,HH CJIe)J, )J,pyr rrO)J,aBaHTe OHe3H apryMeHTH, KOHTO ca
HanpasHJIH MaKCHMaJIHO BneqaTJIeHHe Ha rrapTHhopa.
(6). HeyrpaJIH3HpaHe Ha aprYMeHTaIJ;HJlTa Ha 06eKTa:
- rrpe)J,BapHTeJIHO npe,lJ,IIOJIO)!(eTe KaKBH ca B'b3MO)!(HHTe apryMeHTH
Ha BalIIH5I c'b6ece)J,HHK H TO ce opHeHTHpaTe OT TOBa, nO)J,rOTBeTe
c06CTBeHHTe CH KOHTpaapryMeHTH;
- no-)J,06pe e )J,a C'bKpyrnHTe aprYMeHTaIJ;H5ITa Ha 06eKTa, npe,lJ,H )J,a
H3Ka)!(eTe CBOJlTa, rrpH TOBa CJIe)J,Ba )J,a aHaJIH3HpaTe KaKTO peaJIHOCTTa
Ha CaMHTe <paKTH, TaKa H H3BO,lJ,HTe, KOHTO ce OCHOBaBaT Ha TJlX.
AOBO,lJ,HTe Ha napTHhOpa MoraT )J,a 6'b)J,aT HeyrpaJIH3HpaHH C'bC:
- JIOrHKaTa Ha orrpOBep)!(eHHeTO;
- HfHopHpaHe;
- OCMHBaHe;
- npHBH,lJ,HO B'b3rrpHeMaHe H nOCJIe,lJ,Bam;O HeoqaKBaHO pa3Belfl:IaBaHe;
- npoMJIHa Ha aKIJ;eHTHTe (KaTO ce H3T'bKBaT cJIa6HTe MeCTa H rrpe-
)J,eJIHO ce rylIIHpaT CHJIHHTe);
- XHTp0YMHOTO HM npeBp'bm;aHe B CBOH C06CTBeHH;
- nOTHCKaHe Ha JIOrHKaTa C eMOu;HH;
- BrreqaTmlBam;a ,lJ,HCKpe)J,HTaIJ;H5I Ha aBTopa HM (HO He, pa36Hpa ce,
Ha c'b6ece)J,HHKal);
- n030BaBaHe Ha aBTopHTeTHH JIHqHOCTH (nOH5IKOra H H3MHCJIeHH).
(7). OCHrypJlBaHe Ha rrpo)J,'bJI)!(eHHe Ha pa3roBopa, aKO 06eKT'bT e
OITOBOPHJI C "He": ,
132 AHATOnlt11i1 T APAC
- HHKora He OTCTbrrBaiiTe ,n:OToraBa, ,n:OKaTO BalllH5IT C'h6ece,n:HHK He
Ka)l(e TB'hP,n:O H pelllHTeJIHO "He!";
- CJIe,n: KaTO OC'h3HaeTe, qe C'h6eCe,n:HHK'hT BH e B3eJI OKOHqaTeJIHO
pellleHHe, He ce orrHTBaiiTe ,n:a ro pa3y6e)l(,Il;aBaTe, a YMeJIO rrpeXB'hPJIe-
Te pa3rOBopa K'hM HeYTpaJIHa H rro B'h3MO)l(HOCT rrpIUITHa 3a Hero Te-
MaTHKa.
(8). llPHKJIlOqBaHe Ha pa3roBopa:
- CJIe,n: KaTO CTe CH H35ICHHJIH, qe BalllIUlT c'h6ece,n:HHK e B'h3rrpHeJI
H,n:e5ITa, He pa3T5IraiiTe pa3rOBopa, a KOHcrreKTHBHO 0603HaqeTe OCHOB-
HHTe rrOJIO)l(eHIUI H ,n:PY)I(eCKH ce rrpOCTeTe C Hero;
- rrocTapaiiTe ce Y rrapTHhopa,n:a He B'h3HHKBa ycelQaHeTO, qe C5IKalIl
HaCHJIa ce e rro,n:qHHHJI Ha qy)l(,n:a BOM;
- rrpH B'h3MO)l(eH Heycrrex Ha y6e)l(,n:aBaHeTO He 6HBa Be,n:Hara ,n:a
rrpeK'hCBaTe pa3rOBopa, a YMeJIO ro rrpeXB'hpJIeTe B YBJIeKaTeJIHO 3a
06eKTa PYCJIO, KaTO rrpH pa3,Il;5IJIaTa OlQe Be,n:H'h)l(, HO He HaTParrqHBO
crrOMeHeTe rJIaBHHTe CH apryMeHTH H 6e3 5IBeH HaTHCK My rrpeMO)l(eTe
,n:a rH 06MHCJIH, KoraTO HMa BpeMe.
}J;orr'hJIHHTeJIHH rrperrOp'hKH OTHOCHO pa3rOBopa y6e)l(,n:aBaHe MO)l(e-
Te ,n:a HaMepHTe B pa3,n:eJIa, rrOCBeTeH Ha TeXHHKaTa Ha 061.QYBaHe.
llo,n: BHYlIleHHe ce pa36Hpa rrpe,n:aBaHe Ha HH<popMau;IUI C BHe,n:p5IBa-
He Ha BKJIlOqeHHTe B He5I H,n:eH 6e3 KaKBaTO H ,n:a 6HJIO ou;eHKa
H rrpepa60TKa Ha rrpe,n:JIaraHaTa <paKTypa. 3a TOBa, qe e rro-
,n:eiiCTBaJIO BHYllleHHeTO, a He OC'h3HaTIUIT H360p, rOBopH qHCTO eMO-
U;HOHaJIHaTa peaKU;H5I Ha BceKH, ,n:OpH MHHHMaJIeH orrHT 3a 06C'h)l(,n:aHe
Ha ,,3aBeTHaTa HCTHHa", rrpH TOBa KoeTO if rrpOTHBOpequ, MO-
MeHTaJIHO ce OTXB'hPJI5I H KOJIKOTO rro-y6e,n:HTeJIHH ca ,n:OBo,n:HTe, TOJI-
KOBa rro-rOMMO e B'h3MYI.QeHHeTO.
MeTo,n:HTe Ha BHYllleHHe ce H3rr0JI3BaT 3a:
- 6JIOKHpaHe Ha He)l(eJIaTeJIHO rrOBe,n:eHHe HJIH MHCJIeHe Ha qOBeKa;
- CKJIOH5IBaHe Ha HH,n:HBH,n:a ,n:a H3B'hplllH HCKaHOTO OT Bac ,n:eiiCTBHe;
- 6'hP30 pa3rrpOCTPaHeHHe Ha rrOJIe3HaTa HH<popMaU;H5I H He06xo,n:H-
MHTe CJIYXOBe.
}J;06pe ce rrOMaBaT Ha BHYlIleHHe xopaTa, KOHTO:
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 133
- ce rrp05IB5IBaT KaTO CJIa6H JIHqHOCTH (rrJIaXH, CTeCHHTeJIHH, rrJIalll-
JIHBH .. );
- B'h3rrpHeMaT ,n:pymTe (rrpOCTo,n:YlllHH, p;OBepqHBH .. );
- CKJIOHHH ca,n:a 3aBHC5IT OT ,n:pyrHTe (TbPC5IT CH CTorraHHH, H3KJIIO-
qHTeJIHO YCJIY)l(JIHBH ca ... ).
Tpy,n:HO ce rroMaBaT Ha BHYllleHHe oHe3H, KOHTO ca:
- ,n:eJIOBHTO-aKTHBHH (eHepmqHH H HHHU;HaTHBHH ... );
- CHJIHH (C'hlQO H CaMOJIlO6HBH H BHCOKOMepHH ... );
- rrpOTHBOrrOCTaB5IT ce6e CH Ha OCTaHaJIHTe (3aTBOpeHH H MpaqHH .. );
- H3KJIlOqHTeJIHO aKTHBHO rrp05IB5IBaT qyecTBaTa CH
H OTKpOBeHH ... );
- He 3aBHC5IT OT ,n:pyrHTe, a 06paTHOTO - H5IKoii 3aBHCH OT T5IX ...
3a rrpOBe)l(,n:aHe Ha BHYlIleHHeTO crroc06CTBaT:
- rr'hJIHaTa JIHrrCa HJIH rrpeKaJIeHaTa Ha TeKYlQaTa
HH<popMan;IUI;
- MHoro aBTopHTeTeH (KaKTO )l(HB, TaKa H rreqaTeH ) H rrpH TOBa
"cBoii" H3TOqHHK;
, - B'hTPelllHoTo ycelQaHe 3a 3aBHcHMoCT;
- CHJIHOTO H3TOlQeHHe H rrpeyMopa Ha 06eKTa;
- H3BeCTHa rrCHXOJIOrHqeCKa HarrperHaTocT (rH5IB, eKcTa3, cTPax,
TbpCeHe Ha H3XO,n: OT CJIO)l(Ha CHTYan;IUI .. );
- KoraTO BHYlIlaeMoTo e 5IBHO )l(eJIaHO HJIH rrpIUITHO;
- TB'hpp;a KaTerOpHqHOCT Ha 3a5IBJIeHH5ITa H H3HCKBaHH5ITa;
- 1Il0KOBaTa H3HeHa,n:a OT C'h06lQeHHeTO;
- rrOBTOp5IeMOCT Ha rro,n:xB'hpJI5IHaTa HH<popMau;IUI;
- a6COJIlOTHaTa H oc06eHa eMOU;HOHaJIHOCT Ha c'h06lQa-
BaHoTo;
- H5IKOH 60JIecTH H oc06eHocTH Ha JIHqHOCTTa (rrCHxorraTIUI, HMrro-
TeHlI;H5I, cJIa60 MHCJIeHe, cyeBepHocT, HapKOMaHH5I ... ).
llOH5IKOra 3a rrpOBe)l(,n:aHe Ha BHYllleHHeTo rrpeqaT B'bT-
pelIlHH 6apHepH KaTO:
- KPHTHqHO-JIOrHqeCKa (OTXB'bpJI5IHe Ha KoeTO H3rJIe)l(,n:a
JIOmqeCKH He060CHOBaHO);
- HHTYHTHBHo-a<peKTHBHa (OTXB'bpJI5IHe Ha KoeTO He rrpe-
,n:H3BHKBa rro,n:C'h3HaTeJIHO ,n:OBepHe HJIH yeepeHOCT);
- (HerrpHeMaHe Ha KoeTO rrpOTHBOpeqH Ha HpaBCT-
BeHO-eTHqHHTe B'b3rJIep;H Ha
134
AHATOnvlliJ T A PAC
I10,n; IIpeO,n;On5lBaHe Ha 6aplIeplITe ce IIO,n;pa361Ipa CaMO YMeJIOTO
IIPlICIIOCo6HBaHe K'hM THX.
HaIIplIMep 3a B'b3,n;eHCTBlIe B'bpXY JIlIIl;a C'bC cJIa6 lIHTeJIeKT HaH-
,n;06pe e Heo6xo.D;lIMOTO BHYIlleHlIe ,n;a ce C'bqeTae C YClIJIeHlI OTplIqa-
TeJIHH eMO.QHH, a B cnyqaH qe ,n;a,n;eHOTO JIHqe e HHTeJIeKTYaJIHO II'bJIHO-
qeHHO lIJIlI KaTerOplIqHO BnyIllaeMO, ce 1I3IIOJI3BaT IIOJIO)!(lITeJIHHTe
eMoqHlI.
KoraTO 06eKThT e nornCHaT lIJIH IIpeKaJIeHO HeysepeH B ce6e ClI,
Heo6xo,n;HMOTO BnyIlleHlIe ce OC'bIIl;eCTB5IBa C eMoqlIOHaJIeH IIOBeJIHTe-
JIeH TOH, C'bnpoBo,n;eH C MlIMHKa H )!(eCTOBe, OCPOPM5IIIl;lI MHorOKpaTHo
IIoBTapHHH pe3KH, KpaTKH, CHKaIll "Ha6HBaHlI" cppa3H.
AKo 06eKT'bT e ,n;OCTa B'b36y,n;eH 1I 3HaqfiTeJIHO 06e3noKoeH, BHYUle-
HHeTO ce npaBH C YCIIoKoHBaIIl; TOH, C H3II0Jl3BaHe Ha MHoroKpaTHo IIOB-
Tap5IHH MeKH, IIpHcIIlIBaIIl;H .D;'bJIrlI CPPa3lI.
fJIaBHOTO e ,n;a He ce IIpe.D;lI3BHKa ,n;OplI H HaH-MaJIKO 1I30CTp5IHe Ha
BHHMaHHeTO Ha JIfiqHOCTTa, a TH ,n;a 6'b,n;e OqapOBaHa H C5IKaIll OMarbO-
CaHa.
KoraTO BaIllHHT C'b6ece,n;HHK e IIpeKaJIeHO IIl;eCTJIaBeH, HMa CMH-
C'bJI ,n;a ro "aTaKYBaTe" C JIl060B, IIl;e,n;po XBaJIeHKlI ro H ClIIIeHKH KOM-
nJIlIMeHTlI, cIIoc06cTBaIIl;H 3a C'b3HaBaHeTO Ha c06CTBeHaTa My 3Ha-
qlIMOCT; IIapaJIeJIHO C TOBa IIl;e ycneeTe KOCBeHO ,n;a BnyIllHTe HY)!(HlI-
Te lI,n;eH.
I1opa.D;lI cpaKTa, qe ecpeKTHBHOTO BHYIlleHHe ce 06YCJIHBa OT IIO,n;C'b3-
HaHHeTO, IIepCIIeKTHBeH e OIIHT'bT ,n;a C'b6y,n;lITe cpaHTa3HHTa Ha c'b6e-
Ce.D;HHKa CH (HanplIMep epOTHqHaTa .. ), nplI KoeTO TOH IIOT'bBa B ce6e
CH, TaKa qe rpaHlIqaTa Me)!(.D;y C'b3HaHHeTO H IIo,n;C'b3HaHlIeTO 1I3qe3Ba.
B IIo,n;o6HlI CJIyqalI IIClIXHKaTa CTaBa IIo,n;aTJIlIBa Ha BCHKaKBH IIpOMeHlI
H Ha B'b3IIpHeMaHe Ha BC5IKO 3HaHlIe. 3a HaJIuqueTO Ha TaKOBa C'bCTOH-
HHe rOBoplI oTrrycHaTOTO JIHqe C 1I3qHJIO oTqy)!(,n;eH H BIIepeH B e,n;Ha
TOqKa IIOrJIe,n;.
HeBpOJIHHrBHCTHqHOTO IIpOrpaMHpaHe (HJII1), pa3rJIe,n;aHO B qaCT
3, IIpeMara OIITHMaJIHa MeTO.D;lIKa 3a 1I3KyCHO BnyIlleHlIe.
B H5IKOH cHryaqlIH ce 1I3II0Jl3Ba, He3a6eJIe)!(lIMOTO 3a OKOJIHlITe IIO,n;-
C'b3HaTeJIHO BHYIlleHlIe, KoeTO ce OC'bIIl;eCTBHBa C TlIX IlleIIoT, Komo He
ce B'b3IIplIeMa OT C'b3HaHlIeTO Ha 06eKTa.
I1peKpaceH KaHaJI 3a IIpe,n;aBaHe Ha HY)!(HOTO BnyIlleHHe ca BHHMa-
TeJIHO IIo,n;6paHHTe cnyxoBe, IIpe,n;CTaBa 3a KOMTO MO)!(eTe ,n;a nOJIyqHTe
B pa3,n;eJIa, IIOCBeTeH Ha ,n;06HBaHeTO Ha lIHcpopMaqM5I. B cnyqaH cpa-
60TBa cpaKThT, qe IIo,n;CJIYIllaHlITe HJIlI CJIyqaHHo ,n;OJIOBeHHTe H,n;elI qec-
TO ,n;eHCTBaT IIO-ClIJIHO, OTKOJIKOTO HBHO HaTpaIIeHHTe.
. HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
B. XunH03a
135
I10,n; XlIIIH03a ce pa36Hpa C'bCT05IHHeTO Ha CIIeqMcpIfqeH C'bH lIJIH CTec-
HeHO C'b3HaHlIe IIpH HaII'bJIHO H3KJIlDqBaHe Ha KpHrnqHOTO B'b3IIpH5ITHe
H IIOBHIlleHa qYBCTBHTeJIHOCT K'bM B'bHIllHO BnyIlleHHe.
TeXHHKaTa Ha XHIIH03aTa MO)!(e ,n;a 6'b,n;e H3IIOJI3BaHa 3a:
- IIonyqaBaHe Ha (XHIIHopa3IIHT);
- IIpH ceKpeTHO H3IIpaIIJ;aHe Ha C'b06IIl;eHHe;
- 3a IIO.D;XB'bpJI5IHe Ha ,n;e3HHcpopMaqH5I;
- C qeJI IIporpaMHpaHe Ha )!(eJIaeMO nOBe,n;eHHe HJIH B
MeTo,n;HTe Ha 30M6HpaHe).
A06pe ce XHIIHOTH3HpaT:
- JIHqa OT aprnCTIfqeH TlIII;
- coqHaJIHO a,n;aIITlIpaHH 06IIl;HTeJIHH JIfiqHOcrn;
- MHoro TpeBO)!(HH H CHJIHO H3IIOTHBaIIl;H ce xopa;
- BCIfqKH XPOHIfqHH aJIKOXOJIHqlI H HapKOMaHH;
- 60JIHHTe OT eHype3a (HOIIl;HO HaIIHKaBaHe) HJIH OT aCTMa.
Tpy,n;HO ce XHIIHOTH3HpaT:
- JIHqa OT MHCJIeIIl; THII;
- IICHXocTeHHqHTe, 3aqMKJIeHH Ha BC5IKaKBH C'bMHeHH5I H Ha qOB'bP-
KaHe Ha c06CTBeHHTe CH IIpe)!(HB5IBaHH5I.
Pa3JIHqaBaT ce TpH CTa,n;H5I Ha XHIIH03aTa:
- JIeKa (C'bHJIHBOCT): 06eKT'bT MO)!(e JIeCHO H Be.D;Hara, KoraTO IIO)!(e-
JIae, ,n;a IIpeKpaTH ceaHca;
- cpe.D;Ha (XHIIOTaKCH5I): II'bJIHa oTrrycHaTocT IIpH 3aIIa3eHa ysepe-
HOCT, qe HMa B'b3MO)!(HOCT ,n;a ce IIpeo,n;OJIee C'bHJIHBOCTTa, MaKap H
C'bBCeM ,n;a JIHIICBa )!(eJIaHHe 3a TOBa;
- ,n;'bJI60Ka (coMHaM6YJIH3'bM): qOBeK He pearupa Ha HHKaKBH ,n;pa3-
HHTeJIH H IIOM'bp)!(a rOBopeH KOHTaKT (paIIopT) caMO C Bo,n;eIIl;H5I; B
,n;a,n;eHOTO C'bCT05IHHe Ko,n;HpaT qOBeKa 3a ,n;eHCTBHe (C'bC CpOK ,n;o e.D;Ha
ro,n;HHa), a IIOH5IKOra Pa3,n;B05IBaT JIIfqHOCTTa Ha H5IKOJIKO "a3", BC5IKO OT
KOHTO e B C'bCT05IHHe,n;a )!(HBee CBOH c06CTBeH )!(lIBOT, 6e3,n;a IIo,n;03Hpa
3a HaJIHqHeTO Ha OCTaHaJIHTe: BCHqKH IIpe)J(HB5IBaHH5I B Ta3H q>a3a 5ICHO
ce aMHe3HpaT (C5IKaIll ce 3a6paB5IT).
3a B'bBe)J(,n;aHe Ha 06eKTa B XHIIH03eH TpaHC ce H3HCKBa ,n;a 6'b,n;aT
C'b3,n;a.n;eHH YCJIOBH5I, 6JIarOIIpH5ITCTBaIIl;H 3a TOBa, H opHeHTHpaHKH ce
136 AHATOnl-1V1 TAPAC
IIO cIrryaQInlTa, p:a ce I13IIOJI3BaT IIOp:XO.rvnQI1 MeTOp:I1, KaTO BHI1MaTeJI-
HO ce IIpOCJIe,IVlBaT B'bHIIlHI1Te IIpI13Hau;n Ha BJII13aHe B TpaHCOBO C'bC-
T05lHMe .
)J;o6pe C'bp:eifcTBaT, a IIOH5IKOra M caMM IIO ce6e CM B'bBe)Kp:aT qOBe-
Ka B TpaHC:
- CMJIHaTa IIpeYMopa M C'bHJIMBOCT;
- MpaqHOTO M P:'b)KP:OBHO BpeMe;
- BeqepHInIT 3p:paq M TMII1MHaTa;
- yp:06Ha 3a C'bH II03a MJII1 06paTHOTO - KpaHHO Heyp;o6Ha M HeIIpM-
Bwma II03I1QM5I;
- pMTMmHI1Te IIOJIIOII1BaHI151 M B'bpTeHe Ha Q5IJIOTO T5IJIO I1 rJIaBaTa;
- II'bJIHa JIMIICa Ha peaJIHM p:pa3HMTenI1 (ceHcopeH rJIap:) MJIM MOHO-
TOHHI1Te pI1TMmHI1 B'b3p:eMCTBM5I Ha cpM3meCKaTa IIpMpop:a (3pMTeJIHM,
TaKTMJIHM M CnyXOBM);
- pMTMmHaTa "IIlaMaHCKa" MJIM "KOCMmeCKa" MY3MKa;
- pe3KM5IT M CBp'bXMOlQeH p:pa3HMTeJI (yp;ap Ha rour, IIJIaMBaHe Ha
CBeTJII1Ha, HeOqaKBaH IIlaMap, KP5lC'bK 3aIIOBep: .. );
- MHTeH3I1BeH eMOIJ;I10HaJIeH IIop:eM, B TOBa qMCJIO M IIOJIOBa B'b36yp:a;
- C'bCT05IHI1e Ha cTpax I1 51pOCT;
- HaTMCKaHe Ha C'bHHMTe apTepMM M Ha OqHMTe 516'bJIKM MJIM p:pyrM
qaCTM Ha T5IJIOTO (yxo, JIaK'bT, qeJIO, KMTKa . );
- M3IIMBaHe Ha MaJIKO KOJImeCTBO aJIKOXOJI MJIM Ha 6ap6aMMJI (0,2-
0,3 r), BepOHaJI (0,5 r), HOKCMPOH (0,25 r), III1paMMp:On (0,1 r) MJIM 4-5
KaIIKM XJIOpOCPOpM ...
3a 3ap:'bJI60qaBaHe Ha XI1IIHOTI1qHOTO C'bCT05lHMe Tp5l6Ba C MHoro
TI1X rJIac p:a ce BHYII1aBaT BeJIMKOJIeIIHM 06pa3HM IIpep:cTaBM 3a IIOKOM,
MYcKYJIHa oTnycHaTocT I1 II'bJIHO M30JIMpaHe OT OKOJIHMTe, KaTO ce B'b3-
IIpMeMaT caMO p:YMMTe Ha BHYIIleHMeTO.
3a TOBa, qe qOBeK'bT e HaBJI5I3'bJI B XMIIHOTMqeH TpaHc,. rOBop5IT:
- paBHoTo M CIIOKOMHO p:MIIlaHe M oTnycHaToTo JIMIJ;e;
- BMP: KaTO Ha CII5IlQ M JIMIICa Ha peaKQM5I K'bM OKOJIHMTe;
- II'bJIHa JIMIICa Ha TpeIIKaHe Ha KJIeIIaqMTe (TpeIIKaHeTo CBMp:eTeJIC-
TBa 3a Hep:'bJI60KO HaBJIM3aHe, a M3qe3BaHeTO MY - 3a P:'bJI60KO, qaK p:o
Bep05lTHOTO IIOT'bBaHe Ha 06eKTa B 06MKHoBeH C'bH).
3a p:a IIpOBepMTe P:aJIM 06eKT'bT e B XMIIH03a, MJIM ce IIpecTpYBa, IIpep:-
JIO)KeTe MY p:a ce P:'bP)KM HaII'bJIHO HOpMaJIHO, KaTO ce 3Hae, qe IIpM M3-
MeHeHO C'bCT05lHMe Ha C'b3HaHMeTO TOBa He MO)Ke p:a ce HaIIpaBM y6e-
p:MTeJIHO.
. '
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUcypHocm 137
HaM-IIpOCTO e p:a ce IIpep:M3BMKa XMIIHOTI1qeH TpaHC y HOpMaJIHO
CII5IlQ qOBeK, 3alQOTO e M3KJIIOqeHa KaKBaTO M p:a 6MJIO BOJI5I 3a C'bIIpO-
TMBa. TOBa ce IIpaBM B'bB cpa3MTe Ha CIIeQMcpMqHM5I ,,6'bP3 C'bH", II'bpBa-
Ta OT KOMTO HaCT'bIIBa OT 45 p:o 90 MMnyTM CJIep; 3aCIIMBaHe. B TeqeHMe
Ha HOlQTa ce oT6eJI5I3BaT H51KOJIKO TaKMBa cpa3M M B HaqaJIOTO Ha BC5IKa
OT T5IX MHp:MBMP:'bT BceKM II'bT ce 06p'blQa B JIerJIOTO. KOJImeCTBOTo I1
npop:'bJI)KMTeJIHOCTTa Ha cpa3I1Te MoraT p;a 6'bp:aT yp;'bJI)KeHM, KaTO ce
B3eMe IIpMcIIMBaTeJIHO - 6ap6MTYPaT (HaTpMeB 6ap6MTaJI, 6ap6aMMJI,
HeM6YTaJI .. ), B HOlQTa, IIpep:IIlecTBalQa "pa60THaTa", KaKTO M HaIIMBa-
He p:eH-p:Ba IIpep:M aKQM5ITa. BCMqKO, KoeTO ce B'b3IIpMeMa IIO BpeMe Ha
KOHTPOJIMpaHM5I C'bH, B'bHIIlHO He ce OC'b3HaBa, a B'bTpeIIlHO He ce 3a6-
paB5I.
3a p;a IIpeB'bpHeTe 06MKHOBeHM5I C'bH Ha 06eKTa B XMIIHOTmeH, Tp5l6-
Ba:
- H5IK'bp:e IIOJIOBMH qac CJIep: KaTO qOBeK'bT e 3aCIIaJI MJIM qac-p:Ba
npep:M p;a ce C'b6YP:M, THXO p;a ce HaCTaHMTe Ha JIerJIOTO P;O rJIaBaTa MY;
- KaTO IIocep:HTe MaJIKO, HanpaBeTe 6aBHM )J;Bll)KeHM5I c p'bIJ;eTe IIO
)J;'bJI)KHHa Ha IIOB'bpXHOCTTa Ha T5IJIOTO My B IIOCOKa OT rJIaBaTa K'bM
KpaKaTa H Ha pa3CT05lHMe CaHTMMeT'bp M IIOJIOBHHa - p:Ba OT KO)KaTa;
- p:Be, P:OpM TpM MMnyTM C TMX IIleIIOT M3pmaiiTe B pHT'bMa Ha P:M-
IIlaHeTO MY: "CIIeTe IIo-p:'bJI600KO, CIIeTe IIO-)J;'bJI600KO";
- IIOCTeIIeHHO 3aIIOqHeTe TY p:a 3a6aB5ITe, TY p:a YCKop5lBaTe pHT'bMa
Ha p;yMMTe; aKO B C'blQOTO BpeMe PHT'bM'bT Ha p:MIIlaHe Ha CII5IlQI151 ce
IIpOMeHM IIO cxop;eH HaqMH, 3HaqM CTe YCTaHOBHJIM KOHTaKT C Hero;
- KaTO yaeJImaBaTe IIOCTeIIeHHO BMCOqHHaTa Ha rJIaca CM M HaCT-
pOMBaMKM ce K'bM TOHa Ha BnyIIleHMe, 3a5lBeTe: "BHe 3p;paBO CIIMTe ..
BHe OTJIMqHO qyaaTe rJIaca MM, HO IIpOp;'bJI)KaBaTe CIIOKOMHO p;a CIIM-
Te . CIIeTe olQe IIo-p;'bJI60KO ... Cera BMe MCKaTe p:a OTrOBap5lTe Ha BCMq-
KM B'bIIPOCM, 6e3 p;a ce C'b6Y)Kp;aTe ... KaK ce Ka3BaTe .. OrrOBopeTe,
IIpOp;'bJI)KaMKM p;a CIIMTe, KaK ce Ka3BaTe ... " (BCmKM HaqaJIHH B'bIIPOCM
Tp5l6Ba p;a ca IIpOCTM M p;a He IIpep:M3BHKBaT P;OpM M HaM-p;pe6Ha TpeBO-
ra); aKO 06eK'bT OTrOBap51 Ha B'bIIpOCa, 6e3 p;a ce c'b6)')KP:a, paIIOpT'bT
(T. e. CJIOBeCHI151T KOHTaKT) C Hero e YCTaHOBeH;
- cera MO)I(eTe p;a IIpeMHHeTe M K'bM KOHKpeTHO BHYIIleHMe, KoeTO
ce IIOBTap51 HeqeTeH (5 MJIM 7) 6pOM II'bTM C KpaTKI1 (He IIOBeqe OT 5
ceKYHp;H), HO 3ap;'bJI)KMTeJIHM MHTepBaJIM Me)K)J;y IIoBTOpeHM5ITa;
- HaIIpaBeTe 5 HJII1 7 IIop;06HH IIOpep;I1IJ;M, KaTO IIpOMe)Kp:YT'bIJ;I1Te
Me)K)J;y T5IX 3aII'bJIBaTe C CPOPMYJIM, oCMryp5lBalQM 3aIIa3BaHeTO Ha He-
06XOp:MMOTO C'bCT05lHHe: "CIIeTe P;'bJI60KO ... OlQe IIo-p;'bJI60KO ... "
138
AHATOnvH1 T APAC
BCHqKH BHYlIleHH5I npH XHnH03aTa ce npaB5IT C THX rJIaC, C nOMOu:t;-
Ta Ha KpaTKH, nOBTap5IHH no H5IKOJIKO n'brn cppa3H C na-
Y3H T5IX. KmOqOBHTe nOna,D,aT Ha M5ICTO B MOMeHTa, KO-
raTO qOBeK'bT npaBH nOpe,D,HOTO B,D,HIIlBaHe. D;eJIH5IT ceaHC 06HKHOBeHO
npO,D,'bJ1)l(aBa He nOBeqe OT 15-20 MHHYTH.
3a ,D,a He CH cnOMHH BnOCJIe,D,CTBHe HH,D,HBH,D,'bT 3a CTaHaJIOTO, TP5I6-
Ba ,D,a My BHYIIlHTe, qe npe,D,H ,D,a ce C'b6Y,D,H, u:t;e C'bHYBa 5Ip'bK C'bH, HO
u:t;OM C'bH5IT TOll Be,D,Hara u:t;e ce C'b6Y,D,H; npH TOBa TOll ,D,06pe
u:t;e 3anOMHH C'bH5I, a KoeTO e 6HJIO npe,D,H TOBa - u:t;e 3a6paBH.
lIacTHHTe MeTO,D,HKH 3a pelIlaBaHe Ha Cnen;HaJIHH C H3nOJI3-
BaHe Ha XHIIH03a ca CJIe,D,HHTe:
(1). XUnHOpa3num. TIo e,D,HH HJIH ,D,pyr HaqHH qOBeK ce ,D,oKapBa ,D,O
XHIIHOrnqeH TPaHC H CJIe,D, KaTO ce YCTaHOBH panopT C Hero, ce HaCT-
pOllBa ,D,a OTrOBap5I Ha 3a,D,aBaHHTe B'bnpOCH, npH KoeTO II'bpBHTe TP5I6-
Ba,D,a ca C'bBCeM npocrn (3a BpeMeTO, HMeTO, npocpeCH5ITa .. ), 3a,D,a He
ce npe,D,H3BHKa ,D,OpH C'bMCeM JIeKO H30CTP5IHe Ha BHHMaHHeTO. ,lJ;06pe e
Ha npocpecHOHaJIHH5I BOllHHK HJ1H CJIY)l(eu:t; ,D,a MY ce BHYlIlH, qe npe,D,
Hero e HaqaJIHHK'bT MY, KOllTO OqaKBa Hall-nO,D,po6eH ,D,OKJIa,D,. TIOH5IKO-
ra ce H3nOJI3Ba MeTO,D,HKaTa Ha CBo60,D,HHTe aCOn;Han;HH, npH KoeTO ce
npOH3HaC5I KJIIOqOBa H ce ,D,aBa YKa3aHHe Ha XHnHOTH3HpaHH5I ,D,a
C'b06u:t;H KaKBO My H,D,Ba HaYM. CJIe,D,Ba ,D,a ce B'b3,D,'bp)l(aTe OT B'bnpOCH,
KOHTO 5IBHO HaCTPOllBaT K'bM KOHKpeTeH OTrOBOp, 3au:t;OTO HH,D,HBH,D,'bT
no,D, XHIIH03a e cnOC06eH,D,a ,D,a,D,e H3MHCJIeHa HHcpopMa.QH5I ,D,OpH npH
Hall-JIeK H Henpe,D,HaMepeH HarnCK OT cTPaHa Ha pa3nHTBau:t;H5I.
(2). IIpenpaLlfaHe Ha maUHa wUPOPMa14Wl. 1I0BeKOT ce ,D,OKapBa ,D,O
TPaHC H MY ce c'b06u:t;aBa H5IKaKBa HHcpopMan;H5I, KaTO ce
pa3BHBa aMHe3H5I KOM C'b06u:t;eHoTo. CJIe,D, TOBa TOll u:t;e 6'b,D,e cnoc06eH
,D,a npe,D,a,D,e WOTO e,D,Ba KOfaTO OTHOBO 6'b,D,e xHnHoTH3HpaH H B TOBa
C'bCT05IHHe ,D,OJIOBH YCTaHoBeHaTa B OCHOBHH5I ceaHC KO,D,OBa (HJIH
cppa3a) KaTO napOJIa, OTKJIIOqBau:t;a naMeTTa My. .
(3). Cbm80pJl8aHe Ha de3uHifjopMa14Wl. HaxHIIHorn3HpaHH5I cy6eKT
BHHMaTeJIHO My ce BHYlIlaBa, qe TOll Y:lK e yqacTBaJI B H5IKaKBa aKn;H5I,
BH,D,5IJI e H5IKaKBO C'b6HTHe, qyJI e 3a,D,KYJIHCeH pa3rOBOp, ,D,06HJI e e,D,Ha
HJIH ,D,pyra HHcpopMan;H5I. CJIe,D, KaTO H3JIe3e OT KO,D,HpaHOTO C'bCT05IHHe,
qOBeK B5IpBa, qe pa3Ka3aHOTO My ce e CJIyqHJIO HaHcrnHa, H YBepeHO ro
C'b06u:t;aBa Ha ,D,PYfHTe. .
(4). IIpozpaMupaHe KbM Heo6xoduMO n08edeHue. ,lJ;a,D,eHH5IT TPHK
06HKHoBeHo e ycnelIleH caMO npH ,D,'bJI60K CTa,D,Hll Ha XHnH03a. CJIe,D,
KaTO ,D,OBe,D,eTe 06eKTa ,D,O C'bCT05IHHe Ha TpaHc, H3nOJI3BaMKH onpe,D,e-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHocm 139
JIeHH H npe,D,CTaBH, ro TPaHccpopMHpaTe B )l(eJIaHaTa
KOllTO KaTO qe JIH OMHTIlpa 03BeCTeH OT JIHTeparypaTa, OT CPHJIM HJIH
OT peaJIHH5I )!(HBOT nepCOHa:lK. TaKaBa aK.QH5I ce OC'bu:t;eCTB5IBa C nOMOu:t;Ta
Ha cnen;HaJIHO nO,D,6paHH KO,D,OBO <ppa3H, npH TOBa HOBHTe
MoraT,[(a 6'b,[(aT IDIKOJIKO (MHofocTeneHHoTo nporpaMHpaHe ce H3nOJI-
3Ba npH 30M6Hpamrro . ). TIo CXO,D,eH HaqOH 06eKThT MO)l(e ,D,a 6'b,D,e
Ko,[(opaH 3a KOHKpeTHO ,D,ellCTBOe, KOeTO TOll u:t;e 6'b,D,e 3a,D,'bJI)l(eH ,D,a H3-
B'bPlIlH, aKO qye KO,[(OBaTa,D,yMa OJIO B'b3HHKHe H5IKaKBa cHTYan;H5I. Tp5I6-
Ba ,D,a ce 3Hae, qe ,,<PPOHTaJIHO" nOCTBHylIleHHe, 5IBHO npOTHBOpeqau:t;o
Ha HpaBCTBeHH5I npHHn;HII Ha 06eKTa, HaM-qeCTO He ce peaJIH3Hpa, 3a-
TOBa ce HaJIara,[(a ce H3nOJI3BaT Hall-HeBep05ITHH 06XO,D,HH (HanpHMep
oMHTa.QH5I Ha Hrpa HJIH Ha H3MaMa .. ) MaHeBpH. ABToMaTH3M'bT Ha pe-
aK.QH5I no KOHKpeTeH CHrHaJI ce 3ana3Ba B TeqeHHe npH6JIH3HTeJIHO Ha
e,D,Ha rO,D,HHa.
r. HapKo8b3geucm8ue
3a HapKornn;H ce CM5ITaT Beu:t;eCTBaTa, KOHTO B MaJIKH ,D,03H npe,D,H3-
BHKBaT eY<PopH5I, a B rOJIeMH - Bn;eneH5IBaHe H ,D,'bJI60K C'bH npH Han'bJI-
HO H3KJIIOqBaHe Ha C'b3HaHHeTO H Ha 60JIeBaTa qysCTBHTeJIHOcT.
Te3H Beu:t;eCTBa 6HBaT KaKTO npHpO,D,HO (onHYM, xaIIlHIIl .. ), TaKa H
(aM<peTaMHHH, JIC,ll; .. ).
TIOPa,D,H Ha B'b3,D,ellCTBHe HapKOTHqHH Beu:t;ec-
TBa HMaT urnpOK cneKT'bp Ha npHJIO)l(eHHe, nO-Cnen;HaJIHO 3a:
- nOJIyqaBaHe Ha HH<popMan;H5I (HapKopa3nHT, npe,D,H3BHKBaHe Ha
6'b6pHBOCT npH pa3rOBopa . );
- KO,D,HpaHe Ha o6eKTa 3a nOCTHraHe Ha Heo6xo,D,HMOTO nOBe,D,eHHe;
- npeqynBaHe BOJI5ITa Ha qOBeKa nopa,D,H BCeB'b3MO)l(HH n;eJIH (Tex-
HHKaTa Ha npHCTPaCT5IBaHe K'bM ,D,pOraTa);
-IIlOKHpau:t;a npOM5IHa B nOBe,D,eHHeTO Ha qOBeKa C n;eJI ,D,HCKpe,D,HTH-
paHeTO MY;
- pa3JIaraHe Ha nCHXHKaTa Ha 06eKTa B npon;eca Ha "npOMHBaHe Ha
M03'bn;H" HJIH 30M6HpaHe;
- HeYTPaJIH3HpaHe Ha B'b3MO)l(HaTa C'bnpOTI1Ba Ha qOBeKa npH OTB-
JIHqaHeTO My.
ru;e pa3fJIe,D,aMe MaJIKO no-nO,D,p06HO cnOMeHaTHTe BapHaHTH.
(1). HapKopa3nHT
140
AHATOnl-11ii TAPAC
B TeXHlIKaTa Ha rrpO<peCHOHaJIHH5I pa3rrHT HapKOTUQHTe ce H3rrOJI3-
BaT 3a C'b3.n;aBaHe Ha orrpe.n;eJIeHa "CeHqeCTa 30Ha" B C'b3HaHHeTO Ha
HH.n;HBH.n;a. HapKOTHK'bT OCHryp5lBa pa3KperrOCT5IBaHe Ha OT.n;eJIHH c.n;'bp-
)J(al.QH QeHTPOBe Ha M03'bKa H qOBeK He MO)J(e 5ICHO .n;a pa3C'b)J(.n;aBa H .n;a
H3MHCJl5I Hel.QO, MaKap H rraMeTTa MY 06HKHOBeHO .n;a ce 3arra3Ba.
AKO B'b3.n;eHCTBHeTO Ha HapKOTnKa He e 6HJIO TB'bp.n;e CHJIHO H 06eK-
ThT e 3arra3HJI C'b3HaHHeTO CH .n;OTOJIKOBa, qe .n;a pa36epe 3a KaKBO ro
rrHTaT, TOH e B C'bCT05lHHe.n;a CKpHe HCTHHaTa. 3aTOBa CJIO)J(HOCTTa e.n;a
ce HaMepH OrrTHMaJIHaTa pa60ma .n;03a Ha rrperrapaTa, K05ITO .n;a H3K-
mOqH crroc06HOCTTa 3a C'b3HaTeJIHa C'brrpOTHBa (B'b3MO)J(Ha rrpH OCK'b.n;-
Ha .n;03a) H.n;a He .n;orrYCHe 06eKThT .n;a ".n;p'bHKa rJIyrrocm" (rrpH TB'bp.n;e
rOJI5IMa .n;03a). BJIHBaHeTO Ha HapKOBel.QeCTBOTO 06HKHOBeHO ce rrpeK-
paT5IBa B MOMeHTa, KoraTO KJIerraqnTe Ha qOBeKa 3arrOqHaT .n;a TPeIIKaT,
a rOBop'bT MY CTaBa Hepa36npaeM.
C'brrpOTHBJI5IeMOCTTa Ha HapKOTnKa e .n;OCTa cy6eKTIlBHa, rro-crre-
QHaJIHO 3aBHCH OT <pH3IfqeCKOTO C'bCT05lHHe, OT rrCHXHqeCKH5I THrr, OT
orrHTa H OT .n;pym C'bBCeM HH.n;HBH,D;yaJIHH <paKTopH. TIoH5IKOra .n;a.n;eH
qOBeK 3arrOqBa .n;a .n;aBa HH<popMaQH5I e.n;Ba CJIe.n; TPeTaTa-qeTB'bpTaTa
.n;03a OT BceKH OT "cepyMHTe Ha HcmHaTa".
KOHKpeTHHTe B'brrpOCH 06HKHOBeHO ce <POPMYJIHpaT rrpe.n;eJIHO KpaT-
KO (3a .n;a He 3a6paBH pa3rrHTBaHH5IT HaqaJIOTO HM .n;o H3JIaraHeTO Ha
Kpa51 H OCBeH TOBa B T5IX TP5I6Ba .n;a H5IMa eJIeMeHT Ha BHYlliaeMOCT).
TIoCJIe.n;HOTO oc06eHo ce OTHaC5I 3a HeBpoTHQHTe, KOHTO ca H3KJIJOqH-
TeJIHO CKJIOHHH K'bM <paHTa3HH.
CJIe.n; KaTO rrpecTaHe BJIH5IHHeTO Ha HapKoTHKa, 06HKHoBeHo pa3-
rrHTBaHH5IT He rrOMHH C'b.n;'bp)J(aHHeTO Ha H3.n;a.n;eHaTa HH<popMaQH5I H
H51Ma rrpe.n;CTaBa 3a rrpo.n;'bJI)J(lfTeJIHOCTTa Ha ceaHca.
B TeXHHKaTa Ha HapKopa3rrHTa ce H3rrOJI3BaT CJIe.n;HHTe XBaTKH:
- B rrHTHeTO ce CJIara HaCTOHKa OT 6eJIa.n;OHa (JIy.n;a BHlIIH5I HJIH CTa-
po 6HJIe) C QeJI B rrOJIYC'bHHOTO 6p'bl.QOJIeBeHe Ha 06eKTa .n;a ce YJIOBH
CKpHBaHaTa HH<popMaQH5I;
- 6aBHO BeH03HO BJIHBaHe Ha MaJIKa .n;03a (0,5-1 MJI 0,05 %-eH pa3-
TBOp) Ha CKOrrOJIaMHH; TB'bp.n;e 6'bP30TO BJIHBaHe Ha rrperrapaTa HJIH
rOJIeMHTe .n;03H ca orraCHH 3a )J(HBOTa (P5l3KO rra.n;a apTepHaJIHOTO HaJI5I-
raHe, oTcJIa6Ba C'bp.n;eqHaTa .n;eHHOCT, crrHpa .n;HlIIaHeTO ... ). E<peKT'bT
06HKHOBeHO ce rrp05lB5IBa B ycel.QaHe 3a rrapeHe H HaMaJI5IBaHe Ha Ter-
JIOTO; cy6eKThT He ce KOHTPOJIHpa, CTaBa rrpeKaJIeHO 06l.QHTeJIeH, KpaiIHo
6JIaro.n;YlIIeH H MHoro OTKpOBeH, rOBopH OHOBa, KoeTO B HOpMaJIHO
C'bCT05lHHe KpHe;
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
141
- BJIHBaHe BeH03HO Ha 2-8 MJI 10% pa3TBop Ha HaTPHeB THOrreHTaJI
(rreHTOTaJI) C MHoro MaJIKa CKOPOCT (1 MJI3a 1 MHHYTa); rrpH TOBa CJIe.n;
10-15 MHH)'TH "CBeTJIHHaTa 5IBHO rrOMp'bKBa, rrpe.n;MeTHTe HaMaJI5IBaT
pa3MepHTe CH, TaiIHHTe MHCJIH H3rrJIysaT Ha rrOB'bpXHOCTTa, KaTO rro-
MHTaT nOMHCJIHTe 3a BC5IKaKBa npe.n;na3JIHBOCT H He06xo.n;HMOCT .n;a ce
BJIa.n;eelII, MaKap H 06HKHoBeHo .n;a H5IMa rrOTPe6HOCT 3a 06I.QysaHe".
TIPH MaJIKa .n;03a TP5I6Ba .n;a ce H3n0Jl3Ba nepHo.n;'bT Ha 3acnHBaHe, a rrpH
romlMa - Ha c'b6Y)J(.n;aHe;
- 6aBHo BeH03HO BJIHBaHe Ha 0,5-8 MJI 10 %-eH pa3TBOp Ha HaTPH-
eB aMHTaJI (6ap6aMHJI), qHeTO B'b3.n;eHCTBHe ce np05IB5IBa B nOHH)J(aBa-
He Ha 06l.QaTa aKTHBHOCT H 3a6aB5IHe Ha rOBopa; OCBeH TOBa ce ycel.QaT
CBeTOB'bpTe)J( H CYXOCT B YCTaTa, a OKOJIHHTe npe.n;MeTH ry651T OqepTa-
HH5ITa CH. TIoCJIe ce n05lB5IBa ey<popH51 (MaKap H P5I,11;KO, e B'b3MO)J(Ha H
.n;enpecH5I) C nOBHlIIeHa 06l.QHTeJIHOCT H .n;pY)J(em06He, C'bnpOBo.n;eHH C
MHOrOCJIOBHe H H3qe3BaHe Ha 3a.n;p'b)J(KHTe - C'bCT05lHHe, KoeTO TPae OT
10 MHH)'TH .n;o 1 qac H KoeTO ce CMeH51 C'bC 3alIIeMeT5IBaHe H C'bH 3a
nepHo.n; OT H51KOJIKO MHH)'TH .n;o H51KOJIKO qaca. 3a npo.n;'bJI)J(aBaHe Ha
He06xo.n;HMaTa ey<popH51 HapKOTHK'bT ce BKapBa MaKCHMaJIHO 6aBHo, a
npe.n;03HpoBKaTa ce oTcTPaH5IBa C HH)J(eKQH5I Ko<peHH;
- 3a6aBeHo (3a 3-5 MHHYTH) BeH03HO HH)J(eKTHpaHe Ha
2-8 MJI 1 O%-eH pa3TBop Ha HaTPHeB aMHTaJI (6ap6aMHJI), a CJIe.n; H3na-
.n;aHeTO Ha 06eKTa B HapKOmqeH C'bH - BJIHBaHe Ha MOl.QHa .n;03a nCH-
xocmMYJIaTOp (aH<peTaMHH ... ). <I>opcHpaHoTo c'b6Y)J(,11;aHe Ha cn5ll.QIffl
My .n;aBa npHJIHB Ha eHeprH5I H CTPaCTHO )J(eJIaHHe .n;a rOBopH; 3BYQHTe H
BCHqKH 06pa3H HaOKOJIO CTaBaT 5IpKH H MHoro peJIe<pHII, rryJIC'bT H .n;H-
lIIaHeTO ce YCKOp5lBaT, MHCJIHTe ce np05lCH5IBaT, HCKa m ce .n;a Kpe-
l.QH1II OT C'b3HaHHeTO 3a c06CTBeHaTa CH CHJIa. TIopa.n;H <paKTa, qe npe.n;H
TOBa qOBeK'bT ce Bp'b3Ba, Q5IJIaTa MOl.Q Ha .n;BHraTe.l1HaTa My eHeprH5I
aKTHBHO ce KOHQeHTPHpa B CJIOBeCHH nOTOQH.
HaJIIfqHeTO Ha XHMHqeCKH npenapaTH B Kp'bBTa, nOTHCKal.QH BOJI5I-
Ta, MO)J(e .n;a 6'b.n;e YCTaHOBeHO CJIe.n; He nO-MaJIKO OT H5IKOJIKO qaca CJIe.n;
HH)J(eKQH5ITa, a CJIe.n;aTa OT Hr JIaTa 06HKHOBeHO ce BH)J(.n;a .n;Ba .n;HH, Ma-
Kap qe HMa H HrJIM (KaTO HanpMMep HHCYJIHHOBHTe), KOHTO He OCTaB5IT
HMKaKBH CJIe.n;H.
BHHam TP5I6Ba .n;a ce HMa npe.n;BH.n;, qe MHoro OT HapKOTHQHTe .n;eHc-
TBaT nO-CHJIHO npe3 npOJIeTTa H Jl5ITOTO, KaKTO H Ha pa3C'bMBaHe, cYT-
pHH H no BpeMe Ha 6yp5l.
AKo npHHY.n;HTeJIHO ca BH rro.n;JIo)J(HJIH Ha B'b3.n;eHcTBHe Ha HapKo-
THK, )J(eJIaTeJIHO e .n;a onpe.n;eJIHTe OCHOBHH5I My THrr, KaTO <pHKCHpaTe
BHHMaHHeTO CH B'bpXy .n;OMHHHpal.QOTO ycel.QaHe (6JIa)J(eHCTBO, 6e3pa3-
142 AHATOnl-1H T APAC
JIIIqIIe II pa3JIIIqHII HlOaHCII Ha B'b3rrpII5ITIIeTO), B'bpXy 3HaqIITeJIHIITe
II3MeHeHII5I B rOJIeMIIHaTa II 5ICHOTaTa Ha rrpe,n;MeTIITe, KaIITO II B HaCII-
TeHOCTTa Ha CBeTJIIIHaTa ... ).
3a,n;a rrpeO,n;OJIeeTe BJIII5IHIIeTO Ha "CepYMIITe Ha IICTIIHaTa", MO)f(e-
Te ,n;a rrp06BaTe:
- ,n;a C'bCpe,n;OTOqIITe BHIIMaHIIeTO CII B'bpXy orrpe,n;eJIeHa peanHOCT
(TIIKTaKaHe Ha qaCOBHIIK, rreTHO OT BJIara Ha CTeHaTa . ) II CJIe,n; KaTO rro
T03II tPIIKCIIpaH eTanOH OC'b3HaeTe, qe peanIICTIIqHOTO BII MIICJIeHe ce
BJIOlliaBa, rrocTapaiITe ce rrpe,n;eJIHO ,n;a ce KOHu;eHTPIIpaTe B'bpXy Heo6-
XO,n;IIMOCTTa ,n;a rrpeo,n;OJIeeTe HaIlIIpamOTO C'bCT05IHIIe II ,n;a MIICJIIITe
MHoro 5ICHO;
- ,n;a ce 3au;IIKJIIITe Ha crrOMeHII 3a IDIKaKBII eMOu;IIOHaJIHII, HO HeC'b-
meCTBeHII OT rr03IIU;II5ITa Ha CIIrypHOCTTa Hema (ceKC, qyBCTBO 3a BIIHa,
3aBIICT, 3JI06a ... ), KaTO rro T03II HaqIIH ce OT,n;aneqaBaTe OT He)f(eJIaTeJI-
HaTa orraCHa II3rrOBe,n;;
- ,n;a ce C'bCpe,n;OTOqIITe B'bpXy crrOMeHII 3a HemO (IIJIII 3a IDlKoro)
oc06eHo CK'brrO;
- ,n;a ce OrrIITaTe ,n;a 06'bpKaTe MIICJIOBHII5I rrpou;ec, KaTO rOBopIITe
BC5IqeCKII He6IIBanIIU;II ...
(2). IIpe,n;II3BIIKBaHe Ha pa3rOBOpJIIIBOCT y c'b6ece,n;HIIKa
3a peanII3au;II5ITa Ha rro,n;06Ha u;eJI ce II3rrOJI3Ba cBolfcTBoTo Ha Hap-
KOTIIKa 3a6eJIe)f(IIMO ,n;a pa3KperrOCT5IBa rrCIIXIIKaTa, KoeTO qeCTO rrpe-
}J;II3BIIKBa eytP0pII5I C rrOBIIllIeHa 06mIITeJIHOCT II ,n;pyx<eJIlO6IIe II BO}J;II
,n;o JIIIrrCa Ha II30cTPeHo BHIIMaHIIe II CA'bp)f(aHocT.
3a u;eJITa MO)f(e:
- ,n;a rrpe,n;JIO)f(IITe Ha qOBeKa u;IIrapa, B K05ITO K'bM TlOTlOHa ca ,n;06a-
BeHII MaJIKO (KOJIKOTO rpaxoBo 3'bPHO) cYIIIeHII JIIICTa II Bp'bXqeTa Ha
KOHorr;
- ,n;a ,n;06aBIITe B aJIKOXOJIa 0,05 r 6ap6aMIIJI (rropa,n;II tPaKTa, qe 6ap-
6aMIIJI'bT 6JIOKIIpa rrpepa60TKaTa Ha anKOXOJIa, rrOBIIllIeHaTa My ,n;03II-
pOBKa e crroc06Ha,n;a ce OKa)f(e )f(JIBOTOOrraCHa 3a opraHII3Ma .. ).
(3). Ko,n;IIpaHe Ha 06eKTa 3a II3B'bpIlIBaHe Ha )f(eJIaHa OT Bac rro-
CT'brrKa
XIIMJIqeCKIITe rrperrapaTII II TeXHIIKaTa Ha II3rra,n;aHe B TPaHc ca C'b-
mIITe KaTO rrpII HapKopa3rrIITa, a cxeMaTa 3a II3rr'bJIHeHIIe Ha BHYIIIeHII-
eTO - KaTO rrpII XIIrrH03aTa.
BHYllieHIIeTO ce rrpaBII C P5I3'bK II eHeprIIqeH IIMrrepaTIIBeH TOH B
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
143
rrepIIo,n;a Ha YHaC5IHe (KoraTO II3rrOJI3BaHaTa ,n;03a OT rrperrapaTa e MaJI-
Ka) IIJIII rro BpeMe Ha C'b6yx<,n;aHeTO (aKO p;03aTa e rOJI5IMa).
113BecTeH Hep;OCTaThK Ha HapKorrporpaMIIpaHeTO e, qe TO e rrO-He-
YCTOllqIIBO OT XIIrrH03aTa, a yP;06CTBOTO My e, qe MO)f(e p;a ce rrpIIJIara
B'brrpeKII )f(eJIaHIIeTO Ha 06eKTa.
B pa60TaTa C HapKOMaH KOHKpeTHoTO BHYIIIeHIIe ce OC'bmecTB5IBa
rrpe}J;II HaBJIII3aHeTO My B 06IIKHOBeHII5I 3a Hero HapKOTIIqeH C'bH (orrII-
YM ... ) IIJIII Ha tPOHa Ha crrOHTaHHO B'b3HIIKBamII, a rrOCJIe HaCOqBaHII
, XaJIlO u;IIHaU;IIII (xaIlIIIIlI ... ).
(4). IIpeqyrraaHe Ha BOJI5ITa Ha qOBeKa (rrpIICTPaCT5IBaHe K'bM .n;poraTa)
IIop;06Ha 3ap;aqa ce peanII3IIPa, KaTO ce II3rrOJI3Ba II3KJIlOqIITeJIHO
Te)f(KaTa tPII3IIOJIOrJIqHa peaKI.J;II5I Ha opraHII3Ma Ha P5I3KOTO My JIIIllIa-
BaHe OT HapKOTIIKa, C Komo e CBIIKHaJI. TaKoBa C'bCT05IHIIe 06IIKHoBeHo
ce HapJIqa a6CTIIHeHI.J;II5I IIJIII "rrpeqyrrBaHe" II He3a6aBHO II3qe3Ba, aKO
cy6eKThT OTHOBO yrrOTPe6II )f(eJIaHII5I rrpop;YKT. Ta3II Herrpeop;o-
JIIIMa tPII3JIqeCKa 3aBIICIIMOCT ,n;aBa B'b3MO)f(HOCT p;a ce HaCOqBaT II KOH-
TPOJIIIpaT rrOCThrrKIITe Ha ep;IIH HapKoMaH.
Ha rrpo,n;'bJI)J(JITeJIHOCTTa II TIIrra Ha a6CTIIHeHU;II5ITa BJIII5I5IT BIIP;'bT
Ha yrroTPe65IBaHII5I HapKoTIIK, rrpOp;'bJI)f(IITeJIHOCTTa Ha yrrOTPe6aTa MY,
p;03IITe, IIH}J;IIBIIAYanHIITe oc06eHOCTII Ha JIJIqHOCTTa.
OCBeH 3a tPH3IIqeCKa qeCTO ce rOBopII II 3a rrCIIXOJIOrJIqeCKa 3aBHCH-
MOCT, rrpII KoeTO )f(eJIaHIIeTO 3a rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha HapKOTIIK He e CB'bp3a-
HO C peaKU;IIII Ha opraHII3Ma II 3aTOBa rrOH5IKOra e rrpeo,n;OJIIIMO.
e "rrpeqyrraaHeTO" rrpII yrroTPe6a Ha xepOIIH, ManKO
rro-cJIa60 - Ha MOPtPIIH II rraHTOrrOH rrpII BeH03HOTO lIM JIH)J(eKTIIpaHe,
ome rro-cJIa60 - KoraTO MOPtPIIH'bT ce JIH)J(eKTIIpa MyCKyJIHO IIJIII rrop;-
KO)f(HO, CJIe,lJ;BaT JIH)J(eKI.J;IIIITe Ha p;pym MOPtPIIHorrop;06HII
BemeCTBa, KaTO HarrpIIMep rrpOMe,n;OJI H OMHorrOH. MHoro rrO-JIeCHO ce
rrOHaC5IT JIIIllIeHII5ITa OT OIlIIYM, aMtPeTaMIIHII, KpeK, xallIIIllI II KOKaIIH.
HaBIIK'bT 3a yrroTPe6a Ha xepOIIH II Ha "KIITaMCKII 6eJIThK" (TPMMe-
TMJItPeHTaHMJI) 06IIKHOBeHO ce 3aTB'bp)J;5IBa CJIe,n; 3-4 MH)f(eKU;IIlI, a K'bM
MOPtPMHa - CJIep; 10-12 MH)f(eKI.J;MII rrpM rrOCTerreHHO yaeJIJIqaBaHa p;03a.
IIpeqyrrBaHeTo KaTO rrpaBIIJIO CTaBa 2-3 qaca CJIep; IIH)f(eKI.J;II5ITa xe-
POMH, 5 -6 qaca CJIep; rrOCJIe)J;HaTa MH)f(eKu;II5I MOPtP
IIH
M 10-12 qaca CJIep;
II3rrOJI3BaHeTO Ha orrIIyM.
IIpIICTPaCT5IBaHeTO K'bM ,n;poraTa 06IIKHoBeHo CTaBa:
- P;06POBOJIHO (JIlO60rrIITCTBO, pMryan, orrIIT 3a caMoYC'bB'bpllIeHC-
TBaHe ... );
144 AHATOJlItlIil T APAC
- HaCIiJICTBeHO (CJIe,lJ; rrpe,lJ;HaMepeHO OTBJIlIqaHe );
- C 1I3MaMa (rrO,lJ;MJlHa Ha Me,lJ;lIlUfHCKIiTe rrperrapaTII ... ).
3a HapKOMaHa e XapaKTepeH rrOCTerreHeH rrpeXO,lJ; OT yrroTpe6a Ha
"CJIa60rrpeqyrrBarn;II" Bern;eCTBa K'bM BCe rrO-OrraCHIi (XepOIIH, OIIIIyM .. ).
(5). 06e3,lJ;BII)KBaHe Ha 06eKTa rrpli OTBJIlIqaHeTO MY
HapKomU;IITe ca crroc06HlI 6'bP30 ,lJ;a 1I3KJIIOqaT C'b3HaHlieTO Ha qO-
BeKa 3a TOqHO rrpOrH03lIpaH rreplIO,lJ; II 3aTOBa ca ,lJ;OCTa y,lJ;06HII rrpli
OTBJIlIqaHe.
B'b3MO)KHlI ca CJIe,lJ;HIITe BapliaHTlI Ha ,lJ;en:cTBlIe:
- C JIeKO HaMoKpeH rrapU;aJI lIJIli p'bKaBIIu;a C XaJIOTOH (KJIaCIfqeCKO
Cpe,lJ;CTBO 3a orrepalUfoHHa HapK03a .. ) ce 3arryII1BaT YCTaTa II HOC'bT Ha
06eKTa, qIfeTO C'b3HaHIIe HaIl'bJIHO ce 1I3KJIlOqaa 3a OKOJIO 5-20 MIIHYTlI;
- 06eKT'bT rpy60 ce 3ameMeTJlBa C y,lJ;ap, HarrpliMep rro rJIaBaTa lIJIli
KaTO ce rrplITlICHaT C'bHHlITe apTeplIlI, CJIe,lJ; KoeTO ce rrplICIIlIBa C IIIDKeK-
u;IIJ! 6ap6aMlIJI (5-10 MJI lO%-eH pa3TBOp BeH03HO lIJIli MYCKYJIHO) 3a
6-8 qaca; BpeMeTO Ha C'bH JIeCHO MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce peryJIlipa C rro,lJ;60p Ha
C'bOTBeTHlIJ! rrperrapaT;
- 3a RJlKOJIKO ceKYH,lJ;1I JIlIu;eTO ce 06e3,!l;Blf)KBa II B T031I MOMeHT ce
IIIDKeKTlIpa CMec OT HeBpOJIerrTIiKa TIiOplI,lJ;a3IIH C'bC CIIlIPT, KOn:TO rrpe-
MOMeHTaJIHa 3ary6a Ha CIiJIlITe, Crra,lJ;aHe Ha HaJIJlraHeTO, yc-
KOpJlBaHe Ha rryJIca, pa3UlHpJlBaHe Ha 3eHIIU;lITe, T. e. rraCIIBHO C'bCTOJl-
HlIe, KoeTO B'bHUlHO rrplIJIIfqa Ha ,lJ;'bJI60K UlOK.
A. CeKcMeponpufimufi
IIOpa,lJ;1I <paKTa, qe rrOJIOBOTO BJIeqeHlIe (JIII61I,lJ;OTO) e MHoro Morn;eH
MOTIiBaTop Ha qOBeUlKOTO rrOBe,lJ;eHlIe, 61I 6lIJIO rJIyrraBo ,lJ;a He ce 1I3-
rrOJI3Ba T031I IIHCTIIHKT.
HHTIIMHlITe MepOrrplIJlTIiJI 06lIKHOBeHO ce 1I3rrOJI3BaT 3a:
- rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha IIH<popMaU;lIJ!;
- KOHTpOJI Ha,lJ; 06eKTa;
- BHe,lJ;pJlBaHe HaareHT K'bM ,lJ;a,lJ;eHO JIIIu;e (JIeKap, IIHmMeH rrapT-
HhOp ... ) rrpli rrpOBe)K,lJ;aHe Ha CJIO)KHII KOM6IIHaU;lIlI;
- 3aB'bp3BaHe Ha TeCHIi OTHOUleHIIJI C qOBeKa ("pa3IIrpaBan:KII pOJIH-
Ta Ha CrreU;lIaJIIiCT rro HaCJIa)K,lJ;eHIIJlTa" ... );
- CTpaHlIqHO B'b3,lJ;en:CTBlie B'bpXy rrOBe,lJ;eHlIeTO II MIICJIIiTe Ha IIH,nH-
BII,lJ;a (qpe3 KompaH ceKCrrapTHhOp);
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHocm 145
- rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha KOMrrpOMaT 3a ,lJ;a,lJ;eH qOBeK;
- rrpeqyrrBaHe Ha rrCIiXIiKaTa Ha 06eKTa (rrOCpe,lJ;CTBOM rrpe,lJ;1I3BIIK-
BaHe Ha IIMrrOTeHu;IIJ!, 3apa3J1BaHe C 60JIeCT ... ).
CMJlTa ce, qe CIiJIaTa Ha JIII61I,lJ;OTO e qIfCTO IIH,nIIBII.nyaJIHa, HO:
- M'b)KeTe ca HaCTpoeHII HaH-ceKCYaJIHO Me)K.ny 23-35 rO,lJ;HHH, a
)KeHIITe - Me)K.ny 35-45 rO,lJ;HHH;
- KOJIKOTO rrO-TOrr'bJI e KJIIiMaT'bT Ha PO,nHOTO MJlCTO Ha ,lJ;a,lJ;eH qO-
BeK, TOJIKOBa rrO-JlpKO H3pa3eH e rrOJIOBlIJIT MY IIHCTIIHKT;
- 6plOHeTlITe ca rro-qyBcTBeHH OT 6JIOH,nHHHTe;
- HIICKHTe xopa HMaT rrO-CIiJIHO rrOJIOBO BJIeqeHlIe OT BIiCOKlITe;
- CJIa6HTe xopa HMaT rrO-CIiJIHO rrOJIOBO BJIeqeHHe OT rr'bJIHlITe;
- xopaTa C'bC 3aCe,nHaJI HaqHH Ha )KHBOT H ,lJ;OMOUlapIiTe ca MHoro
nO-rrO,lJ;BJIaCTHH Ha rrOJIOBlIJ! IIHCTIIHKT, OTKOJIKOTO OHe31I, KOHTO ca B
HenpecTaHHo ,lJ;BII)KeHlIe lIJIH Ha qIfCT B'b3.nyX;
- rrOJIOBIiHaTa OT aJIKOXOJIlIU;IITe RJlMaT rrOJIOBO BJIeqeHlIe, a e,nHa
TpeTa OT nix ca IIMnOTeHTHH.
A06pe cmMYJIlipaT rrOJIOBlIJ! lIHCTlIHKT:
- ,nHeTaTa (u;eJIIIHa, rr'bp)KeH JIYK, )K'bJIT'bK, MOPCKII pau;lI, CTpII,lJ;II,
cYllleHlI rrJIO,lJ;OBe, r'b61I, KJIy6eHlITe Ha caJIerr);
- MlIplI3MlITe (Ha KaHeJIa, XBOHHa, MeHTa, CaH,lJ;aJI, )J;)KHH,!l;)KII<pHJI,
KapaM<plIJI, MamepKa);
- orrpe,lJ;eJIeHO rrOBe,lJ;eHHe (rrpeKaJIeHO qeCTIi CHOUleHlfJ!, PJl3KO rrpeK-
paTJlBaHe Ha rrOJIOBlIJ! )KHBOT ... ).
IIOJIOBOTO BJIeqeHHe ClIJIHO ce OT )KeJIaHlieTO qOBeK ,lJ;a ce
OCBo60,lJ;H OT MOUJ;HIIJI HaTIiCK Ha CTpeca - eCTeCTBeH HJIIi HarrpHMep
nporpaMlipaH:
- HeOqaKBaHO crraceHlIe OT 6JIlI3Ka CM'bpT;
- crraceHlIe OT 3arrJIaXa 3a <pIIHaHCOBO pa30peHlIe HJIIi ,lJ;pyrH rOJIe-
MH HerrplfJlTHOCTII;
- ycrreUlHo rrplIKJIlOqBaHe Ha CJIO)KHO MepOnpIIJlTlIe ...
3a rrOJIOBO B'b36Y)K)J;aHe MoraT ,lJ;a ce 1I3rrOJI3BaT KaKTO <papMaKOJIO-
fHqHH (,lJ;06aBJlHe Ha rrperrapam B rrlImeTO IIJIIi xpaHaTa ... ), TaKa II Ha-
PO,lJ;HII (ypOqaCBaHe ... ) cpe,lJ;CTBa, B qaCTHOCT:
- CrreU;lIaJIeH rrerrmU;H,lJ;eH Kp'bBeH cepyM (aep030JI II rrpax);
- JIeKapCTBOTO IIMlI3lIH (pa3TBopIiMO e B'bB BO,lJ;a II crrlIpT);
-n:OXIIM6HH (B pa3JIIfqHH C'bqeTaHlIJ!);
- MemJITeCTOCTepOH (3a )KeHII);
II
146 AHATOJIII1Iit T APAC
- HapKOTHK'bT "eKCTa3H";
- CnHpT, CMeCeH C KOKaHH;
- MYCKYC;
- KOpa OT ,n'bPBOTO Ha Hap H nJIo,nOBe Ha MHpTa;
- JIeHeHO ceMe C nHnep ...
3a npHBJIlf'iaHe Ha napTHbOpa )KeHHTe MoraT ,na H3nOJI3BaT TaKHBa
npOCTlf'iKH TPHKOBe, KaTO:
- HaMa3BaHe Ha DIJIOTO H ,npeXHTe C'bC CMec OT B'bp6HHKa H ce-
,ne<pqe;
- HaMa3BaHe Ha KOCHTe H KO)KaTa 3a,n YIIIHTe C'bC ceKpeT OT
HHTe )KJ1e3H;
- CneQHaJIHa TeXHHKa Ha ,nHIIlaHe C eKBHBaJIeHTHO BKmoqsaHe Ha
,nseTe H03,npH ...
,npyrOTO Te3H nOXBaTH He cpa60TBaT, aKO 06eKThT Ha nOBH-
IIleHH5I HHTepec cTPa,na OT xpeMa.
)la HaMaJI5lT nOJIOBOTO BJIeqeHHe ca cnoco6HH:
- npo6aHTHH (npOTHB05l3BeH npenapaT);
- BepanaMHJI (npenapaT 3a C'bPQe);
- MeTHMOna, BepoIIlllHpOH (JIeKapCTBO npOTHB XHnepTOHH5I);
- TPHXonOJI (JIeKapCTBO npOTHB TPHXOMOHa,n03a);
- aQeTaTeH QHllPOTepOH;.
- HaCTOMKa OT KOHJIO ...
KrraClf'ieCKHTe CxeMH Ha OT,neJIHHTe ceKcMepOnpH51TH51 ca cJIe,nHHTe:
(1). BHe,np5IBaHe Ha areHT K'bM o6eKTa:
- H3nOJI3BaHe Ha eCTeCTBeH HJIH HHCllHpHpaH y,no6eH MOMeHT (CK'bC-
BaHe C npe,nHIIleH napTHbop, 6peMeHHocT Ha c'bnpyraTa, KOMaH,nHpOB-
Ka, caMOTHa nOqHBKa, ycneIIlHa npe3eHTaQH5I ... ) 3a ,no6JIH)KaBaHe Ha
OnHTeH H C'bOTBeTCTBarn; Ha BKYcoBeTe Ha o6eKTa areHT OT Heo6xo,nH-
MH5I nOJI, npH KoeTO ce 3a,neMcTBaT H <paKTopHTe, CTHMYJIHparn;H nOJIO-
BOTO BJIeqeHHe;
- BC5IKaKBH HaqHHH Ha 3an03HaHCTBO, no,n6paHH B C'bOTBeTCTBHe C
npenOp'bKHTe Ha pa3,neJIa ,,3a 3aB'bp3BaHe Ha KOHTaKT", ,non'bJIHeHH C
nOCOqeHHTe TYK nOXBaTH 3a 3aCHJIBaHe Ha nOJIOBHTe eMOQHH ...
(2). M33eMBaHe Ha HR<p0pMaQH5I: .
- npe,nH3BHKBaHe Ha llJIaMeHHO ceKcYaJIHO )KeJIaHHe nocpe,ncTBoM
H3nOJI3BaHe Ha cHTYaQHoHeH OT cTPec ... ) HJIH <papMa-
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm 147
KOJIOrHqeH (xHMlf'ieCKH npenapaTH ... ) TPHK C yqaCTHe Ha JIHQeTO, C'br-
JIaCHO ,na ce OT,na,ne 3a nOJIyqaBaHe Ha HH<P0PMaQH5I;
- npHKpenBaHe K'bM o6eKTa Ha npeB'b3xo,nHO OpHeHTHparn;aTa ce
ceKcnapTHbopKa C nepCneKTHBa 3a npo,n'bJI)KHTeJIHO 06rn;YBaHe, npH
npoQeca Ha KoeTO C5IKaIIl Me)K,ny ,npyrOTO ce H3TP'brBa )KeJIaHaTa HR-
<p0pMaQH5I;
- npOCJIeMBaHe Ha mo6oBHHQaTa Ha o6eKTa H Bep6YBaHeTo H HJIH
o6opy,nsaHe Ha CTa5ITa 3a cpern;H C no,nCJIYIIlBaTeJIHa H BH,neoanapa-
TYpa;
- IIlaHTa)K C'bC ceKCKoMnpoMaT ...
(3). I10JIyqaBaHe Ha KOMnpoMaT:
- H351CH5IBaHe nocpe,nCTBOM Ha6mo,neHHe HJIH pa:mHTBaHe C noc-
JIe,nsarn;a <pHKCaQH5I Ha MOMeHTH OT B3aHMOOTHOIIleHH5ITa MY Ha <p
OTO
-
JIeHTa, Ha BMeo- HJIH ay,nHoKaceTa;
- npHKpenBaHe Ha CBOM areHT K'bM o6eKTa H <pHKcHpaHe Ha nOJIOBH-
Te HM KOHTaKTH B o6opy,nsaHa C pa3JIlf'iHa cneQHaJIHa anapaTYPa CTa5I;
- np06YTBaHe Ha ceKCYaJIeH napTHbOp Ha o6eKTa H "O<pHQHaJIHO"
(HaHcTHHa HJIH JI'b)KJ1HBO) "XBarn;aHe Ha MecTOnpeCT'bllJIeHHeTO";
- no,nnaraHe Ha H51KaKBa JIeKa )KeHa no,n o6eKTa, K05lTO nOCJIe ,na
3a5lBH, qe TOM 51 e H3HaCHJIHJI ...
- pa3HrpaBaHe Ha ellH3o,n Ha rpynoBo H3HaCHJIBaHe, npH KOHTO npH-
C'bCTBa H pa3pa6oTBaHH5IT o6eKT.
TIo-cJIo)KHHTe BapHaHTH MoraT ,na BKmOqBaT "npH3HaHHe" Ha mo-
60BHHQaTa 3a ,nsOMHa Hrpa, npe,nH3BHKBaHe Ha HMnoTeHQH51 y qOBeKa,
CHMYJIHpaHe Ha pa3JIlf'iHH cHTYaQHH C QeJI Ha6aBme Ha KOMnpOMaT,
H3nOJI3BaHe Ha nOJIOBaTa B'b36y,na 3a Ko,nHpaHe Ha no,nC'b3HaHHeTO ...
He 6HBa ,na ce 3a6paB5I, qe ,neJIHKaTHaTa <paKTYpa e cnoco6Ha ,na
CTaHe KOMnpoMaT caMO B H5IKOH, H TO HaITbJIHO onpe,neJIeHH cHryaQHH.
E. TeXHompOHHU MemoguKu
C'bBpeMeHHaTa HaYKa npe,nnara MHoro cneQH<pHqHH HaqRHH 3a yn-
paBJIeHHe Ha nOBe,neHHeTo, MHCJIHTe H qYSCTBaTa Ha qOBeKa. B qaCT-
HOCT H3nOJI3BaT ce CJIe,nHHTe:
- no,nC'b3HaTeJIHO ay,nHO-BH3YaJIHO ,npa3HeHHe;
- eJIeKTPoIIloK;
- YJITPa3ByK;
- HH<ppa3ByK;
148 AHATOm11i1 TAPAC
- CBP'bXBHCOKOqeCTOTHO H3JI'bqBaHe (CBQ);
- TOPCHOHHO H3JI'bqBaHe;
- y,I(apHH B'bJIHH ...
me pa3rJIe,I(aMe no-nO,I(p06HO Te3H B'b3,I(eifcTBHH.
(1). ITO,I(C'b3HaTeJIHO ,I(pa3HeHHe
B CJIyqM ce H3nOJI3Ba CBOHCTBOTO Ha pa3JIflqHH, MHoro CJIa6H (T. e.
nO,I(C'b3HaTeJIHH) ,I(pa3HHTeJIH npaKTflqeCKH ,I(a He ce B'b3rrpHeMaT OT
C'b3HaHHeTO, HO ,I('bJI60KO ,I(a ce BHe,I(pHBaT B nO,I(C'b3HaHHeTO. ITopa,I(H
TOBa qe KpHTflqHOTO B'b3npHeMaHe OT crpaHa Ha C'b3HaHHeTO Han'bJIHO
JIHnCBa, nO,I(06HH B'b3,I(eHCTBHH MoraT a6coJllOTHo He3a6eJIe)l(HMO
opHeHTHpaT MHCJIeHeTO H nOBe,I(eHHeTO Ha qOBeKa B KOHKpeTHa Haco-
Ka. Oc06eHO nO,I(aTJIHBH Ha TaKHBa BH)'llIeHHH ca C'bp,I(eqHo60JIHHTe H
nOTeHQHaJIHHTe
HaH-y,I(06HO e BHe,I(pHBaHeTO qpe3 ay,I(HaJIeH (CJIYXOB) H BH3yaJIeH
(3pHTeJIeH) KaHaJI.
ITPH npe3anHCBaHe Ha HHKaKBa npH-
HTHa 3a 06eKTa MeJIO,I(HH B'bpXy MY3HKaTa nOCpe,I(CTBOM MHKIIIep ce
HaCJIarBa MHorOKpaTHO nOBTapHHHHT CJIOBeCeH TeKCT Ha pa60THO-
TO BHYIIIeHHe Ha CTaH,I(apTHa TeXHHKa, HO 3anHcaH C'bC 3a6aBHHe
,I(eceT-neTHaHceT n'bTH. TpaHCJIHpaHHTe no T03H HaqHH ,I(yMH ce B'b3-
npHeMaT KaTO rJIyx BOH H CJIe,I( HaCJIarBaHeTO CTaBaT a6COJIIOTHO
He3a6eJIe)l(HMH.
BM).:(EOCTMMYJIA:Ql15I. B 3aIIHca Ha BH,I(eO<pHJIM ce BKJIHHHBaT
MHoro KpaTKH (0,04 ceK)'H,I(H) Bpe3KH OT KapTHHKH Ha BH)'llIaeMHH TeKCT
HJIH 06pa3, ynopHTo nOBTapHHH Ha BceKH 5 ceK)'H,I(H. TexHHKaTa Ha H3-
rOTBHHe Ha cneQKaceTaTa no C'blQeCTBO npe,I(CTaBJIHBa 06HKHoBeH npe-
3anHC OT e,I(HH BH,I(eOMarHeTo<poH Ha .n;pyr, npeK'bCBaH nocpe,I(CTBOM
rrpocTHqKa pa,I(HOCXeMa Ha BceKH 5 ceKyH,I(H 3a no 1,25 ceKyH,I(H, KaTO B
T03H MOMeHT MOHHTOP'bT, KOHTO ,I(aBa KapTHHKaTa Ha BH)'llIe-
HHe, ce BKJIIOqBa K'bM 3aIIHCBaIQOTO YCrpOHCTBO. CJIa6HTe MeCTa Ha
T03H HaqHH ca, qe CnyqaHHO (rrpH cnHpaHe Ha 3anHca) OH3H, KOHTO rJIe-
,I(a <pHJIMa, MO)l(e ,I(a oTKpHe cneQKa,I('bpa, KaKTO H TOBa, qe ce 3a6aBHT
nCHx0<pH3flqeCKHTe peaKQHH Ha qOBeKa, nO,I(JIO)l(eH Ha onHT.
(2). EJIeKTpOllioK
Ha eJIeKrpollioKa B'bpxy )l(HBHTe opraHH3MH e no.n;po6-
HO H3yqeHo H TeXHHKaTa ce npHJIara aKTHBHO 3a:
- pa3pYIIIaBaHe Ha naMeTTa B npoQeca Ha 30M6HpaHe;
- npe,I(H3BHKBaHe Ha 60JIKa B npoQeca Iia H3Te3aHHe HJIH pa3nHT;
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CU2ypHocm
149
- Ha,I(e)l(,I(HO 06e3,I(BH)l(BaHe npH OTBJIHqaHe ...
BCflqKH H36poeHH 3a,I(aqH ce 6a3HpaT Ha H3n0JI3BaHe Ha ,I(03HpaHo
Hanpe)l(eHHe, KOHKpeTeH nepHO,I( Ha ,I(eHCTBHe H, pa36Hpa ce, Ha OTqH-
TaHe C'bCTOHHHeTO Ha 06eKTa.
ITO-CJIa6HHT OT 10 MA TOK ce B'b3npHeMa ,I(OCTa cJIa60 HJIH B'b061Qe
He ce ycelQa. TOK OT OKOJIO 20 MA 06HKHoBeHo HapYIIIaBa ,I(HIIIaHeTO, a
OT 70 MA CHJIHO ro 3arpy,I(HHBa. TOK OT 100 MA B'b36Y)l(,I(a <p
H6
pHJIa-
QHH Ha BJIaKHa, KoeTO MO)l(e ,I(a ,I(OBe,I(e ,I(O CM'bPT, a TOK
HM 200 MA BO,I(H ,I(O CHJIHO H3rapHHe H cnHpa ,I(HIIIaHeTo.
MMrryJICH C npaBO'br'bJIHa <popMa C OTBeceH <pPOHT ca cnoc06HH ,I(a
oCHrypHT pa3,I(pa3BaHe npH HBHO (3-5 II'hTH) nO-MaJIKa aMIIJIHTY,I(a, OT-
KOJIKOTO HMrryJICHTe C nOJIeraT (rpH'br'bJIHH, rpaneQOBH,I(HH ... ) <pPOHT,
MaKap H ,I(a HMa H3KJIIOqeHHH. He06HKHoBeHo THrOCTHa 60JIKa no npa-
BHJIO rrpe,I(H3BHKBaT HMrryJICHTe C qeCTOTa 5 Hz, HaCOqeHH B KHTKaTa
Ha p'bKaTa.
3a pa3pYIIIaBaHe Ha HeBpoHHTe Ha naMeTTa npe3 rJIaBaTa ce rrycKaT
MHoro 60JIe3HeHH eJIeKTpoHMrryJICH OT 150 BOJITa H MOIQHOCT ,I(eCeTKH
n'bTH nO-rOJIHMa, OTKOJIKOTO npH 06HKHoBeHaTa cna3MaTflqHa TepaIIHH.
3a 06e3,I(BH)l(,I(aHe Ha qOBeKa ce H3nOJI3Ba Hanpe)l(eHHe nOBeqe OT 50
XHJIH,I(H BOJITa npH H3KJIIOqHTeJIHO cJIa6 (qaCTH OT MHJIHaMnepa) TOK H
C'bC cYMapHa eHeprHH Ha eJIeKTpoHMnYJICa HanpHMep 0,3 ,I()l(oyJIa. Pa3-
pH,I(HTe Ha nOB'bpXHOCTHHTe yqaCT'hQH Ha KO)l(aTa BOMT ,I(O PH3KO C'bK-
palQaBaHe Ha MycKyJIHaTa T'hKaH, npH TOBa KOJIKOTO KOH-
TaKT e nO-rOJIHM, B'bpXy TOJIKOBa nOBeqe BJIaKHa B'b3,I(eHCTBa eJIeKTpo-
TOK'bT. 3a ,I(a 6'b,I(e 06eKT'bT 06e3,I(BH)!(eH, eJIeKrpoHMnYJICHTe rpH6Ba
,I(a ce nO,I(aBaT HanpHMep 5 ceKYH,I(H. B peaJIHaTa npaKTHKa MoraT ,I(a ce
H3nOJI3BaT KaKTO npOMHIIIJIeHO npOH3Be,I(eHH, TaKa H caMOCTO}lTeJIHO
HanpaseHH (BH)!( <pHr. 18 B npHJIO)l(eHHeTo) eJIeKrpollioKepH napaJIH3a-
TOPH, C nOMOlQTa Ha KOHTO MHoro cTa6HJIHO MO)l(e ,I(a ce 06e3,I(BH)l(H
qOBeK 3a OKOJIO 5-10 MHHYTH.
(3). YJIrpa3ByK
B T03H CJIyqaH ce H3nOJI3BaT KaKTO TOnJIHHHHTe, TaKa H MeXaHflq-
HHTe B'b3,I(eHCTBHH Ha eJIaCTflqHHTe KOJIe6aHH}I C qeCTOTa nOBeqe OT
100 kHz. MaJIKaTa HHTeH3HBHOCT Ha nO,I(06HH KOHQeHrpHpaHH
KOJIe6aHH}I BJIH}le 3HaqHTeJIHO B'bpXy MHCJIOBHHTe CrpyKTypH H HepB-
HaTa CHCTeMa KaTO npe,I(H3BHKBa 60JIKH B rJIaBaTa, CBeTOB'bpTe)l(, pa3-
CrpOHCTBO Ha'3peHHeTo H ,I(HIIIaHeTO, KOHBYJICHH, a nOH}lKOra H 3ary6a
Ha C'b3HaHHe. He e rpy,I(HO caMH ,I(a HanpaBHTe ype,I(HTe 3a TaKOBa B'b3-
,I(eHCTBHe.
150 AHATOJU11i1 T APAC
"HmKe)J(aBaHeTo" Ha In6pamI yqaCTh,Q1I OT M03'hKa C ,n;06pe CPOKY-
CHpaH YJITpa3BYK rrOIDIKOra ce H3rrOJI3Ba 3a 6e3B'h3BpaTHO 1I3TpliBaHe
OT rraMerra Ha IDIKaKBIi He)J(eJIaTeJIHII CrrOMeHH, HO TOBa MO)J(e ,n;a Harr-
paBH caMO BeJIHKOJIerrHO rro,n;rOTBeH rrepCOHaJI C'hC crre,QHaJIHa arrapa-
rypa, KQ}ITO ce H3rrOJI3Ba B MeM.QHHaTa.
(4). llifcppa3BYK .
no OTHoweHHe BJIHHHHeTO B'hPXy '10BeKa MHoro ecpeKTHBHO e H3-
rrOJI3BaueTO Ha MeXaHH'leH pe30Hauc Ha eJIaCTH'lH1i KOJIe6aHlUl C '1ec-
TOTa He rrO-MaJIKO OT 16 Hz, KOIITO 06HKHOBeHO He ce B'h3IIpHeMaT Ha
cnyx. 3a HaH-orraceH ce CWITa rrpOMe)J(,lJ;yThK'hT Me)J(,lJ;y 6 H 9 Hz.
3Ha'llITeJIHH rrcHXoTpoHHH ecpeKTH HaH-CHJIHO ce IIpOjlBjlBaT Ha '1ec-
TOTa 7 Hz, KOjlTO e C'h3Byqua Ha aJIcpaplIThMa Ha rrpIIPo.n;ulITe M03'h'lHII
rrpli KoeTO CTaBa HeB'h3MO)J(Ha BCjlKaKBa YMCTBeHa pa60Ta,
3aI,QOTO Brre'laTJIeHHeTO e TaKOBa, 'Ie rJIaBaTa TH eH cera I,Qe ce rrp'hCHe
Ha CIITHlI rrap'leH,Qa.
3BYK'hT C'hC cJIa6a IIHTeH3HBHOCT rrpe,n;1I3BHKBa ra,n;eHe II 3B'hH B
ywHTe, KaKTO II BJIOWaBaHe Ha 3peHIIeTo H He06j1CHIiM cTPax. 3BYK'hT
C'hC cpe.n;ua IIHTeH3HBHOCT pa3cTPoHBa xpauocMHJIaTeJIHlITe opraHII II
M03'hKa, rropmK,n;a napaJIH3a, 06I,Qa CJIa60CT, a nOIDIKora H CJIerrOTa.
MOI,QeH IIHcppa3BYK e crroc06eH ,n;a yspe,n;1I II ,n;Opli HaII'bJI-
HO ,n;a crrpe C'hP,QeTo. 061IKH0BeHO 3arrO'lBaT
OT 120 dB Harrpe)J(eHlIe, a TPaBMHpal.QlITe - OT 130 dB.
llifcppa'leCTOTlITe OT OKOJIO 12 Hz npH CHJIa 85-110 dB rrpe,n;1I3BHK-
BaT rrpliCThn Ha MopCKa 60JIeCT H CBeTOB'hpTe)J(, a C '1ec-
TOTa 15-18 Hz rrpH C'hI,QaTa IIHTeH3IIBHOCT BuywaBaT qysCTBO 3a 6e3-
nOKoHcTBO, HeysepeHocT II B KpM Ha KpaHI,QaTa - naHH'leCKli CTPax.
(5) CBP'hXBHCOKO'leCTOTHO (CBlI) HeHOHII3IIPaHo H3JI'h'IBaue
TOBa e eJIeKTPoMarHIITHo MHKPOB'hJIHO H3JI'h'lBaHe Ha 61I0TOKOBe
'1eCTOTa OT 1 ,n;o 35 Hz. I10,n; TjlXHO B'h3,n;eHcTBHe B'h3HIIKBaT Hapyrne-
HlijI B'hB B'h3nplieMaHeTo Ha peaJIHOCTTa, rrOBHwaBaHe II crra,n;aHe Ha
TOHyca, yMopa, ra,n;eHe II 60JIKa B rJIaBaTa; B'h3MO)J(Ha e rr'hJIHa CTepH-
Ha IIHCTHHKTHBHaTa ccpepa, KaKTO II Ha C'hp,QeTo,
M03'hKa II ,QeHTPaJIHaTa HepBHa CHCTeMa AKTHBHO Mo,n;yJIlIpa-
HlITe B'hJIHII B '1eCTOTHTe Ha aJIcpa-plIThMa Ha M03'hKa ca cnoc06HH ,n;a
rrpe,n;1I3BIIKaT He06paTliMII '1y,n;aTOCTH B rrOBe,n;eHlIeTO.
CBlI BHe,n;pjlBaT HarrpaBo B M03'hKa II
B nOJIeTaTa HM 3a6eJIe)J(IIMO ce YCKopjlBa rrcIIxo06pa60TKaTa Ha rro,n;-
C'h3HaHHeTO. KaTo aHTeHHII npe,n;aBaTeJIH Ha TaKIiBa B'hJIHII HaII'bJIHO
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CU2ypHocm
151
MoraT ,n;a ce H3rrOJI3BaT TeJIecpoHHIITe II pa,n;IIOJIIIHeHHIITe Ka6eJIH, Ka-
HaJIII3a,QlIoHHIITe, OTOrrJIIITeJIHIITe TP'h61I, KaKTO H TeJIeBII30p'hT, TeJIe-
. ..hOH'hT npOTHBOrro)J(apHaTa ClirHaJIII3a,Qml... ITo C'hI,QeCTBO pa60THaTa
'i' ' 6 " 6
arrapaTYPa peaJIHO MO)J(e,n;a 'h,n;e HarrpaBeHa B ",n;oMaWHH JIa opa-
TOpHH
Haco'leHoTo 06JI'h'IBaHe C'hC CBlI 06HKHoBeHo ce B KOH-
BYJICHH Ha KpaKaTa, rrapeHe B CThnaJIaTa, 60JIKII B ymHTe, oC'rpa 60JIKa
B O'IHTe, r.u;paKaHe B ,,6yqar.u;aTa" rJIaBa, y,n;apH B HOCOrJI'hTKaTa, c'hrrpo-
Bo,n;eHH OT KaWJIH,Qa, KlIxaHe H KallIJmHe, B'hB B'h3MO)J(Ha Ha
C'hp,QeTo II H3TP'hnBaHe Ha p'h,QeTe. Te3H CHMrrTOMH 061IKH0BeHO H3'1e3-
BaT CJIe,n; 1I3JIH3aHeTO Ha '10BeKa OT 30HaTa Ha 1I3JI'h'lBaHe.
(6). TOPCHOHHO H3JI'h'IBaHe
T031I oc06eH BH,lJ; cpH3H'1eCKO 1I3JI'h'lBaHe He ce eKpaHlipa OT rrplIpo,n;-
HaTa cpe,n;a H 3aTOBa, KaTO ro H3rrOJI3BaTe, MO)J(eTe JIeCHO ,n;a B'h36y,n;lITe
60JIeCT, ,n;a CHeMeTe He)J(eJIaTeJIHa B'h36y,n;a, ,n;a nOHlI)J(lITe HJIH
,n;a yseJIII'IHTe rrCHXocplI3H'1eCKaTa aKTIIBHOCT, ,n;a 1I30CTPHTe
)J(eJIaHlUl, ,n;a IIpOKapaTe B C'h3HaHlieTO Ha 06eKTa He06xo,lJ;HMaTa HH-
..
Cne,QlIaJIHaTa anapaTYPa 3a npaKTlI'leCKO rrpHJIO)J(eHlIe e 3aceKpeTe-
Ha II OCBeH TOBa H3IICKBa yqaCTHe Ha YMeJIO nOWOTBeH orrepaTOp. AKO
ce HaMB
aTe
Ha "HeJIeraJIHaTa" HaYKa, BHHarli HMaTe IIIaHC ,n;a
rrona.n;ueTe Ha 1I3MaMHHK HJIII IIIH30cppeHlI'leH cpaHaTHK.
)K. 30M6upaHe
I10,n; TepMHHa ,,30M6IIpaHe" ce no,n;pa36lIpa cpopCHpaHa 06pa6OTKa
Ha rro,n;C'h3HaHHeTO Ha '10BeKa, 6JIaro,n;apeHHe Ha KOflO TOH ry6H Ha-
CO'lBaI.QIDl KOHTaKT C MlIHaJIOTO CH II ce rrporpaMHpa Ha 6e3npeKOCJIOB-
HO IIpH TOBa HeOC'h3HaTO nO,lJ;'llIHeHlIe Ha 3anOBe,lJ;lITe Ha CBOjl rocrro-
I-hBeCTHH ca "TB'hP,n;o" H "MeKO" nClIXonporpaMlipaHe. "TB'hp,n;lIjI"
30M6H '1eCTO MO)J(eTe ,n;a rr03HaeTe no "eKCTepliepa" H MaHliepa Ha no-
Be,n;eHHe (OT'fY)J(,n;eHO JIII,Qe, HeC'hOTBeTCTBaI.Q1I Ha H3pa351BaHlITe C ,n;yMII
eMO,QHH, He06IIKHOBeH ,QB51T Ha 651JIOTO Ha O'lIITe, BjlJIa Ha
rJIaca, HenpaBHJIeH rOBOp, JIHrrca Ha crroc06HOCT 3a C'hCpe,n;OTO'laBa-
He, 3a6aBeHII peaK,QlIlI II .n;ynKII B rraMeTTa, HeJIerra CTepeOTHrrHOCT B
rrOBe,n;eHlIeTO .. ), ,n;OKaTO 30M61I no HIII,QO He ce OTJIlI'laBa OT
OCTaHaJIlITe xopa. v
I1pocpeCIiOHaJIHOTO 30MOIIPaHe no BapliaHT e KpaliHO CJIO)J(-
HO H II3HCKBa npe,Q1I3HO 1I3yqaBaHe Ha rrCIIXocplI31I0JIOrHfla Ha 06eKTa,
152
AHATOJlIttI1 T APAC
H3nOJI3BaHe Ha Cne.QHaJIHa Mep;H.QHHCKa H KOMnlOT'bpHa anapaTypa,
BKJIlOqBaHe Ha KOP;HPOBqH.QH H XHnHOTH3aTOpH, KOHTO BHpry03HO p;a
BJIap;e.llT TeXHHKaTa Ha MHOrOCTeneHHaTa XllnH03a.
3a p;a ce OplleHTllpaTe B TIlIIlftIHllTe nOXBam Ha 30M6llpaHe, l.Qe npep;-
CTaBHM H.IIKOH npOCTHqKll, HO YC'bB'bprneHCTBaHll B npaKTllKaTa MeTO-
)J;ll Ha "TB'bPP;O" nCllXHqeCKO npenporpaMllpaHe Ha qOSeKa.
MeTop; 1
- JIll.QeTO ce OTK'bCBa OT npe)J;llI.IIHaTa MY cpep;a, C KO.IITO KOHTaKTllTe
Han'bJIHO ce npeK'bCBaT;
- p;HeBHll.IIT pe)l(llM TP.II6Ba Hall'bJIHO p;a npOTllBOpeqll Ha
HllTe MY HaBll.Qll; .
- aKTllBHO ce npoBompa Hep;oBeplle K'bM KOllTO ca OKOJIO
)l(epTBaTa (HarJIO.ll JI'b)l(aT, nOMo P;OHOCHHqaT, 3JI06HO .113anJIaI.IIBaT ... );
- OC'bl.QeCTB.IIBaT ce HenpeK'bCHaTH )J;llCKpe)J;llmpaI.Qll aK.Qllll (nop;-
M.IIHa, oCMllBaHe ... ) Ha CK'bnO 3a p;ap;eHll.ll qOBeK;
- )J;lleTaTa e npep;llMHO B'br JIeXllp;paTHa II 6e3 6eJIThqllHll, KaTO npll
TOBa K'bM XpaHaTa II HanllTKllTe ce p;06aB.IIT npllThll.llBal.Qll C'b3HaHlleTO
npenapam (aMllHa311H ... ) H ce npllJIara HenpeMeHHo Hep;ocnllBaHe;
- npH p;ocTllraHeTo p;o C'bCTO.llHlle Ha Thno 6e3pa3JIllqne ce npo-
Be)l(p;aT He06xop;llMliTe Kop;llpaHH nOXBaTll Ha aKTllBHO BHyrneHlle II
XllnH03a.
MeTop; 2
T0311 BapliaHT ce C'bCTOll OT TPll nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHll CTeneHll:
- npoMllBaHe Ha M03'bKa (nOqHCTBaHe Ha naMeTTa OT BCllqKO, KoeTO
e B'b3nplleJIa p;o MOMeHTa, npeqynBaHe Ha BpeMeBo-npocTPaHcTBeHllTe
oplleHmpll, C'b3p;aBaHe Ha 6e3pa3JIHqlle II K'bM MllHaJIOTO, II K'bM 6'bp;e-
l.QeTo ... );
- CJIOBeCHO Kop;llpaHe (aKTllBHo B'b3p;eHCTBlle B'bpXY nCllXllKaTa, B
KO.llTO ce BHep;p.llBaT onpep;eJIeHllllp;ellll npep;cTaBll ... );
- 3aTB'bPMBaHe (KOHTPOJI P;OKOJIKO e YCBoeHo BHep;peHoTo ... ).
TeXHllKaTa 3a peaJI1l3a.QH.II Ha Te311 cpa311 0611KHoBeHo e CJIep;HaTa:
- KaTO ce 113nOJI3BaT XllnH03a II CllJIHll npllcnllBaTeJIHll (HanpliMep
6ap6aMliJI C p;06aBKa Ha aMllHa311H ... ), 06eKThT ce npllcnllBa 3a p;'bJIro
(3a OKOJIO 15-11Ha p;Hll), npll TOBa p;Ba n'bTll B p;eHOHOl.QlleTO ro rnOKll-
paT C eJIeKTpllqeCKH TOK (B MaHHepa Ha KOHBYJICllBHaTa Tepanll.llnpll
aMnJIllryp;a Ha HMnYJICliTe p;o 150 BOJITa), KOHTO ce nYCKa npe3 rJIa-
BaTa;
l
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 153
- B npt),IJ;'bJI)l(eHlle Ha 10-15 P;Hll HenpeK'bCHaTO 24 qaca B HayI.IIHHIJ;H
ce B'bpm 3anliC Ha He06xop;llMOTO BHyrneHlle, a B Kpa.ll Ha BceKll ceaHC,
3a no-peJIecpHo B'b3nplieMaHe Ha BHep;p.llBaHaTa IfHcpopMa.u;ll.ll, 06eKT'bT
ce nop;JIara Ha p;eHCTBlle Ha eJIeKTPornoK, HO B T0311 CJIyqaH eJIeKTPop;ll-
Te ca npllKpeneHll K'bM KpaKaTa;
- 06eKThT ce Thnqe C HapKoTll.u;ll II HeBpOJIellTll.u;ll, KOliTO nOTliCKaT
BOJI.IITa My (aMllHa311H ... ); Ha T0311 CPOH ce npOBe)l(p;aT MHOrOqaCOBll
pa3rOBopll, no BpeMe Ha KOliTO ce npOBep.llBa P;OKOJIKO p;06pe e yCBoe-
HO BHyrneHlleTO.
TOBa e B3allMH01l3rop;Ha pa3M.IIHa, npll KO.IITO 3a peaJIHO C'bp;eHCTBlle
llJIli C'brJIaClle 3a C'bTPY,IJ;HHqeCTBO 06eKThT nOJIyqaBa onpep;eJIeHO B'b3-
Harpa)l()J;eHlle.
I10)J;Kyll'bT HaH-qeCTO ce 113n0Jl3Ba 3a:
- npllBJIHqaHe K-bM C'bTPY,IJ;HHqeCTBO;
- nonyqaBaHe Ha llHcpopMa.u;ll.II;
- CKJIOmlBaHe K'bM ep;HOKpaTHO p;eHCTBlle (liJIli K'bM CJIY)f(e6HO 6e3-
p;eHCTBlle );
- C'b3p;aBaHe Ha KOMnpOMaT (TeXHllKa Ha npOBOKa.Qll.llTa ... ).
I10P;KynoT qeCTO ce C'bqeTaBa c rnaHTa)!( (nop;CJIa)l()J;aHe Ha rOpqll-
Bll.II xan ... ) II C y6e)l(P;eHlle (P;PY)I(eCKa nop;Kpena ... ).
I1Pll COHp;llpaHeTO P;aJIli nOP;KYn'bT 611 MOr'bJI p;a CB'bPllIll ycneI.IIHO
pa60Ta ce pa3rJIe)l(p;a p;OClleTO Ha 06eKTa, KaTO ce 06p'bl.Qa BHHMaHlle
Ha MOMeHTllTe, KOllTO CBllp;eTeJICTBaT 3a rOTOBHOCT p;a B3eMe no,IJ;KYll:
- KOHKpeTHll qepm Ha xapaKTepa (3aBllCTJIliBOCT, 6e3rpll)l(lle, llM-
nYJICllBHOCT, aJIqHOCT, BHYrnaeMOCT .. );
- pliCKOBaHOCT;
- HaMe.u;ll II CJIYXOBe;
- npe.u;ep;eHTll B MllHaJIOTO;
- 113pa3.11BaHll npeTeH.u;llll II peaJIHll B'b3MO)l(HOCTll;
- 3HaqllMll JIll.u;a B 06Kp'b)l(eHlleTO ()I(eHa, p;e.u;a, JI106oBHllIJ;a ... ) H
npe.n,nOJIaraeMliTe liM HY)I(P;ll;
- HaJIllqHllTe 611TOBll II MaTepllaJIHll YCJIOBll.ll;
- cHrya.u;ll.llTa 3a MOMeHTa (MaTepllaJIHll3aTPY,IJ;HeHH.IIII TPYP;HOCTH
B KapHepaTa, BHe3anHO B'b3HllKHaJIa He06xop;llMOCT OT Hel.QO ... );
- X0611 II MaHlili.
154
AHATOJlI.11i1 TAPAC
B KaqeCTBOTO Ha npH 06HKHOBeHO ce H3-
nOn3BaT:
- 3HaqHTenHH MaTepHanHH H HMYru;eCTBO
(Banyra, napH, aHTHKBapHaT, Ha H3KyCTBOTO, KOnH, eneK-
TPOHHKa, )KHJIHID;e, 3eMH, 6H3HeC H ... );
- Ha 06eKTa H Ha 6nH3KHTe My
pOHBaHe HnH 3a pa60Ta, BKapBaHe B npeCTH)I(eH By3, npo-
Ha CK'bn Ha MHOrO HHCKa OCHrypHBaHe Ha BH3a,
3HaqHTenHO CnY)l(e6HO ... );
- nOTPe6HOCTH 3a X06HTO MH
npeCTH)I(HH 3an03HaHCTBa, )l(enaHa ... ).
B'b3 OCHOBa Ha cpaKTYPaTa OT MO)l(e:
- ce (MH ce ynoBH) MOMeHT'bT Ha oCTPa nOTPe6-
HOCT Ha 06eKTa H 6nH3KHTe MY OT napH (3ary6a OT Xa3apT,
MOCT H3nnaTH CTap BHe3anHa B'b3MO)l(HOCT ce C
Heru;O )l(enaHO, H3qe3BaHe HnH Ha B3eTa BpeMeHHO
Beru; ... );
- ce npeMO)l(H 3a OrpaHuqeHO BpeMe HHKaKBa HHTepeCHa
3a 06eKTa (HnH 3a m06HMHTe MY xopa ... ) Beru;; npH TOBa npeMaraID;H-
HT H MOraT He ce n03HaBaT HnH n'bK ca H
C'bru;o
- ce npHCTPaCTH 06eKT'bT K'bM napHTe, KaTO nOCTeneHHO ce pa3-
nanBa aneTHT'bT MY (npH TOBa TPH6Ba ce 3Hae, qe no-neCHO e ce
HaBHK, OTKOnKOTO ce OTBHKHe OT Hero ... ), a TOBa 3a
O " H BH ce HCKaT ycnyrH;
- nOCTeneHHO ce H30CTPH 3aBHCTTa Ha 06eKTa H Ha HerOBH 6nH3-
KH K'bM npeYCITHBaID; Konera HnH KaTO My ce IIIaHC'bT
BHCOKOTO MaTepHanHO MH npeCTH)l(HO paBHHru;e Ha noc-

- MonHT 06eKTa 3a ycnyra, KaTO MY B TaKaBa
cpopMa, KOHTO e OTKa)l(e HnH ce 3aKaqH 3a Heru;o
3a 6HneTH 3a 6yrHnKa xy6aBo BHHO ... ); TOBa npeqyn-
Ba B'bTPeIIIHaTa 6apHepa H 06nerqaBa B'b3MO)l(HOCTTa 3a

IIpH C KapHepa, HnH YCTPOllBaHe
MHHaBa 6n'bcpHparu;HHT BapHaHT, KoraTO OT CTPaHuqeH H3TOqHHK
BapHTenHO ce 3Hae 3a Ha6eM3aHO C'b6HTHe, HO TO ce KaTO
np06HBHO 3a OqaKBaHa ycnyra.
Hapbl.JHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm 155
[OTOBHOCTTa ce "B3eMe Ha p'bKa" ce no oquTe H no
Ha Xn'b3raBH KaKTO H no Ha noc-

Ha (npHKO OT p'bKa B p'bKa, qpe3 KypHep, C
M}'IIIKaHe B qeKMe,lJ,)KeTO Ha 6lOPOTO HJIH B ,lJ,)Ko6a, TPeTH
C 3aITHC 3a H3nnamaHe Ha 3a HeC'bru;eCTBy-
Bama pa60Ta ... ) 3aBIICII OT peanHaTa H MHCTOTO Ha
(Ha pa60Ta, Ha 106Mell, Ha noquBKa ... ) II TPH6Ba He e OCK'bp6HTeneH
(MaKap II He BHHam ... ) 3a nonyqaTeM.
IIplI -TOBa He 6HBa ce 113KnlOqBa H pa3BHTHe Ha
c'b6HTHHTa (BHe3anHO cpopManHO rpy6a H3Ma-
Ma ... ) H BIIHarH ce HMa rOTOBHOCT 3a Hall-HenpHHTHH
)KenaTenHO e Ha Ha
3acpHKCHpaH (pa3ITHCKa, 6emI3aHH BeID;H, H
3anHCH ... ), KaTO no T03H HaqHH ce nonyqaBa KOMITpOMaT, KOllTO)J;a
113nOnlBaH B
4. WaHTa>t< C KOMnpOMaT
IIIaHTmK ce nonYMpeH Ha
npH KOllTO cy6eKT'bT e nOCTaBeH H360p: HnH TOll ru;e H3IT'bnHH
BCuqKlI H3HCKBaHHH Ha IllaHTa)I(HpaID;HH, HnH onOpOqaBaID;aTa ro HH-
ru;e Ha
H OC'bru;eCTBHBaHeTO Ha IIIaHTa)l(a H3HCKBaT peanH-
Ha MepOnpHHTHH KaTO:
- T'bpCeHe Ha ccpepH 3a peanHa YH3BHMOCT Ha o6eKTa;
- H360p Ha KOHKpeTeH Ha IIIaHTa)l(a;
- YCTaHOBHBaHe Ha xopaTa, 3a KOHTO 06eKTa e
He)l(enaTenHO 3HaHT OqepHHru;H ro
- H ocpopMneHHe Ha KOMnpoMaTa - HanuqeH MH
HO
- TaKTHKaTa H CTHna Ha IIIaHTa)l(a, BKmOqHTenHO H
MaTa H Ha npeMBHBaHe Ha KOMnpoMaTa;
- nnaHHpaHe H Ha no pa3KnamaHe BOMTa Ha
06eKTa;
- H360p Ha MOMeHT H MHCTO 3a OC'bru;eCTBHBaHe Ha

156 AHATOnltl1il T APAC
- rrpeMIICIDlHe Ha rrOBep;eHIIeTO rrpII pa3JIIIqHII (B TOBa qIICJIO II MaJI-
KOBepmITHII) peaKQIIII Ha 06eKTa II p;pyrII 3aTPyp;HeHII5.!, B'b3MO)J(HII rrpII
OCHOBHII5.! OrrIIT 3a rrop;Kyrr.
IIJ;e pa3rJIep;aMe Te3II aCrreKTII MaJIKO rro-rrOp;p06HO.
(1). T'bpCeHe Ha eJIeMeHTII 3a peaJIHa Y5.!3BIIMOCT Ha 06eKTa
BCIIqKO, KoeTO e CK'brrO 3a 06eKTa II KoeTO TOH ce cTpaxYBa BHe-
3arrHO p;a He 3ary6II (KapIIepa, rrOJIO)J(eHIIe B 06rn;eCTBOTO, JIl060BTa
Ha )J(eHa, rn;aCTIIeTO Ha p;eQaTa, 6II3Heca CII, rrop;KperraTa II YBa)J(eHIIe-
TO Ha KOHKpeTHII JIIIQa, <pII3IIqeCKaTa 6e30rraCHOCT, BKJIlOqIITeJIHO II
CIIrypHOCTTa Ha CBOIITe rrpIIB'bp3aHOCTII, IIMyrn;ecTBeHOTO oCIIryp5.!-
BaHe ... ), e C<pepaTa Ha HerOBaTa JIIIqHa Y5.!3BIIMOCT. 3a p;a ce orrpep;ejIII
T5.!, Tp5.!6Ba:
- p;a ce pa3r JIep;a JIIIqHOTO p;OCIIe Ha 06eKTa II p;a ce oT6eJIe)J(aT
OCHOBHIITe MOTIIBaQIIII, HaBIIQII, CTpeMe)J(II, )J(eJIaHII5.! II rrpIIB'bp3a-
HOCTII, KaKTO II p;a ce OQeH5.!T HerOBIITe rrCIIXIIqeCKII, MOpaJIHII II BOJIe-
BII KaqeCTBa (CJIa60CTII Ha xapaKTepa, C'b06pa3IITeJIHOCT, Herrpep;c-
Ka3yeMocT, YMeHIIe p;a XIITpYBa, IIHaT, IIMrrYJICIIBHOCT, CaMOJIIO-
6IIe ... );
- p;a ce 06MIICJIII C'b3p;aJIaTa ce cIIryaQII5.! II p;a ce rrpeQeHII KaK T5.! 6II
MOrJIa p;a ce II3rrOJI3Ba 3a 3aCIIJIBaHe Y5.!3BIIMOCTTa Ha 06eKTa (HarrpII-
Mep, OqaKBaHKII rrOBIIIIIeHIIe B cny)J(6aTa, 06eKT'bT CTaBa rrO-qyBCTBII-
TeJIeH K'bM BC5.!KaK'bB BIIp; KOMrrpOMaT, OTKOJIKOTO B rrepIIOp;IITe, KoraTO
TaKaBa rrepcrreKTIIBa rro C'brn;eCTBO H5.!Ma ... ).
(2). J1:360p Ha rrpep;MeTa Ha IIIaHTa)!(a
CJIep; rrpeQII3Ho OQeH5.!BaHe Ha IIH<popMaQII5.! II Ha C06CT-
BeHIITe B'b3MO)J(HOCTII 3a rrOJIyqaBaHe (IIJIII <pa6pIIKYBaHe) Ha He06xo-
p;IIMIITe <paKTII MO)J(eTe p;a TeMaTa Ha Ha6eJI5.!3aHII5.! IIIaHTa)!(
C II3rrOJI3BaHeTO Ha:
- orrOpOqaBarn;II 06eKTa MaTepIIaJIII, crroc06HII p;a rrOrrpeqaT Hl:l Ka-
pIIepaTa My IIJIII 6II3Heca (YKpIIBaHII <paKTII OT 6IIorpa<pII5.!Ta, KaKTO II
rpeIIIKII II rrporrYCKII B pa60TaTa, Kpa)J(6a Ha CJIY)J(e6Ha IIH<popMaQII5.!,
3JIoyrroTPe6II II rrpeCThrrJIeHII5.!, C'bMHIITeJIHII BP'b3KII, MOpaJIHa
HeqIICTOrrJI'bTHOCT ... ) ;
- KOMrrpOMeTIIparn;II p;aHHII, crroc06HII p;a pa3BaJI5.!T OTHOIIIeHII5.!Ta
Ha 06eKTa C'bC 3HaqIIMII 3a Hero JIIIqHOCTII (OqepH5.!HeTO lIM IIJIII rrpep;a-
TeJICTBO, 3ary6a Ha JIIIqHaTa perryTaQII5.!, "rpeXOBe" Ha 6JIII3KII xopa ... );
- CKaHp;aJIHII <paKTII, 5.!BHO crroc06HII p;a rrory65.!T )J(lIBOT. (orro-
pOqaBarn;II IIHTIIMHII BP'b3KII, IIIOKIIparn;II rrOCThrrKII ... );
L
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CU2ypHocm
157
- OqepH5.!rn;II MaTepIIaJIII 3a 6JIII3KII Ha 06eKTa JIIIQa (H5.!KaKBa )J(eHa,
6JIII3KII rrpII5.!TeJIII, POP;HIIHII, p;eQa ... ), KOIITO 6IIXa MOrJIII p;a C'bCIIII5.!T
QeJIII5.! lIM )J(IIBOT;
- peaJIHII IIJIII II3<pa6pIIKYBaHII KOMrrpOMeTIIparn;II p;aHHII OT
KpIIMIIHaJIeH xapaKTep.
Yp;ap'bT rro ep;Ha OT qyBCTBIITeJIHIITe 30HII 06IIKHOBeHO ce rrpeHaC5.! II
B'bpXy p;pyrIITe. HarrpIIMep KOMrrpOMeTIIpaHeTO B pa60TaTa MO)J(e p;a
p;oBep;e p;o BJIOIIIaBaHe Ha OTHOIIIeHII5.!Ta C'bC 3HaqIIMII JIIIQa (rropap;II
3ary6a Ha peIIyTaQII5.!Ta) II p;o Kpax B )J(IIBOT (rropap;II 3ary6a Ha
COQIIaJIHII5.! CTaTyT). I
(3). Orrpep;eJI5.!He Ha xopaTa, 3a KOIITO crropep; 06eKTa e KpaHHo He-
)J(eJIaTeJIHO p;a 3Ha5.!T OqepH5.!rn;II ro P;aHHII
06eKT'bT MO)J(e B'b06rn;e p;a He ce TPorHe, aKO orrOpOqaBarn;IITe ro
CBep;eHII5.! CTIIfHaT P;O H5.!KaKBO JIIIQe, HO B C'brn;OTO BpeMe e
rOTOB Ha caMO II caMO rrop;06HII <paKTII p;a He 6'bp;aT pa36paHII
OT Harr'bJIHO KOHKpeTeH qOBeK.
TIop;rOTB5.!HKII ce 3a IIIaHTa)!(a, e He06xop;IIMO MHoro 5.!CHO p;a orrpe-
p;eJIIITe KOH crropep; 06eKTa e KpaiiHo He)J(eJIaTeJIHO p;a 3Hae 3a p;ap;eH
KOMrrpOMaT (HaqaJIHIIK'bT B pa60TaTa, rrapTHbOp'bT B 6II3Heca, 3HaqIIMII
JIIIQa, CKaHp;aJIHII rrpII5.!TeJIII II HerrpII5.!TeJIII, rrOTeHQIIaJIHII
BparoBe, OpraHIITe Ha rrOJIIIQII5.!, Ha B'bTPeIIIHIITe pa60TII II
3a cIIrypHocT ... ) II p;a aKQeHTIIpaTe B'bpXy B'b3MO)J(HOCTTa 3a
rrpep;aBaHe Ha MaTepIIaJIa IIMeHHO B Te3II p'bQe.
,(4). TIop;60p II O<popM5.!He Ha KOMrrpoMaTa, BKJIlOqIITeJIHO pa3pa-
60TKa II rrpoBe)J(p;aHe Ha aKQIIII, p;IIcKpep;IITIIparn;II 06eKTa
<I>aKTIITe, HaCOqeHII K'bM KOMrrpoMeTIIpaHe Ha 06eKTa, MoraT p;a
6'bp;aT CJIep;HIITe:
- rronyqeHII rrpII pa3pa60TKaTa Ha qOBeKa;
- rrpep;rrOJIaraeMII, HO OT HIIKoro HerrOTB'bpp;eHII;
- IIJIII II3Q5.!JIO II3<pa6pIIKYBaHII, HO B 06rn;II JIIIHIIII rrpaBp;o-
rrop;06HII;
- YMeJIO IIHcrrIIpIIpaHII (T. e. YMIIIIIJIeHO cKpoeHII).
3ap;eHCTBaHeTO Ha BC5.!Ka OT Te3II rpyrrII lIMa CBOII oc06eHocm:
- rrOJIyqeHIITe <paKTII rro B'b3MO)J(HOCT TP5.!6Ba p;a 6'bp;aT p;oKYMeHTII-
paHII (ayp;IIO- II BIIp;e03aIIIIcII, cxeMII II CHIIMKII, KOrrII5.! OT Ba)J(HII p;oKY-
MeHTII, cBIIp;eTeJICTBa Ha orrpep;eJIeHII JIIIQa ... ), 3a p;a He rrpep;II3BIIKaT y
HIIKoro orrpaBp;aHII C'bMHeHII5.!;
158 AHATOJlItlI1 T APAC
- rrpep;rrOJIaraeMMTe cpaKTM ce M3Be)KP;aT B'b3 OCHOBa Ha CrpaHMqHM
p;aHHM M HaH-qeCTO ce M3rr0JI3BaT KaTO p;Orr'bJIHMTeJIHM;
- M31<)'CHO M3cpa6pMI<)'BaHMTe cpaKTM ce M3rOTBHT, KaTO ce M3Ba)K)J;aT
OT KOHTeKCTa Ha p;eHCTBMTeJIHM M3Ka3BaHMH M OOCThrrKM Ha MH)J;MBM)J;a
C'bC CrreU;McplfqHa MHTeprrpeTaU;MH, OTKJIOHHBaru;a aKu;eHTa B H)')KHaTa 3a
BaC rrOCOKa; B CBeTJIMHaTa Ha Ope)J;llIeCTBaru;MTe MCTMHCKM p;06aBeHMTe
M3MMCJIeHM cpaKTM M3rJIe)Kp;aT MHOrO peaJIHM (p;06aBeHMTe cpaKTM MO-
raT p;a 6'bp;aT M MCTMHCKM, HO M3BJIe1feHM OT p;pyro BpeMe M p;pyra CMTY-
aIJ;MH; p;OCTa rrepCOeKTMBeH e BapMaHThT, KoraTO CPOH'bT e OCMrypeH OT
M3MMCJIeHM cpaKTM, B'bpXy Hero peaJIHMTe 3ByqaT KaTO KOMrrpOMaTM;
- YMeJIO MHcrrMpMpaHMTe cpaKTM ca OOTMMaJIeH BMP; KOMrrpOMaT, aKO
B MMHaJIOTO M B HaCTOHru;eTO Ha p;ap;eH lfOBeK He ce HaMMpaT HBHM 00-
BO)J;M MJIM HHMa BpeMe (MJIM B'b3MO)KHOCT) 3a rrpeU;M3Ha rrpOBepKa Ha
)KMBOTa MY. TMrr'bT Ha MHCIIMpHpaHMH cpaKT 3asMCM OT OClIXocpM3M1feC-
KMTe oc06eHOCTM Ha 06eKTa, OT HaBMU;MTe MY, 06CTaHOBKaTa, B'b3MO)K-
HOCTMTe Ha MaHMIIYJIaTOpa M Ha6eJIH3aHHaTa HaCOKa Ha KOMopOMeTM-
paHe, KaTO ce MMa rrpep;BMp;, qe Heru;o, KoeTO 6M M3rJIe)K)J;aJIO 3aIIJIaIllM-
TeJIHO 3a e)J;MH, MO)Ke B'b06ru;e p;a He rporHe p;pyr qOBeK. H5u<OM OT MH-
CrrMpMpaHMTe cpaKTM ca yP;06HM KaTO Cp;'bp)Karu;M M p;orr'bJIBaru;M, OpM TOBa
BCM1fKM C'b3p;ap;eHH cHryau;MH rpH6Ba p;a ca TOlfHO cpHKcHpaHH H P;01<)'-
MeHTHpaHM.
HaH-rrpOCTMTe HHCIIMpHpaHM cMTYau;MM MoraT p;a 6'bp;aT HarrpHMep
CJIep;HHTe:
- B'bBJIuqaHe Ha 06eKTa B HHKaKBa a6coJIloTHo 6e306Hp;Ha Hecpop-
MaJIHa opraHH3aIJ;MH (Kp'b)KOK, KJIy6 . ), Kono BHe3aOHO ce OKa3Ba 13pa)K-
p;e6Ha 3a 06ru;eCTBOTO HJIH 3a KOHKpeTHa rpyrra xopa;
- MOJI6a K'bM 06eKTa 3a He3Ha1fMTeJIHa ycnyra (p;a HaMHHe HHK'bp;e H
p;a npep;ap;e Heru;o . ), Kono nocpep;CTBOM rrpOMHHa Ha aKu;eHTa He 6H
H3rJIe)K)J;aJIa Be1fe TOJIKOBa 6e306M)J;HO;
- rrOp;XB'bpJIHHe Ha HHKaKBH KOMnpoMemparu;M Beru;M (HapKOTMu;H,
p;HcKeTa C KOHcpHP;eHU;HaJIHa HHcpopMaIJ;MH, op'b)J;Me Ha y6HHCTBO . ) Ha
06eKTa (B )KHJIHru;eTO MY, B ocpHca, B qaHTaTa .. ), 3a KoeTO ce c'b06ru;asa
B nHKOBMH MOMeHT Ha rnaHTa)Ka, TaKa 1fe TOH npOCTO Beqe HHMa B'b3-
MO)KHOCT p;a ce H36aBH OT nOp;XB'bpJIeHMTe Heru;a;
- H33eMBaHe OT qOBeKa no pa3JIuqHH HaqMHH (Kpa)K6a, H3MaMa ... )
Ha Hepa3rJIarnaeMH pa60THH p;OKYMeHTH, 1fHeTO H3qe3BaHe 6H p;OBeJIO
P;O rOJIeMM HerrpMHTHOCTM 3a Hero (npH TOBa OT THX MO)Ke p;a ce Hanpa-
BH KonHe HJIH Te p;a 6'bp;aT B'bpHaTMnpH rnaHTa:>Kft . );
- npo6yrBaHe Ha ceKCYaJIeH napTHbOp Ha 06eKTa C nOCJIep;Baru;o
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
159
cpHKCHpaHe Ha HHTHMHOTO 06m:ysaHe HJIH 3anJIaXa OT 06BHHeHHe 3a
H3HaCHJIBaHe;
- MHCu;eHHpaHe Ha KpHMMHaJIHa cHryau;mI (aBapMH, y6HiicTBO, H3-
HaCHJIBaHe, rpa6e)K, ThprOBHH C HapKOTHu;M, naJIe)K, Kpa)K6a .. ), B KOH-
TO ce npMIIMCBa B'bHIllHO npaBp;onop;06HO yqacTHe Ha o6eKTa
- cpaJIrnHcpHU;HpaHe Ha pa3JIuqHM p;oKYMeHTM 3a
npep;aTeJICTBO Ha 06eKTa
(5). Onpep;eJIHHe Ha TeXHMKaTa H TaKTMKaTa Ha rnaHTa)Ka
I1PH rnaHTa)Ka 06HKHoBeHo ce H3nOJI3BaT CJIe)J;HMTe nop;xoTTU: ro-
"( 6 ........ "
peru; nop; co CTBeHO HMe), "cryp;eH" (nop; UV)KP;O HMe) H 6e3KoHTaK-
"( OJ"
TeH H3u;HJIO aHOHMMeH).
3a p;a npMTHcHeTe 06eKTa p;o CTeHaTa, rpH6Ba:
- p;a p;eMoHcrpHpaTe KOJIKO cepHo3eH H p;ol<)'MeHTMpaH e KOMnpo-
MaThT;
- p;a y6e)J;MTe 1fOBeKa B TB'bpp;aTa CH peIllMMOCT p;a 3ap;eHcTBaTe T03H
KOMllpOMaT, aKO 06eKThT npOp;'bJI)KH p;a ce On'bBa;
- y6e)J;MTeJIHo p;a MY p;OKa)KeTe, 1fe Ha TOBa c'bo6ru;eHMe ru;e nOB5IpBaT;
- p;OCThnHO p;a MY OllHIlleTe peaJIHHTe nocJIep;cTBMH OT npH6'bp3a-
HMH He06MHCJIeH OTKa3;
- p;a Ka)KeTe Ha o6eKTa KaK TOH 6H MOr'bJI p;a ce OllMTa p;a ce 3aru;MTM
H 3aru;0 TOBa 6H 6HJIO 6e3CMHCJIeHO (T.e. p;a y6HeTe Hap;e)Kp;aTa MY);
- npep;eJIHO p;a OrpaHuqMTe BapHaHTHOCTTa Ha H360pa MY;
- p;a ro npHmCKaTe C cpaKTopa BpeMe;
- p;a ce 3acrpaxoBaTe C oru;e HHKaK'bB "npeceH" KOMnpOMaT.
TaKTMKaTa Ha MaHMrryJIHpaHe C MaTepHaJIMTe ce orrpep;eJIH OT C'bru;-
HOCTTa Ha cpHrypHparu;MTe cpaKTM, THXHaTa p;oI<)'MeHTMpaHOCT, xapaK-
Tepa H onMTa Ha rnaHTa)KHparu;MH, KaKTO H OT oc06eHOCTMTe Ha cMTYa-
U;MHTa.
<I>aKTMTe 06HKHOBeHO ce npep;HBHBaT:
- BHe3anHO (rnOKMpaHKM o6eKTa);
- nopep;HO (cnopep; CTeneHTa Ha HapaCTBaHe Ha CHJIaTa HM).
OT TaKTMKaTa Ha rrpep;HBHBaHe Ha MaTepHaJIa rrOHHKora 3aBHCH yc-
neX'bT Ha u;HJIaTa aKU;HH. 3aru;OTO, aKO 06eKThT e "BOJIeBH" H nOHece
BHe3arrHOCTTa Ha Hanap;eHMeTO, TOH rrOCJIe ru;e pearHpa cJIa60 Ha OCTa-
HaJIMTe cpaKTH, a aKO HaJIlfqHaTa cpaKTYpa ce nop;aBa cnopep; CTerreHTa
Ha HapaCTBaHe Ha cepH03HOCTTa iI, TO HMa BepOHTHOCT OT ap;arrTanHH
.K'bM HeH H HaH-CHJIHMHT cpaKT Be1fe He 6M MOr'bJI p;a OKa)Ke He06xop;H-
MOTO eMOu;MOHaJIHO B'b3p;eHCTBHe.
160 AHATOJH11i1 T APAC
I1pM npe,WIB5IBaHe Ha H5IKaKBM .n;OKYMeHTM Hai1:-.n;06pe e .n;a ce .n;e-
MOHCTPMpaT TeXHM KOnM5I, 3a .n;a He MO)Ke cy6eKTbT M3Be.n;H'b)K .n;a rpa6-
He (M.n;a YHMlQO)Kll) OpMfMHaJIMTe .n;OpM aKO no.n;06Ha onaCHOCT e C'bB-
ceM He3HaqMTeJIHa.
I1PM JInnCaTa Ha peaJIHM .n;0KYMeHTM e B'b3MO)KHO 6JI'b<pMpaHeTO, KaTO
C'b06lQMTe Ha 06eKTa, qe Te C'blQeCTBysaT (MaKap qe aKO 06eKT'bT e
YBepeH, qe rM H})Ma, no.n;06HM 3a5IBJIeHM5I caMO 6Mxa no.n;cMJIM Bep05IT-
HaTa C'bnpOTMBa ... ), MJIM KOHKpeTHO .n;a nOCOqMTe K'b.n;e ce HaMMpaT, KaTO
npOM3HeceTe C YCMMBKa, qe 6MxTe MOrJIM.n;a np06BaTe.n;a B3eMeTe T03M
KOMnpoMaT (TOBa e .n;ocTa e<peKTMBHO, 3alQOTO nopa)K.n;a BneqaTJIeHMe,
qe IIlaHTa)KMpaI.QM5IT e ysepeH B C06CTBeHMTe CM CMJIM). He ce OnMTBaH-
Te .n;a 6JI'b<pMpaTe, aKO CM5ITaTe, qe MoraT .n;a BM YJIMqaT.
I1PM M3nOJI3BaHe Ha npe.n;nOJIaraeMM <paKTM Tp5I6Ba .n;a ce MaHM-
nYJIMpa KpaHHo BHMMaTeJIHO, peaJIHO OrpaHMqaBaHKM ce C HaMellM M
IIlerM M npOCJIe.n;5IBaHKM peaKllM5ITa Ha 06eKTa. ,UocTa nepcneKTMBHo
e n'bpBOHaqaJIHo.n;a no.n;XBaHeTe qOBeKa C HaMellM 3a H5IKaK'bB MHoro
Bep05ITeH, HO C'bBCeM He 5IBeH <paKT; npM TOBa K'bM peIIlMTeJIeH Ha-
TMCK ce npeMMHaBa e.n;Ba KoraTO ce n05IBM C'bOTBeTHaTa peaKllM5I OT
CTpaHa Ha 06eKTa. B npe.n;nOJIaraeMM5I KOMnJIeKT OT lQeKOTJIMBM
MaTepMaJIM npe.n;nOJIaraeMOTO Tp5I6Ba .n;a ce BMeCTBa Me)K.n;y Han'bJI-
HO Ha.n;e)K.n;HOTO.
AKTMBHO onepMpaHKM C YMeJIO <paJIIIlmpMllMpaHMTe <paKTM, nOH5IKO-
ra MO)KeTe .n;a Ka3BaTe, qe TOBa CM e 'llICTa M3MMCJIMlla, a .n;pyr n'bT .n;a
TB'bp.n;MTe, qe e qMCTa MCTMHa. Ba)KHOTO e .n;a .n;eMoHcTPMpaTe B3aM-
MOBp'b3KaTa Me)K.IJ:Y <paJIIIlM<pMKaTa M MCTHHCKOTO M .n;a nocoqsaTe KOJI-
KO HeB'b3MO)KHO e 060CHoBaHo.n;a ce oTPMqa ,,<paKTYPaTa", KaKTO M TOBa,
qe BCfiqm 6Mxa B'b3npMeJIM MaTepMaJIa MMeHHO cnope.n; npe.n;nOJIO)Ke-
HM5ITa Ha IIlaHTa)KMpalQM5I.
I1PM "aTaKaTa" C MHcnMpMpaHM <paKTM e nOJIe3HO B'bB B'bPXOBM5I
MOMeHT Ha IIlaHTa)Ka .n;a C'b06I.QMTe Ha 06eKTa 3a nO.D:XB'bpJIeH 3a Hero
KOMnpOMaT, KaTO ro YBe.n;OMMTe, qe TOBa e caMO .n;pe6eH enM30.n; OT
nope.n;MllaTa no.n;06HM. 06eKTbT Be.n;Hara 6M MOf'bJI .n;a OlleHM .n;OKOJIKO
npaB.D:MBO e C'b06lQeHMeTO MJIM np5IKO, MJIM CJIe.n; KaTO n03B'bHM no TeJIe-
<pOHa.
I1PM M3pa3eHM KOJIe6aHM5I OT CTPaHa Ha MH.D:MBM.n;a nOH5IKOra He 6M
6MJIO JIOIIlO .n;a My nOKa)KeTe KOJIKO peIIlMTeJIHO CTe HaCTPoeHM .n;a a<p
M
-
IIlMpaTe KOMnpOMaTa, KaTO n03B'bHMTe no TeJIe<pOHa .n;o H5IKOe "onae-
HO" 3a IIlaHTaJlmpaHM5I M5ICTO MJIM n'bK KaTO n'bXHeTe .n;OKYMeHTMTe B
nJIMK C Ha.n;nMcaH B'bpXY Hero KOHKpeTeH He)KeJIaTeJIeH 3a qOBeKa a,n-
pec, C'bC 3anJIaXaTa .n;a ro nYCHeTe no nOlQaTa MJIM .n;a ro Bp'bqMTe qpe3
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
161
KypMep. BnpOqeM B'b3MO)KHO e M 6JI'bcpMpaHe C npa3eH, Beqe 3aneqa-
TaH nJIMK. .
060CHOBaHIIe, qe ~ nOB5IpBaT Ha onOpOqaBalQaTa IIHcpopMaU;II5I,
ce npaBII caMO B CJIyqaII qe T5I He e MHoro Ha.n;e)K,I:(Ha MJIII n'bK KoraTO
06eKThT e TB'bp,I:(e caMOYBepeH. OTHaqaJIO ce 065ICH5IBa 3alQo 6IIxa ITO-
B5IpBaJIII Ha ,I:(a,I:(eHo C'b06lQeHIIe, a cJIe,I:( TOBa - 3a nbBeqe y6e,I:(IITeJI-
HOCT - ce II3Ka3BaT II B'b3MO)KHII C'bMHeHII5I, BKJIlOqIITeJIHO II KaK BCfiq-
KM Te ce onpOBepraBaT.
OnMcaHMeTO Ha HenpM5ITHOCTMTe, KOIITO 6IIxa nOCJIe,I:(BaJIII OT pa3r-
JIaC5IBaHeTO Ha KOMnpOMaTa, lIMa CMIIC'bJI caMO ToraBa, KoraTO 06eK-
ThT e C OrpaHIIqeHO B'b06pa)KeHMe II e 5ICHO, qe TOH npOCTO He e B C'bC-
T05IHMe caM ,I:(a ou;eHII 3anJIaXaTa OT IIlaHTa)Ka. Hai1:-qecTO 06aqe npoc-
TO cmra II HaMeK'bT, KaTO ce lIMa npe,I:(BII,I:(, qe B'b06pa)KeHIIeTO ,I:(OpIICy-
Ba BCJIqKO OCTaHaJIO.
B KOHTaKTa C u;eJI IIlaHTa)K Tp5I6Ba BHIIMaTeJIHO ,I:(a ce CJIe,WIT BCfiq-
KM, np05IB5IBalQII ce B'bpXY JIIIu;eTO, B ,I:(BM)KeHM5ITa, rJIaca II <ppa3MTe Ha
qOBeKa peaKU;MII Ha Ha,I:(e)K.IJ:a II CJIe,I:( KaTO rII ,I:(OJIOBIITe, Be,I:(Hara,I:(a rII
HeYTPaJIII3IIpaTe C npe,I:(BapMTeJIHO nO,I:(6paHa aprYMeHTaU;M5I. MO)KeTe
,I:(a M3npeBapIITe 06eKTa, KaTO MY 06pMCYBaTe Y)K npen5ITCTBalQM Ha
IIlaHTa)Ka MepOnpM5ITM5I, cJIe,I:( KoeTO Han'bJIHO aprYMeHTIIpaHo ,I:(a rII
3a,I:(eHCTBaTe.
CJIe.n; KaT6 nOJIyqIITe C'brJIaCMeTO Ha 06eKTa 3a C'bTpY,I:(HIIqeCTBO,
TP5I6Ba Be.n;Hara ,I:(a ,I:(oKYMeHTIIpaTe cpaKTa (BM,I:(eO- II aY,I:(II03anMc, pa3-
nMcKa, CHMMKa ... ) M (no-cneU;IIaJIHO - npII II3cpa6pIIKYBaHa cpaKTYPa),I:(a
np06BaTe ,I:(a nOJIyqIITe OT CaMM5I Hero ,I:(On'bJIHIITeJIHO KOMnpOMeTIIpa-
lQa ro IIHcpopMaU;M5I MJIII n'bK TaKaBa 3a aBTopIITeTHII JIMu;a, KoeTO ,I:(a
nocny)KM KaTO CBII,I:(eTeJICTBO 3a IICKpeHOTO C'brJIaCIIe Ha 06eKTa.
(6).I1JIaHIIpaHe II npOBe)K,I:(aHe Ha enII30,I:(II 3a nOTMCKaHe BOJI5ITa Ha
qOBeKa
3a ,I:(a CTaHe Ha6eJI5I3aHII5IT 06eKT MaJIKO nO-CrOBOpqMB, e nOJIe3Ha
npe,I:(BapMTeJIHa nO,I:(rOTOBKa, opIIeHTIIpaHa K'bM nOTMCKaHe Ha BOJI5ITa
MY. I1pII TOBa ce II3nOJI3BaT CJIe,I:(HMTe TPIIKOBe:
- rpy60 TepopM3IIpaHe Ha qOBeKa C TeJIecpOHHII n03B'bH5IBaHII5I (II
,I:(eHeM, II HOlQeM), qeCTII "aHOHIIMKII" II HenOCpe,I:(CTBeHO cpII3MqeCKO
B'b3,I:(eifcTBMe;
- pa3npOCTpaH5IBaHe Ha M3MIICJIeHII CJIYXOBe 3a Y)K MMalQO M5ICTO
C'bTPy.n;HIIqeCTBO Ha )KepTBaTa C KOHKYpeHTIITe;
- cpa6pMKYBaHe Ha nOCJIaHII5I OT ,I:(eJIOBM napTHhopII M C'bpaTHIIU;II
C'bC 3anJIaXII 3a pa3nJIaTa 3apa,I:(II H5IKaKBO npe,I:(aTeJICTBO;
162 AHATOJU1t71 T APAC
- <pa6pUI<YBaHe Ha nOCJIaHMH OT m06MMM xopa, KOMTO C'h06lQaBaT
3a HeOqaKBaHO CK'hCBaHe Ha OTHOIIIeHM5ITa;
- MHCu:eHMpaHe Ha CJIyqaM, KOMTO ce B'h3npMeMaT KaTO 3JIOBelQM
3HaU;M;
- B'b3)l;eiicTBMe B'hPXy CJIYXOBaTa, HepBHaTa M 3pMTeJIHaTa CMCTeMa
Ha 06eKTa C nOMOlQTa Ha )l;eMOpaJIM3MpalQM C'h06lQeHM5I (CM'bPT MJIM
apeCT Ha 6JIM3KM, KpIDK6a M M3HaCMJIBaHe Ha )l;eTe, HanycKaHe Ha m06M-
MaTa C'bnpYTa, KpaX Ha peaJIHMTe HaJ];e)l()l;M . ), nCMXOnOTIlCKalQa MY3M-
Ka, 1lI0KMpal.QM M306paJKeHM5I (CHMMKa Ha C'hnpYTaTa B MHTMMeH KOH-
TaKT C H51KOrO . );
- MepOnpM5ITM5I, npe)l;CTaBeHM B pa3)l;eJIa 3a 3anJIaXMTe ..
qYJK)l;aTa BOM MOJKe )l;OCTa e<peKTIlBHO )l;a ce nOTMCKa C nOMOllJ,Ta
Ha CTaH)l;apTHM Me)l;MQMHCKM npenapaTII (TaryJI, TPM<pTa3MH, CMHqeu:,
XM)l;POXJIOPM)l; . ) Te3M BelQeCTBa TaHHO ce )l;06aB5IT B nMTMeTO MJIM B
xpaHaTa, a nOH5lKora ce "np06YTBaT" BMeCTO 06MqaHHMTe JIeKapCTBa.
(7). J1360p Ha MOMeHTa M M5ICTOTO 3a OC'blQeCTB5IBaHe Ha u:eHTPaJI-
HaTa aKIJ;M5I
DJIaronpM5!TeH MOMeHT npM npOBeJK)l;aHe Ha IIIaHTIDKa 06MKHoBeHo
B'b3HMKBa npM:
- KpaTKOBpeMeHHO nOHMJI(aBaHe Ha BOJIeBMTe KaqeCTBa Ha 06eKTa
(B pe3YJITaT Ha nO)l;fOTBMTeJIHMTe MepOnpM5ITM5I, MJIM
cMryaII:M5! . );
- KpaHHo HeJKeJIaHMe OT KOMnpOMeTMpaHe Ha qOBeKa (B nepMO)l;a Ha.
M3,IUlfaHe B KapMepaTa, Ha 6JIaJKeHOTO palnycKaHe CJIe)l; nOCTMrHaT yc-
nex ).
M5!CTOTO 3a OC'hlQeCTB5IBaHe Ha OCHOBHM5I enM30)l; 06MKHoBeHo ce
H36Mpa B 3aBMCMMOCT OT 06CT05ITeJICTBaTa, HO B C'hOTBeTCTBMe C'hC
CJIe)l;HMTe M3MCKBaHM5I:
- n'bJIHO OTC'hCTBMe Ha M3JIMllIHM xopa;
- HfoaHCMTe Ha 06cTaHoBKaTa no HMKaK'hB HaqMH He 6MBa )l;a C'b-
)l;eHCTBaT 3a nCMXOJIOrMqeCKa nO)l;Kpena Ha llIaHTaJKMpaHM5I;
- M3n'bJIHMTeMT Tp5l6Ba )l;a MMa TOqHa B'b3MOJKHOCT )l;a ce M3M'bKHe
npM aTaKyBalQa peaKQM5I OT CTPaHa Ha 06eKTa MJIM )l;pym B'h3HMKBalQH
M3HeHa)l;M;
- He 6MBa )l;a MMa HHKaKBa nOTeHQMaJIHa HenpM5ITHOCT, 3aCTPaIIIa-
BalQa JKMBOTa M 3)l;paBeTO Ha IIIaHTaJKMpalQH5I (6JIM30CT Ha JKeJIe30n'hT-
Ha JIMHM5I, M5!CTO, K'b)l;eTO ce C'b6MpaT HapKOMaHH .. ).
AKQM5ITa Ha IIIaHTIDK, OC'hlQeCTB5IBaHa Ha 51pKH51 <pOH Ha TOHM3MpalQa
PMTMMqHO-MapIIIOBa MeJIO)l;M5l npe)l;M3BMKBa YCHJIeHa BOJIeBa C'hnpOTHBa
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
163
Ha 06eKTa, )l;OKaTO <pOH'bT Ha POKMY3MKaTa nOpIDK)l;a arpeCMBHM TeH)l;eH-
U:MM. HanpOTMB, MepOnpM5lTIl5lTa, OC'blQeCTB5IBaHM npM nOCelQeHMe Ha
)l;HCKOTeKa, ca MHoro e<peKTMBHM, nopaJ];M TOBa qe CHJIHOTO 3ByqeHe M
u:seTOMY3MKaTa B'b3)l;eHCTBaT KaTO aJIKOXOJIa H nOTIlCKaT BOJI5lTa Ha qO-
BeKa, KaTO ro JIUIIlaBaT OT He06xo)l;HMaTa KOHu:eHTPMpaHOCT.
I1pM pa60Ta B "cry)l;eH" BapMaHT e B'h3MOJKHO:
- )l;a ce )l;OrOBOpMTe 3a cpelQa no TeJIe<pOHa, KaTO )l;eHCTBaTe OT MMeTO
Ha 3HaqMMO 3a o6eKTa JIMu:e;
- )l;a YCTaHOBMTe KOHTaKT C MH)l;MBM)l;a Ha YJIMQaTa MJIH )l;a Ce)l;HeTe
Ha HerOBaTa Maca B peCTopaHTa;
- )l;a OTIl)l;eTe HanpaBO B )l;OMa MY;
- KaTO pa3naJIHTe m060nHTCTBOTO Ha qOBeKa, )l;a ro M3BMKaTe Ha
H5IKaKBa TaHHCTBeHa cpelQa C nMCMO, nO)l;nHCaHO OT HeH3BeCTeH nO)l;a-
TeJI.
I1PH 6e3KOHTaKTHM5I 06HKHOBeHO ce H3n0JI3Ba e)l;HOCTPaHHM-
51T KaHaJI Ha <paKca HJIH TeJIe<pOHa, KJIenqHa HJIH KOCMH-
qeCKa Bp'b3Ka, KaTO nO)l;CMrypMTe BaIIIH5IT HOMep )l;a He MOJKe )l;a 6'b)l;e
3aceqeH HJIH KaTO M3nOJI3BaTe CTPaHMqHa a60HaTCKa JIHHM5I 6e3 3HaHH-
eTO Ha peaJIHM5I if C06CTBeHMK. B nocJIe)l;HM5I CJIyqaH HaH-npOCTO e )l;a
ce C)l;06HeTe C H51KaK'bB pa)l;HOTeJIe<pOH H KaTO M36epeTe 6H3Hecu:eHT'bp
MJIH ,,60raT )l;OM", )l;a ce pa3nOJIOJKMTe KpaH Hero M )l;a 3anOqHeTe )l;a
npOMeH51Te pa60THaTa qeCTOTa, )l;OKaTO T5I He C'bBna)l;He (opMeHTIlpaH-
KH ce no n05lBaTa Ha CMYl.QeHM5I ) C napaMeTPHTe Ha e)l;HH OT anapam-
Te, HaMHpalQH ce B crpaJ];aTa H )l;eHCTBal.QM 6e3 napoJIa. OlQe nO-Ha-
)l;eJK)l;Ho e )l;a ce M3n0JI3Ba HenO)l;JIeJKalQM5IT Ha 3aCHqaHe ,,)];BOH-
HHK" Ha perHcTPHpaHM5I OT H51KOrO M06M<p0H.
(8). I1peMHCJI5IHe Ha nOBe)l;eHHeTO npH peaKQHH Ha 06eK-
Ta H Bep05lTHM H3HeHa)l;H
MaKap )l;a e npaKTMqeCKH HeB'b3MOJKHO )l;a ce npe)l;BH)l;H BCHqKO,
nOJIe3HO e )l;a ce pa3rJIe)l;aT Bep05lTHMTe peaKU:MH Ha 06eKTa Ha maH-
TaJKa, opHeHTHpaHKH ce no TMna Ha nCMXHKaTa My H H5IKOH npeu:e-
)l;eHTH B MHHaJIOTO. 3a BC5IKa peaKU:H5I Ha qOBeKa ce 06MMCJI5I H OTBeT-
HOTO nOBe)l;eHMe.
BHHarM e JKeJIaTeJIHO )l;a npe)];BM)l;MTe:
- nJIaH 3a M3M'bKBaHe OT M5ICTOTO Ha C'b6HmeTO;
- npaB)l;ono)l;o6HM 0651CHeHM5I B cnyqaH Ha 3a)l;'hpJKaHe;
- KOnM51 BMeCTO 0pHrHHaJIM;
- <pM3MqeCKO npeB'b3XO)l;CTBO HaJ]; 06eKTa.
I1PM Heycnex Ha maHTIDKa ca B'b3MOJKHM:
164 AHATOJ1\t111 TAPAC
- ll'hJIHa )l;HCKpe)l;HTaU;H5I Ha 06eKTa (C'h3)l;aBaHe Ha npeu;e)l;eHT . );
- qaCTIftIHa )l;I1CKpe)l;HTau;H5I Ha o6eKTa, 3a)l;a MO)J(e TOM )l;o6pe )l;a yce-
TH cepHo3HocTTa Ha C06CTBeHOTO CH nOJIo)J(eHHe;
- 3aKOHcnHpHpaHH cHTyaU;HH ( C KaHaJIa 3a CBp'h3Ka C 06eKTa, B CJIy-
qaM 1{e TOM H3Be)l;H'h)J( ce oTMeTHe).
5. 3anJ\awBaHe
3anJIaUIBaHeTO e )l;paMaTH3HpaHa 3allJIaXa OT cl>H3J1qeCKO HJIH nCH-
XOJIOrHqeCKO HaCHJIHe Ha)l; 1{OBeKa H 6JIH3KHTe My C u;eJI nO)l;qHHHBaHe
Ha 06eKTa Ha 1{Y)J()l;a BOM. 3a pa3JIHKa OT pacl>HHHpaHI15I llIaHTa){( TyK He
ce BKJII01{Ba KOMnpOMeTHparu;a HHcl>0pMaU;I15I.
3anJIallIBaHeTO HaM-qeCTO ce H3rrOJI3Ba 3a:
- rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha HHcl>0pMau;H5I;
- Bep6YBaHe;
- HaCHJICTBeHO rrpHH)')J()l;aBaHe K'hM H5IKaKBO )l;eMCTBHe;
- "BKapBaHe B pe)l;" Ha caM03a6paBHJII15I ce 06eKT .
CTaH)l;apTeH MOTHBaTOp 3a nOBe)l;eHHeTO Ha 1{OBeKa npH aKu;I1H Ha
3arrJIallIBaHe e peaJIHOTO orraceHHe OT:
- cl>H3J1qeCKa CHrypHOCT (3a ce6e CH H 3a 6JIH3KHTe);
- 3ana3BaHe Ha C06CTBeHOCTTa CH; .
- HOpMaJIHO cl>YHKU;HoHHpaHe Ha C06CTBeHOTO )l;eJIO (6H3Hec,
X06H .. ).
I13nOJI3BaMKH qy)J()l;OTO qyBCTBO 3a cYpax, e rrOJIe3HO )l;a 3HaeTe, qe:
- H3BeCTHH ca H5IKOJIKO rpa)l;aU;HH Ha cYpaxa: ynJIaxa (n'hpBaTa pe-
aKU;HH Ha 3anJIaXaTa), TpeBora (qyBCTBOTO 3a HeOnpe)l;eJIeHOCT B 01.JaK-
BaHe Ha He6JIarorrpI15ITHO pa3BHTHe Ha C'h6HTI15ITa), 60H3'hH (peaKQHH
Ha peaJIHaTa BH)l;HMa 3anJIaxa), rraHHKa (HeKoHYpOJIHpyeM )J(HBOTHHCKH
cYpax);
- Bcem cy6eKT HMa npe)l;eJI Ha rrCHXJ1qeCKa H3)l;P'h)J(JIHBOCT, Ha)l; KOM-
TO TOM He e crroco6eH Ha rrO-HaTaThllIHa C'hnpOTHBa Ha eMOU;I15ITa Ha
cYpaxa, H3na)l;aMKH B XaOTJ1qHO nOBe)l;eHHe HJIH HHKaKBO Bu;enemlBaHe;
- llIOK'hT, B'h3HHKBaru; OT cYpaxa, 06HKHoBeHO npO)l;'hJI)J(aBa 15-30
MHHyTH;
- cl>H3HOJIOrH1{HHTe npOHBH Ha cYpaxa ca: YCHJIeHO C'hpu;e6HeHe,
TpenepeHe, CJIa60CT, MYCKYJIHa CKOBaHOCT, npeC'hXBaHe B YCTaTa H r'bp-
JIOTO, rrOTJIHBOCT, ra)l;eHe, CBeTOB'hpTe)J(, He)l;OCTHr Ha B'b3)l;YX, cna3MH
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 165
B KopeMa, 1{eCTH n03HBH 3a ypHHHpaHe, HenpOH3BOJIHO H3npa3BaHe Ha
CTOMaxa H nHK01.JHI15I Mexyp . ;
- B'b3)l;eMCTBaMKH B'bpxy rrCHXHKaTa, CTpaX'hT npe)l;H3BHKBa HapyllIe-
HIDI Ha B'b3npmITHeTo, pa3cYpoMBa naMeTTa H MHCJIeHeTO H He )l;aBa
B'b3MO)J(HOCT 3a C'bCpe)l;OT01.JaBaHe B H3B'hpllIBaHaTa pa60Ta;
- HaM-CHJIeH cYpax B'h3HHKBa npH HBHa 3anJIaXa 3a co6CTBeHI15I )J(H-
BOT H 3a )J(HBOTa Ha HaM-6JIH3KHTe Ha 'IOBeKa JIHu;a;
- KoraTO cy6eKThT CM5ITa, 'Ie HMa mIKaK'hB H3XO)l; OT C'h3)l;aJIOTO ce
nOJIO)J(eHHe, HO He MO)J(e )l;a ce B'b3nOJI3Ba OT Hero, ToraBa B'h3HHKBa
naHHKa;
- CYpaX'bT npe)l; HeH3BeCTHOTO e BHHarH rrO-M'b'IHTeJIeH OT cYpaxa
npe,n; BH)l;HMaTa H nOH5ITHa orraCHOCT; KoraTO xopaTa He 3Ha5IT KaKBO rH
01.JaKBa, 06HKHOBeHO 01.JaKBaT HaM-JIOllIOTO;
- 3a HapaCTBaHeTO Ha cYpaxa crroco6cTBa KaKTO npHHY)l;HTeJIHOTO
6e3,n;eMCTBHe, TaKa H 3ary6aTa Ha Ha,n;e)J()l;a H HeH3BeCTHOCTTa;
- CYpaX'bT OT CM'hpTTa ce 3aCHJIBa 3Ha1.JI1TeJIHO rro BpeMe Ha O'IaKBa-
HeTO if;
- HaM-CKJIOHHH ,n;a ce OT BCJ1qKO ca pa3Be)l;eHHTe, KaKTO H
paHO O)KeHeHHTe HJIH H3B'bpumJIHTe H5IKaKBO rrpaBOHapYllIeHHe.
113nOJI3BaMKH 3anJIaXaTa, HMaMTe npe)l;BI1)l;, 'Ie:
- PH3KOTO H3HCKBaHe, ,n;OrryCTHMO rro OTHOllIeHHe Ha caHrBHHHKa
HJIH cl>JlerMamKa, MO)J(e )l;a I;Ipe)l;H3BHKa B3pHB OT HerO)l;YBaHHe y XOJIe-
pHKa H nomCHaTOCT y MeJIaHXOJIHKa;
- YMopeHHTe cl>H3H1.JeCKH HJIH MOpaJIHO xopa ca 3Ha'IHTeJIHO no-rro-
KOpHH H na,n;aTJIHBH OT OTnO'iHHaJIHTe CH H caMOYBepeHHTe;
- cy6eKTHTe C'bC CHJleH THrr HepBHa CHCTeMa npH rrpeyMopa ce )l;'hP-
)KaT KaTO xopa OT cJIa6 rrCHXOTHrr;
- BHe3anHaTa rrpOMHHa B YCTaHOBeHHTe B3aHMOOTHOllIeHI15I y JIHu;aTa
C'bC cJla6 THn HepBHa CHCTeMa 06HKHOBeHO rrpe)l;H3BHKBaT rrCI1XOYpaBMa
HM, Ka3aHO no-npOCTO - 06'bpKaHOCT, cYpax H OT1.Ja5IHHe; npH xopaTa OT
CHJIeH rrCI1XOTHn Te3H peaKU;HH 06HKHOBeHO ca nO-He3a6eJIe)J(HMH;
- n:HraHHTe, KaKTO H eBporreMU;HTe C ThMHH O'IH H KOCH, ca MHoro
nO-HenO)l;aTJIHBH Ha cYpax, OTKOJIKOTO ceBepHHTe HapO)l;H (1.JYK1{HTe ... )
HJIH CHHeOKHTe 6JIOH,IJ;HHH;
- 1.JYBCTBOTO Ha 6e3CHJIHe H cYpax JIeCHO MO)J(e )l;a 6'h)l;e npe)l;H3BH-
KaHO no XHMH1.JeH n'bT, HanpHMep KaTO ce ,n;o6aBH K'hM TIOTIOHa CYllIeH
CHH1.Jen: HJIH KaTO ce BKapa B opraHH3Ma no BC5IKaK'hB Ha'IHH (c nHeHeTO,
qpe3 HH)KeKU;H}{ HJIH 1.Jpe3 KOHTaKT C KO)J(aTa ... ) CMec Ha JIYMHHaJI C JIO-
cl>ocpopa HJIH XH)l;pOXJIOpH)l; Ha MOXHM6HHa.
166
AHATOJ1I:1C1 T APAC
KAacULJeCKUme CXeMU 3a 3anAawBaHe ca:
BapllaHT 1
- pa3rJIe)K,f(a ce ,I(OClleTO Ha 06eKTa C Ha Bep05ITHaTa My pe-
armun Ha mma 3aOJIaXa;
- aKO TOR e cTPaXJIHB, ce nJIaHllpaT H ce 1I3ITbJIH5IBaT
HaCO'leHH K'LM C'hKpywaBaHe Ha BOJI5ITa My (nCHXO- H <pH3H'IeCKH Te-
pOp ... ), npH TOBa 6e3,I(a ce npe,WIBHBaT Ha '10BeKa KaKBHTO H,I(a 6HJIO
YCJIOBH5I H 065ICHeHll5I;
- npHOCHOBHH5I KOHTaKT H5IMa <pll3ll'ieCKO HaCllJIlle, HO 5ICHO ce ,naBa
,I(a ce pa36epe, 'Ie me liMa, aKO 06eKThT OTKa3Ba ,na ce nO,I('lllHll Ha npe-
MBeHllTe MY ll3llCKBaHH5I.
BapllaHT 2
- npll nperJIe,n Ha ,nOClleTO Ha 06eKTa ce onpe,I(eJIH OHOBa, Ha KoeTO
TOR oc06eHo .nnP)l(ll (HanpllMep - KOJIaTa ... );
- npaBll My ce ;nrrnBO ,I(eJIOBO rrpe,I(JIO)l(eHlle;
- B CJIY'laR Ha OTKa3 ce OC'hmeCTB5IBa npe.I(yrrpe,I(llTeJIHa (TY6a
C 6eH3llH B'hPXy rrOKp"Ba Ha rapa)l(a ... );
- npll nOBTopeH OTKa3 ce rrpaBll <popCllpaHO npe.I(ynpe)K,f(eHlle (ome
e,nua TY6a C 6eH31IH IIJIl{)C KM6PllT ... );
- aKO OTHOBO nOCJIe,nsa OTKa3, 3anJIaXaTa Be,nuara ce peaJIll3llpa (ra-
pa)l('bT II KOJIaTa ce rro,nrraJIBaT ... ) II Be'le ce npaBll He npe,I(JIO)l(eHlIe, a
llCKaHe.
BapllaHT 3
- npll nperJIe,n Ha ,I(OClleTO Ha 06eKTa ce ThpCHT oc06eHo 6JIll3KllTe
Myxopa;
- cpemY nO,I(GpaHllTe ce OC'hmeCTBHBaT TepOp"CT"'lHll
C'hC CThnaJIOBll,I(HO HapaCTBama arpeCHBHOCT;
- Ha 06eKTa ce npe,I(JIara aJITepHaTllBaTa: )l(llBOThT II 3,I(paBeTO Ha
moGliMllTe xopa llJIll .. ;
- aKO "m06llMoTO llMa 5IBHO BJIllHHlle B'hPXy 06eKTa, TO MO)l(e
,na 6'h,I(e rrOCTaBeHO rrpe,I( rro,n06Ha aJITepHaTllBa;
- rrpeMllCJIHT ce MepKll, KOllTO ,na rrOnpeqaT Ha qOBeKa ,na ce B'h3rrOJI-
3Ba OT O<pHIUIaJIHllTe HJIll KpllMllHaJIHllTe CTPYKTYPli HJIll ,I(a CKplle H5IK'b-
one 3Ha'illMOTO (B'h3MO)I(H0 e BrrpOqeM ,I(a rrpeCMeTHeTe TaKa Hema-
Ta, 'Ie 06eKThT CaM,I(a ce 06'hpHe K'hM Bac 3a C'h,I(eRCTBlle llJIll C'hBeT ... );
- 3aCTPaxoBaHKll ce OT rrO-HaTaThWHll Herrp"HTHOCT", OT )l(epTBaTa
ce nOJIY'laBa KOMrrpoMaT 3a caMaTa He5I lIJIll 3a ,npyrll '
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U cUcypHocm'
167
BapliaHT 4
-- rrper JIe)l(,naHKll ,nOClleTO Ha 06eKTa, ce onpe,neJI5IT
)l(eHa, ... ) llJIll llMymecTBoTO ()I(llBOTHO, ... ), KOll-
TO ca My oc06eHO CK'hrrll, II BHllMaTeJIHO ce ,I(aJIll llMa CMH.
C'hJI aKTllBHOCTTa cpemY T5IX;
- OC'hmeCTB5IBa ce (llJIll ce lIMllTllpa) onllT 3a OTBJIll'iaHe Ha ll36pa-
HOTO (llJIll Bem ... );
- Ha 06eKTa ce C'h06maBa 3a OTBJIll'iaHeTO, KaTO rrpe,n Hero ce noc-
TaB5I KOHKpeTHa aJITepHaTllBa;
- rrpeMllCJI5IT ce MepKlI, KOllTO ,I(a rrpeqaT Ha qOBeKa ,na npll6erHe ,no
qy)KJ(a rrOMOm;
- B3eMaT ce rro,I( KOHTPOJI KOHTaKTllTe (rrO,I(CJIynIBaHe Ha TeJIe<pO-
Ha ... ) II rrOBe,neHlleTO (CJIe,neHe ... ) Ha 06eKTa;
- Ha 06eKTa ce ,I(OCTaB5IT IIMCMa, KaKTO II ay.I(llO- II Bll,ne03anllCll Ha
OTBJIeqeHH5I C'hC MOJI6a OT nocJIe,nuH5I 3a rroMOm
II H5IKaKBO rroTB'hp)l(,I(eHlle (cHllMKa OT HOB BeCTHllK, KpaThK KOHTaKT rro
TeJIe<pOHa ... ), 'Ie 3acera e ome )l(llB;
- MHoro KOHKpeTHO ce y6e)K,f(aBa 06eKThT (c oTPH3aHa qaCT OT yxo-
TO ... ) 3a cep"03HOCTTa Ha HaMepeHH5ITa;
- rrpaBli ce orrllT ,I(a ce ll3TP'hrHe OT 06eKTa KOMIIpOMaT 3a caMilH
Hero llJIli 3a 6JIll3KMTe MY 1I ce y,I(OCTOBep5IBa peaJIHOCTTa Ha nOJIY'le-
HaTa
- 3a,neRCTBaT ce pa3Ho06pa3Hll MepKlI 3a no,nClIryp5IBaHe OT Henp"-
5ITHOCTll OT cTPaua Ha OTBJIeqeHH5I qOBeK KaTO CBll,I(eTeJI;
- CJIe,n nOJIY'laBaHe Ha )l(eJIaHOTO OTBJIe'leHll5IT ce oCB060)K,f(aBa, a
06eKThT ce KOHTPOJIllpa qpe3 KOMrrpOMaT;
- (B'h3MO)l(eH e ll3ThHqeH Bap"aHT, KoraTO "JII061IMOTO caMO
rr03BOJIHBa,I(a 6'h,ne "OTBJIeqeHO", KaTO ce onllTBa,na OTKJIOHll OT rJIaB
HH5I 06eKT peaJIHaTa llJIll 3aMllCJIeHa 3anJIaxa).
IIPli npe,nBaplITeJIHOTO Tepopll3llpaue Ha qOBeKa ce ll3rrOJI3BaT CJIe,n-
HllTe
- "rrpa3Hll", 3arrJIaIlIllTeJIHll llJIll OCK'hp6llTeJIHll TeJIe<poHHll 063)1(-
,naHll5I;
- ,I(aBaue Ha crreu;Il<pll'iHll 06HBll B'hB BeCTHllK llJIll pa3JIeDBaue no YJIll-
C noco'IBaue Ha a,I(peca II TeJIe<poHa Ha 06eKTa;
- 3arrJIaIIIBaHe Ha ,I(eJIOBH5I napTHhOp;
- HaHaC5IHe Ha n060R Ha CaMll5I 06eKT llJIll Ha H5IKOrO, KorOTO TOR
06llqa;
- Ha onllT 3a OTBJIllqaHe llJIll rroKYweHlle;

168
AHATOnvlliJ T APAC
- 06CTpeJIBaHe C OrHeCTpeJIHO op'b)KHe Ha np030pIJ;HTe Ha )KHJIHw;e-
TO;
- nOBpe)K,lJ;aHe HJIH B3pHBHBaHe Ha BpaTaTa Ha anapTaMeHTa HJIH
oqmca;
- HaX.rryBaHe C'bC C'bCHnBaHe Ha HMyw;ecTBoTO;
- naJIe)K HJIH B3pHBHBaHe Ha Crpa,lJ;aTa (K'bw;aTa, BHJIaTa, rapa)Ka,
oc)mca ... ), KaKTO H Ha JIHqHHH aBTOM06HJI;
- 6JIOKHpaHe Ha TeJIe<pOHa, BO,lJ;OCHa6)J;HBaHeTO, OTOllJIeHHeTO H eJIeK-
TpHqeCTBOTO ...
B HMnpOBH3HpaHHTe BapHaHTH ce H3nOJI3BaT ,lJ;enCTBHH, npe,lJ;H3BHK-
BaW;H CHJIeH CTpax, peaJIHO 3anJIalllBaW;H )KHBOTa Ha ,lJ;a,lJ;eHHH qOBeK H
6JIH3KHTe My, IIpH TOBa PH3KO ce OrpaHIfqaBa BpeMeTO 3a pa3MHC'bJI.
KOHKpeTHHTe MOMeHTH Ha 3a,lJ;enCTBaHHH TpHK ce onpe,lJ;eJIHT OT B'b3-
MO)KHOCTHTe H H306peTaTeJIHOCrra Ha H3n'bJIHHTeM, HanpHMep:
- n'bXaHe Ha )J;yJIOTO Ha op'b)KIfeTO B yxOTO;
- HO)K, OnpHH B r'bpJIOTO, C B'b3MO)KeH pa3pe3 Ha r'bpJIOTO;
- 06JIHBaHe c 6eH3HH H nOKa3BaHe Ha 3anaJIKaTa ...
H3Te3aHHeTO e IJ;eJIeHaCOqeHO arpeCHBHO B'b3,lJ;enCTBHe B'bpXy HH-
,lJ;HBH,lJ;a C IJ;eJI npHqHHHBaHe Ha CHJIHO <pH3HqeCKO HJIH nCHXHqeCKO cTpa-
,lJ;aHHe.
H3Te3aHHeTO Han-qeCTO ce H3n0JI3Ba 3a:
- nO.rryqaBaHe Ha HH<p0pMaIJ;HH;
- <pH3HqeCKO HaKa3aHHe;
- CJIOMHBaHe BOJIHTa Ha qOBeKa.
I10xBaTHTe Ha H3Te3aHHeTO KaTO npaBHJIO ce C'b06pa3HBaT c nOTeH-
IJ;HaJIHaTa My IJ;eJI, C <paKTOpa BpeMe, C HaJIHqHHTe B'b3MO)KHOCTH, C npe-
,lJ;eJIa Ha ,lJ;OnYCTHMOTO H, pa36Hpa ce, C H3XO,lJ;HOTO C'bCTOHHHe Ha 06eK-
Ta, KaTO ce HMa npe,lJ;BH,lJ;, qe nOBHllleHOTO OT,lJ;eJIHHe Ha a,lJ;peHaJIHH (TH-
nHqHO npH npOHBHTe Ha 60JIKa) aKTHBHO pa3pYlllaBa C'bpIJ;eTO.
AKO HMaTe MHOrO BpeMe, nO-XYMaHHO H nO-e<peKTHBHO e ,lJ;a 3a-
,lJ;enCTBaTe nOCTeneHHO HarHeTHBaw; HaTHCK B'bpXy nCHXHKaTa, C'bnpO-
BO,lJ;eH C TeJIeCHa 60JIKa, HO KOraTO nO'l,'11 BH JIHnCBa BpeMe, Han-npOc-
TO e ,lJ;a ce B'b3nOJI3BaTe OT npHMHTHBHOTO <pH3IfqeCKO HaCHJIHe.
I10JIe3HO e ,lJ;a ce 3Hae CJIe,lJ;HOTO 3a OTHOllleHHeTO Ha qOBeKa K'bM
60JIKaTa:
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUZypHOCm
169
- IJ;HraHHTe, HerpHTe, KHTanIJ;HTe H 3JIOCTHHTe npO<peCHOHaJIHH npec-
ThnHHIJ;H B'b3npHeMaT nO-JIeKO 60JIKaTa, a MHoro HapO,lJ;H OT CeBepa
(qYKqH, HKyrH, eBeHKH ... ) H CHHeOKHTe CBeTJIOKOCH eBpOnenIJ;H H nOHa-
CHT MHoro 3JIe;
- cy6eKTHTe, CKJIOHHH K'bM 06W;YBaHe, ca nO-YCTOnqHBH Ha 60JIKa,
OTKOJIKOTO OHe3H, KOHTO npe,lJ;nOqHTaT caMOTaTa;
- KaCTpaTHTe H HapKOMaHHTe, KoraTO He ca no,lJ; BJIHHHHe Ha HapKO-
THKa, M'bqHTeJIHO nOHaCHT 60JIKaTa;
- CTpeJIIJ;HTe (23.xI-21.XII) H JhBOBeTe (23.VII-22.VIII) MHoro
ce CTpaXYBaT OT 60JIKa, ,lJ;OKaTO K03Hp03HTe (22.XII-20.I) ynOpHTO H
HfHopHpaT;
- CHJIHHTe eMOIJ;HH (rHHB, M'bKa, nOJIOBa B'b36y,lJ;a, HeHaBHCT ... ) 06HK-
HOBeHO npHThnHBaT 60JIKaTa;
- B OqaKBaHe Ha 60JIe3HeHO ycew;aHe 3a6eJIe)KHMO ce nOBHlllaBHa
qYBCTBHTeJIHOCrra K'bM 60JIKa, oco6eHO KoraTO cy6eKThT ,lJ;OCTa He H
xapeCBa lfJIH n'bK e CTpaXJIHB H MaJIO)J;yllleH;
- 3HaqHTeJIHaTa 60JIKa JIeCHO H 3a,lJ;'bJIfO ce 3anOMHH;
- Han-OCTpa e 60JIKaTa npe3 HOW;Ta (MaKCHMYM'bT e K'bM 1 qaca
npe3 HOW;Ta ... ), no-cJIa6a - npe3 ,lJ;eHH, ow;e no-cJIa6a - Beqep;
- oc06eHo qyBcTBHTeJIHH K'bM B'b3,lJ;enCTBHe ca nyJInHTe Ha 3'b6HTe,
OqHHTe H6'bJIKH, nO,lJ;MHIIIHHIJ;HTe, KO)KaTa Ha KJIenaqHTe, KOCTHTe Ha
KJIlOqHIJ;HTe H CJIa6HHHTe;
- 06HKHoBeHo 3a TOBa, qe qOBeK'bT npe)KHBHBa 60JIKa, CBH,lJ;eTeJICT-
BaT CTHCHaTHTe 3'b6H HJIH npOHH3HTeJIHHTe BHKOBe H CTOHOBe, onyJIe-
HHTe OqH, pa3111HpeHHTe H03,lJ;PH, 06HJIHOTO nOTeHe, CHJIHHTe pa3CT-
ponCTBa B KP'bB006paw;eHHeTO H ,lJ;HlllaHeTO (npH 3aTpy,lJ;HeHHH C noc-
JIe,lJ;HOTO JIHIJ;eTO CHJIHO nOqepBeHHBa ... ); KoraTO 60JIKaTa Tpae TB'bp,lJ;e
,lJ;'bJIro, B'b3MO)KHO e ,lJ;a ce nOHBH n06JIe,lJ;HHBaHe Ha KO)KaTa, 6e3CHJIHe,
TpenepeHe H B KpanHa CMeTKa - H3na,lJ;aHe B 6e3C'b3HaHHe;
- KaTO 3HaK 3a peaJIHOCT Ha H3nHTBaHOTO CTpMaHHe He ce CMHTaT
BHKOBeTe, a 3HaqHteJIlJOTO pa3111HpHBaHe Ha 3eHHIJ;HTe (npH HBHa CH-
MyJIaIJ;HH Te He ce npOMeHHT 3a6eJIe)KHMO ... ).
BCHKO H3Te3aTeJIHO B'b3,lJ;enCTBHe TpH6Ba ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e TOqHO ,lJ;03HpaHO,
3aW;OTO KoraTO 06eKThT ry6H C'b3HaHHe, TO CTaBa 6e3CMHCJIeHO. 3a
npeO,lJ;OJIHBaHe Ha Ta3H HenpHHTHOCT )KepTBaTa ce :3aJIHBa C'bC cry,lJ;eHa
SO,lJ;a H H ce BKapBaT JIeKapCTBeHH CTHMYJIaTopH.
(1). I1peqynsaHe BOJIHTa Ha qOBeKa
I1PH C'bKpYlllasaHe Ha BOMTa Ha qOBeKa ,lJ;o6pe ,lJ;enCTBaT no6oHTe,
KaKTO H YHH3HTeJIHHTe oCK'bp6JIeHHH C ,lJ;yMH H ,lJ;eJIa (HaTomIBaHe Ha
;
170 AHATOnV11i1 T APAC
rJIaBaTaB C'b,lJ; C JIaWHa, npOKapBaHe Ha nOJIOBIUI qJIeH no YCTHHTe, T.
Hap. "onycKaHe" HJIII H3HaCHJIBaHe .. ), KOHTO BHe3anHO KapaT 06eKTa
OCTpO ,lJ;a noqyBCTBa CB05lTa 6e3nOMOllJ,HOCT, HHllJ,O){(eCTBO H YHH){(e-
HHe. IIpe,lJ;eJIHO e<jJeKTHBeH e BapHaHT'bT ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e npIIHY,lJ;eH qOBeK'bT ,lJ;a
H3B'bpnm H5IKaKBa nO,lJ;JIOCT no OTHOIlIeHHe Ha 6JIII3KHTe CH.
3a e<jJeKTHBeH nOXBaT 3a npeqynBaHe Ha BOJI5ITa ce CM5ITa C'bllJ,O C'b3-
,lJ;aBaHeTO Ha CIITYaI.UIH, npII KOIITO ){(epTBaTa CaMa CH npH'lIIH5IBa 60JI-
Ka. TOBa CTaBa B qaCTHOCT npH TB'bp,lJ;e ,1J;'bJIro npe6IIBaBaHe B HaTPane-
HII CTaTlIqHH n03H (CToeHe Ha np'bCTlI II HeB'b3MO){(HOCT ,lJ;a ce onpe Ha
CT'bnaJIaTa 3apa,lJ;H oCTPHTe IlIIInOBe no,lJ; T5IX .. ) HJIH KoraTO c06CTBeHII-
Te ,lJ;BH){(eHII51 npe,lJ;II3BIIKBaT p5l3Ka M'bqHTeJIHa 60JIKa (651raHe C 60CII
KpaKa no HaTPoIlIeHH KaM'bHII lIJlH TP'bHH . ). IIoH51Kora Ha rJIaBaTa Ha
06eKTa ce HaMBa MeTaJIHa Ko<jJa, oTPa351BallJ,a B'b3HHKBallJ,HTe B He51
3 B ~ H , H ce B'b3,lJ;ewCTBa B'bpXy qOBeKa C eJIeKTPoIlIoK, npH KoeTO BIIKO-
BeTe Ha ){(epTBaTa CTOKpaTHO ce oTPa351BaT B M03'bKa if H TOJIKOBa ca
nO-CIIJIHH, KOJIKOTO nOBeqe T5I KpeI.IJ,lf.
,[(06pe ce npeqynBa BOJl5lTa, KaTO ce H3KJIlOqII qOBeK'bT OT BCH'lKH
ceHcopHII ,lJ;pa3HHTeJIH (BKapBaHe 3a H51KOW H ,D;pyr ,lJ;eH B T'bMHa II a6co-
JIlOTHO 3BYKoII30JIHpaHa CTa5I .. ) IIJIII MHoro CBeTJIHHa (II3n0Jl3Ba ce 60KC
C MJIeqH06eJIII e,lJ;H006pa3HII CTeHH II 51pKO CBeTellJ,H npO){(eKTOpII ... ),
KaKTO II ll'bJIHO JIHIlIaBaHe Ha 06eKTa OT C'bH.
(2). HaKa3aHHe
HaW-qeCTO TOBa CTaBa nocpe,lJ;CTBOM 6aHaJIeH n060w, KOWTO ce nOB-
Tap51 MHOroKpaTHo C IIMnpoBII3IIpaHH cpe,lJ;cTBa, KOHTO He OCTamIT 5IBHH
B'bHIlIHII 6eJIe3H (napqe rYMeH MapKYtJ, 'lopan, Han'bJIHeH C ll5IC'bK . )
HJIH C'bC Cne:QIIaJIHH npIIcnoc06JIeHII51, nopa){()J;aI.IJ,lf nOTPecaBallJ,a 60JI-
Ka (HanpaBeHH OT ,lJ;'bPBO JIOnaTKH C MHO){(eCTBO OTBOPH B T5IX, KaMI.Illi-
:QII C "K'bpBaBII" B'b3JIH ... ).
B'bpxy 60JIeBHTe HepBHH peQenTopII Ha cy6eKTa ce B'b3,lJ;eWCTBa C
H51KaKBH ,lJ;pa3HHTemf - eCTeCTBeHH (I.Illi6aHe C KonpHBa no nOJIOBHTe
opraHII ... ) IIJIH Me,lJ;HQHHCKH (Bnp'bCKBaHe Ha eT'bp no,lJ; HOKTIITe IIJIII B
CKporyMa .. ). EcpeKTHBHO ,lJ;eWCTBaT II BJIa){(HHTe KO){(eHII rpHBHII, KOII-
TO npH H3C'bXBaHe npIITIICKaT np'bCTlITe.
MHoro M'bqHTeJIHO e 6JIOKHpaHeTO Ha ,lJ;IIIlIaHeTO, 6e3 ,lJ;a ce CTHra
,lJ;0 H3KJIlOqBaHe Ha C'b3HaHHeTO (KpaTKII, 3a OKOJIO 30-HHa ceKYH,lJ;II no-
Tan5lHII51 Ha JIHQeTO B'bB BO,lJ;a; P5l3KO ,lJ;p'bnBaHe Ha3a,lJ; Ha rJIaBaTa H H3-
JIHBaHe Ha BO,lJ;a B H03,lJ;pHTe; n'bXaHe Ha 06eKTa B nOJIHeTHJIeHOB qy-
BaJI, HenpOHHQaeM 3a B'b3,lJ;yxa ... ).
,[(06pe ce e npe,lJ;CTaBHJIO ,lJ;Ocera II3n0Jl3BaHeTO Ha eJIeKTpOlliOK C'bC
HapbliHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm 171
cTPoro ,lJ;03IIpaHa rOJIeMIIHa, 3a ,lJ;a He MO){(e TB'b,lJ;pe MOllJ,HII5IT 3ap5l,lJ; ,lJ;a
II3KJIlO'lII C'b3HaHHeTO IIJIII,lJ;a npe,lJ;H3BIIKa CM'bpT (nO,lJ;p06HO 3a TOBa ce
rOBopH B pa3,lJ;eJIa 3a eJIeKTPOIlIOKa). <I>YHQIIOHHpallJ,IITe eJIeKTpO,lJ;H
06HKHOBeHO ce 3aKpenBaT C JIeWKOnJIaCT K'bM HaW-pa3JIIIqHII qaCTII Ha
TRJIOTO, qHHTO H360p nOH51KOra H onpe,lJ;eJIR KpawHII5I pe3YJITaT. HanpH-
Mep C'be,lJ;IIHeHIIeTO, OC'bllJ,eCTBeHO nOCpe,lJ;CTBOM np'bCTlITe Ha ,1J;BeTe
p'bQe, RBHO e no-onaCHO, OTKOJIKOTO nO,lJ;06HO C'be,lJ;HHeHHe, HO C np'bC-
TlITe Ha e,lJ;HaTa p'bKa, 3allJ,OTO B nOCJIe,lJ;HH5I CJIyqaH TOK'bT He npeMHHa-
Ba npe3 B'hTPelliHIITe opraHH. CJIe,lJ; npIIJIaraHe Ha eJIeKTPIIqeCKH TOK
BHHarH M'b'lHTeJIHO 60JI5IT BCH'lKH MyCKyJIH H CTaBH.
(3). IhTP'brBaHe Ha HH<jJopMa:QII5I
TexHIIKaTa 3a nOJIyqaBaHe Ha HH<jJopMaQilil qpe3 H3Te3aHHe ce OC'b-
llJ,eCTB5IBa no pa3JIH'lHH HaqHHII KaTO HanpHMep:
- npexBallJ,aHe Ha IIH<jJopMa:QII5I B xO,lJ;a Ha H3Te3aHHeTO;
- nO)J;fOTBHTeJIHO H3Te3aTeJIHO B'b3,lJ;eHCTBHe B'bpXy qOBeKa C QeJI
C'bKpYIIIaBaHe Ha BOJl5lTa MY, 6e3 ,lJ;a ce 3a,1J;aBaT B'bnpOCH, a CJIe,lJ; TOBa
Beqe H,1J;Ba <jJa3aTa Ha ,lJ;03HaHHeTO, 6e3 npHJIaraHe Ha H3Te3aHII5l;
- pa3llHT 6e3 HaCIIJIIIe, KoeTO 06aqe Be,lJ;Hara ce II3n0Jl3Ba, aKO 06eK-
T'bT He no){(eJIae ,lJ;a rOBopII HJIH JI'b){(e.
IIpexBallJ,aHeTo Ha IIH<jJopMaQII51 B npoQeca Ha H3Te3aHHeTO Haw-
qeCTO ce H3n0Jl3Ba npH He,lJ;OCTHr Ha BpeMe lIJlH KoraTO 06eKT'bT e cTPax-
JIHB. IIoH51Kora e B'b3MO){(HO ,lJ;a ce orpaIiH'lHTe caMO C'bC 3aIIJIaxa (no,lJ;-
HaCRHe Ha 3anaJIeHa QIIrapa,lJ;O TIDIOTO ... ), C pa3naJIBaHe B'b06proKeHII-
eTO Ha 06eKTa (HaJIH'lIIe Ha npIIcnoc06JIeHII51 3a II3Te3aHHe II BC5IBallJ,H
y){(ac 3By:QII ... ) IIJIH C HaH-npocTo B'b3,lJ;eHCTlme (HRKoe II,lJ;pyrO KpOllie B
CTOMaxa, B CJIa6HHHTe IIJIH B qepHII51 ,lJ;p06 ... ).
MHoro e<jJeKTIIBHO e BeH03HOTO BJIHBaHe Ha ,lJ;03H ,lJ;0 40 Mr MIIope-
JIaKCaHT )J;MTHJIHH (TOH ce ynOTPe651Ba npII OnepaQIIIITe no,n: HapK03a,
KaKTO H npII XBallJ,aHeTO Ha BCRKaKBH )l(HBOTHII, BKJIlOqHTeJIHO H KYtJe-
Ta ... ), KOHTO pa3cJIa6Ba MYCKYJIHTe Ha T5IJIOTO H BpeMeHHo rII napaJIH-
3Hpa. CaMO CJIe,lJ; He nOBeqe OT MHHYTa C'bPQeTO 3anOqBa ,n:a 6He no-
P5l)J;KO, napaJIH3a 06XBallJ,a MYCKYJIIITe Ha KpaHHHQHTe, a 110CJIe Heyr-
paJIII3IIpa wrJIaTa Me){(,n:ype6peHa MYCKYJIarypa II ,n:Ha<jJparMaTa. IIpH
TOBa 06eKT'bT e B n'bJIHO C'b3HaHIIe, HO 5IBHO II3l1HTBa ycellJ,aHeTO 3a
HaCT'bnBaUJ,a rH6eJI, C aKTHBHH I1p05lBH Ha TPy,n:HO I1pe,lJ;aBaeM ~ a c II
cTPax, KoeTO I1pO,lJ;'bJI){(aBa OT 2 ,lJ;0 5 MHHyTII. B MOMeHTa, KoraTO ce
1105lB5IBa 3a,lJ;YIlIaBaHe, OT qOBeKa ce HCKaT He06xo,n:HMHTe CBe,n:eHII51110,n:
CHJIHO ,n:ewcTBallJ,aTa 3anJIaXa 3a 110BTOpHa IIH){(eKQII51.
B ,n:pyra MeTo,n:HKa 3a pa3l1IIT Ha cy6eKTa JI106e3HO ro KaH5IT ,n:a ce,lJ;-
172
AHATOfll.11ii rAPAC
He Ha Ta6ypeTKa B'hB <pIIKCIIpaHa n03a 3a 2-3 ,n;HII, a HaMIIpallUfTe ce,n;o
Hero xopa He My ,n;aBaT ,n;a 3acnII. B pe3YJlTaT Ha TOBa 06eKT'hT He e B
C'hCTOHHIIe ~ a pa3J1IItIaBa peaJIHOCrra OT C'hHH H MaIllIIHaJIHO OTrOBapH
,r(OpII Ha HaII-KOBapHlITe B'hnpocII.
He 6IIBa ,n;a ce 3a6paBH, lie CBe,n;eHHHTa, nOJlyqeHII lIpe3 H3Te3aHIIe,
nOHHKora MoraT ,n;a 6'h,n;aT H3MIICJleHH; B cJlyqaH ce HaJIara ,n;o rOJlHMa
CTeneH ,n;a ce onIIpaTe Ha IIHTyHUIIHTa H onIITa Ha pa3nIITBal..QlIH.
B MeTO,lJ;HKHTe 3a npeo,n;OJlHBaHe Ha 60JlKaTa OT H3Te3aHHeTO ce 3a-
,n;eMCTBaT CJle,n;HIITe HallIIHH:
- c'hCpe,n;oTollaBaHe Ha BHIIMaHIIeTO B'hPXY HpKO yceI.QaHe 3a 60JlKa
C aKTHBeH cTpeMe)K TH ,n;a ce YBeJlMlfII ,n;o MaKcIIMYM, npH KoeTO nOBelle
He ce B'h3npIIeMa ("npeHaBHBaHe Ha HepBa" ... );
- C'hCpe,n;OTOllaBaHe B'hPXY napaJIeJleH ,n;pa3HlITeJl (CTHCKaHe Ha HeI.QO
Me)K,lJ;Y 3'h6lITe ... );
Lfacm nema
r apaH IJ,l!1l!1 3a Cl!1 rypHOCT
Ha pa3Y3HaBaTeAHaTa
pa60Ta
KalleCTBeHO npOBe)K,lJ;aHe Ha KaKBaTO II,n;a e cepII03Ha onepa.QHH MO)Ke
,n;a ce OC'hI.QeCTBH 6e3 nOMp'h)KKaTa Ha pa3J1HlfHH nOJlHTHlIeCKH, T'hP-
rOBCKH H O<pHUHaJlHH CHJlOBH CTpYKTYPII caMO aKO ce CKpIIe HCTHHCKa-
Ta ,n;eMHOCT ("HeJleraJIHa pa60Ta") H IICTHHCKOTO JlHue ("HeJleraJlHa
JlHlIHOCT").
TOBa Ba)KH KaKTO 3a caMOCTOHTeJlHHH HH,n;HBH,n;, nu<a H 3a Heo<pHUH-
aJIHaTa rpynHpoBKa, C'h3,n;a,n;eHa CneUHaJIHO 3a peIllaBaHe Ha HHKaKBII
,n;eJlIIKaTHH 3a,n;allH, KOHTO HHMa ,n;a npe,n;H3BHKaT Bce06I.Q0 0,n;06peHHe.
TaK'hB np06J1eM B'b3HHKBa H KoraTO no HHKaKBa npHlIHHa JlHueTO
TpH6Ba ,n;a ce' CKpHe OT pa3J1HlfHHTe T'hprOBCKH, ,n;'bp)KaBHH, KPHMHHaJI-
HH HJlH nOJlHTHlIeCKH CTpyKTypH.
THnHlIeH HeJleraJleH MO)Ke ,n;a ce CTaHe II YMlIIIIJIeHO, H npHHy,n;II-
TeJlHO. B'bB BceKH cJlyqaM TpH6Ba ,n;ace n03HaBaT, MaKap H MaJlKO, TaK-
THKHTe 3a CHrypHOCT, 3a,n;a ce npeCKOllH ycneIllHo T03H nepHO,n;, 6e3,n;a
ce 3ary6H OT HBHa rJlynocT <pH3HlIeCKaTa H nCHXHlfeCKaTa cB060,n;a, a
nOHHKora H caMHHT )KHBOT.
2. EAeMeHTlt1 Ha CltlCTeMara 3a CltlrypHOCT
PaBHHI.QeTO Ha H3nOJl3BaHHTe npe,n;na3HH MepKH MHoro 3aBHCH KaK-
TO OT CTeneHTa Ha )KeJlaHaTa KOHcnHpaUHH Ha 1I0BeKa (HJlH rpynaTa),
TaKa H OT curyaUOHTa, cpe,n;aTa H, pa36Hpa ce, OT B'b3MO)KHOCTHTe Ha
caMHTe npe,n;na3BaI.QH ceo
174
AHATOJH1C'1 T APAC
OT)l;eJIHIITe Clloco61I 3a JIlIqHa ClIrypHOCT )l;a CTaHaT eCTeCT-
BeH flaBIIK II )l;a ce 1I3n0JI3BaT 1I3B'bH nOTpeGHocTIITe Ha KOHKpeTHaTa

I1pe)l;CTaBeHOTO TYK He 1I3qepllBa B'b3MO)l(HlITe cpe)l;CTBa Ha PyTIIH-
HOTO npe)l;lla3BaHe, KplITeplIH 3a llplIJIaraHeTO My e BIICOKOTO MHeHlIe
3a llPOTIIBHIIKa II, pa36lIpa ce, CMIIC'bJI Ha CaMlITe llpe)l;lla3Ba-
mu ceo He )l;a ce C Ton, HO He npeqlI )l;a ce
llOMHII, qe "KOHTO caM ce na31I, II [OCllO)l; ro na31I" ...
TlIlllIqHII ca CJIe)l;HIITe BII)l;OBe CIIrYPHOCT:
- BbHIDHA (IIpII 06mysaHe C xopa);
_ BbTPEIDHA (llplI KOHTaKTYBalIe B C06CTBelIaTa cpe)l;a II rpYlla),
- JIOKAJIHA (B pa3JIIfqlIlI II
me pa3rJIe)l;aMe BCIfqKO TOBa MaJIKO nO-llo)l;po6HO.
A. BbHWHa CUzypHocm
Pa3JIIfqHlI MoraT )l;a B'b3HlIKHaT llplI 06ruyBalIe C 06lIK-
HOBeHII xopa II )l;'bp)l(aBHlI CTp)'KTYPII, HO MHoro OT MoraT )l;a ce
II 1I36emaT, aKO ce 1I3ll0JI3Ba 6aHaJIHlIfi llPIIHUlIll Ha TpIITe
"He": He )l;pa3HII, He ce 06B'bp3BaH, He 1I3II'bKBaH.
ETO 3aru;o:
1. He llplIBJIlIqaMTe 1I3JIlIlliHO BHIIMaHlIe K'bM ce6e CII (TaKTIIKa Ha
")
B cpe)l;aTa :
_ He 1I3ll'bKBaMTe C B'bHIIIeH BlI)l; (o6IIKHOBeHO llO)l;CTplIfBaHe, llplI-
JIlIqHO 06JIeKJIO, HIIru;O HO aKO 06Kp'b)l(eHlIeTO e eKCTpaBa-
raHTHO, 6'b)l;eTe KaTO Hero .. );
_ II CKaH)l;aJIlI (ll'bPBO, TOBa IIplIBJIlIqa B'bpXY
Bac 1I3JIlIIIIHO BHIIMaHlIe, BTOPO, MO)l(e )l;a e llPOCTO 3a )l;a
BII 3a)l;'bp)l(aT IIJIII "HaKa)I(aT");
_ CTapaTeJIHO 1I3B'bpIIIBaMTe BClIqKII II TaKCII; BIIHarlI
ll'bTYBaMTe C 6lIJIeT B TpaHCllopTa; .
_ TOqHO CJIe)l;BaHTe OqepTaHmrra Ha 1I36paHaTa II He
B pa60TaTa (He 1I3ll'bKBaMTe Ha KO-
JIeKTIIBeH <pOH ... );
_ He llpe)l;lI3BlIKBaiITe 1I3JIlIlliHO JIl060lllITCTBO Y C'bce)l;lITe C HeCTaH-
)l;apTeH HaqlIH Ha )I(IIBOT IIJIII C Ha pa3JIlIqHlI xopa;
_ He llOKa3BaMTe 1I3JIlIlliHa OCBe)l;OMeHOCT BKaKBOTO II )l;a e, OCBeH
aKO He ro HaJIara 1I36paHaTa pOJI.H (He )l;peBHlITe: "E)l;IITeJI-
" " He
)l;a Clla3Ba 3aKOHa Ha TpIITe He: "He 3HaM ,,,He qyx ,,,
pa36IIpaM").
Hapbl.fHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
175
2. He llOpa)l()l;aMTe C'bCe)l;IITe, KOJIerlITe II l103HaTlITe a
,

- He 6'b)l;eTe BpaHa" (xopaTa BIIHarlI ca llpe)l;pa3llOJIO)l(eHII
K'bM qOBeK, KOMTO lIM llOKa3Ba OT ce6e CII TOBa, KoeTO MoraT )l;a pa36e-
paT ... );
- 1I3pa6oTeTe CII MamIep Ha llOBe)l;eHlIe, KOHTO He llpe)l;1I3BlIKBa y
OKOJIHIITe B'b3MO)l(HO Hallpe)l(eHlIe (1I3JIlIIIIHO JIl060IIlITCTBO, HaqeTeHOCT
lIJIlI HaxaJICTBO ... ) IIJIII HellplI.H3'bH (HeTaKTIfqHOCT, KaBra)l;)l(IIMCTBO, Ha)];-
MeHHOCT, rpy6oCT ... );
- 6'b)l;eTe CiiOKoeH II JIl06e3eH C BCIfqKlf OKOJIHII II llO B'b3MO)l(HOCT
lIM OKa3BaMTe )l;pe6HII (HO He JIaKeHCKlI!) yCJIym;
- He llpaBeTe HIIru;O, KoeTO MO)l(e )l;a llpe)l;lI3BIIKa He)l;OBOJICTBOTO II
JIl060IIlITCTBOTO Ha C'bCe)l;lITe (XJIOllaHe Ha BpaTa llpe3 Horu;Ta, MHO-
ro6pOHHlI rOCTlI, IIplI6lIpaHe C TaKCII, lloceru;eHlI.H OT )I(eHII, K'bCHlI o6a)1(-
)l;aHlI.H llO TeJIe<pOH B o6ru;o )I(IIJIIIru;e ... ).
3. CTapaTeJIHO KOHTpOJIlIpaiITe BClIqKlITe CII Bp'b3KlI II KOHTaKTII ()l;a
ce llOMHII, qe "HaM-OllaCeH OT BCIfqKO e Bpar'bT, 3a KorOTO He llO)l;031I-
paIII" ... ):
- lla3eTe TaMHlITe CII OT 6JIlI3KlITe (C'bllpyrlI, llplI.HTeJIII, pO)l;HIIHlI,
JIl060BHIIU;II ... );
- C llplIBIfqHa 6)l;lITeJIHOCT ("C KaKBa u;eJI II llOpa)l;1I KaKBa llplIqIIHa")
llplIeMaiITe BIIHarlI OlllITlITe )l;a ce C6JIlI)I(aT C Bac (CnyqaMHO 3aII03Ha-
BaHe, HeqlIlI llpellOp'bKII .. );
- BHIIMaTeJIHO ce OTHaC.HHTe K'bM BCIfqKlI OT peMOHTHII-
Te CJIY)l(61I, peKJIaMII II cepBlI31I, llperJIe)l()l;aiITe )l;OKyMeHTIITe lIM II Be)l(-
JIIIBO, HO 060CHOBaHO CBep.HBaiITe lI)l;eHTIfqHOCTTa llO TeJIe<pOHa, a CJIe)l;
TOBa - Ha "KOJIerlITe";
- BHIIMaBaiITe C BCIfqKII, KOIITO llpeMaraT ,,6e3KOpIICTHII" Ha IIp'bB
norJIe)l; YCJIyrII ()l;aBaT llaplI Ha 3aeM, llOMaraT aKTlIBHO, llpe)l;OCTaB.HT
llo-eBTlIHO Heru;o Heo6xo)l;lIMO .. ).
4. Y.H3BIIMIITe CII CTpaHII II llpe)l;BlI)l;eTe llpe3acTpaxoBKa;
- llpOaHaJIlI3lIpaMTe CII )I(lIBOT II OT)l;eJIeTe C'bMHIITeJIHIITe
MOMeHTlI, KOIITO MoraT )l;a ce 1I3llOJI3BaT 3a IIIaHTa)l( IIJIII )l;lIcKpe)l;IITlI-
paHe;
- peaJIHO B'b3MO)l(HIITe OT OrJIaC.HBaHeTO Ha
<paKTIITe Ha BCIfqKII, Ha KOIITO MoraT )l;a 6'b)l;aT C'b06ru;eHII;
- C'b06pa3eTe KOH II 3aru;o MO)l(e )l;a 3Hae 3a KOMllpOMaTa II KaK )l;a ce
HeYTpaJIlI3lIpa llo)l;o6Ha OCBe)l;OMeHOCT;
- Ollpe)l;eJIeTe 06eKTlITe Ha Y.H3BIIMOCT (C'bllpyra, MOPaJIHII
YCTOII ... ) II )l;OKOJIKO qpe3 T.HX MoraT )l;a BII OKa)l(aT HaTlICK;
176
AHATOJlV1ti1 T APAC
- H3HCHeTe C06CTBeHlITe CJIa60CTH (X06H, BHHO, CeKC, napH, qepTH
Ha XapaKTepa .. ) H nOMHeTe, 'Ie BHHarH MoraT ));a 6'b));aT H3nOJI3BaHH
cpeJ.QY Bac.
5. He ce 3a6'bpKBaihe B C'bMHHTeJIHH acpepH, KOHTO He ca CB'bp3aHH
C 06ll(aTa pa60Ta. B pHCKOBaHH aBaHTlOpH, KOHTO HMaT Bp'b3Ka C pa60-
TaTa, ce HaMeCBaMTe caMO C BHCOqaMlIle pa3pelIleHHe.
6. BbmpewHa CUzypHocm
KOHTaKTHTe B c06CTBeHaTa cpe));a He TpH6Ba ));a ce CMHTaT 3a rapaH-
THpaHO 6e30naCHH. ilOMHeTe, 'Ie ,,));Be Hell(a MoraT ));a BH HaHecaT HaM-
rOJIHMa Bpe));a: Ha TaMHa H ));OBepHeTO K'bM BepOJIOM-
HHTe".
1. Ona3BaHe Ha TaMHaTa Ha JIH'lHOCTTa:
- BMeCTO HCTHHCKHTe HMeHa BHHarH H3nOJI3BaMTe nCeB));OHHMH
(06HKHoBeHo HMeHHH, HO C'bll(O TaKa H IJ,HCPPOBH, 6yKBeHH H "np03-
BHll(HH"); B'bB BCHKa nOCOKa "HrpaqHTe" ));a MHHaBaT C OT));eJIeH nceB-
));OHHM, MaKap 'Ie e B'b3MO)KHa pa60Ta H C HHKOJIKO BapHaHTa, C'bll(O H
));eMCTBHe no)); 06ll( nCeB));OHHM Ha HHKOJIKO pa3JIH'lHH JIHlJ,a;
- qJIeHOBeTe Ha eKHna no B'b3MO)KHOCT ));a ce 3HaHT e));HH ));pyr caMO
C nCeB));OHHMH; 3a HCTHHCKHTe cpaMHJIHH, ));OMalIlHHTe a)J;peCH H TeJIe-
CPOHH TpH6Ba ));a ca H3BeCTeHH caMO ));OBepeHH JIHlJ,a;
- npH Ha));BHCBall(a onaCHOCT OT npOBaJI H pa3lIlHCPPOBKa BCHqKH
npHeTH nCeB));OHHMH no npaBHJIO ce nO));MeHHT;
- He ));aBaMTe Ha HHKoro KaKBHTO H ));a e HHTHMHH H ));pyrH CBe));eHHH
3a ce6e CH;
- CTpeMeTe ce));a C'b3));aBaTe (KaTO H3n0Jl3BaTe HaMelJ,H HJIH CJIyxO-
Be) H3MHCJIeHa, HO B'bHlIlHO npaB));ono));06Ha "JIereH));a" 3a ce6e CH;
- HHKOM B rpynaTa He TpH6Ba ));a npOHBHBa H3JIHlIleH HHTepec K'bM
3aHHMaHHHTa, HaBHIJ,HTe H HHTHMHHH )KHBOT Ha ));pyrapHTe CH;
- HHKOM He TpH6Ba ));a C'b06ll(aBa Ha ));pyrHTe HHKaKBH ));aHHH 3a nap-
THhopHTe, aKO HaC'bll(Ha He06xo));HMOCT He ro HaJIara;
- B onpe));eJIeHH CJIyqaH HMa CMlIC'bJI BH3yaJIHO ));a ce H3MeHH B'bHlIl-
HHHT BH)); (npHqeCKa, 6pa));a, rpHM, nepYKa, TaTyHpoBKa, IJ,BHT Ha KO)Ka-
Ta, OqHJIa C 06HKHOBeHH HJIH T'bMHH CT'bKJIa H pa3JIHqHH yKpacH, ));0-
n'bJIHeHHH, npOMeHHll(a ce nOXO));Ka, rJIac .. );
- C'b3));aMTe cn HaBHK ));a He OCTaBHTe CJIe)); ce6e CH HHKaKBH MaTepH-
aJIHH CJIe));H (yrapKH, 3aXB'bpJIeHH xapTHMKH, CJIe));H OT 06YBKH, KOHT-
pacTHH apoMaTH, 3a6eJIe)KHMH npoMeHH B 06cTaHoBKaTa .. ). '
Hapbl.JHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
177
2. Ona3BaHe Ha TaMHaTa pa60Ta:
- aKTHBHHTe pa60THH KOHTaKTH ce nOM'bp)KaT C'bC cTporo orpaHH-
qeHa rpyna xopa (CHCTeMa OT TpOMKH HJIH neTopKH, B 3aBHCHMOCT OT
pelIlaBaHHTe 3a));aqH ... ), npH TOBa C'bpaTHHIJ,HTe He TpH6Ba));a 3HaHT 3a
KOHKpeTHHTe 3aHHMaHHH Ha napTHhopHTe;
- BceKH ce CnelJ,HaJIH3Hpa caMO B ));Be HJIH TpH KOHKpeTHH 06JIaCTH,
aKO CTaHe TB'bp));e onaCHO ));a ce 3aHHMaBa C ));eMHOCT B e));Ha OT THX -
TpH6Ba ));a H npeKpaTH HJIH ));a npeMHHe K'bM ));pyro HanpaBJIeHHe;
- TpH6Ba CTporo ));a ce pa3rpaHH'laBaT onepaTHBHaTa H HHcpopMa-
IJ,HOHHaTa pa60Ta; HeKa BceKH ));a ce 3aHHMaBa caMO C'bC CBOHTe Hell(a;
- HaM-));06pe e ));a ce MaCKHpa nO));rOTOBKaTa 3a KOHKpeTHaTa aKlJ,HH
C MepOnpHHTHH no peaJIH3alJ,HHTa Ha ));pyrn;
- ));a pa3Ka3BaTe 3a pa60TaTa CH Ha ));pyrHTe MO)Ke caMO B CJIyqaM 'Ie
Ha THX HM e nOJIe3HO, 3a ));a CH CB'bplIlaT CBOHTa; ));a ce nOMHH, 'Ie TaM-
HaTa ce na3H MaKcHMYM Me)K)J;y 5 )J;ylIlH;
- ));a ce npe));aBa nonyqeHaTa HHcpopMalJ,HH caMO Ha Te3H, Ha KOHTO e
OqeBH));HO He06xo)J;HMa ());eMOHCTpHpaHeTo Ha npeKaJIeHa OCBe));OMe-
HOCT no onpe));eJIeH B'bnpOC MO)Ke ));a pa3KpHe H3TOqHHKa Ha HHcpopMa-
IJ,HH, KoeTO n'bK ));a ));OBe));e ));0 HerOBOTO HeyTpaJIH3HpaHe);
- 6'b));H BHHMaTeJIeH npH 3a));eMCTBaHe Ha Cpe));CTBaTa 3a Bp'b3Ka, KO-
HTO ));aBaT HBHa B'b3MO)KHOCT 3a 3aCH'laHe Ha HHcpopMalJ,HH (nOll(eHCKH
nOCJIaHHH, Pa)J;HO- H TeJIecpoHHH pa3roBopH ... );
- B HHKaK'bB CJIyqaM ));a He ce nHlIlaT C HenpHKpHT TeKCT B nHCMa
peaJIHH a));peCH, HMeHa H Yll'bTBaHHH, He rH cnOMeHaBaMTe B pa3rOBO-
pH, KOHTO ce npOBe)K)J;aT Ha YJIHlJ,aTa HJIH no TeJIecpOHa;
- ));a ce H3n0Jl3BaT KO));OBe H nCeB));OHHMH ));OPH npH B'bTpelIlHorpy-
nOBO 06J.QYBaHe, KaTO OT BpeMe Ha BpeMe ce CMeHHT;
- rpynaTa TpH6Ba));a HMa 2-3 OT));eJIHH lIlHcp'bpa, H3BeCTHH Ha pa3-
JIHqHH xopa;
- ));a ce pa3qHTa nOBeqe Ha naMeTTa, OTKOJIKOTO Ha 3anHCKH, B noc-
JIe));HHH CJIyqaM ));a ce ynoTpe6HBaT JIH'leH KO)); H lIlHCP'bp;
- cTapaMTe ce ));a He OCTaBHTe KOMnpOMeTHpall(H JIHCT'leTa, HanH-
caHH C BalIlHH nOqepK HJIH OTneqaTaHH Ha BalIlaTa MalIlHHonHCHa Tex-
HHKa;
- B 06J.QYBaHeTO C "OCBeTeHH" JIHlJ,a ce B'b3));'bp)KaMTe OT npeKH KOH-
TaKTH, KaTO H3n0Jl3BaTe, aKO nOTpH6Ba, CTpaHHqHH JIHlJ,a H ));pyrH cpe));-
CTBa 3a CBp'b3Ka;
- BHHarH ));a OT'lHTaTe H nOMHHTe, 'Ie HMa B'b3MO)KHOCT OT H3THqaHe
Ha HHcpopMalJ,HH HJIH npe));aTeJICTBO, H ));a 6'b));eTe rOTOBH 3a C'bOTBeT-
HHTe KOHTpa));eMCTBHH.
a
178
AHATOJlIt1M T APAC
B. !loKallHa CU2ypHOCm
HaH)J,06pa rapaHIJ;IUI 3a ycnex 06HKHOBeHO )J,aBa npe3acTpaxoBKa
Ta wno Ta3H npWIHHa e )1(eJIaTeJIHO BC5IKO )J,eHCTBHe )J,a ce OC'hr.u;eCTB5I-
Ba, KaTO ce B3eMaT no)J, BHHMaHHe BCHqKH B'h3MO)1(HH HenpHHTHOCTII,
KOHTO MOraT )J,a ce n05IB5IT OT CrpaHa Ha npOTIlBHHKa rum OT CJIyqaHHo
nona)J,HaJIH CBH)J,eTeJIH.
OT)J,eJIHHTe HatIHHH 3a OCHryp5IBaHe Ha cmypHOCTTa (H3M'hKBaHe OT
npeCJIe)J,BaHe, 3aCHqaHe Ha nO)J,CJIYUlBaHe ... ) ce cnOMeHaxa no-paHO, a
TYK r.u;e HayqHM or.u;e H5IKOJIKO cper.u;aHH B npaKTHKaTa CTaH)J,apTHH CH-
ryaIJ;HH H H51KOH MepKH, OpHeHTIlpaHH K'hM T5IXHOTO npHKpHBaHe. III.e
pa3fJIe)J,aMe:
1. 06r.u;H npaBHJIa 3a npHKo o6r.u;ysaHe.
2. IhnoJI3BaHe Ha TeJIecpoHa.
3. OpraHH3HpaHe Ha cpeI.IJ;H.
4. "CJIH3aHe Ha )J,'hHOTO."
(1). 06r.u;H npaBHJIa 3a np5IKO o6r.u;yBaHe
- cTapaHTe ce )J,a He BO)J,HTe HHcpopMaTHBHH pa3rOBOpH B HenpHK-
pHT TeKCT Ha MHOrOJIlO)J,Ha YJIHIJ;a HJIH B 06r.u;eCTBeHHH rpaHcnopT;
- He rp5I6Ba B OTKpOBeH pa3rOBOp )J,a ce cnOMeHaBaT HCTIlHCKHTe
HMeHa, 06r.u;OH3BeCTHH np03BHr.u;a H a)J,peCH, C'hr.U;O H "rpeBO)1(er.u;a" Tep
MHHOJIOrHH;
- H3nOJI3BaifTe 3a OT)J,eJIHH )J,eHCTBHH KO)J,OBH HaHMeHOBaHHH;
- HaH-TaHHHTe aCneKTH Ha pa3rOBopa (HCTHHCKHTe a)J,peCH, napOJIH,
)J,aTIl) ce nmnaT Ha xapTIl5I, K05ITO CJIe)J, TOBa ce YHmu;O)1(aBa;
- rp5I6Ba )J,a ce opHeHTHpaTe B TeXHHqeCKHTe B'h3MO)1(HOCTII Ha CHC
TeMHTe 3a nO)J,CJIyuIBaHe H )J,a 3HaeTe eJIeMeHTapHH MepKH )J,a HM npo-
TIlBO)J,eHCTBaTe (B)1(. pa3)J,eJIa 3a nOJIyqaBaHe Ha HHcpopMaIJ;H5I ... );
- KoraTO no BpeMe Ha pa3fOBopa e)J,HH OT C'h6ece)J,HHIJ;HTe yceTH
Her.u;o cMyr.u;aBar.u;o, napTHbOp'hT ce npe)J,ynpe)K)J.aBa C oco6eHa )J.yMa
("BHHMaHHe" ... ) HJIH C )1(eCT (np'hCT K'hM YCTHHTe ... ) H pa3rOBOp'hT npe
MHHaBa B HeyrpaJIHO pyCJIO;
- aKO 3HaeTe, 'Ie BH nO)J,CJIYUlBaT, nO-)J,06pe e)J,a He BO)J,HTe HHcpOp
MaTHBHH pa3rOBopH HJIH )J,a rH H3nOJI3BaTe 3a )J,e3HHcpopMaIJ;H5I;
- KoraTO e 5ICHO, 'Ie BH nO)J,CJIYIIIBaT, a Bce naK rp5I6Ba )J,a norOBopH-
Te, ce H3n0JI3BaT 6e306H)J,HH H3peqeHH5I, KOHTO HMaT C'hB'hpllleHO )J,pyr
CMHC'hJI; H3nOJI3BaT ce H cppa3H, KOHTO He rp5I6Ba )J,a ce B3HMaT no)J,
BHHMaHHe (3a T5IX 06HKHoBeHo ce C'h06r.u;aBa C H5IKaK'hB yroBopeH )1(eCT,
HanpHMep KP'hCTOCBaHe Ha np'hCTHTe), a qeCTO H cTaH)J,apTHHTe MeTo-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
179
)J,H (nOKalllJI5IHe, npe)J,MeT B YCTaTa), KOHTO 3aTpY)J,H5IBaT pa3n03HaBa-
HeTO Ha rOBoper.u;HH;
- KoraTO rp5I6Ba )J,a oCHrypHTe n'hJIHa TaHHa Ha 06r.u;ysaHeTO B M5IC-
TO C MHorQXopa, ce H3n0JI3BaT MeTO)J,H 3a YCJIOBHa (HeBep6aJIHa) Bp'h3Ka
KaTO e3HKa Ha )1(eCTOBeTe, )J,BH)1(eHHeTO Ha T5IJIOTO H )1(eCTOBe C np'hCTII,
C'hr.U;O H KO)J,OBe, KOHTO ca CB'hp3aHH C arpH6YTIlTe Ha 06JIeKJIOTO (on-
pe)J,eJIeHH nOJIO)1(eHH5I Ha lllanKHTe, B'h3eJI'hT Ha Bp'h3KaTa, HOCHaTa
K'hpnHqKa ... ) HJIH MaHHnyJIHpaHe C pa3JIHqHH nO)J,p'htIHH npe)J,MeTH (qa
COBHHK, npe)J,MeTIl, KJIlOqOBe ... ).
(2). IhnoJI3BaHe Ha TeJIecpoHa
A) OCUZypJl8a1le Ita IlU'Ilta cuzypltocm:
- crpeMeTe ce )J,a yroBap5ITe BpeMeTo Ha qy)K)J.HTe H JIWIHHTe n03-
B'hH51BaHHH H )J,a OrpaHHtIaBaTe qeCTOTaTa Ha KOHTaKTHTe;
- He 3JIoynorpe65IBaHTe C pa3roBopH no C06CTBeHH5I TeJIecpOH (He
3a6paB5IifTe, 'Ie MO)1(e )J,a e nO)J,CJIyuIBaH) H He )J,aBaHTe 6e3 Hy)K)J.a HO-
Mepa CH (He e rpy)J,HO no HerO)J,a OTKpHHT H a)J.peca BH);
- OTtIHTaifTe, 'Ie MoraT )J,a nO)J,CJIyuIBaT KaKTO IJ;eJIHH TeJIecpOHeH
pa3rOBOp (npH BKJIlOqBaHe B JIHHH5ITa), TaKa H caMO TOBa, KoeTO BHe
rOBOpHTe (nOCTaBeH ,,6p'hM6ap" HJIH C'hce)J, 3a)J, BpaTaTa ... );
- nOJIe3HO e )J,a MOHmpaTe B anapaTa eJIeMeHTapeH "KOHrpOJIbOP"
(3a )J,a cpHKCHpa nOHH)KaBaHe Ha Hanpe)1(eHHeTO ... ) 3a BKJIlOqBaHe Ha
qy)K)J.a anaparypa K'hM JIHHH5ITa;
- )J,a ce H3n0JI3Ba AOH (aBToMaTHqeH onpe)J,eJIHTeJI Ha HOMepa),
nO-)J,06pe "aHTII-aHTH-AOH", 3a)J,a He acpHllIHpaTe HOMepa CH npH no-
3B'hH5IBaHe;
- He pa3qHTaHTe Ha CHrypHOCTTa Ha KaKBHTO H )J,a e pa)J,HOTeJIe-
CPOHH;
- Me)1()J.Yfpa)J,CKH H npOqHe cpHKcHpyeMH KOHTaKTH nO-)J,06pe)J,a ce
OC'hr.u;eCTB5IBaT C qy)K)J. "HOMep" no Mo6HJIeH ,,)J,BOHHHK" HJIH pa)J,HO-
y)J,'hJI)1(HTeJI (B)1(. rJIaBaTa 3a lllaHTa)Ka ... ), C'hr.U;O H qpe3 Henocpe)J,CTBe-
HO BKJIlOqBaHe K'hM BC5IKa )J,BOHKa KOHTaKTH B pa3npe)J,eJIHTeJIHOTO Ta6-
JIO;
- 3a nO-rOJI5IMa TaHHa Ha nperOBopHTe MoraT )J,a ce 3a)J,eHCTBaT
llIHcppaTopH (MaKap H 06HKHOBeHH HMnpOBH3HPaHH HHBepcopH H CKpeM-
6JIepH), B'hnpeKH 'Ie H3nOJI3BaHeTO HM MO)1(e P5I3KO )J,a 3aCHJIH BHHMa-
HHeTO Ha )J,pYfHTe;
- He rp5I6Ba )J,a ce )J,oBep5IBaTe oco6eHo Ha 3ar.u;HTa qpe3 ,,3aIIIYM}I-
BaHe" HJIH "noBHlllaBaHe Ha Hanpe)1(eHHeTO no JIHHHHTa";
- aKO He HCKaTe ,,)J,a ce pa3111HcppOBaTe" npe)J, C'h6ece)J,HHKa CH, MO)1(e
180 AHATOJH11i1 TAPAC
.I(a ce OnHT-aTe.I(a H3MeHHTe rJIaCa CH (qpe3 MeXaHHqHH H eJIeKTPOHHM
HelI(Hua HJIH qpe3 06MKHOBeHO nOKaI1lJI5lHe, pa3DlraHe MJIM CBMBaHe Ha
YCTHHTe, CTMCKaHe Ha HOCa ... ) H CTHJIHa OKpaCKa Ha pa3rOBOpa (qpe3
H3n0JI3BaHe Ha )l(aprOH ... );
- He 3a6paB5IiiTe, qe nOH5IKOra ce npOCJIYI1lBaT H TeJIe<pOHHHTe aB-
TOMaTH, qHeTO pa3nOJIO)l(eHHe JIeCHO ce M3qHCJI5IBa, KaKTO H Ha OCTaHa-
JIHTe TeJIe<poHH;
- aKO BM e He06xo.I(HMO qy)l(.I(OTO n03B'bH5IBaHe, HO H5IMaTe )l(eJIaHMe
.I(a .I(aBaTe KOOp.I(MHaTHTe CH, ce nOJI3Ba Me)l(.I(MHeH - C TeJIe<pOHeH ceK-
peTap HJIH )l(HB ".I(HCneqep", Koiho MO)l(e .I(a 3Hae MJIH.I(a He 3Hae (e.I(-
HOCTPaHeH BapHaHT) HOMepa Ha BaI1lH5I TeJIe<poH;
- B OT.I(eJIHH CJIyqaM e B'b3MO)KH0 6e3CJIOBeCHO H3n0JI3BaHe Ha TeJIe-
<pOHa, KoraTO e.I(HO, a nO-qeCTO H5IKOJIKO "npa3HH" n03B'bH5IBaHH5I B
onpe.I(eJIeH PHT'bM CJI)l)KaT 3a onpe.I(eJIeH KO.I(;
- 3a KOHKpeTeH CHrHaJI nOH5IKOra MO)l(e .I(a cny)l(M CaMH5IT <paKT Ha
n03B'bH5IBaHeTO Ha onpe.I(eJIeHO JIHue npH HaM-6aHaJIeH pa3rOBOp, a
C'blllO H KO.I(OBOTO cnOMeHaBaHe Ha H5IKaKBH HMeHa npH "rpeI1lKa B HO-
Mepa".
B) OCuzypfl8a1-le 1-Ia CA08eC1-Ia cuzyp1-locm:
- He npOBe)l(.I(aMTe .I(eJIOBM pa3rOBopH C OTKpHT TeKCT;
- He Ha30BaBaMTe MCTHHCKH .I(aTH, <paMHJIHH, a.I(peCM;
- H3nOJI3BaMTe KO.I(OBH Ha3BaHH5I Ha OT.I(eJIHH .I(eMCTBH5I;
- nOJI3BaMTe YCJIOBeH e3HK, npM KOMTO 6e306H.I(HH <ppa3H HMaT C'b-
B'bplIIeHO .I(pyr CMHC'bJI;
- 3B'bHeTe caMO npH He06xo.I(HMOCT, MaKap qe e B'b3MO)l(eH C'blllO H
BapHaHT Ha qaCTHH pa3rOBopH "He no pa60Ta" C e.I(HH H C'blllM qOBeK
(TaKTHKa Ha "pa3TBap5IHe Ha HH<popMaUH5ITa").
B) Paszo8op 8 npUCbcm8ue 1-Ia Cmpal-ltllJ1-IU AUl{a:
- .I(HaJIOr'bT ce BO.I(H OT napmbopa, a BMe caMO OTrOBap5ITe C ".I(a" HJIH
"He", 3a.I(a He pa36epaT H He HayqaT OKOJIHHTe HHlllO;
- qe HMa CTPaHMqHH JIHua, ce C'b06lllaBa HanpaBO HJIH C'bC CJIOBeCeH
KO.I(; CJIe.I( TOEa pa3rOBOp'bT TP5I6Ba .I(a ce BO.I(H OT napTHbopa, KOMTO He
TPH6Ba .I(a 3a.I(aBa KaKBMTO H .I(a e B'bnpOCH, H3MCKBalllH pa3r'bpHaTM
OTrOBopH;
- KoraTO HMa np5IK KOHTPOJI OT He MHorO .I(PY)I(em06HO JIHue, napT-
HbOP'bT ce npe.I(ynpe)l(.I(aBa C yroBopeHa <ppa3a KO.I( (HaM-.I(06pe B n03.I(-
paBa ... ), CJIe.I( KoeTO pa3rOBOp'bT ce BO.I(H B 6e3C'b.I('bp)l(aTeJIeH .I(e3-
HH<popMaUHOHeH CTMJI;
L
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
181
- aKO e.I(HH OT C'b6eCe.I(HHUHTe CM5ITa, qe TeJIe<pOH'bT My ce no.I(-
CJIylIIBa, TOM ce cTPeMH Be.I(Hara .I(a npeAynpe.I(H n03B'bHMJIMTe My qpe3
H3BecmaTa <ppa3a (,,60JI5IT Me 3'b6HTe" ... ) H CJIeA TOBa pa3rOBOp'bT Aa
npeMMHe B HeYTpaJIHO pyCJIo.
T) lloA38a1-le 1-Ia o6u( meAeifj01-l (8 :CUAuLu,emo, 8 pa6omama .. .):
- H3n0JI3BaMTe KOJIKOTO MO)l(e nO-MaJIKO nOA06eH TeJIe<poH (oc06e-
HO .I(a 3B'bHHT Ha Bac), aKO He e CB'bp3aHO C pa3HrpaBaHaTa POJIH (.I(Mcne-
qep, areHT no peKJIaMaTa .. );
- Ha .I(a.I(eH TeJIe<pOH TP5I6Ba .I(a ce 06a)l(.I(a e.I(HH M C'bIIJ; qOBeK;
- CTPeMeTe ce .I(a He 3B'bHHTe TB'bp.I(e K'bCHO H TB'bp.I(e paHO;
- npH onHT Ha OKOJIHHTe.I(a H.I(eHTH<pHUHpaT rJIaca Ha 06a)1(.I(alllHH
ce ("KOM ro T'bpCH?" ... ) .I(a ce OTrOBapH Be)I(JIMBO HeYTPaJIHO (,,KOJIe-
ra" .. ) H aKO T'bpCeHH5I ro H5IMa, Be.I(Hara.I(a ce npeK'bCHe pa3rOBOp'bT;
- He e CJIO)l(HO .I(a ce HanpaBH H OT.I(eJIeH TeJIe<pOH, KaTO ce H3nOJI3Ba
KO.I(OB pa3KJIOHMTeJI, KOMTO npM cneUH<PnqHO Ha6HpaHe Ha 06IIJ;HH HO-
Mep .I(a oCHrypH 3B'bHeHe caMO Ha BalIIH5I anapaT, 6e3 Aa 3a.I(eMCTBa
C'bCe.I(HH5I.
r. OpzaHU3upaHe Ha cpewp
PaBHHllleTO Ha H3HCKBaHHTe B KOHKpeTHH5I CJIyqaM MepKH Ha cHryp-
HOCT 3aBHCH OT )l(eJIaHaTa CTeneH Ha KOHCnHpaTHBHOCT Ha KOHTaKTa,
OT CTeneHTa Ha JIeraJIHOCT Ha HerOBHTe yqaCTHHUH H npe.I(nOJIaraeMa-
Ta peaJIHOCT .I(a 6'b.I(e KOHrpOJIHpaH OT xopa.
A) J1360p 1-Ia Mflcmo 3a cpeU(a:
- npH T'bpCeHe Ha nO.I(XOMlllH MeCTa 3a KOHTaKTYBaHe
ce onHpaT Ha npHHUHnHTe Ha eCTeCTBeHOCT, 060cHoBaHocT H CJIyqaH-
HOCT;
- qeCTHTe cpelllH MoraT HaM-JIeCHO.I(a ce OC'bllleCTB5IT Ha H5IKOM KY-
nOH Ha <peHOBe (KaTO ce BnHlIIeTe B Hero .. ), B 3aJIaTa Ha cnopmaTa
CeKUH5I, B pa60THOTO nOMellleHHe ... ;
- MHoro cepH03HH C'b6HpaHH5I MoraT .I(a ce peaJIH3HpaT B MeCTa 3a
JIOBYBaHe, CneUHaJIHO HaeTH BHJIH, B 6aHH, KYPopmH caHaTopHYMH, B
pa3JIHqHH cnopTHH 6a3H, Ha nJIa)l(OBe B qy)l(6HHa;
- cpelllHTe Me)l(.I(y .I(BaMa ce onpe.I(eJI5IT B MeTpOTO HJIM B rpaAHHKH-
Te, B TOaJIeTHHTe H aBTOM06HJIHTe, Ha nycnl YJIHUH H B 300napKOBe, B
MY3eH H Ha H3JIO)l(6H; 3aCnqaHH5I B TaKHBa MeCTa He ca MHoro B'b3MO)l(-
HH, nopa.I(H KoeTO ca M nO-MaJIKO onacHH;
182 AHATOfWl1iI TAPAC
- B'h3,lJ,'hp)f(aiiTe ce OT KOHCnMpaTIlBHM CpeI.QM B M3BeCTHM peCTOpaH-
TIl, MO,lJ,HM KacpeHeTa M Ha rapaTa, 3alI(OTO TaKHBa TO'IKM 06HKHOBeHO
ca KOHTPOJIMpaHM;
- B'b3MO)f(HO e npOBe)f()J,aHe Ha "CJIyqaiiHH" cpelI(H B '1aCTHH )f(HJIM-
lI(a Ha TPeTIl JIMu;a no 060CHOBaH nOBO,lJ, (norpe6eHHe, I06MJIeii, "noJIH-
BaHe" Ha IDIKaKBO C'h6MTIle .. );
- He ,lJ,a ce npOBe)f()J,aT KaKBHTO M ,lJ,a e cpelI(H (OCBeH 06M'Iaii-
HHTe) B CTepeOTHnHH 06lI(H )f(MJIMlI(a;
- KpaiiHO OrpaHH'leHO ,lJ,a ce M3nOJI3BaT 3a KOHTaKTH c06CTBeHHTe
anapTaMeHTM;
- B onpe,lJ,eJIeHM CJIyqaM e ,lJ,06pe ,lJ,a ce HaeMe CneU;MaJIHa KOHcnMpa-
THBHa KBapTMpa, no B'h3MO)f(HOCT B crpa,lJ,a, B K05lTO MMa BTOpM M3XO,lJ,;
- npM orJIe,lJ, Ha M5ICTO 3a CpelI(aTa BMHarM ,lJ,a ce lIMa npe,lJ,BM,lJ, MO)f(e
JIM ,lJ,a ce npOHMKHe TaM HeKOHTPOJIMpaHO M no KaK'bB Ha'lMH MO)f(e OT-
TaM He3a6eM3aHO ,lJ,a ce M3M'bKHelll; nOMHeTe CTapaTa MCTMHa: "AKO
He TIl e KaK lI(e M3JIe3elll, nO-,lJ,06pe He BJIM3aii!"
) H-flrjjopMa1,fUfl 3a cpeU{ama:
- MeCTaTa Ha B'h3MO)f(HaTa cpelI(a ce yroBap5lT npe,lJ,BapHTeJIHO M Ha
BCH'lKH MM ce ,lJ,aBa KO,lJ,OBO - 6YKBeHO, U;MCPPOBO MJIM "JI'h)f(JIMBO" - MMe,
npM TOBa H5IKOJIKO 3a BC5IKO;
- aKO ce yroBapne 3a CpelI(aTa no JIMHH5ITa Ha "OTKpHTa" Bp'h3Ka,
M3nOJI3BaiiTe KO,lJ,OBO MMe Ha MeCTa, lllMcppOBaHa ,lJ,aTa (HanpMMep ,lJ,eH
npe,lJ,H nOCO'leHaTa) M M3MeCTeHO BpeMe (C nOCT05lHHO MJIM npOMeH5llI(O
Ce'lMCJIO);
- ,lJ,0 HaCThnBaHe Ha onpe,lJ,eJIeHH5I CpOK TP5I6Ba,lJ,a ce nOTB'hp,lJ,H KOH-
TaKThT MJIH '1pe3 OTKpHT TeKCT, MJIM '1pe3 CMrHaJIHa Bp'h3Ka;
- B cJIyqaii 'Ie npM CpelI(aTa e ,lJ,OnyCTMMO M3'1aKBaHe (Ha cIIHpKa Ha
rpa,lJ,CKH5I TPaHcnopT, Ha onalllKa 3a 3ape)f(,lJ,aHe Ha aBTOM06MJIa . ), e
)f(eJIaTeJIHO ,lJ,a ce nOCO'lM KOHKpeTeH OTP5I3'hK OT BpeMe, CJIe,lJ, KoiiTO
nOBe'le He 6HBa ,lJ,a ce '1aKa.
B) IIpoaeJICoafle fla cpeufama:
- Ha MHOrOJIIO,lJ,HM c6MPKM He TP5I6Ba ,lJ,a ce npMcTMra e,lJ,HOBpeMeH-
HO, a nOe,lJ,MHH'IHO M ,lJ,a He ce OCTaB5IT Ha e,lJ,HO M51CTO BCH'IKM JIM'IHH
aBTOM06HJIH;
- cTapaiiTe ce Ha C6HpKMTe ,lJ,a He npHC'hCTBaT CTPaHH'lHM M M3JIHlll-
HM JIMu;a;
- 3HaeiiKM, 'Ie 3a MHOrOJIIO,lJ,HM TaiiHM cpeI.QH lI(e ca OCBe,lJ,OMeHH M
Te3H, KOMTO He Tp5l6Ba, HMKora He 6MBa ,lJ,a HOCHTe C'hC ce6e CM IDIKaKBM
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm 183
nBHO KOMnpOMeTMpalI(M BelI(H (OP'h)f(M5I, cpaJIIIIHBM ,lJ,0KYMeHTIl .. ) M,lJ,a
nOMHHTe, 'Ie nOIDIKora MoraT ,lJ,a BM rM nO,lJ,n'hXHaT;
- )f(eJIaTeJIeH e KOHTPOJI Ha M5ICTOTO 3a 06lI(yBaHe OT CneU;MaJIHM
xopa npe,lJ,M, no BpeMe M CJIe,lJ, cpelI(aTa, 3a ,lJ,a MO)f(e npM Heo6xo,lJ,MMOCT
Te ,lJ,a npe,lJ,ynpe,lJ,5lT 3a B'h3HMKBalI(aTa onaCHOCT no C06CTBeHH5I M06M-
cpOH MJIM KaTO M3n0JI3BaT IDIKaKBM yroBopeHM (cnope,lJ, 06XBaTa CM) CHr-
HaJIM;
- npM BceKM KOHTaKT TP5I6Ba ,lJ,a npe,lJ,BM,lJ,HTe KaK MoraT ,lJ,a BM npo-
CJIe,lJ,n M nO,lJ,CJIYllIaT, KaTO ynopHTo CM 3a,lJ,aBaTe KpaTKHTe B'hnpOCM:
"K'h,lJ,e?", "KaK?", "Koii?";
- MHoro OT TaiiHlITe pa3rOBopM TP5I6Ba ,lJ,a ce B JIO-
KaJIHM H30JIHpaHH MeCTa, npOBepeHH H 3aCTPaXOBaHH cpelI(y BCH'lKM
B'h3MO)f(HH nO,lJ,CJIyrnBaHH5I, npOCJIe,WlBaHH5I H pa3pyrnaBaHe;
- )f(eJIaTeJIHO e,lJ,a HMaTe nOHe npOCTIl'IKH HH,lJ,HKaTOpM, KOMTO yJIa-
B5IT H3JI'h'lBaHeTO Ha pa,lJ,HOMHKpocpOHHTe HJIH Ha nHllleIIJ.H5I ,lJ,HKTOCPOH
Ha C'h6eCe,lJ,HHKa;
- nOJIe3HO e H3nOJI3BaHeTO ,lJ,OpH Ha MCKPOBH 3arJIyIIIHTeJIH, C'hlI(O H
reHepaTopH 3a M3TPMBaHe Ha MarHHTeH 3anHC;
- 3a ,lJ,a npHCTHrHeTe C'hBCeM TO'lHO Ha CpelI(aTa, TP5I6Ba npe,lJ,BapH-
TeJIHO ,lJ,a ce HanpaBH xpOHOMeTPa)!( Ha ,lJ,BH)f(eHHeTO H ,lJ,a ce OCTaBH B
3anac BpeMe 3a BC5IKaKBH H3HeHa,lJ,H (oT6HBaHe Ha MaplllpYTHOTO TPa-
ce, JIenBaHe Ha B'hHllleH '10BeK, TPaHcnopTHa aBapH51 . );
_ KoraTO 3aCH'laHeTO e nJIaHHpaHO Ha YJIMu;aTa, He npe'lH .n;a ce pa3-
XO,lJ,HTe TaM 'lac npe,lJ,H CpelI(aTa, BHHMaTeJIHO .n;a ce BrJIe.n;aTe B'hB Bce-
KH MHHYBa'l H BCH'lKH napKHpaHH aBTOM06HJIH; aKO HelI(O BH YC'hMHH,
KOHTaKThT TP5I6Ba .n;a ce OTJIO)f(H, KaTO ro C'h06lI(HTe Ha napTHbOpa CM C
npMKpHTa CHrHaJIHa Bp'h3Ka;
- npH cpelI(H C Hen03HaTH JIM'IHOCTIl nOCJIe.n;HHTe MoraT .n;a 6'h,lJ,aT
pa3n03HaTIl no onHcaHMeTO Ha B'hHlllHH5I MM BH.n;, KOHKpeTHa n03a HJIM
)f(eCT, cnOMeHaBaHe Ha npe,lJ,MeTIl, KOHTO ce .n;'bp)f(aT B p'hIJ;e, HO Haii-
.n;06pe no CHMMKa, C nO-HaTaThlllHO nOTB'hp)f()J,eHHe Ha H,lJ,eHTH'lHOCrra
'1pe3 CJIOBeCHaH (.n;pyra) napoJIa;
_ pa3nOJIO)f(eHHeTO B cTaU;MoHapa TP5I6Ba .n;a e TaKoBa, 'Ie npe3 IJ;5I-
JIOTO BpeMe .n;a MoraT .n;a ce KOHTPOJIHpaT MeCTaTa Ha B'h3HHKBalI(a 3an-
JIaxa (B KacpeHeTO - C JIHu;e K'bM BXO,lJ,a, KaTO e,lJ,HOBpeMeHHo ce CJIe.n;H
KaKBO CTaBa HaB'hH, M 6JIH30 .n;o CJIY)f(e6HH5I BXO.n; .. );
- .n;a ce nOMH5IT H H3n'hJIIDIBaT BCH'IKH no-paHO nOCO'leHM npaBHJIa
3a CJIOBeCHO 06I.QYBaHe.
184 AHATOJH111 T APAC
A. IICIIU3aHe Ha gbHomo"
HMa cMrya[(MM, OT KOMTO MO)l(ern ,n:a ce M3M'bI<Hern caMO aKO Bpe-
MeHHO (a nOWIKora M 3aBMHarM) M3qe3HaT OT nOJIe3peHMeTO TM OT,n:eJI-
HM JIM[(a, CTPYKryPM MJIM opraHM3a[(MlL TOqHO T03M acneKT l[(e pa3rJIe-
,n:aMe TYK:
- "CJIM3aHeTO Ha ,n:'bHOTO" npe,n:nOJIara n'bJIHO npeKpanlBaHe Ha BC5I-
KO HanOMH5IHe 3a ce6e CM MJIM eJIeMeHTapHO M3qe3BaHe 3a C'b6MpaHe Ha
CMJIM 3a no6e,n:eH y,n:ap;
- KoraTO peIIIMTe,n:a M3qe3HeTe, TP5I6Ba,n:a npeCMeTHeTe: KOH, KaK M
C KaKBa aKTMBHOCT l[(e BM TbPCM, nOCJIe, OCHOBaBaHKM ce Ha TaKMBa
npe.n:rrOJIO)l(eHM5I, ,n:a CM M3pa60TMTe HaqMH 3a M3M'bKBaHe M cxeMa Ha
nOBe,n:eHMe B nO-HaTaTbIlIHM5I )l(MBOT;
- MO)l(e ,n:a CM OTM,n:eTe qpe3 06MKHOBeHO M3qe3BaHe MJIM qpe3 MMM-
Ta[(M5I Ha CM'bPT (Hel[(aCTeH cnyqaH, caMoy6MHCTBO .. ), nOH5IKOra M OT-
BJIl{t{aHe;
- npM MMMTa[(M51 Ha CM'bPT ca B'b3MO)l(HM BapMaHTM C HaMe[(M (,n:pe-
XM Ha 6pera Ha peKaTa ... ) M CBM,n:eTeJIM (pa3MrpaBaHe Ha TPMK ... ), no,n:-
M5IHa Ha TPynoBeTe (KaTO O ~ M T a T e Bep05lTHOCTTa ,n:a ce onMTaT ,n:a BM
M.D:eHTmilM[(MpaT ... ), a B M351l[(Ha KOM6MHa[(M5I ,n:OpM MHC[(eHMpOBKa Ha
CM'hPT C HaJIl{t{Me Ha BaIlIM5I "TPyn" M cTPoro ,n:OKYMeHTMpaHe Ha T03M
cpaKT;
- HaH-npocTO e ,n:a ce OrpaHI{t{MTe C npe6a3MpaHe Ha ,n:pyro MeCTO-
JKMTeJICTBO, KoeTO no HMKaK'bB HaqMH He e CB'bp3aHO C MMHaJIM KOHTaK-
m M 6MorpaqlMM; ,n:OCTa ycnelliHo e M3M'bKBaHe 3a,n: rpaHM[(a MJIM TaM,
K'b,n:eTO BaIIIMTe rrpOTMBHM[(M He MCKaT ,n:a ce M5IpKaT;
- 3a M3BeCTHO BpeMe ,n:a ce npeceKaT BCMqKM JIMqHM M P5l3KO ,n:a ce
OrpaHMqaT ,n:eJIOBMTe KOHTaKTM;
- 3aCeJIBaHeTO Ha HOBO M5ICTO e B'b3MO)l(HO qpe3 )l(eHa ()l(eHMT6a ... ),
pa60Ta (KOTMpal[(a ce Cne[(MaJIHOCT ... ) MJIM Cne[(MaJIHO no.n;rOTBeH TpMK
(BHe3anHO M3HaMepeH po,n:HMHa ... );
- nOJIe3HO e ,n:a ce npOMeH51T BCMqKM naCnOpTHM ,n:aHHM (HanpMMep
,n:a ce B3eMe cpaMMJIM5ITa Ha C'bnpyraTa MJIM ,n:a ce B'b3nOJI3BaTe OT CPaJI-
IIIMBM ,n:0KYMeHTM ... ) M, MaKap M MaJIKo,,n:a ce npOMeHM B'bHIlIHM5IT BM,n:
(npMqeCKa, 6pa,n:a, MycTa[(M, OqMJIa ... );
- npM cepM03HM CJIyqaM ca .B'b3MO)l(HM nJIaCTMqHa (JIM[(eTO) nJIlOC
xMpypmqeCKa (noxo,n:KaTa) Onepa[(MM, ,n:OpM M XMnHOTMqHO B'b3,n:eHCT-
BMe 3a OTCTPaH51BaHe Ha CTapMTe M npM,n:06MBaHe Ha HOBM HaBM[(M);
- He Tp5l6Ba ,n:a ce 3a6paB5I, qe C'bBpeMeHHMTe MeTo,n:MKM 3a M,n:eHTM-
cpMKa[(M5I (HanpMMep reHeTMqHaTa ... ) ca cnoc06HM npM BceKM CJIYtJaH
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm 185
,n:a YCTaHoB5IT MCTHHaTa; B'bnpOC'bT e ,n:aJIH l[(e CMeTHaT 3a He06xo,n:MMO
,n:a ro HanpaB5IT, MJIM l[(e ce OrpaHl{t{aT C'bC CTaH,n:apTHMTe pa3nHTH M
M3CJIe,n:BaHM5I Ha ,n:OKYMeHTM M cpOTorpacpMM.
3. OClllryp51SaHe Ha TaVlHaTa Ha nOCAaHIII51Ta
BMHarH e cepM03eH np06JIeM 3ana3BaHeTO Ha TaHHaTa Ha H51KOM CBe-
,n:eHM5I. OnMTBaT ce ,n:a ro pa3pelliaT no HaH-pa3JII{t{HM n'bTMl[(a H qac-
TMqHO, KaTO ce 3a,n:eHCTBaT CTeHorpacpM5ITa M KpMnTorpacpM51Ta. AKO
3HaeTe, MaKap M MMHMMYM, no,n:06HH MeTo,n:MKM, l[(e MOJKeTe He caMO
,n:a rM npMJIaraTe 3a ce6e CM, HO M C ycnex l[(e pa3n03HaeTe onMTMTe Ha
,n:pyrM JIM[(a ,n:a CKpM5IT Hel[(O Ba)l(HO OT OKOJIHMTe.
A. Kpunmo2paUfI
l:I3KYCTBOTO Ha KpMI1TOrpacpM5lTa MMa Bp'b3Ka C'bC ,,3aM'brJI5IBaHe-
TO" Ha H51KaKBa HHcpopMa[(H5I. 3a,n:aqMTe Ha KpMI1TOrpacpM51Ta ca npoc-
TH: ,n:a ce HanpaBH pa36MpaeMOTO (T. e. "OTKpMTOTO") C'b06l[(eHMe H3-
[(5IJIO Hepa36MpaeMO (T. e. ,,3aKpMTO") 3a HenOCBeTeHM5I. Ilo,n:06eH TPMK
ce OC'bl[(eCTB5IBa C nOMOl[(Ta Ha Ko,n:MpaHe M IlIMcppOBaHe, a TOBa, KoeTO
B KpaHHa CMeTKa ce nOJIyqaBa, ce HapMqaKpMI1TOrpaMa.
BC5IKO IIIMcppOBaHe ce OC'bl[(eCTB5IBa C M3n0JI3BaHeTO Ha H51KaK'bB aJI-
rOpMTbM (T. e. nOCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIHOCT OT ,n:eHCTBM5I) M M3BeCTHM ,n:aHHM (06MK-
HOBeHO pe,n: OT onpe,lJ;eJIeHM CMMBOJIM C proJIfiqRa .D:'hJIJKMHa, HanpMMep
6YKBM M qnCJIa), M3BeCTHM no,lJ; MMeTO KJIIOq M cne[(Mcpl{t{HM 3a KOHKpeT-
HOTO C'b06l[(eHMe. CKPMTOTO nOCJIaHMe Ha nrpaqMTe MO)l(e ,n:a proIlIMCP-
pOBa caMO T03M, Komo 3Hae aJIrOpMTbMa M KJIlOqa 3a ,lJ;a,n:eHaTa KpHI1TO-
rpaMa.
HaYKaTa, npOTMBO,lJ;eHCTBal[(a Ha M3KYCTBOTO Ha KpMnTorpacpM5ITa,
HOCM MMeTO KpMnTOaHaJIH3a. T5I ce OnMTBa ,lJ;a nOMorHe 3a pa3KpHBaHe
Ha IlIMcp'bpa MJIM KO,lJ;a, 6e3 npe,n:BapHTeJIHO ,lJ;a ce 3Ha5IT KOHKpeTHM5IT
KJIlOq H aJIrOpMTbM. T03H npo[(ec e M3BeCTeH KaTO ,n:eIlIMcppOBKa.
(1). Kooupaue
KO,lJ;HpaHe ce Hapl{t{a 3aM51HaTa Ha ,IJ;yMM, rpynM OT ,IJ;yMH, C'bl[(O TaKa
H [(eJIH cppa3H C H5IKaKBa YCJIOBHa ,IJ;yMa HJIM 3HaK, rpyna OT CMMBOJIH.
OTKpHTMTe ,IJ;yMM TYK ce HapHqaT Ko,n:OBeJIMqHHH, a TeXHHTe CKpMTH
eKBHBaJIeHTM - KO,lJ;00603HaqeHH5I.
186 AHATOJU11i1 T APAC
Ha60p'bT OT KO,lJ;OBH CHMBOJIH 06HKHOBeHO C'bCTaml KO,lJ;OBaTa a3-
6YKa (peqHHK), npH KOeTO B 3a KO,lJ;HpaHe B a36yqeH pe,lJ;
CTORT KO,lJ;OBeJIHqHHH, a B 3a pa3KO,lJ;HpaHe - KO,lJ;oo603Ha-
qeHHR.
3a If36RrBaHe Ha nOBTOpeHHR B TeKCTa H ycpe,lJ;HRBaue Ha qeCTOTHTe
Ha Ha e,lJ;HO KO,lJ;OBO 0603HaqeHHe qeCTO C'bOTBeTCTBaT HRKOJI-
KO KO,lJ;OBeJIuqHHH, a Ha e,JJ;Ha KO,lJ;OBeJIHquua (aKO TR TB'bp,lJ;e qeCTO ce
ynOTpe6RBa . ) HRKOJIKO (2-5) KO,lJ;00603HaqeHmI.
AKo npH KO)J;Hpaue iKeJIaHaTa )J;yMa R HRMa B TR ce KO,JJ;H-
pa no6YKBeHo, npH KoeTO BCRKa 6YKBa ce pa3rJIeJK)J;a KaTO caMOCTOR-
TeJIHa I<O,lJ;OBeJIuqHHa.
3a 3aTpy,lJ;HRBaHe Ha ,lJ;eKO,JJ;HpaHeTo 06HKHoBeHo ce H3n0JI3BaT TaKa
HapeqeHHTe "npa3HHHH", ToeCT KO,lJ;00603HaqeHHR, KOHTO ce pa3XB'bp-
JIRT no TeKCTa Ha KpHnTorpaMaTa, HO He 3HaqaT. ,[(pyra MRpKa 3a
npe,JJ;lla3BaHe e nOCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIHOTO 3alllH<PPOBaHe (06HKHOBeHO C llIH<P-
pH 3a pa3MeCTBaHe Ha Beqe 3aKO,JJ;HpaHO
TIOJIe3HO e HaH-BaiKHHTe KO,lJ;OBH C'bOTBeTCTBHR ,lJ;a ce C'bXpaHRBaT B
naMeTTa, KaTO npH He06xo,JJ;HMOCT ce BM'bKBaT B HeWH<pPOBau TeKCT, a
nOHRKora ,lJ;a ce H3nOJI3Ba HaH-06HKHOBeH aKpOKO,lJ; - qeTeHe Ha n'bpBH-
Te 6YKBH Ha )J;yMaTa, MH Ha HRKOH qaCTH (,lJ;a peqeM, rJIaro-
JIH .. ) Ha H3peqeHHeTO (HanpHMep <ppa3aTa "HCKaM MHoro aHaHaCH" ce
qere KaTO "HMa"). 3a pa3JIHKa OT HCTHHCKlliI KO,lJ; B aKpOKO,lJ;a
e MHHHMaJIHa.
3a MaCKHpOBKa Ha H ,lJ;aTHTe qeCTO ce npHJIara TaKa Hape-
qeHHRT npHMHTHBeH KO,lJ;, B KOHTO 6YKBHTe Ha KJIlOqOBaTa ,lJ;YMa RCHO
ce npHB'bp3BaT K'bM KOHKpeTHH HanpHMep, aKO ,lJ;YMaTa KJIloq
"K H M rOM 3 ATE neT B 0",
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 , ...
TO ,lJ;aTaTa 03.06.97. ce 3anHllIe
TIPH ,lJ;eKO,lJ;Hpaue Ha KO,lJ;OBHTe nOCJIaHHR ce H3nOJI3Ba JIOrHKaTa Ha
,lJ;OraAKHTe, OCHOBaHa Ha aHaJIH3a Ha TOBa, C KOeTO ce 3aHHMaBaT H3-
H Kamo MoraT ,lJ;a KaiKaT 3a CBoeTO TIPH TOBa
Be,lJ;H'biK ce H3nOJI3BaT KanaHH C nO,lJ;XB'bpJIRHe Ha HRKama HH<popMa-
KORTO CTpaHa me nOHCKa,lJ;a npe,lJ;a,lJ;e. TIPH pa3rJIeJK)J;aHe
Ha KO,lJ;OrpaMaTa ce CTpeMHM ,lJ;a pa36epeM CTpYKTYpaTa Ha HeHHHR
TeKCT, KaTO ce onpe,lJ;eJIRT KO,lJ;oo603HaqeHHRTa 3a npenHHaTeJIHHTe 3Ha-
OTqHTaT ce C'bmO nOBTopeHHRTa H 06mOnpHeTHTe H3pa3H.
KpaTKOTO KO,lJ;HpaHO e MHoro TPY,lJ;HO ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e pa3-
KPHTO, 6e3 ,lJ;a ce HMa KO,lJ;OBaTa nOHHKora ,lJ;OpH e HeB'b3-
MOiKHO.
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
5. Wu<ppoBaHe
187
TIO,lJ; IJ1H<ppoBaHe ce HMa npe)J;BH)J; npeHHaqaBaHe Ha OTKpHTIUI ,lJ;0
T03H MOMeHT TeKCT B 3aKpHT wH<ppoTeKcT nocpe,n;CTBOM npHJIaraue Ha
Han'bJIHO onpe,n;eJIeHH npaBMJIa (3JII'0PHTMH).
M3BeCTHH ca ,n;Be KJIacuqeCKH Ha lllH<PPOBaHe: lllH<PPH C
pa3MeCTBaHe H 3aMRHa - KOHTO npH TOBa MHoro qeCTO ce C'hqeTaBaT.
(1). muifjpu c pa3MeCm6a1ie
B llIH<ppHTe pa3MeCTBaHeTO Ha 6YKBHTe (HJIH .n:pyrn CHMBOJIH) OT
H3XO,JJ;HOTO C'b06meHHe He ce npOMeHRT, a caMO ce pa3MeHRT no onpe-
,neJIeH 3aKOH, KaTO ueJIHRT TeKCT CTaBa cTau,napTHO HeqHTaeM.
M3BecTHH ca MHOiKeCTBO nporpaMH C no,n06HO WH<PPOBaHe, HO HHe
pa3rJIe,naMe xapaKTepeH llIH<p'bP 3a ,nBOHHO pa3MeCTBaHe Ha KOJIOH-
KH H pe,n;OBe.
TaKHBa llIH<PPH ca .u06PH 3a no,nCHrypRBaHe Ha 3aKo,nHpaHHR TeKCT
HJIH OT,neJIHH KpHllTorpaMH 3a MHOro6YKBeHO WH<PPOBaHe. 3a 3aIDH<p-
pOBaue C )J;BOHHO pa3MeCTBaue e Heo6xo,nHMO:
Ta6llul{aA

r E B A P A
4 5 3 6 2
P 3 B C T P E
q
.,.[[ill]
11 1 A H A IT P E
C 4 )l(H E M M E
K 2 C T E C B 11 MapwpYTH Ha 3anMC - '1eTeHe
Ta6llul{a E Ta6llul{a B
A A B r E P AA B r E
p
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
P 3 P
q
T B C E 11 1 IT E A A H P
111 IT E A A H P K 2 C 11 E C T B
C 4 M E E
)I( H M P 3 P
q
T B C E
K 2 C 11 E C T B C 4 M E E
)I( H M
188 AHATOJll.11ii TAPAC
- p;a ce HanpaBH IDIKaKBa Ta6JIHQa, qHHTO <POp MaTH ce onpep;emlT
OT p;BeTe KJIIOqOBH P;YMH (p;a peqeM, "feBapa" H "pHCK"), KOHTO ce BnHC-
BaT OTIope H OTcrpaHH Ha
B Ta6JIHQaTa no onpep;eJIeH MapllIPYT (HanpHMep "a") ce
H3XOP;HIDIT TeKCT (Ta6JIHQa A), a HeH3nOJI3BaHHTe MeCTa ce 3an'bJIBaT C
KaKBHTO H p;a ca, HO no-p;06pe qeCTO cpern;aHH 6YKBH (ryK: "c", "B",
H")'
" ,
- p;a ce KOJIOHKHTe B pep;, C'bOTBeTCTBarn; Ha pa3nOJIO)l(e-
HHeTO Ha 6YKBHTe B KJIIOq ("feBapa") B 06HKHoBeHaTa a36YKa
(ra6JIHQa E);
- p;a ce BCHqKH KOJIOHKH B C'bOTBeTCTBHe C nOCJIep;OBa-
TeJIHOCTTa Ha 6YKBHTe Ha BTopaTa KJIIOqOBa p;yMa ("pHCK") B a36YKaTa
(Ta6JIHQa B);
- p;a ce BnHIIIaT nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHO 6YKBHTe OT nOJIyqeHaTa
cTaHp;apTHO pa36HTH Ha neT3HaqHH rpynH, npH KoeTO, aKO nOCJIep;HaTa
OT ce OKa)l(e Hen'bJIHa, ce p;onHCBa C KaKBHTO H p;a ca qeCTO cpe-
rn;aHH 6YKBH ( OTC'bCTBHeTO Ha TaKOBa p;OllHCBaHe MO)l(e p;a HanpasH
pa3Mepa Ha Ta6JIHQaTa, p;OKaTO H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha pa3npocrpaHeHHTe
6YKBH MaJIKO rn;e 3arpyp;HH p;eII.IH<pPHpaHeTO). II.IH<pPOTeKCT:
ITEAAH PCHEC BCEME E>KHMH.
ITPH pa3IIIH<pPOBaHe Ha KpHnTorpaMaTa p;a ce p;eHCTBa OT
KpM:
- IIIH<PPOBKaTa ce BnHCBa B C OT ,lJ;'bJl)l(HHaTa Ha
KJIIOqa pa3Mep; KOJIOHKHTe H pep;OBeTe B nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHO ce HO-
MepupaT, a H3JIHIIIHHTe 6YKBH ce H3XB'bPJIfl (TaKa ce nOJIyqaBa Ta6-
JIHQa B);
- pep;oBeTe ce pa3nOJIaraT B C'bOTBeTCTBHe C pep;a Ha HOMepa Ha
6YKBMTe Ha CTpaHHqHaTa KJIIOqOBa p;YMa (TaKa ce nOJIyqaBa Ta6JIM-
u;a E);
- KOJIOHKHTe ce pa3MeCTBaT B C'bOTBeTCTBMe C HOMepau:IDITa Ha 6YK-
BMTe Ha ropHIDI KJIIOq (TaKa ce nOJIyqasa Ta6JIMQa A);
- 6YKBMTe ce 3anMCBaT B pep;, CJIep;BaHKM MaplllpYT.
3a p;eIIIM<ppMpaHe Ha llIM<p'bP OT TaK'bB THn
- p;a ce npep;nOJIO)l(H, qe ryK e H3n0Jl3BaH IIIH<p'bP Ha
pa3MecTBaHe B Ta6JIuqeH BapHaHT;
- p;a ce onHTa qeTeHe qpe3 <pHKcHpaHo HJIH qHCJIO 6YKBH,
KaTO ce npaBH onHT p;a ce YCTaHoBfl 3aKoHoMepHOCTH;
- p;a ce npecMeTHe p;onycKaeMIDIT pa3Mep Ha Ta6JIHu;aTa, 3a opHeH-
THp p;a CJIY)l(H HanpHMep KOJIuqeCTBOTO Ha 6YKBHTe B TeKCTa;
- p;a ce OTKpIDIT 3HaQHTe Ha xapaKTepHHTe 6HrpaMH (cc, MC ... ) H'ce
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CU2ypHocm
189
BCuqKH Me)l(p;y TeXHHTe B 3aKpHT
llIM<ppoTeKcT; Te3H KOHTO ce ce paBIDIBaT Ha qHC-
JIOTO pep;oBe B IIIH<ppoBaHaTa Ta6JIHQa;
- OrqHTaHKH C'bqeTaHIDITa Ha 6YKBH, KOHTO ca MaJIKO MO)l(e
p;a ce np06BaTe p;a HaMepHTe peaJIHaTa nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHOCT Ha KOJIOH-
KHTe;
- cera He e rpyP;HO npaBHJIHO p;a ce BCHqKH pep;OBe, KaTO
ce opHeHTHpaTe no CMHC'bJIa Ha ce <pparMeHTH Ha TeKC-
Ta.
illH<pPHTe Ha pa3MeCTBaHe He ca CJIO)l(HH 3a onHTHIDI p;eIIIH<PPOBqHK
(orn;e nOBeqe 3a KOMnIOT'bp), MaKap qe npH KpaTKH TeKCTOBe e B'b3MO)l(-
HO H HenpaBHJIHO (aHarpaMHO) Ha npOqeTeHOTO.
Wucppu CbC 3aMecm6aHe
B nop;06HH IIIH<PPH OT 6YKBHTe B TeKCT ce nop;MeIDI
C IDIKaKBa p;pyra 6YKBa HJIH CHMBOJI, npH KoeTO pep;'bT Ha caMHTe 6YKBH
He ce 3aMeCTBaHeTO MO)l(e p;a 6'bp;e KaKTO ep;H03HaqHO (B
IIIH<PPHTe C 06HKHOBeHO 3aMeCTBaHe, B KOHTO 6YKBa C'bOTBeTCT-
Ba Ha IDIKOJIKO CHMBOJIa), TaKa H (B IIIH<pPH C MHor06YK-
BeHa K'bp;eTO Ha 6YKBa C'bOTBeTCTBaT no IDIKOJIKO CHM-
BOJIa); KaKTO eP;H06YKBeHa (nopep;Ha 3aMma Ha 6YKBa C 6YKBa), TaKa H
Ha MHor06YKBeHa (CHCTeMa C'bC 3aIIIH<pPOBaHe ep;HOBpeMeHHO Ha p;Be
M nOBeqe 6YKBM).
illH<ppHTe Ha npOCTa ce P;eIIIH<PPMpaT JIeKO npH p;'bJI)I(HHa Ha
TeKCTa He nOBeqe OT p;Be-rpM 6YKBM qpe3 qeCTOTaTa Ha
ce 6YKBM, qpe3 n03HaBaHe Ha yp;soeHM 3HaQM, M
OKOHqaHIDI.
B npaKTMKaTa HMa CMHC'bJI p;a ce M3n0Jl3Ba MHor06YKBeHOTO IIIM<P-
pOBaHe C TaKa HapeqeHaTa "TeKYIIJ;a" Ta6JIHQa, KaTO ce M3n0Jl3Ba MJIM
KaKBaTO M p;a e KHMra, HJIM MMKpOKaJIKyJIaTOp (MK).
a) IlpM IIIM<pPOBaHe C H3nOJI3BaHe Ha KHHra ce nOCT'bnBa no CJIep;-
HaqHH:
- B3eMa ce OT onpep;eJIeHa KHHra M ce Ha onpe-
p;eJIeHa CTpaHMQa (nop;06eH KJIIOq MO)l(e p;a ce npMB'bp)l(e K'bM p;aTaTa,
cyMMpaHa C qrrCJIO, KaTO ce nOCOqBa IDIK'bp;e B II.IH<pPOBKaTa
MJIM ce npep;aBa no p;pyr HaqHH);
- CJIep;BaT C Ha HOMepa Ha pep;a H HOMepa
Ha 6YKBaTa, H3MCKBa T03H pep; 6YKBa no TO 3M HaqHH ce
190 AHATOJlIIIVI T APAC
Ko.n;rrpa C BeqHO npOMeWUU;O ce qeTrrpH3HaqHO qrrCJIO, KaTO B e.n;HO-
3HaqHHTe ce 6pOH rr HYJIaTa);
- IIOJIyqeHrrTe qrrCJIa ce rpYIIHpaT B IIeTOpKH;
- 3a H3BeCTHO YCJIo)KHHBaHe Ha llIHIP'bpa 6pOeHeTO MO)J(e .n;a 3aIIOq-
He He OT n'bpBfIj{, a OT C'bBCeM .n;pyr (yroBopeH, pa36rrpa ce) pe.n;;
- 3a .n;a ce YJIeCHrr HaMrrpaHeTO Ha pe.n;OBe, ce rr3IIOJI3Ba xapTHeHa
HBHu;a, KOHTO ce IIOCTaBH BepTHKaJIHO K'bM KpM Ha JIHCTa C HaHeceHa
B'bpXy HeH HOMepau;rrH Ha BCrrqI(fI pe.n;oBe.
6) I-hIIOJI3BaHeTO Ha KaJIKYJIaTOp IIpH llUIIPpoBaHeTo e OCHOBaHO Ha
IIOJIyqeHaTa C HerOBa IIOMOrn; IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHOCT OT cJIyqamm qrrCJIa,
KoraTO IIpou;e.n;ypaTa Ha 3aU1HIPpoBaHe ce rr3B'bplllBa Ha IIpHHII;HIIa Ha
CHCTeMaTa Ha e.n;HoKpaTHH llIHIPPOBaHH 6eJIe)J(HHU;H. CTaH.n;apTHo ce
.n;eMCTBa IIO CJIe.n;HfIj{ HaqHH:
- OTKPHTflj{T T.eKCT ce BIIrrCBa B pe.n; H OT.n;OJIY IIO.n; BCHKa 6YKBa ce
IIOCTaBH HemmHT ,D;BY3HaqeH HOMep IIO pe.n;a Ha a36YKaTa (A -: 01, E-
02, B - 03 H T. H.);
- IIO.n; U;HIPPOB eKBHBaJIeHT IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHO ce 3aIIHCBaT BCftqKrr
3Hau;rr Ha HHKaKsa CJIyqanHa U;HIPpOBa IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHOCT, B3eTa OT
llIHIPpOBaHflj{ 6eJIe)J(HHK rrJIH IIOJIyqeHa IIO HHKaK'bB .n;pyr HaqrrH;
- qHCJIaTa OT ropHaTa (OTKpHTa) H .n;OJIHaTa (CJIyqaHHa) IIOCJIe.n;OBa-
TeJIHOCT ce 06pa3ysaT IIO MO,D;yJIa 10 (T. e. 6e3 IIpeHoca Ha e,D;HHHu;aTa;
.n;a peqeM, 17 + 25 = 32);
- IIOJIyqeHHHT qpe3 C'b6rrpaHe llIHIPpoTeKcT CTaH,D;apTHO ce pa36HBa
Ha rpyrrrr;
- qrrCJIaTa 06HKHOBeHO He <;e llIHIPpOBaT, a ce OT.n;eJIHT OT 6YKBeHfIj{
TeKCT C HHKaK'bB 3HaK (HaIIpHMep /);
- 3a .n;a He ce qeTe JIeCHO, Beqe H3nOJI3BaHHHT K'bC qrrCJIOIIOCJIe.n;OBa-
TeJIHOCT B HrrKaK'bB cnyqali He ce H3IIOJI3Ba IIOBTOpHO.
llprr IIpou;e.n;ypaTa Ha pa31l1rrIPpOBaHe BCHqI(H Ollepau;rrrr ce H3II'bJI-
HHBaT B 06paTHa IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHOCT.:
- u;eJIrrHT llIHIPpOTeKCT ce H3IIHCBa IIO .n;BOMKH qrrCJIa;
- IIO.n; THX CTapaTeJIHO ce H3IIHCBaT BCftqKH 3Hau;rr Ha KJIl{)qOBa qrrCJIO-
IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHOCT, aHaJIOrwrna Ha IIpHJIO)J(eHaTa nprr 3alllHIPpOBKaTa;
- OT 3HaU;HTe Ha llIHIPpoieKCTa IIO .n;BoMKrr ce H3qrrCJIHBaT (IIO MO.n;YJI
10) 3Hall;HTe Ha cnyqaHHa KJIlOqOBa IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHOCT;
- IIOJIyqeHHTe .n;BoMI<H qrrCJIa ce IIprrBe)J(.n;aT B 6YKBeHfIj{ rrM eKBrrBa-
JIeHT.
3a IIoJIyqimaHe Ha CJIyqaMHa (IIO-TOqRO KaJaRO - "IIceB.n;ocnyqaM-
Ha") IIOCJIe.n;oBaTeJIlfOCTqpe3 MrrKpOKaJIl<)'JIaTOpa MoraT .n;a ce H3IIOJI3-
BaT pa3JIrrqHH HaqrrHH, BKJIlOqrrTeJIHO rr KJIaCrrlieCKH:
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm
191
- B3eMa ce HHKaKBO qeTHprr3HaqHO qrrCJIO (.n;a peqeM 5997) II
, ,0B.n;rr-
ra ce Ha MHKpOKaJIKYJIaTOpa Ra KBa.n;paT (35964009), a OT IIonyqeHHH
pe3YJITaT ce rr3IIHCBaT Cpe)J;HHTe u;rrIPprr (9640), KorrTO ce
IIpHeMaT 3a cnyqarrHH; cera Belie Te3rr "CJIyqaHHH" ce IIOB,D;HraT Ha KBa.n;-
paT H OTHOBO ce OT.n;eJIH OT IIonyqeRfIj{ pe3YJITaT cpe.n;aTa H T. H. (IIOCT-
poeHaTa IIO T03H HaqHH IIOCJIe.n;OBaTeJIHOCT CJIe.n; .n;eCeTHU;H HJIrr CTOTrr-
u;rr 3Hau;H - B 3aBHCHMOCT OT H3XO.n;HOTO qHCJIO - KJIlOqa - 06HKHOBeHO
ce RO IIpH KpaTKrr TeKCTOBe RaII'bJIRO MO)J(e .n;a ce pa3rJIe)J(.n;a
KaTO cnyqaHRa);
- MK ce H3IIOJI3Ba C IPYHKu;HH .n;a reRepHpa IIceB.n;ocnyqaMHa u;rrIP-
pOBa IIOCJIe)1,OBaTeJIROCT (RarrpHMep "EJIeKTPOHHKa MK-61 " ... ); B pe-
rrrcTPHTe Ra KaJIKYJIaTOpa ce B'bBe)J(,D;a KOM6HRau;HR: OT RR:KaKBH oceM-
3RaqRfl qHCJIa (TOBa e KJIlOq'bT Ra llIHIP'bpa!), CJIe)1, KoeTO IIpH RaTHCKa-
Re Ra y)J(RHH KJIaBHllI Ra HR)1,HKaTOpa CBeTBaT 3Rau;HTe Ra )1,'bJIrOIIepH-
O)1,rrqaa IICeB)1,OCJIyqaHHa U;HIPpOBa IIOCJIe)1,OBaTeJIROCT.
B. AewurppoBKa
llpOqrrTaReTO Ra 3alllHIPpOBaR TeKCT, 6e3)1,a ce HMa IIpe)1,CTaBa IIO
KaK'bB RaqHR TOM e llIHIPpoBaR, H3HCKBa )J(eJIH3Ra JIOrHKa, HHTyHll;fIj{,
II03RaBaHe Ra JIHRrBHCTHqRaTa CTaTHCTHKa. OT)1,eJIRHTe HlOaRCH Ra
)1,elllHIPpHpaHeTO Ra KORKpeTHH llIHIPPH 6R:XMe IIOCOqHJIH H IIo-paRo, a
cera rn;e IIpHBe)1,eM HHKOJIKO )1,OII'bJIRHTeJIRH c'b06pa)J(eHflj{.
lJpe3 MeTO)1,rrKaTa Ha qeCTOTHHH aHaJIrr3 ce IIpaBH OIIHT )1,a ce orrpe-
)1,eJIH CHCTeMaTa Ra llIHIP'bpa (IIpeMeCTBaRe, 3aMeRHRe ), KaTO ce OII-
pe)1,eJIH CpaBHHTeJIRaTa qeCTOTa Ra npHC'bCTBHe Ra pa3JIHqHH 6YKBH H
TH ce cpaBHHBa c H3BeCTRfIj{ eTaJIOR (B)J(. Ta6JIHu;a 1).
3RaqHTeJIRa nOMOrn; npH )1,elllHIPpHpaReTo RH )1,aBaT H Ta6JIHll;HTe 3a
cpern;aHeTo Ra)],Be 6YKBH (6HrpaMH), a C'brn;O H n03RaBaHeTO Ra nOBTO-
pHeMocrra Ra OT)1,eJIHH 6YKBH B HaqaJIOTO H B KpM Ha pa3JIftqHH ,D;yMH
(RanpHMep 6YKBa "n" qeCTO ce cpern;a B HaqaJIOTO Ha ,D;yMHTe, HO PH)1,-
KO B KpM HM, a n'bK ,,'b" HHKora He CTOH B KpM H MRoro PH)1,KO ce
HaMrrpa B HaqaJIOTO Ha )1,YMaTa). llOJIe3eH MO)J(e )1,a 6'b)1,e H peqHrrK 3a
HaJIyqKBaHe Ha ,D;yMHTe, KaTO ce 3Hae THXHOTO HaqaJIO.
MHoro H3nOJI3BaH RaqHH e OIIHT'bT )1,a ce n03Hae HHKaKBa (nO)1,IIHC,
TepMHH ) )1,YMa B KpHIITorpaMaTa, aKO JIeKCHKaTa Ha nOCJIaHHeTO e
H3BeCTHa. CJIe)1, TOEa qpe3 npOqHTaHe Ha npe)1,IIOJIaraeMaTa )1,YMa (HJIH
<!>pa3a) OT llIH<!>pOTeKCTa MO)J(e)1,a ce OnHTaMe)1,a HaMeprrM KJIlOq K'bM
UImp'bpa Ha MHor06YKBeHaTa 3aMHHa.
192
AHATOJW11i1 TAPAC
,[(eIllHcppHpaHeTO Ha CHCTeMHTe Ha H MK e
B'b3MO)KHO rrpH rrOBTOpHO rrpHJIaraHe Ha HHKOll OT Ha CJIy-
qallHaTa rrOCJIe,n:OBaTeJIHOCT (Hall-rpy6a rpeIllKa!). I1PH TOBa,
rrpOqHTallKH OT e,n:Ha rrOCJIe,n:OBaTeJIHOCT ,n:pyra, MO)KeM ,n:a ce
OCB060,n:HM OT KJIlOqa, KaTO B pe3YJITaT me HMaMe OCTaThKa Ha ,n:Ba
C'bBCeM He3aKpHTH TeKCTa). I1pe.n:rrOJIarallKH B e,n:HH OT THX HHKaKBa Be-
pOHTHa .n:yMa, rrOCJIe,n:HOTO ce orrHTBaT ,n:a ro "HaThKMHT" C HaJIuqHaTa
"OCTaThqHOCT". I1PH rrpaBHJIHO HaJIyqKBaHe B T03H CJIyqall CTaBa qHTa-
eM H BTOpHHT TeKCT.
ATaKaTa Ha pa3JIHqHHTe CJIO)KHH IllHCPPH ,n:OCTa qeCTO 3aB'bpIllBa C
pa3KpHBaHe Ha IllHCP'bP Ha rrpOCTa 3aMHHa, a TOll He e MHoro CJIO)KeH 3a
,n:eIllHcppHpaHe, KaTO ce HMa rrpe,n:BH,n: H3JIHIll'bK'bT Ha TeKCT.
OrrHThT, IIpH,n:06HT rrpH pa3IllHcppOBaHeTO Ha e,n:Ha 06HK-
HOBeHO cJIa60 rrOMara rrpH ,n:eIllHcppHpaHe Ha ,n:pyra H ryK e HaH-,n:06pe
,n:a ce rrOJI3Ba KOMIIIOThP, MaKap qe rrpH TB'bp,n:e rOJIHMa rrpo,n:'bJI)KHTeJI-
HOCT KJIlOq'bT Ha KOMrrlOThpa MO)Ke ,n:a H3,n:HPH H CJIyqallHo OCMHCJIHHe,
HO He HCTHHCKH K'bCqeTa OT ,n:eIllHcppHpaHHH TeKCT.
r. CmecaHocpacpUfi
B OCHOBaTa Ha TOBa H3KYCTBO JIe)KH OrrHThT ,n:a ce CKpHe caMOTO
C'bmeCTByBaHe Ha TallHO C'b06meHHe, 3aTOBa HerOBHTe MeTO,n:H 3aCJIy-
)KaBaT Hall-IllHpOKO rrpHJIO)KeHHe. TyK MoraT ,n:a 6'b,n:aT H3rrOJI3BaHH:
"rro,n:XB'bpJIeHO rrHCMO", KoraTO 3arrHC'bT e CKpHT B HHKaKBa 3amHTHa
06BHBKa, "X06HllHO Ko,n:HpaHe" C H3rr0JI3BaHe Ha My-
3HKaJIHH HOTH H IllaXMaTHH rrapTHH, ,,)KaprOHHH IllHcppH", B KOHTO He-
BRHHa ,n:YMa HMa C'bBCeM ,n:pyr CMHC'bJI ...
OpHeHTHpamH rrpHMepH 3a ,n:a,n:eHHTe MeTo,n:HKH (KaTO OCTaBHM
HaCTPaHa B'b3MO)KHOCTHTe, KOHTO HH ,n:aBa eJIeKTPOHHKaTa ... ) MoraT ,n:a
6'b,n:aT:
- 3arrHC C Ha.n:yrrqBaHe Ha 6YKBHTe B KOHKpeTHOTO MHCTO Ha HHKOH
KHHra HJIH BeCTHHK (KpaHT Ha .n:yMHTe ce oT6eJIH3Ba C Ha,n:yrrqsaHeTO
Me)K,n:y 6YKBHTe);
_ C'b06maBaHe Ha HHKaKBH ,n:aHHH (H36pOHBaHe Ha CTOKH, Ha
,n:pe6HO ... ) B orrpe,n:eJIeH pe,n:;
_ rrHCMO rrocpe,n:CTBOM B'b3eJIqeTa, K'b,n:eTO BCHKa 6YKBa ce Ko,n:Hpa C
pa3MepHTe B CaHTHMeTPH (A - 1 CM, E - 2 CM ... ) HJIH B ,n:HaMeThpa Ha
KYTPeTo H ce oT6eJIH3Ba C OT,n:eJIHO B'b3eJIqe Ha HJIH Ha KaHarra, C
KOllTO e B'bp3aH rraKeThT; TeKCThT ce qeTe, KaTO ce HaBHBa Ha
rrp'bCTa;
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUcypHocm
193
- 3arrHC Ha CTpaHHqHaTa rrOB'bpXHOCT Ha KOJIo,n:a OT KapTH, rro,n:pe,n:e-
HH B orrpe,n:eJIeH pe,n: (KOJIo,n:aTa CJIe,n: TOBa ce pa36'bpKBa);
- 3arrHC Ha 06paTHaTa CTPaHa Ha eTHKeTHTe Ha cpJIaKOHH, 6ypKaHH
HJIH 6YTMJIKH;
- TeKCT rro,n: 3aJIerreHa rrOmeHCKa MapKa;
- 3arrHC Ha B'bTPeIllHaTa rrOB'bpXHOCT Ha KH6pHTeHa KYTHllKa, KOHTO
ce pa3qyrrBa, a rrOCJIe ce 3aJIerrBa HaHOBO;
- 3arrHC Ha B'bTpeIllHOcTTa Ha BapeHo (B3eMa ce CMec OT
MaCTHJIO H rrpaBH ce 3arrHC B'bpXy qepyrrKaTa Ha 06RK-
HOBeHO KoeTO rrOCJIe ce rrOTarrH B CHJIeH 3eJIeB COK HJIR oueT,
3a ,n:a ce H3TpHHT CJIe,n:HTe OT rrOB'bpXHOCTTa My; rrOCJIe 51llueTO ce
CBapHBa TB'bp,n:O, KaTO TeKCT ce OKa3Ba B'bpXy 6eJIT'bKa no,n:
qepyrrKaTa);
- 3a,n:ellcTBaHe Ha "pa3BaJIeHa" rrHIllema MaIllHHa, B K05lTO H5IKOR
OT 6YKBHTe H3CKaqaT rrO-BHCOKO HJIH rrO-HHCKO OT pe,n:a (TYK ce npec-
MHTaT pe,n:'bT H 6pOHT Ha Te3H 6YKBH, C'bmO H pa3CT05lHRHTa Ha TSlX-
HOTO rroHBHBaHe; B Ko,n:a e B'b3MO)KeH BapHaHT Ha Mop30BaTa a36y-
Ka);
- p'bqeH 3arrHC Ha HOTH B HOTHa TeTPa,n:Ka (TyK HOTHTe HMaT 3Haqe-
HHe rro Mop30BaTa a36yKa HJIH rro ,n:pyr KO,n:);
- 3arrHC B'bB Blf,lJ; Ha Kap,n:HorpaMa HJIH rpacpHKa Ha HHKaK'bB TeXHO-
JIOrHqeH (ryK, rrpH H3rr0JI3BaHeTO Ha Mop30BaTa a36yKa, no-
BHCOKHTe B'bpXOBe Ha rpacpHKaTa 03HaqaBaT TOqKHTe, a Te3H, KOHTO ca
rrO-HHCKO - THpeTaTa, qepTHtfKHTe Me)K.n:y C'b06maBaT 3a pa3-
CTOHHHeTO Me)K,n:y 6YKBHTe, pa3K'bCaHHTe JIHHHH cpHKcHpaT Kpa51 Ha
,n:YMaTa);
- 3arrHCBaHe caMO B'bB BepTRKaJIHa KOJIOHKa Ha Harr'bJIHO 3arr'bJIHeHa
KP'bCTOCJIOBHua (XOpH30HTaJIHHTe pe,n:oBe ce 3arr'bJIBaT rrpOH3BOJIHO,
caMOTO C'b06meHHe MO)Ke ,n:a 6'b,n:e rrpHKo HJIH Ko,n:HpaHO);
- 3arrHC C Illa6JIOH, rrpH KOllTO Ha JIHCT rrOmeHcKa xapTHH ce HaCJIar-
Ba Illa6JIOH C H3pH3aHH B Hero rrp030pqeTa, B'bpBellKH cJIe,n: T5IX, ce H3-
nHCBa HCTHHCKOTO C'b06meHHe; OCTaHaJIO rrpOCTpaHCTBO ce
R3rrHCBa C "rrpa3HO" C'b,n:'bp)KaHHe, TaKaqe .n:yMHTe OT HCTHHCKaTa HH-
HCHO ,n:a BJIH3aT B TeKCTa Ha OTqeTJIHBOTO MaCKHpOB'bqHO
nOCJIaHHe;
- IllHCP'bP'bT "ABe MapHH", B KO,n:OBHH BapHaHT Ha KOllTO BCHKa .n:yMa,
a nOHHKora H cppa3a ce rrOCTaBHT B C'bOTBeTCTBHe Ha HHKOJIKO ,n:yMH C
HBHO peJIHrH03Ha TeMaTHKa, Thll qe rrpe,n:aBaHoTo C'b06meHHe ,n:a 113-
fJIe)K,n:a KaTO crreUHcpHqeH TeKCT C ,n:YXOBHO C'b,n:'bp)KaHHe.
194 AHATom111 T A PAC
CUMnamUlfHU MaCmUAa
Ynorpe6HBaHeTO Ha CIIMnaTlIqHII (HeBII,lJ;IIMII) MaCTIIJIa npe,lJ;nOJIa-
ra 3anlIC, Koiho He ce pa3JIlIqaBa npII 06IIKHOBeHII 06CTOHTeJICTBa, HO
ce nOHB5IBa CJIe,lJ; XIIMlIqeCKO IIJIU 1I3IIqeCKO npOHBHBaHe. TOBa e BapH-
aHT Ha CTeraHOrpaH5ITa.
Ilpou:ec'hT Ha ynorpe6a Ha ,lJ;06pII CHMnaTHqHH MaCTHJIa (He CTaBa
,lJ;)'Ma 3a npnrOTB5IHeTO lIM ... ) BKJIlOqBa CJIe,lJ;HHTe HlOaHCH:
- 3aflHC'hT ce 1I3B'hp1lIBa Ha JIIICT KaqeCTBeHa xapTH51 C .D:'bJIro II ThH-
KO ,lJ;'hpBeHO OCTplle, nOToneHO B He06xo,lJ;HMOTO MaCTHJIO (HanpHMep
qeTKa 3a 3'h6II IIJIII KII6pHTeHa KJIe'IKa, 06BHTa B rtaMYK), C T'bH'hK ll'bJI-
HHTeJI Ha JI)'MaCTep HJIII T'bHKa qeTtIIIu:a; HaR-BIDKHOTO e 1I36paHOTO
nepo ,lJ;a He pa3K'hCBa xapTIDlTa;
- II npe)J;H, II CJIe,lJ; HanHCBaHeTO Ha JillCTa TOR cTapaTeJIHO ce 1I3-
r JIIDK)J;a OT ,lJ;BeTe crpaHH B pa3JIII'lHII nOCOKII C H5IKaKBa MeKa MaTepH5I,
3a ,lJ;a ce cKp"e TaHHOnIIC'hT B nOB'hpXHOCTHH5I CJIOR Ha XapTH5ITa;
- JIIICT'bT C TaHHOflHCa ce 06pa60TBa Ha napa, nOCJIe ce 3aTBap51 Me)K-
,lJ;)' crpaHHQIITe Ha 06eMHa KHnra II ,lJ;06pe ce nO,lJ;cyrnaBa. AKO B'hPXY
Hero ce n05IB5IT CJIe,lJ;H OT "XHMH5I" HJIII aKO ce BIDK,lJ;aT no,lJ; YJIrpaBIIOJIe-
TOBII JI'hqII - 3anHC'hT ce 6paKyBa;
- aKO BCH'lKO e Hape,lJ; - Ha JIIICTa C'hC CKpHTaTa IIHOpMau:H5I ce
nlIme OTKPHTO nlICMO IIJill H5IKaKBa ,lJ;pyra 6e306H)J;Ha aKTYpa (,lJ;a pe-
qeM, CTIIXOTBopeHlIe ... ).
CrpaX'hT OT mo6HTeJICKH OllHTH ,lJ;a ce 1I3Ba,lJ;H TaHHOflHC'hT qpe3 ,,1I3-
THKBaHe" npe,lJ;llOJIara 3a,JJ;eRCTBaHe Ha Pa3JIH'IHH YJIOBKH, Hanp"Mep HHT-
pHpaHe Ha xapTIDlTa (II.J;e 1I36YXHe npII nO-CHJIHO Harp5IBaHe ... ) HJIH 3a-
IIHCBaHe C'hC "CBeTOllepO" ( CBeTO,lJ;HO,lJ;) Ha MHoro qyBCTBHTeJIHa K'bM CBeT-
JIlfHa xapTH51 (HaIIHCaHOTO 1I3qe3Ba npH OCBeT5IBaHe IIJIII Ha ,lJ;HeBHa CBeT-
JIHHa ... ).
3a np05lB5IBaHe Ha TaRHOflHca rpH6Ba ,lJ;a ce B'h3nOJI3BaMe OT C'hOT-
BeTHHTe peaKTIIBII II nO,lJ;XOMII.J;a MeTO,lJ;HKa. CaMII5IT np05lBIITeJI ce Ha-
HaC5I qpe3 ,lJ;OKOCBaHe - 06rplIBaHe C r'h6a (naMyqeH TaMnOH), qpe3 Ha-
np'hCKBaHe C nyJIBepH3aTOp IIJIII no ,lJ;pyr OnTIIMaJIHO ,lJ;OCT'bneH HaqHH.
B TeMnepaTypHHTe BapHaHTII ce 1I3nOJI3BaT 1I3rJIa)K,lJ;aHe C lOTH5I IIJIII
HarpHBaHe Ha eJIeKrpH'leCKa KpYIIIKa.
3a HeBH)J;IIMH MaCTHJIa MoraT ,lJ;a 6'h,lJ;aT 1I3nOJI3BaHII MHoro OT npo-
,lJ;)'KTHTe, KOliTO MoraT ,lJ;a ce HaMep5lT nO,lJ;p'hKa: JIeKapCTBa, 6HTOBa XII-
MH}J, OT,lJ;eJIHII npO.JJ:YKTII II ,lJ;OpH BeII.J;eCTBa, OT,lJ;eJIHHII OT qOBemKII5I
opraHII3'hM.
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
195
KpaTKH5IT CnIIC'hK Ha CIIMllaTH'IHHTe MaCTHJIa OT nO,lJ;06eH pO,lJ; C'hC
cnOMeHaBaHe Ha TeXHH51 np05IBHTeJI e npe,lJ;CTaBeH no-,lJ;oJI)'. CyxHTe Be-
II.J;eCTBa ce pa3TBap5IT B'hB BO,lJ;a HJlli B CIIHPT, a KOHu:eHrpaQH5ITa Ha C'hC-
TaBa ce YCTaHOB5IBa qpe3 OllHTBaHe.
1. ElIpa II 651JIO BHHO - C neneJI OT 1I3rop}JJIa xapTH5I (TeKCT'bT JIeKO
ce OBJIIDKH5IBa C .D:'bx ... ).
2. 3axapHa BO,lJ;a H a6pH'leH 516'hJIKOB COK - C neneJI OT xapTH51 (npQ
OBJIa)KH5IBaHe Ha TeKcTa).
3 . .5I6'hJIKOB COK (npII "ToneHe" B }J6'hJIKa) H MlliIKO (pa3pe,lJ;eHo) - C
HarpHBaHe.
4. COK OT JIYK II U:BeKJIO - Harp5IBaHe.
5. JIHMoHeHa KHCeJIIIHa - 6eH3HJIOpatI)K.
6. IlHpaMH,lJ;oH (B cnn:pTeH pa3TBop) - Harp5lBaHe.
7. Cpe,lJ;cTBa 3a ,lJ;e3HHeKQH5I Ha YCTaTa II r'hpJIOTO - Harp5lBaHe
8. ACnn:PHH - )KeJIe3HH COJIH.
9. <I>eHOJITaJIeHH - BCHKa pa3pe,lJ;eHa OCHOBa (,lJ;a peqeM, raceHa
Bap ).
10. CTHllu:a - HarpHBaHe.
11. CHpHa (aKYMYJIaTOpHa) KHcemma (npH 10-15%) - Harp5lBaHe.
12. BOC'hK (MaKap H OT 3aocrpeHa qaCT Ha CBeII.J; ... ) - KaJIQHeB Kap-
60HaT HJIH npax 3a 3'h6H (,lJ;a ce nOCHlle H ,lJ;a ce H3ThPCH).
13. Ilpax 3a npaHe - CBeTJIHHa OT YJITpaBHOJIeTOBa JIaMna (HanpH-
Mep 3a npoBepKa Ha BaJIyTa ... ).
14. CmoHKa - C MHoro pa3BO,lJ;HeHO MaCTHJIO.
15. YpHHa - Harp5IBaHe.
16. KP'hB - ,lJ;OCTa pa3pe,lJ;eHa - cJIa6 (0,1 %) pa3TBop Ha JI)'MHHaJI (1
'I.) C 6HKap60HaT (5 'I.).
MHoro Y,lJ;06eH MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce OKIDKe nOH5IKOra MeTO,lJ;'hT Ha TaKa Hape-
qeHOTO "BO,lJ;HO HaJI5IraHe", cnope,lJ; KORTO rpH6Ba ,lJ;a ce HaMOKpH C BO,lJ;a
JIHCT OT HeJIHHOBa XapTH5I H .n;a ce nOCTaBH Ha H51KaKBa CT'bKJIeHa no.n;-
JIO)KKa (.n;a peqeM, B'hPXY orJIe.n;aJIo). B'hpxy MOKPH5I JIHCT ce nOCTaBj(
cyx JIHCT H CJIe.n; TOBa C TB'hP.n; MOJIHB IIJIH n'hJIHHTeJI OT XHMHKaJIKa ce
nHille He06xo,lJ;HMH5IT TeKCT. ,[(OKaTO XapTH5ITa e BJIIDKHa - TeKCT'bT me
ce BH)K.n;a, a II.J;OM H3C'hXHe - me H3qe3He. CJIe.n; KaTO H3C'hXHe JIHCThT,
B'hPXY Hero C Hepa3TBOpHMH B'hB Bo.n;a MaCTHJIa ce flHme MaCKHpOB'hq-
HO nOCJIaHlIe. 3a .n;a ce nOHBH CKPHTOTO C'h06II.J;eHHe, rpj(6Ba caMO .n;a ge
nOCTaBH JIHCT'bT B KaKBaTO H .n;a e Bo.n;a H Be.n;Hara .n;a ce H3Ba,lJ;H 06paT-
HO.
npUAO)/(eHUe 1
CXeMl!1 Ha CneLl,l!1aAHara
anaparypa
HaJlHqHeTO Ha cneQHaJIHa anapaTypa PH3KO YBeJIHqaBa neJIOBHH
nOTeHQHaJI Ha pa3Y3HaBatIa B'bB BCHKa CJIo)J<Ha Hrpa.
04>HQHaJIHaTa nponIDK6a Ha TaKHBa Hema e PH3KO OrpaHHtIeHa, Ma-
Kap qe Ha tIepHHH na3ap MoraT na ce HaMepHT KaKTO <pHpMeHH 06pa3-
"H, TaKa H HenOMJIaHH HMHTaQHH Ha pOnHHTe <paJIIIIH<pHKaTopH.
Te MO)Ke na ca nOCTa CK'bnH, na He C'bOTBeTCTBaT Ha nOCOtIeHHTe
napaMeTPH H na He MoraT na Pa311IH<PPOBaT npOTHBHHKOBHTe CHrHaJIH,
oc06eHO aKO nOCTaBKaTa e HanpaBeHa no CrreIUiaJIHa rrOp'btIKa.
H3JIHlIIHHTe KOHTaKTH MoraT na nOBenaT no HerrpHHTHOC-
TH. MHoro tIeCTO MO)Ke na ce MHHe C nOCTa rrpHMHTHBHH cpenCTBa,
HarrpaBeHH Harr'bJIHO caMOCTOHTeJIHO. ,[Wyru rrOBOnH 3a rrOn06Ha ca-
MonenHocT MoraT na 6'bnaT BHe3arrHO B'b3HHKHaJIam He06xonHMOCT H
OrpaHHt{eHHTe <pHHaHcoBH H CHTYaQHOHHH B'b3MO)KHOCTH.
CXeMHTe Ha rrOKa3aHaTa rro-nOJIy crreQHaJIHa TeXHHKa ca rrpenOcTa-
BeHH OT M. illYCTOB, f. Tan H npyrH PYCKH H tIY)KneCTPaHHH JIl06HTeJIH
H npo<pecHOHaJIHCTH. (IIoJIe3Ha nOrr'bJIHHTeJIHa HH<popMaQHH no Ta3H
TeMa MO)Ke na ce 8aMepH HarrpHMep B CnpaBOtIHaTa KHHra Ha B. H.
AHnpHaHoBa, B. A. EoponHHa H A. B. COKOJIOBa "illrrHoHcKHe IIITYtI-
KH" (CII6, ,,JIaHb", 1996).
, "1:"
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
TEllE(J>OHHA
mtHLilR
,
AHTEHA
nOCllEAOBATEllEH 1-----
PAALilonPEAABATEll
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llLi1HLilR
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llLi1HLilH
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HA HHCKH
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HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHOCm
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(nAPA60nWIHA AHTEHA)
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.....
Ha B3pVlBHVI YCTpOVlCTBa
1. B\IlAose S3P\IlSH\Il YCTpOVtCTsa*
BY MoraT ,n;a 6'b,n;aT Haif-pa3Hoo6pa3HH KaKTO no B'bHIIleH BH,n;, TaKa
H cnope,n; npHHU;Hna CH Ha ,n;eifCTBHe ..
HarrpHMep BY B'bB BH,n; Ha lfaHTH, caKOBe, KY<llapH MoraT ,n;a ce B3pH-
BHBaT npH onHT ,n;a 6'b,n;aT npeMecTeHH, B,ll;HrHarn, oTBopeHH.
B3pHB'bT MO)l(e ,n;a H36YXHe H B pe3YJITaT Ha MexaHHlfeH mm eJIeKT-
pOMexaHHlfeH B3pHBHTeJI C'bC 3a6aBeHO ,n;eifCTBHe, CJIe,n; KaTO H3Telfe
3a,n;a,n;eHOTO BpeMe 3a 3a6aBHHe.
AKo BY HMa pa,n;HoB3pHBHTeJI, B3pHB'bT MO)l(e ,n;a H36YXHe 6e3 KOH-
TaKT C B3PHBHOTO YCTPoifcTBO B'bB BCHKO BpeMe no KOMaH,ll;a, rrpe,n;a,n;e-
Ha no pa,ll;HOTo.
B3pHB'bT MO)l(e ,n;a ce OC'brn:eCTBH no npOBO,ll;HHKa Ha eJIeKpOB3pHBHa
BepHra lfpe3 BKmolfBaHe Ha H3TOlfHHK Ha TOK.
rOJIHMO pa3npocTPaHeHHe nOJIYlflIxa B3pHBHHTe YCTPoifcTBa, KOHTO
ce 3a,n;eifcTBaT npH BKJIIOlfBaHe Ha pa,ll;HOnpHeMHHK, TeJIeBH30p HJIH ,n;py-
rH npe,n;MeTH Ha 6HToBaTa TeXHHKa, npH BKJIIOlfBaHeTO HM B eJIeKTPH-
lfeCKaTa Mpe)l(a. BKJIIOlfBaHeTo Ha Te3H YCTPoifcTBa C'be,ll;HHHBa eJIeKT-
POB3pHBHaTa Mpe)l(a, B pe3YJITaT Ha KoeTO 3apa6oTBa eJIeKTPo,n;eTOHa-
TOP'bT HJIH eJIeKTPHlfecKaTa 3anaJIKa H H36yxBa B3pHB'bT Ha 3apH,n;a Ha
BY.
* ITo KHHraTa Ha C. A. I1SJIHeSa Ii )J.p. "ITOHCK Ii o6e3spelKHsaHHe S3pbIBHbIX yCT-
POHCTS" (M., 1996).
HapbliHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
211
B aBTOM06HJIa B3PHBHOTO YCTPoifCTBO MO)l(e ,n;a ce 3a,n;eifcTBa npH
3aB'bpTaHe Ha cTapTepa HJIH ,n;OpH npH n'bXaHeTO Ha KJIIOlfa, C'brn:o H npH
BKJIIOlfBaHeTO Ha nOTPe6HTeJIH Ha eHeprHH (<}lapOBe, CThKJIOlfHCTalfKH,
aBTOMaTa 3a B,n;HraHe Ha CThKJIaTa H T. H.).
B3pHBHTemIT B aBTOM06HJIa MO)l(e ,n;a 6'b,n;e nOCTaBeH B aycnyxa, B
r'bpHeTo. TaM C'be,ll;HHHBaHeTo Ha KOHTaKTHTe CTaBa cJIe,n; HarpHBaHe Ha
lfYBCTBHTeJIHHTe eJIeMeHTH Ha B3pHBHTeJIH (KOHTaKTHTe) ,n;o onpe,n;eJIe-
Ha TeMnepaTYPa.
MoraT ,n;a ce H3nOJI3BaT B3pHBHH YCTPoifcTBa H C lfaCOBHHKOB Mexa-
HH3'bM. qacoBHHu;HTe ca MexaHHlfHH, eJIeKTPoMexaHHlfHH H eJIeKTPoH-
HH.
2. nOCAeAosaTeAHoCT Ha o6e3Spe>KAaHe
Ha S3p\llSH\IlTe YCTp0VtCTSa
06e3Bpe)l(,ll;aHeTO Ha B3PHBHOTO YCTPoifCTBO HJIH JIOKaJIH3aU;HHTa Ha
B3pHBa TPH6Ba ,n;a CTaBa OT no,n;rOTBeHH canbopH HJIH .n;pyrH o6yqeHH
CneU;HaJIHCrn CJIe,n; H3Be)l(,ll;aHe Ha xopaTa OT onaCHaTa 30Ha H OTu;enBa-
He Ha paifOHa.
AKO ,n;OpH caMO ce npe,n;nOJIara HaJIHlfHe Ha pa,n;HOB3pHBHTeJI B'bB
B3PHBHOTO YCTPOifCTBO, TPH6Ba C nOMorn:Ta Ha CneU;HaJIHH MexaHH3MH
,n;a ce C'b3,n;a,n;e pa,n;H03arJIYIIlaBaHe B limpOK ,n;Hana30H Ha lfeCTOTH. CJIe,n;
TOBa, npH6JIH:>KaBaifKH ce KOM npe,n;MeTa (o6eKTa), BHHMaTeJIHO ,n;a ce
3aKpenH Ha no,n;aBarn:H ce HerOBH lfacrn Bp'bBlfHu;a, KOHTO B KpM HMa
KYKH1fKH, KYKHlfKH C npY)l(HHKH H ,n;p. OT YKpHTHeTO (KOJIOHa, KJIa,n;e-
Heu;),n;a ce On'bHe Bp'bBlfHu;aTa (B'b)l(e, )l(Hu;a) H,n;a ce npeMecrn npe,n;Me-
ThT. Te3H ,n;eifCTBHH TPH6Ba,n;a 6'b,n;aT H3B'bpIIleHH OT e,ll;HH lfOBeK, 3a p;a
ce H36erHaT HeonpaB,n;aHH )l(epTBH, B TOBa lfHCJIO H OT pa3JIeTeJIHTe ce
naplfeTa.
IlpH TaKOBa B'b3,n;eifcTBHe Ha B3PHBHOTO YCTPOifCTBO 3apa6oTBaT
H30nBarn;H, pa3K'bCBarn;H, pa3TOBapBarn:H, BH6paU;HOHHH H ,n;p. eJIeMeH-
TH, KOHTO rrpHBe)l(,n;aT B3pHBHTeJIH B ,n;eifCTBHe.
AKo He H36yxHe B3pHB, CTeneHTa Ha onaCHOCT 3HalfHTeJIHO ce Ha-
MamIBa: pa,n;HOB3pHBaTemIT e 3arJIYIIIeH, npOBOKaU;HHTa C H30IIBarn:H-
Te, pa3KOCBarn:HTe H ,n;pyrH eJIeMeHTH 3a B3pHBHBaHe e ,n;aJIa pe3YJITaT,
KoeTO CBH,n;eTeJICTBa 3a OTC'bCTBHeTO HM HJIH 3a Hepa6oTocnoco6HOCT-
Ta HM no e,n;Ha HJIH ,n;pyra npHlfHHa.
OCBeH TOBa B'bB B3PHBHOTO YCTPoifcTBO MO)l(e ,n;a HMa orn:e B3pHBH-
212
AHATOJU11i1 T APAC
TeJIH, KOHTO .n;a 3apa60TBaT rrpH H3MeHeHl.1e Ha 3eMHOTO MarHHTHO rrOJIe,
aKYCTHqeH CHrHaJI B orrpe.n;eJIeH .n;Harra30H Ha qeCTOTH, XapaKTepeH
MHpHC Ha qOBeK HJIH .n;pyro )KHBOTHO, C'hllJ;O H BC5IKaKBH THrrOBe Ha B3pH-
BHTeJIH C'hC 3a6aBeHO .n;eMCTBHe.
B'hB B3PHBHOTO YCTPOMCTBO TP5I6Ba .n;a HMa 3ap5I.n; C B3pHBHO Be-
ru:eCTBO, qHHTO MHpHC MOraT .n;a OTKpmlT CrreIJ;HaJIHO 06yqeHH KyqeTa
OT CrreIJ;HaJIH3HpaHHTe CJIY)K6H HJIH CrreIJ;HaJIHCT, KOMTO rrO.JI3Ba .n;OCTa
CJIO)KHa arrapaTypa, HMeHHO ra30aHaJIH3aTOp.
3a TOBa rrOCJIe.n;BaI.u;HTe .n;eMCTBH5I rro 06e3Bpe)K.n;aHeTO Ha BY TP5I6-
Ba .n;a 3 a r r o ~ a T C H3rrparu;aHeTo Ha 06yqeHo Kyqe Ha M5ICTOTO, K'h.n;eTO
ce HaMHpa rro.n;03pHTeJIHH5IT rrpe.n;MeT. 06HKHoBeHo KyqeTO e 06yqeHo
no TaK'hB HaqHH, qe npH HaMHpaHe Ha B3pHBHO YCTPOMCTBO TO K.JI5IKa .n;o
Hero.
AKO e HaMepeH 3ap5I.n; Ha BB H CJIe.n;OBaTeJIHO B3pHBHO YCTPOMCT-
BO, P'bKOBo.n;HTeJI5IT B3eMa pelIIeHHe 3a HerOBOTO 06e3Bpe)K.n;aHe HJIH
YHHru:O)KaBaHe. YHHru;O)KaBaHeTO e B'h3MO)KHO, aKO onaCHOCTTa OT
pa3pYlIIeHH5I HJIH nOBpe.n;H OT B3pHBa e MHHHMaJIHa, a H qOBelIIKHTe
)KepTBH ca Han'bJIHO H3KJIlOqeHH.
* * *
3a 06e3Bpe)K.n;aHe Ha B3pHBHO YCTPOMCTBO ce rrpHJIaraT pa3JIHqHH
cpe.n;CTBa H HaqHHH.
E)J;Ha OT nOCJIe.n;HHTe PYCKH pa3pa60TKH e KOMnJIeKC'hT 3a 6JIOKHpa-
He Ha B3pHBHHTe YCTPOMCTBa, nO-HaTaT'bK HaplfqaH 6JIOKaTop. TOM ce
MOHTHpa Ha 3aI.u;HTeHO TPaHcnopTHo cpe.n;CTBO H e npe.n;Ha3HaqeH 3a
3aI.u;HTa Ha )KHBOTa Ha Bo.n;aqa H n'bTHHIJ;HTe.
EJIOKaTOp'bT Ha B3pHBHH YCTPoMCTBa nOKpHBa rapaHTHpaH .n;Hana-
30H OT pa.n;HOqeCTOTH, C KoeTO 6JIOKHpa .n;HCTaHIJ;HOHHOTO ynpaBJIeHHe
Ha H3BeCTHHTe H TeOpeTlfqeCKH nepCneKTHBHH pa3pa60TKH Ha CHCTeMH
B3pHBHH YCTPoMcTBa.
KOMnJIeKC'bT e Han'bJIHO aBToMaTH3HpaH. TOBa n03BOJI5IBa Ha 6JIo-
KaTopa aBTOMaTHqHO .n;a 3anOqHe pa60TaTa CH H BpeMeHHo .n;a 3a.n;'bp-
)KH BKJIlOqBaHeTO B HHTepec Ha CHrypHOCTTa Ha HanycKaru;HTe npe-
B03HOTO cpe.n;cTBo n'hTHHIJ;H H lIIOCPhOP, a nOCJIe .n;a BKJIlOqH aBTOCHr-
HaJIH3aIJ;H5ITa. BpeMeTo 3a 6JIOKHpOBKa Ha nYCKaHeTO Ha KOMnJIeKCa e
npOnOpIJ;HOHaJIHO Ha 6e30nacHoTo pa3CT05IHHe (50 M) OT aBToM06H-
JIa.
TIpHHIJ;Hn'hT Ha .n;eMcTBHe Ha KOMnJIeKCa e OCHOBaH Ha rrOTHCKaHeTO
Ha pa60TaTa Ha npHeMHHKa Ha B3pHBa (PBY) C'hC CrreIJ;HaJIHH lIIHpO-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
213
KOCneKT'bpHH CHrHaJIH 3a 3arJIYlIIaBaHe, H3rrparu;aHH OT rrpe.n;aBaTeJI5I.
,l.1;Hana30H'bT Ha pa60Ta OCHryp5IBa 3ar JIymaBaHe Ha BCHqKH H3BeCTHH H
nepCneKTHBHH qeCTOTH Ha .n;HCTaHIJ;HOHHOTO ynpaBJIeHHe Ha B3pHBa.
3a HaMaJI5IBaHe Ha HepaBHOMepHocrra Ha CrreKT'bpa Ha CHrHaJIHTe
3a 3arJIYlIIaBaHe e npHJIO)KeHa opHrHHaJIHa lIIHPOKOHBHqHa lIIJIeM<i>oBa
aHTeHa, npe,lJ;Ha3HaqeHa 3a H3JI'hqBaHe OT MeTaJIHH rrOB'hpXHOCTH.
KOMnJIeKC'hT e MaJIora6apHTeH. EKCnJIOaTaIJ;H5ITa My e B'h3MO)KHa
KaKTO B CTaIJ;HOHapeH, TaKa H B M06HJIeH pe)KHM npH HaJIHque Ha KaK-
BHTO H .n;a e B'h3MO)KHOCTH 3a eJIeKTP03axpaHBaHe (no nOp'hqKa). B MO-
6HJIeH pe)KHM e B'b3MO)KHa CTHKOBKa Ha KOMnJIeKCa C nOBeqeTO CHCTe-
MH 3a OXpaHHTeJIHa CHrHaJIH3aIJ;H5I PYCKO H 3ana,lJ;H0 npOH3Bo.n;CTBO.
3a OT.n;eJIHH BH.n;OBe pa.n;HoynpaBJI5IeMH B3pHBHH YCTPOMCTBa, KOHTO
ca JIeCHO B'b3naJIHMH, He e H3KJIlOqeHO caMOB3pHB5IBaHe no BpeMe Ha
nOCTaB5IHeTO HM OT TepopHCTHTe rrpH pa60Teru; KOMnJIeKC 3a 6JIOKH-
pOBKa.
CaMO qe B 30HaTa 3a 3arJIYlIIaBaHe npeCTaBaT .n;a pa60T5IT pa.n;HO-
eJIeKTPOHHHTe npH60pH C 6HTOBO npe,lJ;Ha3HaqeHHe (TPaH3HCTOPH, Te-
JIeBH30pH, pa.n;HOCTaHIJ;HH B pe)KHM Ha rrpHeMaHe, neM,lJ;)K'bpH H .n;p.).
OpHeHTHpOB'bqHaTa IJ;eHa Ha 6JIOKaTOpa ce KOJIe6ae B rpaHHIJ;HTe Ha
700-900 ru;aTCKH .n;OJIapa (B 3aBHCHMOCT OT THna Ha aBTOM06HJIa).
He ce npenop'hqoa acpHlIIHpaHeTO, qe B C06CTBeHH5I BH aBTOM06HJI
e MOHTHpaH 6JIOKaTOp cperu;y B3pHBHH YCTPoMcTBa.
3. Ha41!1HI!1 3a OTKpl!1BaHe Ha B3pI!1BHI!1
YCTpO!lt CTBa
,l.1;eMacKHparu;HTe npH3HaIJ;H Ha B3PHBHOTO YCTPOMCTBO ca 06ycJlO-
BeHH npe.n;H BCHqKO OT CJIe,lJ;HHTe cpaKTOpH: v.
- HaJIHqHe Ha BB B KOHCTPYKIJ;H5ITa Ha B3PHBHOTO YCTPOHCTBO,
- HaJIHque Ha aHTeHa C pa.n;HorrpHeMHo YCTPOMCTBO B pa,lJ;HoynpaB-
JI5IeMO BY;
- HaJIlfqHe Ha qaCOBHHKOB MeXaHH3'hM HJIH eJIeKTPoHeH TaMM'bP (Bpe-
MeBH B3pHBHTeJI);
- HaJIlfqHe Ha )KlfqHa JIHHH5I 3a KOMaH.n;BaHe;
- HaJIlfqHe Ha JIOKaJIHO pa3nOJIO)KeHa Maca OT MeTaJI;
- Hee.n;Hopo.n;HOCTH Ha cpe.n;aTa Ha nOMeCTBaHe (HapymeHHe Ha no-
B'hpXHOCrra Ha nOqBaTa, n'hTHOTO nOKpHTHe, CTeHHTe Ha crpa.n;aTa, IJ;Be-
TnT Ha paCTHTeJIHOCrra HJIH CHe)KHaTa rrOKpHBKa If T. H.);
214 AHATOJll.1171 T A PAC
- HaJIHqHe Ha TOnnHHeH KOH1'paCT MHCTOTO Ha YCTpoikTBO-
, TO H OKOnHHH <pOH;
- XapaKTepHaTa <pOpMa Ha BY.
B3PHBHOTO YCTPOHCTBO c'b,n;'bp)l(a KaTO npaBHno OT HHKonKO
KH rpaMa,n;o HHKonKO KHnorpaMa BB. 3aToBa BY no npHHIJ;Hn MO)l(e
ce H3,n;HPH qpe3 perHCTpaIJ;HHTa Ha ra3006pa3HH H3napeHHH Ha npo,n;YK-
TH C 6aBHo pa3naraHe HnH H3napeHHe Ha BB. PerHc1'paIJ;HHTa MO)l(e,n;a
ce OC'brn;eCTBH C nOMoru:ra Ha XHMHqeCKH, MaccneKTPoMeTpHqeCKH H
,n;pym HaqHHH. KOHIJ;eHTpaIJ;HHTa Ha napHTe Ha BB ,n;OCTHra 10-7 - 10-
8 r/n Ha nOB'bpXHOCTTa Ha nOqBaTa Ha,n; MHCTOTO Ha nOCTaBHHe Ha npo-
THBOTaHKOBa MHHa (npH nonO)l(HTenHa TeMnepaTYPa), KOHTO ce HaMH-
pa Ha ,n;'bn60qHHa 5 CM.
EnH30 ,n;o BY 6e3 MacKHparn; cnoH KOHIJ;eHTpaIJ;HHTa Ha napHTe MO)l(e
,n;a 6'b,n;e HHKonKO ll'bTH nO-BHCOKa.
XHMnqeCKHHT HaqHH 3a HaMHpaHe Ha BB ce peMH3Hpa qpe3 aepo-
30nHH TeCTO Be. HanpHMep qpe3 PYCKHH KOMnneKT aep030nH "Expray"
(OCT-731) MoraT ,n;a ce OTKPHHT Ha npaKTHKa BH,n;OBe BB (1'p0-
THn, Te1'pHn, ,n;HHaMHT, HH1'pornnIJ;epHH, HllTpOIJ;enyn03a, OKCH,Ll; OHK-
pHH). I10HBaTa Ha e,n;HH Hnn ,n;pyr IJ;BHT B'bpXy TeCTOBaTa xapTHH n03BO-
nHBa ,n;a ce ,n;OKa)I(e, qe B npOBepHBaHHH 06eKT (KY<papqe, KYTHH, nHCMO)
ce HaMHpaT BB. I1'bnHOTO TeCTBaHe 1'pae He nOBeqe OT MHHYTa.
***
TpH6Ba ,n;a ce oT6ene)l(H, qe HaH-,n;06pHHT ,n;eTeKTOp H ,n;ocera e KY-
qelIlKHHT HOC. CneIJ;HMHO 06yqeHHTe KyqeTa MoraT H36HpaTenHO ,n;a
OTKpHBaT H HaH-MMKHTe KOnHqeCTBa BB. I1PH TOBa 3apM'bT Ha BB
MO)l(e ,n;a 6'b,n;e B nOqBaTa, B 6ara)l(a Ha ll'bTHHIJ;HTe, B ,n;ImnoMaTHqeCKO
KY<Papqe, B aBTOM06Hn H T. H. 3a C'b)l(aneHHe e<peKTHBHOCTTa Ha Thpce-
HeTO 3aBHCH OT nCHxoqlH3HOnOrnqeCKOTO C'bCTOHHHe Ha KyqeTo. Kyqe-
TaTa 1'pH6Ba ,n;a ce 1'peHHpaT HenpeK'bCHaTo. I1pOnyCKH B pa60TaTa HnH
nponycHaTH 1'peHHpoBKH nOBeqe OT 1-2 MeCeIJ;a ca He,n;onycTHMH. I1pH
BHCOKa TeMneparypa (noBeqe OT +25-30 rpa,n;yca) KyqeTaTa ca cno-
C06HH ,n;a pa60THT He nOBeqe OT 30-40 MHHYTH, nocne TpH6Ba ,n;a CH
nOqHHaT Ha CHHKa qac-,n;Ba. )KenaTenHo e npH ThpCeHeTo CTpaHHqHH
xopa, rnyM Ha TeXHHKa H ,n;p. ,n;a He pa3CeHBaT )l(HBOTHOTO.
HaMHpaHeTO Ha pa,n;HoynpaBnHeMH BY MO)l(e ,n;a CTaBa qpe3 MeTo,n;a
Ha HenHHeHHaTa pa,n;HonOKaIJ;HH. HannqHHTe npH60pH 3a HenHHeHHa
nOKaIJ;HH "OKTaBa", ,,06", "OHera" H 3ana,n;HHTe npH60pH ca npe,n;Ha3-
HaqeHH 3a H3,n;HpBaHe Ha YC1'poHcTBa, KOHTO c'b,n;'bp)l(aT nonynpoBo,n;-
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm 215
HHKOBH eneMeHTH (1'paH3HcToPH, ,Ll;H0,Ll;H, MHKpOCXeMH H ,n;p.) B KOHCT-
pyKIJ;HHTa CH. EneKTPOHHaTa cxeMa Ha 06eKTa 3a ThpCeHe (BY) MO)l(e
6'b,n;e KaKTO B'bB BKnIOqeHO, TaKa H B H3KnIOqeHO C'bCTOHHHe. C no-
Moru:ra Ha Te3H npH60pH e B'b3MO)I(H0 HaMHpaHeTO Ha BY, KOHTO C'b-
,Ll;'bp)l(aT eneK1'poHHH TaHM'bpH (BpeMeBH B3pHBHTenH).
06eKTHTe Ha ThpCeHe MoraT ,n;a ce pa3nonaraT B
cpe,n;a (noqsa, BO).1,a, paCTHTenHOcT), C'brn;O H B CTeHHTe Ha crpa,Ll;H, CTO-
nOBe, B'b1'peIIIHocT Ha aBTOM06HnH H Ha ).1,pyrH MeCTa. 113).1,HpBaHeTo ce
3aTpY).1,HHBa caMO OT 6nH30CTTa Ha ABI1, <paKCOBe, HHKOH C'bBpeMeHHH
Tene<pOHH H ).1,pyrH YC1'pOHCTBa, KOHTO C'b).1,'bp)l(aT
pa).1,HO).1,eTaHnH B KOHC1'pYKIJ;HHTa CH. I1pH60pHTe 3a HenHHeiIHa nOKa-
IJ;HH ce C'bCTOHT OT aHTeHHO YCTPOHCTBO (Ha TeneCKOnnqeH MeTaneH
nOCT) H npHeMHO-npe).1,aBaTeneH 6nOK. 3a pa3IIIHpHBaHe Ha TaKTnqeC-
KHTe B'b3MO)l(HOCTH Ha npH60pa B npHeMHOTO H npe).1,aBaTenHOTO YCT-
POHCTBO e npe)J,BH).1,eHO perynnpaHe KaKTO Ha qYBCTBHTenHOCTTa, TaKa
H Ha MOrn;HOCTTa. KOH1'pon'bT Ha pa60Tocnoco6HOCTTa Ha npH60pa ce
OC'brn;eCTBHBa C nOMOrn;Ta Ha HenHHeeH HMHTaTOp.
I1pH60pHTe 3a HenHHeHHa nOKaIJ;HH pa60THT no npaBHno B ).1,eIJ;H-
Me1'pOBHH ).1,Hana30H Ha pa,Ll;HOB'bnHHTe. XapaKTepHHTe HM pa3MepH ca
0,2-0,4 M, MacaTa -).1,04-8 Kr. 06XBaThT 3a HaMHpaHe Ha BY C pa).1,HO-
eneKTPoHHH YC1'poHcTBa -).1,0 1,5-2 M. BpeMe 3a pa60Ta OT aBTOHOM-
HH H3TOqHHIJ;H Ha 3axpaHBaHe - ,n;o 4-8 qaca.
He06xo).1,HMO e ).1,a ce oT6ene)l(H, qe B OT).1,enHH cnyqaH e B'b3MO)l(Ha
nOBpe).1,a Ha HaH-06HKHOBeHHTe HeeKpaImpaHH CaMO).1,enHH pa,Ll;HoynpaB-
nHeMH BY npH nn'bTHO K'bM aHTeHHOTO YCTPOHCTBO Ha npH-
60pa 3a HenHHeHHa nOKaIJ;HH. B ce npOH3Be)l().1,aT cneIJ;HanHH
npeHocHH "YHHrn;O)l(HTenH Ha 60M6H" (Bomb Ranger), KOHTO nOBpe)l(-
).1,aT pa).1,HoynpaBnHeMHTe BY qpe3 6'bP30 npecMHTaHe Ha B'b3MO)I(HHTe
KOMaH,Ll;H 3a ynpaBneHHe Ha pa3cToHHHe ).1,0 1 KM. MOHTHpaH npe).1,BapH-
TenHO B oxpaHHBaHHH aBToM06Hn, TOH rn;e npe).1,H3BHKa nOBpe).1,a Ha BY
H rn;e cnaCH )l(HBOTa Ha xopaTa B aBToM06Hna.
* * *
B3pHBHHTe YCTpoHcTBa C qaCOBO 3aKnIOqBaHe (Ha B3pHBHTenH)
MoraT ).1,a ce OTKpHHT qpe3 H3non3BaHe Ha nopTaTHBHH KOHTaKTHH
MHKpO<pOHH (<poHeH).1,OCKonH). Te3H npH60pH n03BonHBaT).1,a ce npHe-
Me aKYCTHqHa HH<popMaIJ;HH npe3 CTeHHTe, TaBaHHTe H ).1,pyrHTe or-
pa)l().1,alliH KOHCTPYKIJ;HH OKono BY. 3a CHH)l(aBaHe Ha B'bHIIIHHTe Illy-
MOBe ,n;arqHK'bT TpH6Ba ).1,a ce npHKpenH K'bM xepMeTHKa B Te3H MeCTa
216 AHATOJIt.11ii TAPAC
Ha Orpa)I()J;arn;aTa KOHCTPYKl\IUI, K'bp;eTO Te ca HaM-T'bHKM M He ca MHO-
ro nJI'bTHM.
Ka6eJIMTe 3a ynpaBJIeHMe Ha BY MoraT p;a ce OTKpM5IT B nOJIeBll
YCJIOBlUI qpe3 ll3n0J13BaHe Ha npeHOCHll eJIeKTpOMarHllTHll Ka6eJIoThp-
Caqll (R-21O, P-4S0 - CAIlI" M P;p.). Te BKJIIOqBaT B ce6e CM npep;a
BaTeJIHll II nplleMaIIJ;H 6JIOKOBe, npllKpeneHM K'bM Kpa5I Ha HOCeIIJ;H5I Me-
TaJIeH np'bT C p;'bJDKllHa 1-1,4 M. Pa60THllTe qeCTOTH ca 40-100 kHz.
,lJ;'bJI60qllHaTa Ha ThpCeHe Ha HaMllparn;llTe ce B nOqBaTa Ka6eJIHll JIll-
Hllll 3a ynpaBJIeHlle e p;o 1 M. PaBHocMeTKa - 1 qOBeK, CKOPOCT Ha ThP-
ceHe - p;o 2-3 KMiq. Maca Ha npM60pllTe - p;o 4-6 Kf.
MeTaJIHllTe eJIeMeHTll Ha KOHCTPYKl\ll5ITa Ha BY MoraT p;a ce OTK-
Pll5IT, KaTO ce ll3n0J13BaT npeHocllMM II CTal\MOHapHll MeTaJIOThpCaqll.
llpll T5IX ce ll3nOJI3BaT p;Ba MeTop;a Ha ll3p;HpBaHe - llHp;yKl\llOHeH llJIll
MarHllToMeTPnqeH. ll'bPBM5IT oCllryp5IBa HaMMpaHeTo KaKTO Ha l(BeT-
Hll, TaKa II Ha qepHll MeTaJIll. BTopll5IT - caMO Ha qepHll (cToMaHa II
HeMHHTe CnJIaBll), HO TOM e nO-qYBCTBMTeJIeH OT n'bpBll5I MeTOp;.
HanpllMep PYCKHTe HH,D;yKl\HOHHH nopTaTHBHH p;eTeKTopH Ha MeTa-
JIH AKA-7202 (Maca 0,4 Kf) H CTEPX-92AP oCHryp5IBaT H HaMHpaHe-
TO Ha nHCTOJIeTH Ha pa3CT05IHHe 0,4-0,6 M, aBTOMaTH - p;o 1-1,2 M.
llO-qYBCTBHTeJIHM5IT npH60p CTEPX-92AP oCHryp5IBa H CeJIeKl\H5I Ha
npep;MeTHTe - qepHH HJIH l\BeTHH MeTaJIH. ,lJ;aJIequHaTa 3a OTKpHBaHe
Ha MeTaJIHH npep;MeTH B noqsaTa H B'bB Bop;a Ha npaKTHKa e TaKaBa,
KaKBaTO e H B'bB B'b3,D;yXa. PYCKM5IT MeTaJIOThpCaq ,lJ;'brOB THn, MapKa
OCT-7 51, CJIY)lm 3a HaMHpaHe Ha MeTaJIHH npep;MeTH npH MHHaBaHe
npe3 BpaTa, nop; CBop;OBe H T. H. B'b3MO)l(Ha e HacTPoMKa 3a qysCTBH-
TeJIHOCT K'bM onpep;eJIeH npep;MeT (rpaHaTa, nHCTOJIeT, XJIa)J;HO OP'b-
)l(He H P;p.). illHpllHaTa Ha CBop;eCTlUI OTBOP e 90-120 CM. llPH60p'bT e
npep;Ha3HaqeH 3a H3nOJI3BaHe B 6aHKH, O<PllCH, MHTHMl\H H p;pyrH yq-
pe)l(p;eHH5I 3a npeCnqaHe Ha Hen03BOJIeHO npeHaC5IHe Ha Op'b)l(He, ana-
parypa, B3pHBHH YCTPOMCTBa, CK'bnOl\eHHH MeTaJIH.
MHoro yp;06HH H cHrypHH npH eKCnJIOaTal\M5I ca <pep030Hp;OBHTe
MeTaJIOThpCaqH Ha <pMpMaTa <I>EPCTEP (fepMaHH5I), KOMTO H3n0J13BaT
MarHHTOMeTPHqHM5I MeTop; Ha ThpCeHe. OT HaM-MHHHaTlOpHHTe 3anap;-
HH HHP;YKl\HOHHH MeTaJIOT'bpCaqH Tp5I6Ba p;a ce cnOMeHe LBD-l05
(CAIlI,) , npep;Ha3HaqeH 3a 6'bp3a npoBepKa Ha xopa, 6ara)l(H, o<pHCHa
Me6eJI H p;p. 3a oTKpHBaHe Ha BY, Ha cTPeJIKOBO H XJIap;HO Op'b)l(He.
Heep;Hopop;HocTTa Ha OKOJIHaTa cpep;a M M5ICTOTO Ha YCTaHoBKaTa
Ha BY MO)l(e p;a ce perHcTPHpaT C nOMOrn;Ta Ha CneKTp030HaJIHH H no-
JI5IpH3al\MOHHH nOpTaTHBHH OnTMqHM npH60pH. llop;06HH npeHocHH
npH60pH ce M3I10JI3BaT B CTpOMTeJICTBOTO 3a p;MCTaHl\HOHeH KOHTPOJI
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm 217
Ha KaqeCTBOTO Ha pa3JInqaHTe KOHCTPYKl\HH ()l(eJIe306eToHHH H MeTaJIHM
rpep;H, onopll H p;p.).
HOrn;HO BpeMe e e<peKTHBHO H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha MaJIora6apHTHa Ton-
JIOBH3HOHHa anaparypa, K05ITO npHTe)l(aBa pa3JIHqHTeJIHa cnoc06HoCT
p;o p;eCeTHqHHTe qaCTH Ha ep;HH rpap;yc no IJ;eJ13HM.
B3pMBHHTe YCTPoMcTBa, nOCTaBeHH B nOqBaTa, MoraT p;a 6'bp;aT OT-
KpHTH qpe3 H3nOJI3BaHe Ha COHp;H. HaKpaMHHl\HTe Ha COHp;aTa TP5I6Ba
p;a ce H3pa60TBaT OT TB'bPP;H HeMeTaJIHH MaTepHaJIli (nHpoKepaM H P;p.),
KoeTO H3KJIlOqBa npeK'bCBaHe npH H3nOJI3BaHe Ha npOTHBOCOHP;HH eJIeK-
TPHqeCKH 3arJIYlliHTeJIH.
XapaKTepHHTe npH3Hal\H H <popMaTa Ha B3pHBHHTe YCTPoMCTBa H
op'b)l(He, KOHTO ce HaMHpaT B 6ara)l(a, MoraT p;a ce HaMep5IT, KaTO ce
H3nOJI3Ba c T ~ H o H a p H a peHTfeHOBa anapaTYPa, K05ITO pa60TH Ha "MH-
HaBaRe". T5I ce H3n0J13Ba B 6aHKHTe, o<pHcHTe H p;pyrH MeCTa.
Tp5I6Ba p;a oT6eJIe)l(HM, qe HHTO ep;HH OT pa3rJIep;aHHTe MeTO,lJ;H Ha
ThpCeHe He MO)l(e Han'bJIHO p;a OCHrypH Hap;e)I()J;HOCTTa Ha HaMHpaHe Ha
BY. IJ;eJIeC'b06pa3Ho e p;a ce H3n0J13BaT KOMnJIeKCHO MeTO,lJ;H H Thpca-
qeCKa anaparypa. HaH-cHrypHo e, KoraTO ce H3nOJI3Ba TeJIeynpaBJI5Ie-
Ma P060TH3HpaHa TeXHHKa.
npUAO)f(eHUe 3
n p06J\eMl!1 Ha Cl!1 rypHOCrra
Ha 6l!13HeCMeHa *
1. HY)J(eH A1I1 e Ha 61113HecMeHa n1l1CTOAer
3aKOHo.n;aTeJICTBOTO pa3peIIIaBa Ha rpa)l(,!J;aHHTe .n;a H3nOJI3BaT 3a
caM03auurra nHeBMaTlftIHO H ra30BO Op'bJKHe. 3a ITbPBOTO He TPJl6Ba
HHKaKBO pa3peIIIeHHe. Ho n'bK H nOJI3a HHKaKBa. TOBa e HrpaqKa. 3a
BTOPOTO TPJl6Ba pa3peIIIeHHe OT MlfJIHIJ,IDITa. HaHCTHHa, TOBa Be.n;OMC-
TBO HanpaBH BClfqKO, KoeTO 3aBHCH OT Hero, .n;a npeMaxHe JKeJIaHHeTO
.n;a ce 06'bpHeIII K'bM Hero 3a C'bOTBeTHHTe .n;oK)'MeHTH. Ho aKO CTe ThP-
neJIHBH, eHeprlftlHH, HacToifqHBH, He BHHMaHHe Ha TaKHBa
.n;pe60JIHH KaTO Ha B M)'H,!J;HPH, TeXHHJI,
MeKO Ka3aHO, <pOPMaJIH3'bM H .n;'bJI60KaTa HM HenplfJl3'bH K'bM Bac, B KpM
Ha CJIe.n; Meceu; MH ABa eJKe,!J;HeBHH YCHJIHJI BHe nonyqH-
Te He06xo,!J;HMaTa xapntiiKa. II MOJKeTe ToraBa .n;a CH KYlllfTe ra30B
"Ton", TOqHO KOllHe Ha 6011IIlIJI Mo.n;eJI. ITO-CKOPO TOBa 6'b.n;e "May-
3ep", "BaJITep" HJIH HJlKaK'bB APyr 06pa3eu; Ha CJIaBHaTa Op'bJKeHHa
npOMHIIIJIeHOCT Ha fepMaHlfJI. IJ;eHHTe 3a 60raTHTe ca nOBeqe OT .n;OC-
ThnHH - 200-300 .n;oifqeMapKH, HHMa TOBa ca napH?
II TyK B'b3HHKBa B'bnpOC'bT: KaKBa e nOJI3aTa 3a Bac OT ra30BlfJI nHC-
TOJIeT (MH peBOJIBep)? ITo T03H nOBO.n; 6'b.n;a PJl3'bK: nOJI3aTa e noq-
TH HYJIeBa, Bpe.n;aTa e MHoro rOJIJlMa. KoraTo H3Ba,!J;HTe OT .n;JK06a CH
lfJIH OT K06ypa CBoeTO He60HHo op'b)l(lfe, Ha np'bB norJIe.n; TO H3rJIe)l(,!J;a
TOqHO KaTO HCTHHCKOTO, 60HHOTO. CJIe,nOBaTeJIHO BceKH npeCThnHHK
* fJlaBI1 OT KHl1raTa Ha A. E. Tapac "Ee30naCHocTb 6H3HecMeHa H 6H3Heca" (MI1HCK,
1996).
HapbtfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
219
me peIIIH (H TeXHHqeCKH 6'b.n;e Han'bJIHO npaB), qe BHe HCKaTe.n;a ro
3acTPeJIJlTe. CJIe.n;OBaTeJIHO Ha Hero HIlMa .n;a My OCTaHe .n;pyro,
OCBeH .n;a H3nOJI3Ba np'bB CBoeTO Op'bJKHe (.n;a cTPeJI5I, .n;a XB'bPJIII HO)l(,
,na BH C'b60PH HaH-MaJIKOTO). CJIe.n; TOBa BHe Beqe He MO)l(eTe .n;a My
.n;OKaJKeTe, qe CTe HCKaJIH caMO .n;a ro H3nJIaIIIHTe, a He .n;a ro ocaKaTHTe,
HJIH nO-JIOIIIO - .n;a ro y6HeTe. 3l:lnOMHeTe: ra30BOTO op'bJKHe B
Ha oT6paH5IBam ce npOBOKHpa npeCThnHHU;HTe 3a no-peUlHTeJ1-
HH H JKeCTOKH .n;eHCTBlfJI
.ru;o ce OTHaCll .n;o nopa351BamHTe xapatcrepHCTHKH, TO npH ra30BOTO
Op'bJKHe Te ca KpaHHO HHCKH. Oc06eHO HaB'bH, 3amOTO ra3Ta 6'bP30 ce
pa3ceHBa, a 06HKHOBeHO HaB'bH ca nOBeqeTO Hana.n;eHH5I Ha.n; 6H3HeCMe-
HH. B 3aTBopeHO nOMeru;eHHe, OTPa3eHO OT CTeHH HJIH TaBaHH, ra30BO-
TO 06JIaqe ,neHCTBa Ha cTPeJI5ILUHJI He nO-MaJIKO, OTKOJIKOTO Ha T03H,
K'bM KorOTO e H3cTPeJI'bT. He CJIyqaHHo H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha ra30BO OP'b-
JKHe B 3aTBOpeHH nOMeru;eHlfJl e 3a6paHeHo C Ha MBP.
Ka3aHoTo OT MeH pa36HpaT MH03HHa. 3a TOBa Te ce cTPeM1lT .n;a ce
cHa6MT C "HCTHHCKO Op'bJKHe", HanpHMep nHCTOJIeT TT (MaKap H CTa-
pa CHCTeMa, HO He e JIOIIIa), C "MaKapOB" HJIH qeIIIKlfJI q3-85 (MHoro
.n;06pa MaIIIHHKa) H T. H. KaKBO ITbK, .n;06pH5IT nHCTOJIeT e .n;06'bp C TOBa,
qe C Hero ce qyBcTBaIII no-yroTHO H cnOKoHHo. 3a6paB5IIII .n;OpH H 3a
TOBa, qe CH ro npli.n;06HJI H ro HOCHIII C'bBCeM He3aKOHHO. BnpOqeM a3
C'bM peaJIHcT. Pa36HpaM pa3c'bJK.n;eHlfJl OT po.n;a Ha: ".ru;OM nOJIHU;H5ITa
He MOJKe .n;a Me 3amHTH, TP5I6Ba .n;a ce CnaC5IBaM caM." ,[(a norOBopHM
3a .n;pyro.
B KaKBH cnyqaH H3CTPeJI OT nHCTOJIeTa MOJKe .n;a 6'b.n;e H3nOJI3BaH C
no.n;06aBama e<peKTHBHOCT? OT.n;aBHa ca ro <P0PMYJIH-
PaJIH. ITpe.n;H BClftIKO, oT6eJI5l3BaT Te, Bp'bX Ha 6e3YMHeTO e .n;a .n;'bp)l(HTe
Op'bJKHeTO B 3anac, 3a B CJIyqaH Ha Hana.n;eHHe, HJIK'b.n;e B qeKMe,!J;)l(eTO
Iia 6IOPOTO, B ,!J;HnJIOMaTlftIeCKOTO KY<papqe HJIH B'bB B'bTPeIIIHH5I .n;JK06
Ha caKOTO. ,[(OPH H B HrpaJIHHTe <plfJ1MH, .n;OCTa OT.n;aneqeHH OT .n;eHCT-
BHTeJIHOCTTa, repOHTe TB'bp.n;e PMKO YCll5IBaT CBoeBpeMeHHo.n;a H3Ba-
MT nHCTOJIeTa OT no.n;06HH MeCTa. B peaJIHaTa .n;eHCTBHTeJIHOCT no-
.n;06Ha B'b3MOJKHOCT e Han'bJIHO H3KJIlOqeHa, 3amOTO rpaMOTHOTO Hana-
.n;eHHe ce H3B'bpIIIl3a CTpeMHTeJIHO, BHe3anHO, B HaH-Heno.n;xo.n;51ru;H5I
. MOMeHT.
Beqe cnOMeHax, qe Hana.n;eHI1:5ITa MHoro P5l.n;KO CTaBaT BK'bru;H HJIH
Ha pa60THOTO M5ICTO. 06HKHOBeHO ce H3B'bpIIIBa'T no n'bT5I MeJK,D;y .n;OMa
H pa6OTaTa. C .n;pym AYMH - Ha OTKpHTO. YMeeTe JIH .n;a cTPeJI5ITe no.n;
OTKPHTO He6e? OT Hey.n;06HO nOJIO)l(eHHe, HanpHMep ce.n;eIIIKOM HJIH
JIe)l(eIIIKOM? THqaHKH? ITo.n; KYPlllYMH? ITo xopa, ITbK 6mIH Te H npec-
220 AHATOJ1lt1tii TAPAC
ThnHIIU;II? ITo ,n;BIDKeru;II ce B pa3JmqHII nOCOKII "MIIIlleHII", B TOBa qIIC-
JIO no 6Hraru;II K'bM Bac?
3a ,n;a CTaHe B'b3MO)KHO BClIqKO IB6poeHO, TPH6Ba BceKlI ,n;eH (no,n;-
qepTaBaM, BceKII ,n;eH) Haii-MaJIKO TPIIiiceT MIIH)'TII (Haii-,n;06pe qac),n;a
ce OT,n;eJIHT 3a TPeHIIpOBKa no II3Ba)K,n;aHe Ha nIICTOJIeTa OTTaM, K'h,n;eTO
BII ce HaMIIpa, II ,n;a ce npIIu;eJIBaTe B MIIIlleHa. OmaqaJIO MlIIlleHaTa
MO)Ke ,n;a 6'b,n;e HenO,lJ;BII)KHa, HO MIIHIIM)'M CJIe,n; MeceQ TPH6Ba ,n;a ce
npeMlIHe K'hM nplIQeJIBaHe B ,lJ;BII)Keru;II ce MlIIlleHlI. TaKaBa POJIH MoraT
,n;a 1I3n'bJIHHBaT ,n;OMaIIIHlITe )l(lIBOTHlI (KOTKII, K)"IeTa, nTlIu;n), qJIeHOBe
Ha ceMeiicTBOTO, KOJIerM, MlIHYBaqM. B nOCJIe,lJ;HMH cJIyqaii TPH6Ba ,n;a
6'b,n;eTe MHoro BHMMaTeJIHM, lIHaqe MO)Ke ,n;a ce OKa)KeTe B ,n;ocTa He-
npMHma cwryau;nH. ITo-,n;06pe e Bcem ,n;eH ,n;a noceru;aBaTe cneu;naJIHO
060py,n;BaHO CTPeJI6Mru;e, aKO MMa Ha6JIM30 TaKOBa. KaKTo 1I ,n;a ro npa-
BMTe, aKO He pa3BMeTe Y ce6e CM HaBMK MMrHOBeHO ,n;a M3Ba)K,n;aTe nMC-
TOJIeTa M TOqHO ,n;a ce nplIu;eJIBaTe B cnoKoiiHa 06CTaHOBKa, TO B eKCT-
peMaJIHM YCJIOBMH B'bo6ru;e HHMa ,n;a ce cnpaBlITe.
TpH6Ba He no-pH,n;KO OT ,lJ;Ba n'bm B ce,n;MlIQa ,n;a cTPeJIHTe C'bC CBOH
nlICTOJIeT. MMeHHO C'bC CBOH, 3aru;OTO JInqHOTO Op'b)KRe TPH6Ba,n;a 6'b,n;e
HaCTPoeHO 3a TOqHa cTPeJI6a MMeHHO OT CTonaHMHa M)'. M3CTPeJIlITe
npR TPeHRpOBKa TPH6Ba ,n;a 6'b,n;aT OT 10 (MRHRMYM) ,n;o 30 (MaKcR-
M)'M). Y,n;OBOJICTBReTO He e OT eBTMHlITe, 3aru;OTO e,lJ;RH naTPOH cTPYBa
npIIMepHO ,n;OJIap. Ynpa)KHeHRHTa no cTPeJI6a TPH6Ba OT BpeMe Ha Bpe-
Me,n;a ce YCJIO)I(IDIBaT. HanpMMep 3a 6 ceKYH,D;R,n;a ce nOpa3HT 5 MMIlle-
HR, pa3nOJIO)KeHR KaTO BeTPRJIO npe,n; Bac Ha pa3cToHHRe OT 5 ,n;o 25
MeTPa. MJIR ,n;a ce nona,lJ;He B TPR MRilleHR, KOlITO ce ,lJ;BIf)l(aT K'hM Bac
Ha pa3JInqHO pa3CTOHHMe, C pa3JIRqHa CKOpOCT.
M HaKpaH, TOqHMHT cTPeJIeQ TPH6Ba ,n;a MMa TB'bp,n;a p'bKa R BHpHO
OKO. CJIe,n;OBaTeJIHO aJIKOXOJI'bT B rOJIeMR KOJInqeCTBa RJIlI no M'bHIIqKO,
HO qeCTO, HOru;HMTe 6,n;eHMH, ,n;OplI u;nraplITe ca npomBOnOKalHM 3a cHaii-
nepRCTa. fOTOBM JIR CTe ,n;a ce OTKa)l(eTe OT npOCJIOBymTe "pa,n;OCTlI Ha
)KRBOTa" R e)Ke,n;HeBHO ,n;a TPeHRpaTe, 3a ,n;a CR rapaHTMpaTe R3nOJI3Ba-
He Ha Op'b)KReTO, B cnyqaii qe nOTPH6Ba? CTPYBa MR ce nOBeqe OT C'bM-
HMTeJIHO.
~ a HanpaBMM R3BO,n;: Ha ,lJ;RJIeTaHTa He caMO ra30BOTO, HO R 60iiHO-
TO Op'b)KlIe HHMa ,n;a nOMOrHe. B HeYMeJIM p'bu;e TO MO)Ke ,n;a ce II3nOJI3-
Ba caMO 3a pa3MaXBaHe no,n; Hoca Ha ,n;pyr TaK'bB ,lJ;RJIeTaHT. MO)Ke R,n;a
ce nJIaillaT no,n;qlIHeHlITe C Hero, C'bce,lJ;lITe, ceMeiicTBOTO, MRH)'BaqR-
Te. 3aTOBa ru;e BR ,n;aM C'bBeT: OCTaBeTe Op'b)l(lIeTO Ha npo<peCMOHaJIRC-
mTe, aKO caM He CTe TaK'hB.
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU(!ypHocm
221
2. KaKbS Tp5l6sa Aa 6bAe Te!\OXpaHliITe!\51T
Cnope,n; JIOrHKaTa Ha Heru;aTa TeJIOXpaHRTeJIRTe TpH6Ba ,n;a 6'b,n;aT
npo<peCROHaJIRcm. HanpIIMep B MOCKBa 3a oxpaHa Ha 6R3HeCMeH OT
"cpe,n;Ha p'bKa" nOHHKora ca aHra)l(lIpaHR,n;o 10 ,D;yIIIR, KORTO pa60THT
Ha TPR CMeHR. C ,n;pyrR ,n;YMR, Te ro oxpaHHBaT ,n;eHOHoru;HO. KOJIKO
cTPYBa TOBa Ha 6R3HecMeHa, HRKoii He 3Hae. AKO ce npReMe, qe cpe,n;-
HaTa 3anJIaTa B PYCMH K'bM 1 OKTOMBPlI 1995 ro,n;RHa 6eIlle 145 ,n;oJIapa,
3a oxpaHa omBaT He nOBeqe OT 1500 "ryru;epa". A HaJIM T03II, KoiiTO
na3M BaIIIIIH )KRBOT, )l(lIBOTa Ha PO,n;HMHRTe M 6JIR3KRTe BR xopa, TPH6Ba
,n;a nOJIyqaBa MHoro nOBeqe OT cpe,n;HoTo paBHRru;e. 5IBHO TOBa e npM-
qMHaTa rrOBeqeTO 6M3HecMeHM ,n;a ca 6e3 oxpaHa RJIR ,n;a HaeMaT e,lJ;RH
~ ,
HaM-MHoro ,n;BaMa ,n;YIIIR.
B cTPeMe)Ka CM K'hM RKOHOMRII po,n;HRTe 6M3HecMeHR M3rr0Jl3BaT
" ,t..
CBOIITe "na3aqM MHor0'f'YHKu;IIOHaJIHO: Te ca RM II IllO<PbOPII, M KYpII-
epR, R cHa6,n;lITeJIR, R Eor 3Hae oru;e KaKBO. Be,n;Hara ru;e BM Ka)Ka, qe
TOBa He e ,n;o6'bp no.n;xo,n;. 06IIKHoBeH rrpMMep: MMaTe ,lJ;BaMa 6o,n;Rrap-
,n;OBe B aBTOM06RJIa 3ae,n;HO C Bac. BMe R3JIR3aTe, e,n;RHRHT BM oTBapH
BpaTaTa, BTOpMHT R3KJIlOqBa cTapTepa R CJIara KJIlOqOBeTe B ,lJ;)l(06a CR.
Pa60Ta 3a ceKyH,lJ;R, HO TOqHO ToraBa R p'bu;eTe, M OqRTe RM ca 3aeTM.
Te3M ,n;Be-TpM ceKyH,n;R ca Harr'bJIHO ,n;OCTaThqHR 6e3 HRKaKBM rrpeqKR ,n;a
3aCTPeJIHT M Bac, M 60,n;Mrap,n;OBeTe. JInqHO Ha MeH TalR pa60Ta 6R MR
omeJIa ceK)'H,lJ;a M rrOJIOBRHa.
EKcrrepTlITe ca e,n;RHHM B MHeHReTO CM, qe ,n;OpR e,lJ;RH-e,n;RHCTBeH
TeJIOXpaHRTeJI e crroco6eH ,n;a orra3R KJIMeHTa OT MHQ)KeCTBO HerrpMHT-
HOCTR, aKO e rrpo<peCMOHaJIRCT. HaRCTRHa B cnyqaRTe, KoraTO 6R3Hec-
MeH'bT e rrpe,n;MeT Ha rrpeCJIe,n;BaHe OT ,n;pyrII rrpo<peCROHaJIMCm, IllaH-
COBeTe My,n;a OCTaHe )KRB PH3KO HaMaJIHBaT. ~ a ce "rrpRKpRe" OT y6Mii-
QRTe MO)Ke no rrpIIHU;IIrr BceKM KJIMeHT. Ho 3a TOBa ce R3RCKBa u;HJI eKIIrr
OT ,n;o6pe rro,n;rOTBeHR crreu;naJIRCm, CMCTeMHa OrrepaTMBHa pa6oTa, rrbp-
BOKJIaCHR TeXHRqeCKR cpe,n;cTBa - T. e. cTPYBa MHoro napR. He BceKM
MO)Ke ,n;a CM rr03BOJIII ,n;a R3,n;bp)Ka "JInqHa rBap,n;RH" OT 10-20 ,D;yIIIM.
nO-rOJIHMaTa qaCT OT 6M3HeCMeHMTe OT ,n;'bp)KaBMTe Ha O H ~ II M3TOq-
Ha EBporra ce CTPeMHT ,n;a ce 3a,n;OBOJIHT C He rrOBeqe OT ,lJ;BaMa-TPIIMa
"na3MTeJIM" Ha THJIOTO CM.
AKO IIMaTe e,n;IIH TeJIOXpaHRTeJI, TO rro-,n;o6pe e ,n;a xo,n;MTe rrpe3 U;H-
JIOTO BpeMe C Hero. AKO ca ,lJ;BaMa, rrpe,lJ;R ,n;a BJIe3eTe BbB Bxo,n;a, TPH6-
Ba ,n;a ro M3npaTIITe ,n;a rrpoBepM CThJI6Mru;eTo. He e 3JIe M npe,n;BapMTeJI-
HO ,n;a ce rrOrpII)KMTe 3a 6pOHe)KMJIeTKR 3a BCnqKR.
222 AHATOJH11i1 T A PAC
Pa3KpHBaMKH MaJIKa TaMHa, me BH Ka)Ka, qe nO-rOJHIMaTa qaCT OT
nOp'bqKOBHTe y6HMcTBa Ha 3ana,n ce H3B'bpllIBaT OT CHaMnepH OT ro-
JUIMO pa3CT05lHHe. TOBa ce 0651CH5IBa npe,nH BCHqKO C ,no6pe pa3BHTa-
Ta llIKOJIa 3a TeJIOXpaHHTeJIH. 11 aKO Y Hac y6HMI.{HTe npe,nnOqHTaT
Bxo,nOBeTe, TO Ha 3ana,n TeJIOXpaHHTeJIHTe B TaKasa cHryal.{H5I MHr-
HOBeHO me npeB'bpHaT KHJI'bpa Ha pellIeTO. 06HKHOBeHO 6H3HeCMe-
HHTe pellIaBaT caMH KOMY ,na nOBcp5lT cao51 )KHBOT, 3,npaBe, MaTepH-
aJIHO 6JIarOnOJIyqHe. OpHeHTHpaHeTO B np06JIeMHTe, CB'bp3aHH C ,,60-
,nHrap,nc" - "na3eHeTO Ha T5IJIOTO", e Ba)KHO. )J;a 3anOqHeM C
pa3rJIe)K,naHeTo Ha H5IKOH pa3npocTPaHeHH MHTOBe.
Mum M 1: TelloxpaHumeliRm e wupoKonllel1l,eCm amllem c
6UCOK pbcm U IOMPYU,U Kamo lIYKo6e.
)J;a, npH IDlKOH BH,nOBe oxpaHHTeJIHa ,neiIHocT (npH ocnryp5lBaHe Ha
pe,na Ha MaCOBH MepOnpH5ITH5I, oxpaHa Ha 6aHKH, O<pHCH, 6apoBe, Ma-
rroHHH) ca Heo6xo,nHMH xopa, KOHTO BH)'llIaBaT C MOmHaTa CH
<pHrypa. Ho aKO rOBopHM 3a JIWlHa oxpaHa, ryK ce l.{eIDlT nOBeqe Te3H,
KOHTO He ce OTJIWlasaT HHTO C B'bHllIHOCT, mITO C 06JIeKJIO, HHTO C
nOBe,neHHeTO CH. MHoro nO-Ba)KHO e BaIIIlue 3amHTHHIUI,na HMaT rJIa-
Ba Ha paMeHeTe CH H ,na YMe5IT ,na 51 H3nOJI3BaT. 3amOTO r JIaBHaTa HM
3a,naqa e He ,na BH 3aKpHBaT C TeJIaTa CH OT KypllIyMHTe (Me)K,ny,npyro-
TO, HMKOM He 6H ro HanpaBHJI OCBeH CJIyqaMHO), a ,na npe,nOTBpaT5IT
eKCTPeMaJIHH cHryal.{HH H ,na ,neMCTBaT M'bJIHHeHOCHO, HO rpaMOTHO H
l.{eJIeC'b06pa3HO, aKO B'b3HHKHaT no,n06HH CHryaI.{HH.
Ee3cnopHO, npasHJIa 6e3 H3KJIIOqeHH5I IUlMa. _C'bmeCTByBaT proJIlfqHH
MOTHBH npH no,n6opa Ha Te,JIOXpaHHTeJIH. AKo Te ca BH He06xo,nHMH
3apa,nH npeCTlf)Ka HJIH 3a CTP5ICKaHe aa OKOJIHHTe, TO BHCOKH5IT P'bCT H
TerJIO Ha,n 100 Kr ca KpaMHo He06xo,nHMH. Bce naK He 3a6paB5lii:Te, qe
KOJIKOTO nO-rOJI5IMa e MHllIeaaTa, TOJIKOBa nO-JIeCHO e ,na nona,nHellI B
He5l.
Mum 2: TelloxpaHumeliRm mpR66a ga UMa "lIepeH nORC"
om Kapame UIIU ga 6bge waMnUOH no KUK60KC.
)J;a HMa 6oraTo cnopTHo MHHaJIO MO)Ke H ,na e npH5ITHO 3a CaMH5I
npHTe)KaTeJI Ha cnopTHH 3BaHH5I. Han'bJIao B'b3MO)KHO e ,na ce XBaJIH C
Hero npe,n npH5ITeJIH H npe,n npecaTa HerOBH5IT pa60To,naTeJI. Ho C'b-
Hapb'lHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
223
meCTByBaT MHHHMyM TPH ,nOBo,na, KOHTO HH KapaT ,na ce yC'bMHHM B
He06xo,nHMOCTTa ,na KOMnJIeKryBaMe "rBap,nH51Ta CH" OT 6HBllIH MaMC-
TOpH Ha lOMpYKa H xBaTKaTa. I1'bPBO, orHeCTPeJIHOTO Op'b)KHe n03BO-
JI5IBa Ha Hana,naTeJI5I ,na He BJIH3a B'bB <pH3W1eCKH KOHTaKT C oxpaHaTa
Ha )KepTBaTa. BTopo, CnOpTHaTa TeXHHKa e HenpHro,naa 3a peaJIHH pa3-
qHCTBaHH5I Ha CMeTKH. TpeTo, npo<pecHOHaJIHCT, KOMTO ce CTPeMH ,na
,nOBe,ne HemaTa ,nO p'bKOnaIlleH 60M, He cTPyBa H nYKHaT rpOIll. TOM
TP5I6Ba TaKa ,na ce n'hP)KH, qe y nOTeHl.{HaJIHH5I arpecop ,na ce H3napH
BC5IKaKBO )J(eJIaHHe ,na aana,na.
Ka3aHOTO He H3KJIlOqBa nOJI3aTa OT pe,nOBHH 3aHHMaHH5I C p'bKO-
nallIeH 60M, oco6eHO aKO npH T5IX ce aKl.{eaTHpa Ha CnapHarH B cypo-
Ba CXBaTKa. T03H TPeHHHr YKpenBa y TeJIOXpaHHTeJI5I qYBCTBOTO Ha
YBepeaOCT B ce6e CH, OCHryp5lBa HerOBaTa HeY5l3BHMOCT B c6HBaHH5I
C 06HKHOBeaH XYJIHraHH, nOM'bp)Ka BHCOKO paBHHme Ha <pH3HqeCKa-
Ta pa60Tocnoco6HOCT.
Mum N23: TelloxpaHumellfim HenpeMeHHo mpR66a ga e
6olO6all 6 ArpzaHucmaH, 50CHa UIIU LfellHR, 6 HaU-1I0WUR a.yJau-
ga e 6uII 6 cneu,ualiHume a.Y)f(6u UIIU gecaHmHuK.
Te3H, KOHTO MHCJI5IT TaKa, He pro6HpaT, qe BceKH onHT e cneI.{H<pH-
qeH. YMeHHeTo,na YCTPOMBallI 3aCa,nH B nJIaHHHHTe HJIH ,na CKaqallI HOm-
HO BpeMe C naparnyT no npHHl.{Hn He e aa TeJIOXpaHHTeJI5l. MHO-
3HHa CM5ITaT, qe xopaTa, KOHTO ca MHHaJIH npe3 "MeCOMeJIaqKaTa" Ha
HCTHHCKa BOMHa, ca nOJIyqHJIH KOJIOCaJIHa nCHXOJIOrWleCKa 3aKaJIKa.
TOBa e B5IpHO ,nOIDlK'b,ne, HO caMO no OTHOllIeHHe Ha Te3H, KOHTO ca
OTHllIJIH Ha BOMHa C'bC C'bOTBeTHaTa no,nrOTOBKa H C y6e)K,neHHeTO, qe
TP5I6Ba JIWlHO ,na yqaCTBaT B He5l. KaKTO e H3BeCTHO, TaKHBa xopa He ca
Maoro H Te no npaBHJIO He ce l.{aH5IT 3a TeJIOXpaaHTeJIH. I10-CKOPO MO-
raT ,na CTaaaT HaeMHH y6HMI.{H.
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224
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HO HaYKaTa MHoro HeLQa 3a qOBeK MoraT ce
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eMOU;IIOHaJIHaTa YCTOMqIIBOCT, crroc06HOCTTa ce pa-
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225
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yqlI OT rpelliKlITe) II ce OT pa3JIIIqHII
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onepaU;lIlI; CTpeMe)l( ce 3anOqHaTaTa pa60Ta; He
ce nOMaHa Ha BbHmeH HaTIICK.
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TO HepBHIITe. II OLQe - HapKoMaHIITe II aJIKOXOJIIIU;IITe. He ca
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3a MOpaJIHaTa CTpaHa Ha qOBemKaTa ca HanlIcaHII MHoro
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226 AHATOJlMI1 T APAC
(rr'bK H CaMO Ha TpHMa Tp5I6Ba CTapa-
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THKaTa Ha OXpaHHTeJIHaTa H OT MaTepHaJIHTe B rrpeca-
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Ha B B acaHCbopa, Ha BlIJIaTa,
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y6HHCTBO. CHaHrrepCKa Ha M5ICTO, rro BpeMe
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qeCKO H3yqaBaHe ca MHoro'. TOqflo TaKaBa KaTaCT-
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227
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KPHMHHaJIHaTa H eKCTpeMaJIHaTa rrCHXOJIOrlI5I ca IJ;5IJIa HaYKa C'bC CBOM
aBTopMTeTH, YCTaHOBeHM 3aKOHOMepHOCTM, C 06IlIMpHa mITe-
parypa. 3a C'b)l(aJIeHHe TeJIOXpaHMTeJIM, M He caMO Te, HMaT
HYJIeBa rrOWOTOBKa B Ta3M 06JIacT.
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cepM03Ho ce C nOMOlI(fa Ha orHecTPeJIHO OP'b-
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OT pycKHTe TeJIOXpaHHTeJIM HMaT pa3pelllHTeJIHO HOC5IT IIMCTOJIeT.
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228 AHATOnlt11i1 T APAC
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,lJ;a CKOqIIIll OTTaM, ,lJ;a ce crrYCHern OT rrOKpIIBa Ha MHOrOeTa)KeH 6JIOK
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ca perryTaU;II5ITa MMa rr'hpBOCTerreHHO 3naqeHMe.
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KaKBO crropTno e,lJ;MH060pCTBO OT pO,lJ;a Ha 60KC, CB060,lJ;Ha 60p6a MJIM
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paBM MaCa)!( Ha C'hpu;eTO, MH)KeKU;II5I C'hC C'h,lJ;Opa3lIllip5.lBam; pa3TBOp, ,lJ;a
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Bane na rr'hpBa rrOMOII.J;, TeJIOXpaHIITeJIIITe Tp5.l6Ba ,lJ;a 3na5IT Kp'hBHaTa
BII rpyrra, rrOHOCIIMOCTTa II HerronOCIIMOCTTa K'hM pa3JIIfqHMTe JIeKapC-
TBa. Pa36IIpa ce, JIIIqnaTa oxpana TP5.l6Ba ,lJ;a ce yqII II na Mnoro ,lJ;pyrII
nem;a, Harrp"Mep pa60Ta C KOMIIlOT'hP, HaKa3aTeJIHO rrpaBO, KaK,lJ;a ocpop-
M5.lMe MHTep"opa, HO BCIIqKO TOBa n5.lMa rrp5.lKO OTHOrnenIIe K'hM Herroc-
pe,lJ;CTBeHOTO H 3a,lJ;'hJI)KeHIIe ",lJ;a rra3II T5.lJIOTO".
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3yJHa6aHe U CUzypHocm
229
B Ta3II Bp'h3Ka B'h3HIIKBaT ,lJ;Ba B'hrrpoca: K'h,lJ;e MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce rrOBIIlIlli
KBaJIIIcpIIKaU;H5ITa Ha JIIIqnaTa oxpaHa II KOJIKO CTpYBa TOBa y,lJ;OBOJICT-
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JIII II TeJIOXpaHIITeJIII BaH)]; 3acera He C'hm;eCTBYBa. OT,lJ;eJInIITe oxpa-
HIITeJIHII CPIIPMII ce orrIITBaT ,lJ;a ce 3aHIIMaBaT II C TOBa 3ae,lJ;no C ocnOB-
naTa CII pa60Ta, HO KaqeCTBOTO Ha 06yqeHIIe B'hrrpeKII IInTPIIrysam;aTa
peKJIaMa e ,lJ;OCTa HIICKO.
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JIaTBIIHCKII5I CPIIJIIIaJI na Me)K,D;yHapO,lJ;HaTa aKa,lJ;eMII5I 3a cIIrypnocT (rp.
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TIfqHa TPeHIIpOB'hqua aCOu;Hau;II5I - rro 500 )J;oJIapa 3a BceKH ceMMHap,
6e3 xpaHa H crraHe.
* * *
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Ta. HCTHHCKIDIT rrpOcpeCHOHaJIHCT 3Hae HO TaKHBa rrpoecIIOHaJIHCTH
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oxpana, HO Bce rraK ,lJ;aBa B'h3MO)KHOCT ,lJ;a ce HarrpaB5IT H5IKaKBH rrapaJIeJIH.
)];a rrpe,lJ;IIOJIO)KIIM, qe TP5.l6Ba ,lJ;a opranH3HpaTe rrpeHaC5.lHeTO C aB-
TOM06HJI Ha rOJI5.lMa cyMa rrapII B'hB BaJIYTa. H lIM aTe OrraCeHII5I, qe rro
rr'hT5.I MoraT ,lJ;a Harra,lJ;HaT KOJIaTa. KaK ,lJ;a ce rrOCT'hrrH HaM-,lJ;o6pe? E)J;HH
OT BapHaHTIITe e CJIe,lJ;HH5IT: ,lJ;a rrOCTaBHTe B KyrreTo Ha aBTOM06HJIa
qeTIIpHMa MYcKYJIeCTH M'h)KarH, rrpII TOBa B'hOp'h)KeHH ,lJ;0 3'h6II, M )J;a
lIM ,lJ;a,D;eTe BTopa KOJIa C'hC C'hm;O TaKHBa M'h)KarII ,lJ;a rII
TaKa m;e HMaTe II3BeCTHa rapaHU;II5.I 3a cHrypHocT. Ho CTerreHTa H m;e
3aBIICII He OT 6po5.1 Ha a OT rrpeB03BaHaTa cyMa. AKO
T5.I e MHoro rOJI5.lMa, rrpeCT'hrrHHU;HTe, 6e3 MHoro ,lJ;a ce KOJIe6a5IT, m;e
II3rr03acTPeJI5.lT BCIfqKH rr'hTHHU;II, KOJIKOTO II MHoro ,lJ;a ca. He e TPY,lJ;HO
)J;a ce pa36epe, qe Te Tp5.l6Ba ,lJ;a 3Ha5.lT caMO KOJIKO ca ,lJ;OJIap"Te B ,lJ;IIrr-
JIOMaTHqeCKOTO KYcpapqe, Kora II rro KaK'hB rr'hT II.J;e 6'h,lJ;aT rrpeB03eHII.
C'hOTBeTHo rpaMoTHaTa 3am;IITa Ha rrpeB03IIMIITe u;eHHOCTII TP5.l6Ba
)J;a ce oCIIrypII He OT B3BO,lJ;, a OT YMeJIa ,lJ;e3IIHcpopMau;H5.I. T5.I TP5.l6Ba
CTapaTeJIHO ",lJ;a CTIIrHe ,lJ;0 YlIlliTe" Ha KorOTO Tp5.l6Ba. Tp5.l6Ba ,lJ;a ce
3Hae KOM ,lJ;a 5.1 rrOCTaBII. CTapaTeJIHO 03HaqaBa H5.lKaK Me)K,D;y ,lJ;pyrOTO, a
He crrO,lJ;eJI5.lHe Ha TaMHa". A KOJIaTa C rrapMTe,lJ;a TP'hrHe rro ,lJ;pyro Bpe-
rro ,lJ;Pyr MapillpyT, Harr'hJIHO B'h3MO)KHO e II Ha ,lJ;pyr a,lJ;pec. I16e3
230 AHATOHVlIi1 T APAC
HIIKaKBa OXpaHa, K05ITO ,IJ,a rrplIBJIlIqa rrOBIIIIIeHOTO BHIIMaHlie. HapwIa
ce OrrepaTIIBHO OCHryp5IBaHe Ha MepOrrplI5ITlieTO.
rrO,IJ,06HO Tp5I6Ba ,IJ,a liMa M5ICTO H rrpli JIlIqHaTa oxpaHa: IIIII-
POKO 1I3rrOJI3BaHe Ha ,IJ,e3IIHOpMaU;II5ITa; rrOCT05IHHO 1I3MeHeHlIe Ha
MapIIIpYTIITe Ha ,IJ,BIDKeHlIe; rr03HaBaHe Ha C'bTpy,IJ,HIIU;1I Ha HP-
MaTa, rrplI5ITeJIII, rr03HaTII H pO,IJ,HIIHII (IIMeHHO OTTaM 1I3JIlI3aT CBe,IJ,e-
HlI5ITa 3a opraHlI3lIpaHe Ha Harra,IJ,eHlI5ITa); TBOpqeCKO 1I3rrOJI3BaHe Ha
TeXHlIqeCKII cpe,IJ,CTBa 3a Ha6mo,IJ,eHlIe, rrpOCJIyIIIBaHe II ClirHaJIII3au;II5I;
rrpOBepKa Ha rrapTHhopliTe II KJIlIeHTIITe, TeXHlITe Bp'b3KII C "rrO,IJ,3eM-
HII5I CB5IT" (pa36lIpa ce, HerJIaCHa), 1I3yqaBaHe Ha KpHMlIHOreH-
Ha 06CTaHOBKa Ha M5ICTOTO, K'b,IJ,eTO e lIpMaTa, MeCTO)l(IIBeeHeTO Ha
61I3HeCMeHa H Ta31I cepa Ha 61I3Hec, B K05ITO TOM rreqeJIlI rrapliTe Cli -
TOBa II MHoro ,IJ,pyrli ca ,IJ,JI'b)l(HII ,IJ,a B'bpIIIaT BaIlIIITe TeJIO-
XpaHlITeJIIi.
3a C'b)l(aJIeHlIe B 95% OT CJIyqalITe CT05IT rro C'bBCeM ,IJ,pyr
HaquH. ,D;a ,IJ,a,IJ,eM ,IJ,yMaTa Ha e,IJ,HH 6lIBIII TeJIOXpaHIITeJI: "BClIqKlI IIIe-
oBe rro rrplIHIJ;lIrr MHoro ,IJ,a TH KYIIIIM
ryrryBaIII rrpo,IJ,yKTII II rrpli Hac C OTCT'bIlKa, TH ,IJ,a,IJ,eM 6po-
He)l(IIJIeTKa, aBTOMaT ,;Y31I", Te 3acTpaxoBaMe, rrOJIOBIiH rO,IJ,HHa
rrpeKapaIII B ... CaMO qe TOBa e JI'b)l(a. ille'bT MIICJIIi
caMO 3a ce6e Cli II aKO, He ,IJ,aM Cli EO)l(e, Te 3acTpeJI5IT, Ha
,IJ,eH BClIqKII Te 3a6paB5IT - B oxpaHaTa IIHBaJIlI,IJ,H He Tp5I6BaT, rr'bK II
HHKaKBa 3aCTpaxoBKa He e IIMaJIO. IIoJIyqaBaHeTo Ha 6pOHe)l(IIJIeTKa e
rrp06JIeM, H Op'b)l(lIeTO, II MlIHIIpa,IJ,IIOCTaHU;II5ITa. HaKpaTKo, OTHOIIIe-
HlieTO e KaTO K'bM T'brr BOJI, KORTO He3HaMHO Tp5l6Ba ,IJ,a pliCKYBa
KO)l(aTa CH, CrraC5IBaMKII CTorraHIiHa ClIo
IIpe3 rrO-rOJI5IMaTa qaCT OT BpeMeTO - 90% - Tp5l6Ba ,IJ,a 1I3rr'bJIH5I-
BaIII cnyrlIHcKII 3a,IJ,'bJI)l(eHII5I: ,IJ,a rrO,IJ,a,IJ,eIII rrarrKaTa, ,IJ,a OTBOPIIIII Bpa-
TaTa, ,IJ,a HaTOBaplIIII KOMrrlOTpIiTe B CB060,IJ,HOTO Cli BpeMe, ,IJ,a
plIIII B arrapTaMeHTa Ha IIIeCKaTa JIlO60BHIIu;a, ,IJ,OKaTO 51 H5IMa - TOKy-
BIDK H5IKOM OTKpa,IJ,HaJI BClIqKO, KoeTO H e rrO,IJ,apIiJI. TeJIOXpaHlITeJI5IT
MO)l(e ,IJ,a rrOCJIY)l(lI ,IJ,a pa36lIe HeqlI5I MYTPa Ha YJIIIu;aTa, aKO e OT-
rOBOpliJIa He KaKTO Ha IIIea MY ce IICKa. ,D;e6eJIH II rrJIeIIIIIBII, HIiCKII II
B'b3paCTHII IIIeOBe MHoro ,IJ,a KOMaH,IJ,BaT 3,IJ,paBH M'b)l(arlI, rrplI-
5ITeH liM e CTpaX'bT, KOMTO Te rrpe,IJ,1I3BIIKBaT Y 06lIKHOBeHIITe xopa ... "
Crrope,IJ, MHeHlIeTO Ha Me)l(,IJ,yHapO,IJ,HIITe eKcrrepTII Tp5l6Ba
,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,e rro C'bBCeM pa3JIlIqeH HaqlIH. MHoro Ba)l(HO e TeJIOXpaHlITeJI5IT
II HerOBII5IT IIIe ,IJ,a ca 3ae,IJ,HO KOJIKOTO ce MO)l(e rrO-,IJ,'bJIro BpeMe. 3a-
TOBa HaM-,IJ,06plI5IT TeJIOXpaHlITeJI e II ceKpeTap, peepeHT, rrpeBO,IJ,aq,
opraHlI3aTOp II 1I3rr'bJIHIITeJI Ha oc06eHo Ba)l(HII pa60TH, T. e. ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,e
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUcypHocm
231
,IJ,OBepeHO JIIIu;e B 6H3Heca II rrplI5ITeJI Ha OXpaH5IeMII5I. I1 rrapliTe Tp5I6Ba
,IJ,a MY ce He e 1I36lIJI Ha H5IKoro 3'b6IITe, a 3a He,IJ,orryc-
KaHe Ha C6JI'bC'bD;II, 3a rrpe,IJ,OTBpaT5IBaHe Ha KOHJIIiKTH, 3a peIIIaBaHe-
TO liM C [(lIBIiJIII30BaHIi MeTO,IJ,II.
OCBeH TOBa e Ba)l(HO TeJIOXpaHHTeJI5IT ,IJ,a e 3alIHTepeCYBaH OT
pa3D;BeTa Ha HpMaTa, B K05ITO pa60TII. Tp5l6Ba,IJ,a MY ce ,IJ,a,IJ,e B'b3MO)l(-
HOCT ,IJ,a BJIO)l(lI Cpe,IJ,CTBa B He5I (MO)l(e II aBaHCOBO), ,IJ,a rronyqu rrpOu;eHT
OT rreqaJI6aTa 3a Ta31I IIJIIi OHa31I C,IJ,eJIKa, C e,IJ,Ha ,IJ,yMa, ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,e 3alIHTe-
peCYBaH I1 ,IJ,a ce rrOMHH, qe YMHlI5IT, crroc06eH, qeCTO-
JIlO61IB qOBeK (myrraIJ;IITe ca rrO-JIOIlIII II OT BparOBeTe) He MO)l(e ,IJ,a ce
3a,IJ,OBOJIlI C rrepcrreKTHBaTa [(5IJI )l(lIBOT ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,e TeJIOXpaHlITeJI. ,D;a liMa
IIHTepec ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,e BepeH Ha Bac II Ha BaIIIlI5I 61I3Hec MO)l(e caMO KaTO
1I3,IJ,lIrHeTe rrplIBJIeKaTeJIHa u;eJI rrpe,IJ, Hero. Ka3aHO HaKpaTKO, Tp5l6Ba,
rra3eMKlI BII, ,IJ,a rra31I II CBoeTO
3. KY4eTO - HaW-A06pl!151T npl!151TeJ\
Ha 40seKa
I1cTOplI5ITa Ha 1I3rrOJI3BaHeTO Ha )l(IIBOTHII 3a oxpaHa Ha
qOBeKa e TOJIKOBa ,IJ,peBHa, KOJIKOTO II IICTOplI5ITa Ha qOBeIIIKOTO
TBO. KaKTo e 1I3BeCTHO, "r'bCKlITe crraClixa PIIM" II TOBa CTaBa 390 ro-
,IJ,HHII rrpe,IJ,H XPIiCTlI5IHCKaTa epa! B pOJI5ITa Ha rra3lITeJIli ca BJIlI3aJIli
3MlIli II KpOKO,IJ,HJIII, OTPOBHII rra5IIJ;1I II cKoprrlIoHH, 6apcoBe II pHcoBe,
rJIHraHH ... OT MHorOBeKOBHlI5I orrliT CTaBa 5ICHO, qe H5IMa rro-,IJ,06'bp
rrplI5ITeJIIi Ha qOBeKa OT KyqeTo.
He CTaBa ,IJ,yMa 3a MIiJIIiTe KyqeHu;a OT Tlirra Ha 60JIOHKlITe IIJIlI rry-
,IJ,eJIlITe, KOIiTO pa,IJ,ocTHo B'bpT5IT orraIIIKa II ce YMIIJIKBaT Ha BceKlI, KOM-
TO liM rrOKa)l(e KOKaJIqe. He, KyqeTaTa Tp5l6Ba ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,aT ,IJ,peClipaHIi crre-
U;lIaJIHO 3a OXpaHlITeJIHa cny)l(6a. B T031I cnyqaM H5IMa paBHII Ha T5IX rro
eeKTlIBHOCT II CHrypHOCT: He MoraT ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,aT rrO,IJ,KYIIeHII, 3arrJIauIe-
HH, He MO)l(eIII ,IJ,a rli 1I3HeHa,IJ,aIII. Te ca rro-HeY5I3BIIMII OT xopaTa, rro-
H3,IJ,P'b)l(J1IIBII, rro-arpecIIBHII.
B TaK'bB CJIyqaM 61I3HecMeHHTe rrO-p5l,IJ,KO rli 1I3rr0JI3BaT 3a
oxpaHa? OrrOBOp'bT e rrpocT: OKOJIO T5IX liMa MHoro rpIDKII. KyqeTaTa
Tp5I6Ba CrreD;lIaJIHO ,IJ,a 6'b,IJ,aT TpeHlIpaHII, ,IJ,a ce XpaH5IT, pa3XO)l(,lJ,aT, JIe-
KyBaT. BClIqKO TOBa 1I3lICKBa T'bprreHlIe, BpeMe, rrapli. I1 C'bOTBeTHII
rr03HaHlI5I, rrpli 1I3rrOJI3BaHeTO Ha KyqeTa liMa pe,IJ,lIu;a T'bHKOC-
TIl, KOlITO HerrpeMeHHO Tp5l6Ba ,IJ,a ce IIMaT rrpe,IJ,BII,IJ,:
232 AHATOJH11i1 T APAC
1. KyqeTO e )KHBO C'bIll,eCTBO, MHoro YMHO H eMOQHOHaJIHO. CHa6-
WlBaMKH ce c KYqe, BHe noeMaTe OTrOBopHOCT 3a Hero. CaMO ITbJIHa
H3MeT MO)Ke )J;a H3rOHH OT BpaTaTa CH CB051 npH5ITeJI, qH5ITO npe)J;aHOCT
e 06YCJIOBeHa OT caMaTa npHpO)J;a. B C'bIll,OTO BpeMe )J;a )J;'bp)KaT cepH-
03HO Kyqe 3a cepH03HH QeJIH, 6e3 )J;a HMaT 3a Hero HHTO napH, HHTO
3HaHH5I, HHTO BpeMe, MoraT caMO HecepH03HH xopa.
2. 1l0BeK'bT, KOMTO IlI,e Hrpae pOJI5ITa Ha BO)J;aq Ha Kyqe
(BHe, H51KOM OT qneHOBeTe Ha CeMeMCTBOTO BH, BalII C'bTPY)J;HHK), He-
npeMeHHo Tp5l6Ba )J;a npeMHHe KYpc 3a nO)J;rOTOBKa H )J;a npoBe)J;e )J;pe-
cHpoBKa Ha KyqeTO. KBaJIHqmQHpaHO e caMO TaKOBa )KHBOTHO, KoeTO e
HayqeHo npaBHJIHO )J;a )J;eMcTBa B eKcTPeMaJIHH cHTYaQHH npH Hana)J;e-
HHe. TOBa 03HaqaBa, qe TO YMee )J;a pa3n03HaBa onaCHOCTTa, )J;a aTaKY-
Ba B'bOp'b)KeHHTe rrpeCT'bnHHQH, )J;a ce 3aIll,HTaBa OT T5IX, )J;a ce
H51Ba Ha KOMaH)J;HTe Ha CB051 BO)J;ati.
3. KyqeTo TP5I6Ba )J;a ce )J;'bP)KH npH nO)J;XO)J;5lIll,H YCJIOBH5I. E)J;HaKBo
He)J;onycTHMH ca KaKTO H3He)KBaHeTO, TaKa H npeKOMepHaTa CypOBOCT.
KyqeTo TP5I6Ba )J;a ce xpaHH )J;Ba n'bTH Ha )J;eH, OCHOBHaTa xpaHa - OBe-
ceHa KalIIa, BapeHa 6e3 COJI, H51KOJIKO KOCTH C M03'bK H OT BpeMe Ha
BpeMe - KOHcepBHpaHa KyqelIIKa xpaHa C BHTaMHHH H MHKpoeJIeMeH-
TH. KyqeTo TP5I6Ba )J;a ce xpaHH caMO OT e)J;HH qOBeK, HerOBH5IT BO)J;aq.
,[WecHpaHoTo Kyqe He TP5I6Ba )J;a npHeMa xPaHa OT qy)K)J;H p'bQe. He)J;o-
nYCTHMO e xpaHeHeTO Ha CTPa)KeBO Kyqe C 60H60HH, KOJI6aCH H )J;pyrH
"qOBelIIKH" JIaKOMCTBa.
4. KyqeTo TP5I6Ba pe)J;oBHo)J;a ce TPeHHpa B cneQHaJIHO 063aBe)J;eHo
M51CTO: )J;a 651ra, )J;a CKaqa npe3 npell5lTCTBH5I, )J;a n'bJI3H, )J;a Hana)J;a qy-
tfeJIO, tfOBeK, MacKHpaH KaTO rrpeCT'bnHHK, )J;a ce H3M'bKHe OT HaCOtfeHO
K'bM Hero )J;YJIO Ha nHCTOJIeT, nYlIIKa, aBTOMaT, OT KanaHH. KyqeTo CHC-
TeMHO TP5I6Ba )J;a ce 06yqaBa )J;a 6'b)J;e 3JIO.
5. KaTerOpHtfHO ce 3a6paH5IBa )J;a ce 6He KyqeTo, )J;a My ce KpeIll,H, )J;a
My ce TPona C KpaKa, )J;a MY ce B3HMa xpaHaTa, )J;a ce HaBHpalII npH Hero
B nH5IHO C'bCT05lHHe, Ha lIIera )J;a ro HaC'bCKBalII cpeIll,Y xopa (KyqeTO He
pa36Hpa OT lIIerH),)J;a H3)J;eBaTeJICTBalII (KOJIKOTO H)J;a e CTpaHHO, H3)J;e-
BaTeJICTBOTO KyqeTO pa36Hpa MHoro )J;06pe). HaMop)J;HHK'bT Tp5l6Ba )J;a
ce CJIara caMO TaM, K'b)J;eTO e He06xo)J;HMO. KaHlIIKaTa TP5I6Ba )J;a 6'b)J;e
K'bCa H JIeCHO )J;a ce Maxa, 3a )J;a He ce 3aKatfH BalIIH5IT 3aIll,HTHHK Ha
H51KaK'bB npe)J;MeT.
6. no CB05ITa KOHCTPYKQIDI (TeJIOCJIO)KeHHe) KyqeTaTa ce pa3)J;eJI5IT Ha
TPH OCHOBHH mna: Te)KKH (HanpHMep )J;or, pOTBaMJIep, qepHH TepHepH),
Cpe)J;HH (HarrpHMep HeMCKH OBtfapKH, pH3eHlIIHaYQepH, 60KcepH, rnrr6YJI-
TepHepH). Ee3)J;a ce BrrycKaM B )J;HcKYCH5I, IlI,e Ka)Ka, qe HaM-OIITHMaJIHH-
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
233
5IT BapHaHT e cpe)J;HH5IT mn. A HaM-)J;06po Kyqe e OBqapKaTa MJIH JIaMKaTa
C yroBopKaTa, tfe OBtfapKaTa e nO-3JIa, a JIaMKaTa - nO-yMHa.
7. liMa pe)J;HQa "MO)J;HH" nopO)J;H KyqeTa. TOBa ca KyqeTa y6HMQH,
CneQHaJIHO H3n0JI3BaHH 3a TaKa HapetfeHHTe "KyqelIIKH 60eBe": llHT6YJI-
TepHepH, CTaq,op)J;lIIHpH, rOJIeMH )J;oroBe. BcH'IKH Te ca H3KJIlOt{HTeJIHo
arpecHBHH, JIOlIIO ynpaBJ15IeMH, eMOQHoHaJIHO JIeCHO B'b36Y)J;HMH H 3aTO-
Ba - MHoro onaCHH. Ha n'bpBO M51CTO 3a CaMHTe c06CTBeHHQH. Beqe ca
H3BeCTHH HeMaJIKO CJIyqaH, KoraTO 6YJITepHepH, 06H)J;eHH Ha CTonaHHHa
CH, ca ro Hana)J;aJIlI, ));OKaTO coo, II ca ro y6HBaJIH. Te3H neCOBe rrperpH3-
BaT KOCTTa Ha p'bKaTa, KaKBO OCTaBa 3a r'bpJIOTO. 11 aKO nOqyBCTBaT, tfe
CTOnaHHH'bT liM MaJIKO ce CTPaxYBa, MOMeHTaJIHO B311MaT HHHQHaTHBa-
Ta B CBOll p'bQe. B QHBMJI1I30BaHHTe CTPaHH e 3a6paHeHO TaKHBa KyqeTa
));a ce ));'bp)KaT B tfaCTHH lIJIlI ce 1I311CKBa perIIcTPaQH5I B nOJIlIQH-
aTa II pe)J;OBHH CBlI));eTeJICTBa 3a 6JIarOHaMepeHO nOBe));eHlIe.
He BH npenOp'btfBaM));a )J;'bp)KHTe KOJIH 3a oxpaHa, 3aIll,OTO rJIynocT-
Ta HM e 06I.QOH3BeCTHa. KyqeTo na3atf TP5I6Ba ));a 6'b));e yMHO, nocnyrn-
HO, npe));aHO, JIeKO H BlICOKo,na CKatfa, ,na HMa 3)J;PaBH OCTPH 3'b6H, MOI.QHH
JIanH, CHJIHO ,nHlIIaHe, lIIHpOKa rp'b)J; II K'bca onalIIKa. He));orrycTlIMa e
KaCTPaQHHTa Ha 60MHOTO Kyqe.
8. OCHOBHlITe BapHaHTH Ha aTaKlITe Ha KyqeTa OT cpe)J;HH51 mn ca
CKatfaHe Ha paMeHeTe, y,napll C tfempHTe JIanH (MJIH C r'bp,nHTe) B Kp'bCTa,
C'bI.QO H y,nap C rJIaBa no)); KOJIeHeTe. ID;OM tfOBeK'bT na)J;He, KyqeTO rrycKa
B XO,n 3'b6l1Te. ,[WecHpaHHTe KyqeTa MoraT )J;a Xall5lT KpaKaTa, CJIa6HHH-
Te, JIHQeTO II r'bpJIOTO. Oc06eHO Ba)KHO e)J;a ce 1I3pa60TH y KyqeTO peq,-
JIeKC 3a xanaHe Ha p'bKaTa, KOaTO )J;'bP)Klf Op'b)KlfeTO, H ));a Hana)J;a He caMO
H30TIa)J; HJ1lI OTCTPaHH (TaKa nOCT'bnsaT He06yqeHHTe KyqeTa), HO H OT-
npe,n. BcH'IKH BH)J;OBe aTaKH TPH6Ba )J;a ce OTPa60TaT C )KHBOTHOTO )J;o
ITbJIHO aBTOMam311paHe Ha )J;eMCTBH5ITa.
MeTO));lITe Ha )J;pecypa B HalIIe BpeMe ca )J;ocTlIrHaJIH BHCOKO C'bB'bP-
lIIeHCTBO. CnpeTe 3a MaJIKO - HanpaBeTe roo 3a C'b)KaJIeHHe TB'bp)J;e tfeCTO
He ce CTHra nO-));aJIetfe OT nOKynKaTa Ha nOpO)J;HCTO )KHBOTHO C npeK-
paCHO PO));OCJIOBHe. Me)K,ny ,npyroTo, 3a CTPa)KeBaTa cny)K6a Ha KyqeTO
B'bHlIIHH5IT BH)J;, C'bCT05lHHeTO Ha T5IJIOTO My H nCHxHKaTa ca 3HatfHTeJI-
HO nO-Ba)KHH OT BCllt{KH Te311 nacnopTHH )J;aHHH, tfeCTO aJIlIIHBH. He
6'b,neTe H3JIHlIIHO )J;oBeptfHBH, 06'bpHeTe ce K'bM cneQHaJIHCm HMeHHO
B 06JIaCTTa Ha H3n0JI3BaHe Ha KyqeTa H KYrryBaMTe )KHBOTHO caMO C
T5IX. He BHHarII HaM-CK'bnOTO H HaM-nopo)J;HcTOTO Kyqe e HaM-)J;06pOTO.
TB'bp,ne nopo)J;HcmTe )KlIBOTHH ca H3pa)K)J;aHe Ha BH)J;a, He H HerOBH5IT
pa3QBeT. Ta HaJIH Ha Bac BH TP5I6Ba 3a 60M, a He 3a KOHKYPC 3a HaM-
KpaCHBa onalIIKa, He e JIH TaKa?

I
i
234
AHATOJlltllil T APAC
9. Ha KaKBH MeCTa K)"IeTo MO)Ke,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e,lJ;0 Bac? Ha MHoro: BK'bmH,
B o<pHca, Ha BHJIaTa, B aBTOM06HJIa, B rapa)Ka, rro BpeMe Ha pa3XO,lJ;Ka C
)KeHaTa HJlH ,lJ;eu;aTa. B pecTopaHTa H B TeaThpa MaH rrpHC'bC'tBltcro My
_.e HeYMeCTHO ..
B3PHB'bT B O<pHca,B'bB BXO,lJ;a, B Mara3ltHa CTaHa BCeKlt,1J;HeBHe B Ha-
IlIHTe rpa,lJ;OBe. HarrpHMep B MOCKBa rrpe3 1993 rO,lJ;HHa H36YXHaxa rro-
Beqe OT 300 B3pHBa Ha rpaHaTH, MHHH, B3pHBHH YCTPoHc'tBa. B CaHKT
IIcrep6ypr oIIi;e rrOBeqe. Pe3YJITaThT - ,lJ;eCeTKH y6HTH H paHeHH xopa,
3HaqHTeJIHH Ma'tepHaJIHH meTH.
ApCeHaJI'bT Ha rrpeCThrrHHWITe e ,lJ;OCTa pa3Ho06pa3eH: OT CaMO,lJ;eJI-
HH B3pHBHH YCTPoHCTBa ,lJ;0 rpaHaTH <1>-1, pr,u-5, rrpOTHBOrreXOTHH H
rrpoTHBoTaHKoBH MltHH. CaMo ,lJ;Ba rrpHMepa 3a HaH-rrpOCTH Ha'IHHH 3a
MltHHpaHe: rpaHaTa <1>-1 (HJlH Bp'b3Ka rpaHaTH pr,u-5) ce rrpHKpeIDIT
K'bM aBTOM06HJIa, KOHTO e B rapa)K HJlH Ha OTKpHT rrapKHHr. B rrp'bCTe-
Ha Ha qerra Ha rpaHaTaTa rrpoBHpaT BJIaKHO 3a B'b)l;Hu;a, qmo KpaH e
. -. aaKperreH K'bM HerrO,lJ;BH)KeH rrpe,lJ;MeT 3a,IJ; aBTOM06HJIa. KOJIa'ta TP'brBa,
qeIl'bT ce H3,lJ;'bpllBa, rpaHaTaTa ce B3pHBHBa. ,D;pyr HaqltH: BHHeHa 6y-
THJlKa ce Harr'bJIBa C BHCOKOOKTaHOB 6eH3HH H ce 3arrynma C Tarra, rrOK-
pHTa C'bC C'bCTaB, qyBcTBHTeJIeH K'bM TPHeHe. IIpH H3,lJ;'bprrBaHe Ha Ta-
rraTa CTaBa B'b3I1JlaMeHHBaHe, nOCJIe,lJ;Ba B3pHB H T03H, Komo ro e npe-
,lJ;H3BHKaJI, 3arHBa OT CTPaIIIHH 06rapHHIDI. HMa CJIyqaH, KoraTO rrpec-
ThrrHHu;HTe ca B3PHBHBaJIH pa,IJ;HoyrrpaBJIHeMH MHHH, HO KOJIKOTO rro-
CJIO)KeH e HaqHH'bT Ha B3pHBHBaHe, TOJIKOBa nOBeqe BpeMe ce H3HCKBa
3a rrO,IJ;rOTOBKaTa MY, CTpYBa rrO-CK'brro H e rrO-rOJIHMa BepOHTHOCTTa OT
TeXH}fqeCKH HerrpHHTHOCTH.
06eKT Ha B3pHBa HaH-qeCTO e JIHtffiIDIT HJlH CJIY)Ke6eHHHT aBTOMO-
6HJI Ha 6H3HeCMeHa. OCHOBHHTe MeCTa 3a MHHHpaHe B KOJIaTa ca ce-
__ ,lJ;aJIKaTa Ha lIlO<pbopa, ,lJ;'bHOTO Ha rrpe,lJ;HHTe Ce,lJ;aJIKH, pe3epBOap'bT, rro,lJ;
"KarrOTa. 3Ha'IHTeJIHO rrO-PMKO 3apM'bT Ha B3pHBa ce rrOCTaBH B 6ara)K-
HHKa, B KOJIeCHHTe HHlIlH, rro,lJ; 3a,IJ;HHTe ce,lJ;aJIKH, B ,,)Ka6KaTa" H Ha ,D;pY-
rH MeCTa. OCBeH 'tOBa MHHa C rOJIHMa MOmHOCT MO)Ke ,lJ;a ce rrOCTaBH
He,lJ;aJIeqe OT aBTOM06HJIa HJIH B C'bCe,lJ;HaTa KOJIa. Ho rrpH T03H CJIyqaH
.TH TPH6Ba ,lJ;a ceKOMaH,lJ;Ba OTB'bH rro pa,lJ;HO HJIH ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;e B3pHBeHa C
eJIeKTp}fqeCKH Ka6eJI. C ,lJ;pyrH ,lJ;YMH, rrpeCThrrHHK'bT TPH6Ba ,lJ;a ce Ha-
. MHpa 6JlH30 ,lJ;0 MHCTOTO Ha rrpeCThrrJIeHHeTO H ,lJ;a Ha6JIIO,lJ;aBa, KoeTO e
He)KeJIaTeJIHO.
HapbLJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
235
IIpH3HaU;H, KOHTO TpH6Ba )l;a BH ,lJ;'bp)KaT HampeK:
- rrOHBaTa Ha HOB )l;eTaHJI B'bTPe HJlH OTB'bH Ha aBTOM06HJIa;
- OCTaThU;H OT OrraKOB'bqeH MaTepHaJI, H30JIaU;HOHHa JIeHTa, 06pe3-
KH OT Ka6eJI OKOJIO aBTOM06HJIa HJIH B KYrreTO;
- OIl'bHaT Ka6eJI, KaHarr, lIlHYP, Bp'bBllHu;a, rrpHKperreHa rro HHKaK'bB
HaqHH K'bM H5IKaKBa qaCT Ha aBTOM06HJIa;
- qaHTa, KYTHHKa, KY<pap, rraKeT, CBHThK B CaJIOHa HJIH 6a-
ra)KHlIKa;
- rr05lBHJIH ce CJIe,lJ; napKHpaHeTO orraKOBKH OT COK, MJIID<O, KOHcepB-
HH KYTHH, CBHThU;H, KYTHHKH H ,lJ;p. 6JIH30 ,lJ;0 aBTOM06HJla.
KoraTO OCTaBHTe 3a rro-rrpO,lJ;'bJI)KHTeJIeH CpOK KOJIaTa 6e3 Ha,lJ;30p
(3a rrpe3 HOmTa, rro BpeMe Ha pa60Ta, Ha BHJIaTa It T. H.), ,lJ;OpH H B
CHrypeH rapa)K HJIH B OXpaH51eM rrapKHHf, H3rrOJI3BaHTe TaKa Hapeqe-
HHTe "KOHTPOJIKH". TOBa 03HaqaBa, qe Me)K)l;y KaJIHHKa H KarraKa, Ha
BpaTHTe Ha xyrreTO, Ha KarraKa Ha pe3epBoapa, Me)K)l;y Ce,lJ;aJIKaTa H pa-
MaTa TP5I6Ba ,lJ;a ce 3aJIeII51T TeCHH rrJIOCKH CaM03aJIellBamu ce JIeHTH
(H30JIaU;HOHHa, JIeiiKOIlJlaCT, KHH)KHa H ,lJ;p.) C U;BeTa Ha C'bOTBeTHOTO
MHCTO. BMeCTO MoraT ,lJ;a ce rrpHKpeIDIT KOCMH, cqyrreHH KJIeq-
KH OT KH6pHT. AKo Ta3H CHfHaJIH3aI.J;H51 ce OKa)Ke HapyrneHa, He naJIeTe
KOJIaTa H HHmO He OTBap5lHTe B He51 (HarrpHMep He ce OrrHTBame )l;a
nOB,lJ;HrHeTe B'b3rJIaBHHu;aTa Ha Ce,lJ;aJIKaTa), ,lJ;OKaTO He HarrpaBHTe CTa-
paTeJIeH BH3YaJIeH rrperJIe,lJ;. 06'bpHeTe ce K'bM crreI.J;HaJIHCTH carrbopH,
aKO B'b3HHKHaT nO,lJ;03peHHH. C'b3)l;ame rrpaBHJIO - KOJIaTa ,lJ;a 06CJIe,lJ;Ba,
OTBap51 H nO,lJ;KapBa, pa3rpHBa H rrHna H51KOH ,lJ;pyr, a He BHe. T03H ,lJ;pyr
MO)Ke ,lJ;a 6'b)l;e JI}fqHH5IT BH lIlO<pbOP, TeJIOXpaHHTeJIHT, CJIY)KHTeJIHT OT
rrapKHHra HJlH KoonepamBHIDI rapa)K, C'bCe,lJ;'bT BH.
C'bBpeMeHHHTe B3pHBHH BemeCTBa (OT mna Ha C'bBeTCKHH rrJIaCTHT,
qeXOCJIOBalIlKHH ceMTeKC) H cpe,lJ;CTBaTa 3a B3pHB5IBaHe n03BOJIHBaT Ha
CneU;HaJIHCTHTe, KOHTO HMaT apMeHCKa nO,IJ;rOTOBKa, ,lJ;a KOHCTPYHpaT
HaH-pa3Ho06pa3HH MHHH KarraHH. 3a Il(acme cpe,lJ; rrpeCThrrHHU;HTe Ta-
KHBa xopa ca MaJIKO. B rrOBeqeTO cnyqaH Te H3rrOJI3BaT npHMHTHBHH
B3pHBHH YCTPoHCTBa.
3a rrOKYlIleHHe Ha,lJ; 6H3HeCMeHa MO)Ke,lJ;a ce H3n0Jl3BaT H nOmeH-
CKHTe yCJIyrH B3pHBHHTe YCTPOHCTBa, H3rrpaTeHH B nHCMa, ce H3n0Jl3-
BaT He 3a y6HHCTBO, a 3a 3arrJIalIlBaHe Ha nOJIyqaTeJIH. 20-40-rpaMOB
B3pHB MO)Ke ,lJ;a pamt H ,lJ;a rrpe,lJ;H3BHKa CHJIeH lIlOK. 3a YHHmO)KeHHe ce
H3rrOJI3BaT He rrHCMa, a 6aH,lJ;epOJIH H KOJIeTH.
B3pHBHHTe YCTpOHCTBa, KOHTO ce nOCTaB5IT B nJIHKOBe, 6aH,lJ;epOJIH
H KOJIem, MoraT ,lJ;a 6'b,lJ;aT KaKTO C MHrHOBeHO, TaKa H C'bC 3a6aBeHO
,lJ;eHCTBHe. B3pHBHTeJIHTe C MHrHOBeHO ,lJ;eHCTBHe npe,lJ;H3BHKBaT B3pHB
236 AHATom1171 T APAC
rrpM HaTMCK, Y,lJ;ap, rrp06MB, rrpeMaXBaHe Ha TOBapa, pa3pywaBaHe Ha
eJIeMeHTM OT OCBenIBaHe C CBeTJIMHa M T. H. Ha-
rrpMMep B3pMBHM YCTpOHCTBa, KOMTO ,lJ;eHCTBaT Ha Ha MY3M-
KaJIHM KapTIfLIKM, ce rrpM MM. B3pMBHMTe YCT-
pOHCTBa rrpM 6aH,lJ;epOJIMTe ce 3a,lJ;eHCTBaT MJIM rrpM MJIM rrpM
OIIMT ,lJ;a ce M3Ba,lJ;M KHMra MJIM KYTMHKa OT OrraKOBKaTa. B3pMBHMTe YCT-
pOHCTBa B KOJIeTM 06MKHOBeHO ce rrpM Ha KarraKa
Ha CaH,lJ;'bqeTO MJIM KaIIIOHa.
CJIe,lJ; M3TlfLIaHe Ha rrpe,lJ;BapMTeJIHO CpOK (OT
qaCa ,lJ;O B3pMBMTeJIMTe C'bC 3a6aBeHO ,lJ;eHCTBMe
MJIM rrpe,lJ;M3BMKBaT B3pMB, MJIH rrpMBe)l(,lJ;aT B3PMBHOTO YCTPOHCTBO B
60HHO rrOJIO)l(eHHe, rrpM KOeTO B3PHBHOTO YCTPOHCTBO ce 3a,lJ;eHCTBa
MHrHOBeHO, aKO B'bpXY HerO ce OKa)l(e B'bHIllHO B'b3,lJ;eHCTBMe .
06aqe He3aBMCHMO OT BM,lJ;a Ha B3PMBHOTO YCTPOHCTBO H Ha B3pMBH-
IIMCMaTa, 6aH,lJ;epOJIMTe, KOJIeTMTe C rrO,lJ;06HO c'b,lJ;'bp)l(aHMe HeH3-
6e)l(Ho rrpMTe)l(aBaT rro KOMTO MO)l(e ,lJ;a ce OTJIlfLIaT OT
06HKHOBeHMTe rrOrn;eHCKH rrpaTKH. Te3M ce Ha OCHOBHH
M crrOMaraTeJIHM. K'bM OCHOBHMTe ce CJIe,lJ;HMTe:
- ,lJ;e6eJIHHa Ha rrHCMaTa rrOBeqe OT 3 MM, B Hero HMa OT,lJ;eJIHH Ha,JJ;e-

- rrpeMeCTBaHe Ha Ha Te)l(eCTTa Ha rrHCMOTO (rraKeTa) K'bM
e,lJ;Ha OT CTPaHMTe MY;
- HaJIMqHe Ha MeCTern;H ce B rrHCMOTO rrpe,lJ;MeTM MJIH rrpaxoo6pa3HH
MaTepHaJIH;
- HaJIlfLIHe Ha MeTaJIHM HJIH rrJIaCTMaCOBH rrpe,lJ;MeTH;
- HaJIlfLIHe Ha MaCJIeHH rreTHa, HMyrrqBaHe; MeTaJIHM KOrrqeTa, HBH-
H.;
- HaJIHqHe Ha Heo6MqaHHa MHpM3Ma (6a,lJ;eM, ropeHa
rrJIaCTMaCa H ,D;p.);
- TMKTaKaHe B 6aH,lJ;epOJIlITe H KOJIeTMTe Ha qaCOBHHKOB MeXaHH3'bM
(e,lJ;MH OT HaH-rrpOCTMTe H pa3rrpOCTPaHeHM B3pHBlITeJIH ce rrpaBM C rro-
MOrn;Ta Ha 06MKHOBeH 6Y,lJ;HJIHMK);
- rrpH rrpe06p'brn;aHeTO Ha rrJIMKOBeTe H rraKeTMTe, Ha KOJIeTHMTe caH-
,lJ;'bqeTa ce qyBa IIIYM Ha rrpeCHrrBarn; ce rrpax.
HaJIHqMeTO MaKap H Ha e,lJ;HH OT H36poeHMTe (a MO)l(e H
HaBe,lJ;H'b)l() ce rrpe,lJ;IIOJIO)l(H B rrOrn;eHCKaTa rrpaTI<a
B3pHBeH rr'bJIHe)l(.
K'bM crrOMaraTeJIHHTe ce
- oco6eHO CTapaTeJIHa orraKOBKa Ha rrHCMaTa, 6aH,lJ;epOJIMTe, KOJIe-
TMTe, B TOBa qMCJIO C TMKCO, xapTMeHM H ,lJ;p.;
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
237
- HaJIlfLIHeTO Ha Ha,lJ;rrMCM OT TMrra "JIMqHO Ha ",lJ;a ce
"" "( 6 OTBOPM caMO JIIfLIHO , "CeKpeTHO , "caMO 3a ,lJ;HpeKTopa co CTBeHH-
Ka, M T. H.;
- JIMrrCa Ha 06paTeH a,lJ;pec HJIH Ha HeqeTJIHBO-
TO MM M3rrHCBaHe, M3MHCJIeH a,lJ;pec;
- CaMOp'bqHa HeCTaH,lJ;apTHa orraKOBKa.
KaTo ce C Ka3aHoTo, CJIe,lJ;BaiiTe TPH 3a,lJ;'bJI)l(HTeJIHH
rrpaBMJIa: rrorn;a ,lJ;a ceKpeTapKaTa, a He BMe; TOBa
,lJ;a ce rrpaBH B rroMern;eHHe, rro-,lJ;aJIeqe OT
Ka6MHeT; B cnyqaH Ha rronyqaBaHe Ha rrO,lJ;03pMTeJIHa
ceKpeTapKaTa ,lJ;a BH YBe,lJ;OMH, a BMe ,lJ;a peIIIHTe cTPYBa JIM CM ,lJ;a
BMKaTe
Ka3aHOTO 3a CTpaHHqHM rrpe,lJ;MeTH, OT Ka6e-
JIH H ,lJ;pyrM HMa 3HaqeHHe H rro OTHOIlleHHe Ha O<pHca, ,lJ;OMa, BMJIaTa,
BXO,lJ;a, ,lJ;OpM BXO,lJ;HaTa BpaTa, aKO caMO BMe rrOJI3BaTe CHCTeMHO.
OCBeH TOBa 06p'brn;aHTe BHMMaHHe Ha CJIe,lJ;H OT peMOHTHH pa60TH,
CBe)l(M 60M, oco6eHO Ha OT,lJ;eJIHM MeCTa Ha CTeHM H Ha rrO,lJ;OBe, Ha
rrpeMeCTBaHe Ha Me6eJIMTe, Ha Ha HOBM rrpe,lJ;-
MeTH. HarrpHMep He e TPY,lJ;HO ,lJ;a ce cKpMe 200 rpaMa rrJIaCTMT B KOp-
rryca Ha <paKca, B C B pa,lJ;HOTeJIe<p0HHaTa CJIYIllaJIKa.
Ho Te3M ,lJ;BeCTa rpaMa ca rrOBeqe OT ,lJ;OCTaT'bqHM, 3a ,lJ;a ce rrpeB'bpHe
aBTOM06HJI OT THrra Ha "BOJIBO" 3ae,lJ;HO C BCMqKH B
KaTa<paJIKa, a B CTM OT 24 KBa,lJ;paTHM MeTpa ,lJ;a He OCTaHe HMTO e,lJ;HH
)l(MB qOBeK!
MepKH 3a o6rn;a cHrypHocT
- ,lJ;a H3JIH3aTe caM OT K'brn;H M o<pMca. BMHarM e rro-
6e30rraCHO ,lJ;a ce rrpH,lJ;BM)l(BaTe rpyrroBo;
- cTapaiiTe ce ,lJ;a MapIllpYTH rrpH rr'bTysaHe
K'bM pa60TaTa M OT OrrHT'bT rrOKa3Ba, qe 06MKHO-
BeHO Ha6JIlo,lJ;aBaT )l(epTBMTe CH, 3a ,lJ;a H36epaT HaH-rrO,lJ;XOMrn;OTO M5IC-
TO M BpeMe 3a Harra,lJ;eHHe. Ih6epeTe CM rrOHe 4 pa3JIlfLIHH MapIIIpYTa H
rH H3rr0JI3BaHTe Ha Ha rro,lJ;6op. HaH-,lJ;o6paTa BM
3arn;HTa e Herrpe,lJ;CKa3yeMocTTa;
- cTapaiiTe ce ,lJ;a rr'bTYBaTe rro O)l(HBeHH MapIllpYTM, ,lJ;a
rrycTM YJIMqKM H Me)l(,JJ;yceJICKH rr'bTHrn;a. He BM JIM rrpe-
CJIe,lJ;Ba aBTOM06HJI. IIpM ,lJ;BM)l(eHMe rro rr'bT C MHoro rrJIaTHa 3aeMeTe
B pe,lJ;, 3a ,lJ;a He MoraT ,lJ;a rrpHTMCHaT aBTOM06HJIa BH
K'bM KaHaBKaTa;
- KoraTO rr'bTysaTe B aBTOM06MJI, 3aKJIlOqBaHTe BpaTMTe. AKO ca BM
CrrpeJIM (HarrpMMep rr'bTHa He M3JIH3aHTe OT KOJIaTa, aKO
238 AHATOJlI.111 T APAC
TOTO e nYCTO, a BpeMeTO - TbMHO. ,[(p'b)J(Te KOJIaTa 3anaJIeHa, 3a ,lJ,a
MO)KeTe B'bB BceKM MOMeHT )l.a ,lJ,a,lJ,eTe ra3;
- aKO BM ce CTpYBa, qe BM CJIe,lJ,5lT OT )l.pyra KOJIa, npOBepeTe ro, KaTO
CMeHJITe BHe3aTIHO nOCOKaTa Ha ,lJ,BM)l(eHMe MJIII CKopOCTTa, P5I3KO npe-
CTp05IBaMKII ce OT nJIaTHO B nJIaTHO IIJIII qpe3 HeOqaKBaHO cnMpaHe. AKO
B nO)l.03pMTeJIHaTa KOJIa ca npeCTbnHIIU;M, I.IJ;e MM ce HaJIO)KM )l.a pearM-
paT no C'bOTBeTlIM5I HaqIfH;
- aKO BanllITe nO)l.03peHII5I ca OnpaB)l.aHII, Be)l.Hara ce CB'bp)KeTe C
nOJIMU;M5ITa MJIII C'bC c06CTBeHaTa CII ,,6pMra)l.a 3a 6'bP30 pearIIpaHe". B
TaK'bB CJIyqaM e HaJIO)l(IlTeJIHO )l.a IIMaTe pa)l.MOTeJIe<pOH. T03M ype)l. He e
pa3KOIll, a )KM3HeHOBa)l(HO Cpe)l.CTBO 3a 6e30naCHOCT M 61I3Hec. III;OM
IIMaTe napM 3a aBTOM06MJI, I.IJ;e HaMeplITe II 3a pa)l.IIOTeJIe<pOH;
- aKO KOJIaTa C npeCTbnHIIu;MTe BII e nperpa)l.MJIa n'bT5I (B TamBa
cnyqaM HaM-qeCTO 1I3nOJI3BaT "HO)l(Ilu;II" - e)l.Ha KOJIa npeCIfqa n'bT5I OT-
npe)l., )l.pyra - ona)l.), C rOJI5IMa CKOPOCT ce 3a6lIMTe B e)l.HaTa TpeTMHa
Ha KOJIaTa (Be)l.Hara CJIe)l. npe)l.HOTO KOJIeJIO IIJIII npe)l. 3a)l.HOTO). B HM-
KaK'bB CJIyqaii He cnlIpaiiTe. AKo MeCTHOCTTa n03BOMBa, 1I365IraiiTe C
BIICOKa CKOPOCT no KpM Ha n'bT5I, no TpeBaTa;
- aKO npeCTbnHIIK'bT ce KaHIl )l.a CTpeM no KOJIaTa BII, yaeJIMqeTe
CKopOCTTa II HaCOqeTe aBTOM06lIJIa npaBO K'bM Hero. CKpMMTe ce OT
KYPIllyMMTe, KaTO ce HaBe)l.eTe no)l. npe)l.HOTO CTbKJIO II npO)l.'bJI)KaBaTe
)l.a )l.'bp)KIITe KOPMIIJIOTO B p'bu;e K'bM M36paHaTa nOCOKa. CJIe)l. KaTO
nOpa3HTe npeCTbnHIIKa C KOJIaTa CII, He ry6eTe BpeMe )l.a 1I35ICH5IBaTe B
KaKBO C'bCT05IHIIe CTe ro OCTaBIIJIM. Be)l.Hara Tp'brBaMTe C MaKCIIMaJIHa
CKOPOCT;
- BClIqKM MeCTa B aBTOM06MJIa (He caMO npe)l.HMTe) Tp5I6Ba )l.a ca
cHa6)l.eHM C OCIIrypMTeJIHM KOJIaHII. )l{eJIaTeJIHO e )l.a yKpenlITe OTB'bTpe
KYTIeTO C )l.on'bJIHJITeJIHO pe6po 3a 3)l.paBIIHa, KoeTO )l.a M3KJIlOqBa CMaq-
KBaHe nplI npe06p'bI.IJ;aHe no HaKJIOH MJIII TapaH. IIPII )KeJIaHMe aBTOMO-
6IIJI'bT OT BC5IKa MapKa MO)Ke)l.a ce ,,060pY)l.Ba 3a BOMHa no n'bTMI.IJ;aTa",
MO)Ke)l.a CTaHe CBoero pO)l.a ,,6pOHlIpaH KpaHu;ep". ToraBa 6MXTe Mor-
JIll ,lJ,a nOMeTeTe no n'bT5I BceKM aBTOM06MJI, KOMTO II )l.a ro Illo<pMpa;
- aKO B KYneTO Ha aBTOM06MJIa XB'bpMT 6yruJIKa C'bC 3anaJIHTeJIHa
CMec, He cnMpaHTe. TeMnepaTYpaTa B KYTIeTO He ce nOBMIllaBa nOBeqe
OT 55-60 rpa)l.yca, a TaKaBa TeMnepaTYpa He e onaCHa 3a )KMBOTa. C
npe)l.eJIHa CKOPOCT ce MaX-HeTe OT M5ICTOTO Ha npOM3IlleCTBMeTO - 6y-
TMJIKaTa e XB'bpJIeHa IIMeHHO 3a TOBa - )l.a BII 1I3Ba)l.M OT KOJIaTa. AKO
MCKaT )l.a BM YHMI.IJ;O)KaT, I.IJ;e XB'bPJI5IT rpaHaTa OT TMna <1>-1, a CaMM5IT
npeCTbnHIIK He3a6aBHo I.IJ;e ce cKpMe.
Hapbl/HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUcypHocm
239
***
- OTMBaiiTe II CII Tp'brBaMTe OT pa60Ta no pa3JIMqHO BpeMe. AKo e .
B'b3MO)KHO, 1I3nOJI3BaiiTe Pa3JIlIqHM BXO)l.OBe Ha Crpa)l.aTa. AKo BXO)l.'bT
3a BaIllM5I 0<p1I: e caMO e)l.MH, oClIrypeTe nOCT05IHeH KOHTpOJI Ha)l. Hero.
-l-h65IrBaIITe )l.a nplIcrnraTe B O<plIca B qaCOBeTe, KoraTO TaM H5IMa
HIIKoro. IIa3eTe ce OT Bcem B'bHIlleH qOBeK, KOMTO ce MOTae 6e3 pa60-
Ta OKOJIO Crpa)l.aTa IIJIII no KOpII.IJ.Opa. I13lIcKaiiTe OT oxpaHaTa CM )l.a
1I35ICHII HerOBaTa CaMOJIIfqHOCT.
- He cToiiTe 6e3u;eJIHO OKOJIO np030pu;HTe. He nO)l.pe)l()l.allTe pa60T-
HOTO CII M5ICTO OKOJIO np030peu;a, aKO TOM MO)Ke na ce Ha6JIIO)l.aBa OT
YJIIIu;aTa, OT np030pu;IITe (B TOBa qlICJIO M TaBaHCKII) Ha OKOJIHIITe crpa-
)l.H.
- OTnacme ce BHIIMaTeJIHO K'bM MOJI6MTe 3a <pOTorpa<plIpaHe MJIH
HHTepBIO, B3:TO B )l.OMa BH. Onpe)l.eJIeTe npe,lJ,BapHTeJIHO BpeMeTo Ha
BH3HTaTa, HeIIHaTa npo)l.'bJI)l(HTeJIHOCT, KaKBO I.IJ;e pa3peIllHTe )l.a 6'b)l.e
<pOTorpa<pHpaHO HJIH KaKBO )l.a Ka)l(eTe. IIo BpeMe Ha BlI3HTaTa CH OCH-
rypeTe ox-paHa. He )l.onycKaiiTe nOBeqe xopa, OTKOJIKOTO CTe )l.orOBO.,..
PMJIII npe,lJ,BapHTeJIHo. B'bB BceKH CJIyqaii He Tp5I6Ba )l.a 6'b,lJ,aT nOBeqe
OT ,lJ,BaMa.
- HanpaBeTe TaKa, qe BaIllHTe )l.eu;a )l.a XO,lJ,5lT Ha C'bnpo-
BO)l.eHII OT B'b3paCTHH. IIpe.IJ.YTIpe)l.eTe qe )l.eu;aTa BH nplI
HIIKaKBII 06CT05ITeJICTBa He MoraT )l.a rII cpeI.IJ;aT M )l.a rII npM6MpaT qy)l()l.II
xopa, B TOBa qIfCJIO M )KeHM.
- BIIHarlI nOMHeTe, qe TeJIe<pOH'bT BII MO)Ke 61I ce nO)l.CJIYIllBa . .o'b-
)l.eTe MHoro BHIIMaTeJIeH nplI BO)l.eHe Ha TeJIe<pOHHM pa3rOBopM. OTHa-
C5I ce Kano 3a CJIY)Ke6HIITe TeJIe<pOHH, TaKa II 3a )l.OMaIllHJITe a Haii-
Beqe 3a pa)l.MOTeJIe<pOHa. . ,
- IIpe.IJ.Ynpe)l.eTe pO)l.HIIHHTe CII II 6JIM3KMTe BII xopa )l.a He nycKaT B
K'bI.IJ;aTa Hen03HaTH JIIIu;a, HMKOMY )l.a He C'b06:w;aBaT CBe)l.eHM5I 3a BaIlla-
Ta )l.eiiHOCT, 3a M5ICTOTO, K'b)l.eTO ce HaMMpaTe (1I3B'bH o<plIca, pa36lIpa
ce), )l.a He nplIeMaT HHKaKBM naKern IIJIII npe)l.Mern, aKO He 3HMT KOH
rH e 1I3npaTMJI.
- OTHaC5IMTe ce BHIIMaTeJIHO K'bM JIIIu;aTa, KOMToce npe)l.CTaB5IT 3a
pa60THIIU;H OT rpa)l.CKIITe KOMynaJIHII CJIY)K61I, 3a TbprOBD;M Ha )l.pe6.,.
HO, KOIITO HeOqaKBaHO ce n05IB5IBaT B paHoHa Ha ,lJ,OMa IIJIII o<plIcaBII
(MMaIlle CJIyqaM, KoraTO y6HeU;'bT ce 6eIlle MaCKlIpaJI KaTO YJIlIqeH
npO)l.aBaq Ha nJIO)l.OBe M 6eIlle MHCTaJIlIPaJI KOJIMqKaTa CII cpeI.IJ;y )l.OMa
Ha )KepTBaTa. .o1I3HeCMeH'bT 1I3JI5I3'bJI OT BXO)l.a II nOJIyqMJI H5IKOJIKO
KYPIIIYMa).
240 AHATOJlI'lIil T APAC
- He 06c'b)l(,lJ;aiiTe IIJIaHOBe 3a ,lJ;eJIOBIf II'b'fysamrn If cperulf npe,lJ; cTpa-
HlfqHIf xopa. He BO,lJ;eTe ,lJ;eJIOBIf pa3roBoplf no TeJIe<poHa B nplfC'bCTBlfe
Ha nOCeTlfTeJIIf. AKo B TOBa BpeMe BIf n03B'bWIT, npe,lJ;JIO)l(eTe ,lJ;a BIf ce
06a,lJ;5IT nO-KOCHO.
- I1oM'bp)l(aiiTe npH5ITeJICKIf OTHOIlleHlf5I C'bC c'bce,lJ;HTe, oc06eHO C
B'b3paCTHlfTe. IiMeHHO neHClfOHeplfTe (oc06eHO )l(eHlfTe), KOlfTO WIll
,lJ;eH npeKapBaT Ha neiiKlfTe npe,lJ; )l(lfJIlfruaTa CIf, MoraT n'bpBIf ,lJ;a BIf
npe,lJ;)'npe,lJ;5IT 3a nO,lJ;03plfTeJIHHTe TlfnOBe, 3a TOBa Koii ce IfHTepecysa
OT BaIllaTa KOJIa, BaIllHTe ,lJ;eIJ;a, Koii ce e OnlfTBaJI ,lJ;a BJIe3e B anapTa-
MeHTa BIf If ,lJ;p.
- 06C'b,lJ;eTe C'bC ceMeiicTBoTO CIf KaKBO Tp5I6Ba ,lJ;a ce npaBIf, B CJIy-
qaii qe H5IKoii OT T5IX e OTBJIeqeH. HanpaBeTe He06xo,lJ;lfMHTe <plfHaHCO-
BIf If ,lJ;pym pa3nOpe)l(,lJ;aHH5I, nOCOqeTe HOMepa Ha TeJIe<pOHlfTe, Ha KOIf-
TO MOraT,lJ;a n03B'bH5IT, pa3pa60TeTe CBoii "Kplf3lfCeH nJIaH". AKO OqaK-
BaIll 6e,lJ;aTa, OT He5I IfMa nO-MaJIKO Bpe,lJ;a, KoraTO T5I ce nOHBIf.
PeKeT IfJIIf 1f3HY,lJ;BaHe - Haii-pa3npOCTpaHeHH5IT BH,lJ; npeCThnJIeHlfe
cnpHMO 6lf3HeCMeHlfTe. Haii-,lJ;06paTa 3aIUHTa OT 1f3HY,lJ;BaHeTO e ,lJ;'bJI-
60KaTa 6e,lJ;HOCT. Ho Thii KaTO 6lf3HeCMeH'bT no onpe,lJ;eJIeHlfe He e OT
6e,lJ;H5IIJ;lfTe, ,lJ;a pa3rJIe,lJ;aMe ,lJ;Ba OT Haii-pa3npOCTpaHeHHTe BH,lJ;a peKeT.
1. E,lJ;pH5I c06cTBeHlfK ro peKeTlfpaT C'bC 3anJIaXIf,lJ;a OrJIaCHT IfJIIf,lJ;a
npe,lJ;a,lJ;aT Ha "KOMneTeHTHlfTe opraHIf" H5IKaKBIf onaCHIf 3a Hero CBe,lJ;e-
Hlf5I. HanplfMep ,lJ;a C'b06IU5IT B ,lJ;aH'bqHaTa nOJIlfIJ;H5I, qe e yKPlfJI OT He5I
3HaqHTeJIHa CYMa. IiJIIf CIf e KY"1fJI Kpa,lJ;eHa CTOKa (BaplfaHTIf: 6paKysa-
Ha, C 1f3TeK'bJI CpOK Ha rO,lJ;HOCT, HeCTaH,lJ;apTHa If T. H.).
B T031f cJIyqaii Tp5I6Ba npe,lJ;1f BClfqKO ,lJ;a neqeJIlfTe BpeMe, 3a ,lJ;a
1f35ICHlfTe ,lJ;OKOJIKO e IfH<popMlfpaH IllaHTa)l(lfCT'bT 3a IfCTlfHCKOTO C'bC-
T05IHlfe Ha BaIlllf5I 6lf3HeC If ,lJ;a ce onlfTaTe ,lJ;a ro 1f3,lJ;lfplfTe (c nOMOru-
Ta Ha cneIJ;lfaJIlfCTIf, pa36lfpa ce). HanplfMep MO)l(eTe cTpacTHo If ap-
rYMeHTlfpaHo ,lJ;a ,lJ;OKa3BaTe, qe cYMaTa, KOHTO ce IfCKa OT Bac, e TB'bP-
,lJ;e rOJI5IMa, qe Blfe npocTo rlf H5IMaTe Te31f naplf, na MaKap If caMO
BpeMeHHo. MO)l(eTe ,lJ;a OTJIaraTe 1f3nJIaruaHeTO Ha cYMaTa no,lJ; Ha-
n'bJIHO pa3yMHlf5I If y6e,lJ;lfTeJIeH npe,lJ;JIor ,lJ;a ce npoBeplf ceplf03HoCT-
Ta Ha ,lJ;OKYMeHTlfTe, KOlfTO IfMa IllaHTa)l(lfCT'bT. H a m ~ J I H O Bep05ITHO e
Te31f CBe,lJ;eHlI5I ,lJ;a He ca TOJIKOBa CTpaIllHIf, MO)l(e ,lJ;a ca If norpeIllHM.
B HlfKaK'bB cJIyqaii He 6'bp3aiiTe ,lJ;a C'b06ruaBaTe pa,lJ;OCTHO Ha aHO-
HlfMHM5I Bpar, qe 3anJIaXMTe My He BM CTp5ICKaT. Ii3nOJI3BaiiTe MH-
<popMaIJ;lfOHHOTO npelfMyrueCTBO B CBoii IfHTepec. KaTO MMHMMyM
3anlfcBaiiTe TeJIe<pOHHHTe CM pa3rOBopM Ha MarHeTo<poH. C'bBpeMeH-
HaTa TeXHlfKa n03BOJI5IBa C'bC 100% TOqHOCT ,lJ;a ce OTh)l(,lJ;eCTBM r JIa-
C'bT Ha qOBeK, KOJIKOTO If ,lJ;a ro npenpaB5I.
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
241
Orue e,lJ;HO ,lJ;o6po Cpe,lJ;CTBO 3a 3aIUIITa - ,lJ;e3lfH<popMaQlf5ITa. AKO
If MaTe MaKap If C5IHKa Ha nO,lJ;03peHlfe, qe H5IKoii c'b6lfpa KOMnpOMeTIl-
paIIJ;H MaTepIlaJIIf, 3aCTaHeTe HacpeIUa MY. OpraHlf3IlpaiiTe pa3npOCT-
paHeHileTO Ha C'bOTBeTHilTe CJIYXOBe, nO,lJ;rOTBeTe <paJIIIIIlBIf ,lJ;OKYMeH-
TIf, HanpaBeTe He06xo,lJ;lfMOTO ,,)I(eJIaeIUIlTe" ,lJ;a ce 3an03Ha5IT C T5IX.
KaTO rrYCHeTe B 06paIUeHlfe ,lJ;e3IlH<popMaIJ;lf5ITa, Bile nO-CKOpO IUe npo-
BOKlfpaTe 1f3HY,lJ;Baqa ,lJ;a HanpaBil n'bpBaTa KpaqKa. C KoeTO IUe pa3KpIl-
eTe HerOBaTa JIIlqHOCT Il IUe nOJIyqlfTe Op'b)l(Ile rrpOTilB Hero, 6e3 ,lJ;a
plfCKYBaTe caMil. 06IUOTO npaBIlJIO rJIaCIf, qe IllaHTa)I(IlCTilTe ce HaMIl-
paT Haii-qeCTO B 6JIIl3KOTO ,lJ;0 6Il3HeCMeHa 06Kp'b)l(eHile. TOBa MO)l(e ,lJ;a
ca 6lfBIlllf C'bTpY,lJ;HlfIJ;lf, napTHhopil no pa60Ta, C'bCe,lJ;Il, ,lJ;Oplf PO,lJ;HlfHIl,
He,lJ;OBOJIHIf OT Bac Il OT 3anJIaTaTa CIf CJIY)I(IlTeJIII, nOMOIUeH nepCOHaJI.
2. BTOPlf5IT BapilaHT e, KoraTO npeCThnHlfIJ;IlTe IlCKaT ,lJ;a IfM 6'b,lJ;e
3anJIaTeHO, 3a ,lJ;a He CTOP5IT HlfIUO nOIllO Ha 6Il3HeCMeHa, Ha6JIIl3KIlTe
MY, Ha <plfpMaTa MY. B ,lJ;a,lJ;eHIl5I cJIyqaii nonyJI5IpHilTe BapilaHTil ca HaT-
paneHa oxpaHa If JIll npe,lJ;JIO)l(eHlfe ",lJ;a ce B3eMe Ha pa60Ta" C 06eIUa-
Hlfe 3a BlfCOKa 3anJIaTa. 3a ,lJ;a B'b3HIlKHe nO,lJ;06Ha cilryaIJ;lf5I, Hep5I,lJ;KO e
BilHOBeH CaMIl5IT 6Il3HeCMeH. HarrpilMep, KoraTO ce 06p'bIUa K'bM ,,6Il-
5Iqrf", 3a ,lJ;a Cil B'bpHe naplf OT ,lJ;JI'b)l(HlfIJ;IlTe. Ii ToraBa, KoraTO MOJIIl
60COBe OT npeCThnHlf5I CB5IT ,lJ;a ype,lJ;5IT H5IKaKBa ,lJ;enilKaTHa pa60Ta, He
oc06eHo pe,lJ;Ha OT 3aKOHOBa rJIe,lJ;Ha TOqKa.
AKo Bil HaJIlfTa rOJI5IMa npeCThnHa rpynupoBKa, T5I IUe ce OrpaHIlqIl
Haii-Beqe C HaJIaraHe Ha ",lJ;aH", K05ITO He Ha,lJ;BIlIllaBa 10-15-20% OT
,lJ;OXO,lJ;a Ha npe,lJ;npH5ITHeTo. A nO-MaJIKilTe 6aH,lJ;Il ce CTpeM5IT K'bM MaK-
ClfMaJIHO 06JIarO,lJ;eTeJICTBaHe ,lJ;O n'bJIHO pa30peHile Ha e,lJ;pIl5I c06cTBe-
HilK. Ho Il B e,lJ;IlHIl5I, Il B ,lJ;pyrH5I cnyqaii CJIe,lJ;Ba ,lJ;a ce IfMa npe,lJ;BIl,lJ;, qe
1f3n'bJIH5IBaHeTO Ha n'bpBOHaqaJIHlfTe IfCKaHH5I (qeCTO TB'bp,lJ;e CKpOMHIf)
e caMO HaqlfH ,lJ;a ce XBaHeIll Ha B'b,lJ;IlQaTa. I10cJIe IUe BIf IfCKaT OIUe Il
orue CyMIf Il IUe BIf nOCTaB5IT Bce HOBil Il HOBil YCJIOBIl5I.
KaK ,lJ;a IfM npoTilBocTolfTe7 I1pe,lJ;1f BCIlqKO Tp5I6Ba MaKClfMaJIHO ,lJ;a
OTJIaraTe, 3a,lJ;a 1f3HCHilTe Koii BIf "HaJIIlTa" If B KaKBa CTeneH onaCHOCT-
Ta e peaJIHa. 3a,lJ;'bJI)I(lfTeJIHO ce 06'bpHeTe K'bM CneIJ;lfaJIIlCTHTe OT ox-
paHaTa Ha <pIlpMaTa IfJIIf B nOJIIlQIl5ITa - Bile Haii-,lJ;06pe Cil 3HaeTe Ha
Koro ,lJ;a ce ,lJ;oBepilTe. Haii-e<peKTlfBHIl5IT HaqIlH Ha npOTlfBO,lJ;eiicTBile
Ha peKeThoplfTe e HaCpeIUHH5IT peKeT. Ho Toii e Haii-cJIO)l(Hlf5IT Il CK'b-
nocTpYBaIIJ;Il5IT. 3HaqIlTeJIHO no-npocTo e ,lJ;a ce OrpaHlfqIlTe C peIllIlTe-
neH oTKa3, nO,lJ;KpeneH C ,lJ;eMOHCTpaIJ;Il5I Ha .KOJIeKTlfBHa ClfJIa: HaMeca
Ha nOJIIlIJ;H5ITa, TeJIOXpaHIlTeJIIl, na3aqIl, KOMnJIeKC OT MepKil 3a 6e30-
nacHocT, oTKpilBaHe Ha Il3TOqfilfQIlTe Ha IlH<popMaIJ;Il5I (Koii Bil Il3,lJ;aBa),
ThpCeHe Ha rrO,lJ;CJIYIllBaqlf, pa3pa6oTKa Ha nJIaH 3a ,lJ;eiiCTBlfe Ha BaIllIl-
242 AHATOnvu:J T APA(
Te PO,I:UIMHM M C'bTpy,n;HMQM B KpM3MCHa cMryaQWI (B3eMaHe Ha 3aJIO)K-
HMQM, OTBJIM'IaHe Ha ,n;eQa, aKQMM 3a CIIJIailIBaHe). KpM3MCHM5IT rrJIaH
MO)Ke MaKCMMaJIHO ,n;a CMeK'IM y,n;apa, HO aKO Bce rraK 6'b,n;e HaHeceH; ,n;a
ce M3651rBaT rraHMKaTa M He06MMCJIeHMTe peIlleHM5I.
5. 3aw,lIITa Ha aBTOM06l!1Aa l!I AOMa
nO'ITM 70% OT B C M ~ M BM,n;OBe rrpecThrrJIeHM5I B OHA ca Kpa)K6M M
rpa6e)KM Ha MMYrn;eCTBO, c06cTBeHocT Ha rpa)K,n;aHM, BKJIIO'IMTeJIHO M
Ha 6M3HecMeHM, Ha rrpe,n;rrpM5ITM5I M <PMpMM. M BC5IKO TPeTo OT T5IX e
rrpoBoKMpaHo OT 6e3rpM)KMeTO Ha c06CTBeHMQMTe MJIM OT He,n;OCTaTh'I-
HaTa 3arn;MTeHOCT Ha M5ICTOTO Ha rra3eHe Ha MaTepMaJIHMTe QeHHOCTM.
KaTo ce MMa rrpe,n;BM,D; Ka3aHoTo, MCKaM ,n;a BM rrOCO'Ia MepKMTe 3a rrpe-
BaHTMBHa 3arn;MTa Ha aBTOM06MJIa, ,n;OMa, BMJIaTa.
ABTOM06MJIoT. HaM-cMrypHaTa M5IpKa e,n;a He ce OCTaB5I 6e3 Ha,n;-
30p HMTO 3a MMHYTa. HarrpMMep, aKO MMaTe JIM'IHa oxpaHa, HeKa H5IKOM
OT TeJIOXpaHMTeJIMTe BMHarM,n;a e B aBTOM06MJIa MJIM,n;O Hero. B'bB BCM'I-
KM OCTaHaJIM CJIyqaM 6M3HeCMeH'bT TP5I6Ba ,n;a OCTaB5I KOJIaTa B TaKOBa
M5ICTO, 'Ie T5I,n;a e rro,n; Ha,n;30p: Ha OXpaH5IeM rrapKMHr, B rrOJIe3peHMeTO
OT rrp030PQMTe Ha o<pMca (,n;OMa), rapa)Ka.
HarrOMH5IM 3a TaKMBa rrp03aM'IHM Hern;a (YEM! 3a T5IX MHoro 'IeCTO ce
3a6paB5I) KaTO 3aTBOpeHMTe I1p030PQM M 3aKJIlO'IeHMTe BpaTM, JIMilCaTa
Ha QeHHM Bern;M B KYIIeTO, rropTMOHeTa M Bp'bXHM ,n;peXM (Kpa,D;QMTe 06MK-
HOBeHO MMCJI5IT, 'Ie TaM MMa rrapM), KaKTO M KJIlO%T 3a 3arraJIBaHe, CKpMT
B ,lJ;)K06a BM. KaTo ce B'bpHeTe K'bM KOJIaTa CJIe,n; OTJI'b'IKa, rrOrJIe,n;HeTe
B'bTPe, y6e,n;eTe ce, 'Ie H5IMa HMKoro, 'Ie HMKOM He ce e CKPMJI Ha rro,n;a
Me)K,lJ;y ce,n;aJIKMTe. OrJIe,n;aMTe ce HaOKOJIO ,n;aJIM Ha6JIM30 H5IMa rro,n;03-
pMTeJIHa KOMrraHM5I. nOH5IKOra rrpeCThrrHMQMTe "JIOB5IT" C06CTBeHMQM-
Te Ha KOJIM MMeHHO KoraTO CM OTBap5lT BpaTMTe, 3a ,n;a ce,n;HaT 3a,n; KOP-
MMJIOTO. Oc06eHO aKO M5ICTOTO e ThMHO M rryCTO.
CKerrTMQMTe TB'bp,n;51T, 'Ie OrrMTHM5IT aBTOKpa,n;eQ He MO)Ke ,n;a 6'b,n;e
Crrp5lH OT CMrHaJIM3aQwna, HO Te 3aTOBa ca M CKerrTMQM. CTaTMCTMKa-
Ta TB'bp,n;M 06paTHOTO. OrrMTMTe Ha Kpa,n;e.u;a ce rrpOBaJI5IT B oceM OT
BceKM ,n;eceT CJIY'Ia5l, aKO KOJIaTa e cHa6,n;eHa C TaKa Hape'IeHMTe "ceK-
peT'IeTa", KOMTO M3KJIlO'IBaT aKYMYJIaTOpa, 6JIOKMparn;M KOPMMJIOTO M
rre,n;aJIa 3a C'be,n;MHMTeJI5I, rrpM TOBa ca C'bC CMrHaJIHa CMpeHa. CTorrpo-
QeHTOBa rapaH.u;M5I HMKOM He ,n;aBa ( orn;e rrOBe'Ie 'Ie TeXHM'IeCKaTa ,n;ap-
6a Ha H5IKOM rrpeCThrrHMQM e ,n;OCTOMHa 3a B'b3XMrn;eHMe), Ha BCM'IKM
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CU2ypHocm
243
crreQMaJIHM KJIlO'IaJIKM Ha rrpe,n;HMTe M 3a,n;HMTe CT'bKJIa, XMTPOYMHMTe
3aCTorrOpMTeJIM, CMCTeMMTe rrpOTMB Kpa,n;QM KapaT M HaM-orrMTHMTe
rrpo<peCMOHaJIMCTM ,n;a HepBHM'IaT. Te C'brn;O ca xopa, He 06M'IaT ,n;a
pa60T5IT B C'bCT05lHMe Ha CTpec M rn;e M36epaT rro-,n;OCT'brreH 06eKT OT
BaillaTa ,,6pM'IKa".
HarrpaBeTe CM TPy,n;a ,n;a HaHeceTe crre.u;MaJIHa MapKMpOBKa Ha <papo-
BeTe, CT'bKJIaTa, KOJIeJIaTa, pa,n;MorrpMeMHMKa M MarHeTo<pOHa. Ta3M
MapKMpOBKa TP5I6Ba ,n;a e ,n;OCTaTh'IHO M351Il(Ha OT eCTeTM'IeCKa rJIe,n;Ha
TO'IKa, HO B C'brn;OTO BpeMe M ,n;a ce 3a6eJI5I3Ba: He ca TOJIKOBa MHoro
rrpeCThrrHMQMTe, KOMTO rn;e ce rrOJIaKOM5IT 3a Bern; C rre'IaTa Ha c06CTBe-
HMKa. MHoro ,n;06po cpe,n;CTBO Ha 3arn;MTa e crreQMaJIHaTa JIerreHKa APM
360, K05lTO ce rrOCTaB5I Ha aBTOM06MJIHMTe CThKJIa. T5I YEeJIM'IaBa 3Ha-
'IMTeJIHO BpeMeTO M P5l3KO CHM)KaBa B'b3MO)KHOCTTa ,n;a ce rrpOHMKHe B
KyrreTo C rrOMOrn;Ta Ha JIOCT M 'IYK.
Orn;e e,n;HO Ba)KHO 06CT05lTeJICTBO - aBTOM06MJI'bT TP5I6Ba ,n;a ce 3ac-
TPaXOBa. 3arn;OTO e Ka3aHO - "CK'brrepHMK'bT rrJIarn;a ,n;Ba rr'bTM". AKO BM
e C'b,n;eHO ,n;a 3ary6MTe )KeJIe3HM5I CM KOH, rn;e MO)KeTe rrOHe ,n;a KOMrreH-
CMpaTe CTOMHOCTTa Ha 3ary6aTa.
* * *
IIOMem;eHMeTO. 3a ,n;a orpa6M )KMJIMIl(e MJIM BMJIa, rrpeCThrrHMK'bT
TP5I6Ba ,n;a rrpoHMKHe B rrOMern;eHM5ITa. n'bTMrn;aTa 3a TOBa ca caMO TPM:
BpaTM, rrp030p.u;M, 6aJIKOHM (rro-eK30TM'IHMTe Ha'IMHM OT po,n;a Ha rrpo-
6MBaHe Ha CTeHMTe C HaCO'IeH B3pMB,n;a OCTaBMM 3a KMHOMaHMTe).
M TaKa, BpaTaTa:
- BpaTaTa Tp5l6Ba,n;a ce rrpaBM OT 3,n;paB MaTepMaJI, He rro-,n;e6eJI OT
7 CM. He e 3JIe ,n;a ce rroKpMe C MeTaJIeH JIMCT. MeTaJI'bT TP5I6Ba ,n;a ce
3aMacKMpa C 6051, CMHTeTMKa, JIeTBM, M3KYCTBeHa KO)Ka, 3a ,n;a He rrpMB-
JIM'Ia M3JIMillHO BHMMaHMe. Orn;e rro-,n;06pe e ,n;a rrOCTaBMTe ,n;BOMHa Bpa-
Ta - rr'bpBaTa OT ,n;'bpBeCMHa, BTopaTa - MeTaJIHa.
- B C'bBpeMeHHMTe arrapTaMeHTM 3,n;paBaTa BpaTa JIeCHO ce M36MBa
-3ae,n;HO C ,n;'bpBeHaTa paMKa. ETO 3arn;0 e Ba)KHO OCHOBHO ,n;a ce yKperrM
Ta3M paMKa C MeTaJIHM IIIMrrOBe, 6eTOHMpaHM B CTeHaTa, TaBaHa M rro,n;a.
- 3a,n;'bJI)KMTeJIHO M3MCKBaHe - BpaTaTa TP5I6Ba ,n;a ce OTBap51 HaB'bH,
TaKaBa He MO)Ke ,n;a ce M36Me. AKO OTrope Ha TOBa M ce rrOCTaBM Brpa,n;e-
Ha KJIlO'IaJIKa, rrO-TPy,n;HO rn;e ce OTK'bPTM.
- nO,n;CMJIeTe ,n;BYKpMJIaTa BpaTa M paMKaTa Ha BpaTaTa C'bC CTOMa-
HeHM 'br JIM, 3a ,n;a He MO)Ke rrpeCT'brrHMK'bT ,n;a rrOCTaBM B rrpOQerra JIOCT
MJIM 6pa,n;Ba.
=
244
AHATOnl!llit T APAC
- I10cTaBeTe Ha BpaTaTa He nO-MaJIKO OT p;Be KJ1l0qaJIKM C pa3JIMqHa
KOHCTPYKU;M5I. Te Tp5l6Ba p;a ca pa3p;aJIeqeHM ep;Ha OT p;pyra He nO-MaJI-
KO OT 35-40 CM.
- EpaBMTe Tp5l6Ba p;a ca C MHoro ceKpeTHM MexaHM3MM, HanpMMep
C KPbcTo06pa3HM KJ1l0qOBe MJIM U;M<PPOBO M36MpaHe. I1pe,!l;M p;a ce noc-
TaB5IT 6paBMTe BbB BpaTaTa, p;auTe Ha KJ1l0qap (KOUTO He BM n03HaBa M
He 3Hae Kbp;e )KMBeeTe) M ro nOMOJIeTe MaJIKO p;a YCJIO)KHM KOH<pMrypa-
U;M5ITa Ha KJ1l0qa M p;a p;opa60TM 6paBaTa.
- BblillIHaTa Bpan 3ap;bJ1)KMTeJIHO p;a ce cHa6,!l;M CbC 3p;paBa MeTaJIHa
BepMra M nOHe ep;HO CMrYPHO pe3e. llillMOHKaTa CbI.l(O He e M3JIMIIIHa, HO
no-p;06pe e p;a nOpbQaTe Ha H51KOU MaucTop Hau-06MKHOBeH nepMcKon.
ToraBa I.l(e MO)KeTe p;a 06rJIe)K,!l;aTe OTBMCOKO I.J;5IJ1OTO npocTPaHCTBO npep;
BpaTaTa, 6e3 p;a pMcKYBaTe p;a nOJIyqMTe KypIIIYM B OKOTO npe3 IIITIMOH-
KaTa.
- )l{eJIaTeJIHO e 3aTBap5lI.l(OTO YCTPOUCTBO Ha BbHlllHaTa BpaTa p;a
IDIMa OTBOP 3a KJ1l0Qa (HanpMMep eJIeKTpMQeCKa KJ1l0QaJIKa C ,!l;MCTaH-
U;MOHHO KOP;OBO ynpaBJIeHMe M aBTOHOMHa CMCTeMa 3a 3axpaHBaHe).
lliKOM npeCTbnHMU;M BnpbCKBaT npe3 KJ1l0QaJIKaTa KMCeJIMHa, K05lTO
pa3IDKp;a MeXaHMQHaTa 6paBa.
- l'13n0J13BaUTe MeTop;a Ha p;e3MH<popMaI.J;M5l. 3a p;a 3a6JIyp;MTe npec-
TbnHMKa, 3aKpeneTe H5IKbp;e B ropHaTa nOJIOBMHa Ha BpaTaTa IDIKaKbB
OT CTapa CMrHaJIM3aU;M5I. OCBeH TOBa C U;BeTeH Ka6eJI M3Bep;eTe
JIMHM5I OT )KMJIMI.l(eTO KbM pa3npep;eJIMTeJIHaTa KYTM5I Ha CTbJI6MI.l(HaTa
nJIOI.l(ap;Ka, 6e3 p;a ro CBbp3BaTe. HaJIMQMeTO Ha M Ka6eJI I.l(e
HaKapa )KMJIMI.l(HM5I Kpap;eu; p;a ce 3aMMCJIM. Tou 3Hae, Qe B MOMeHTa Ha
npeKbCBaHeTO Ha Ka6eJIa MJIM CMrHaJIM3aU;M5ITa ce 3ap;eUCTBa.
I1P03opU;MTe ca HaU-Y5l3BMMOTO M5ICTO Ha BC5IKO nOMeI.l(eHMe. CTbK-
JIOTO JIeCHO ce cqynBa, M3p5l3Ba. KaKBo MO)Ke p;a BM nOCbBeTBaM 3a 3a-
I.l(MTa Ha CTbKJIaTa? I1bPBO, Ha np030pU;MTe B )KMJIMI.l(HMTe nOMeI.l(eHM5I
nOCTaB5IUTe caMO P;BOUHM 3p;paBM paMKM. AKo np030pU;MTe ce OTBap5lT,
nOrpM)KeTe ce p;a nOCTaBMTe 3p;paBM M cMrypHM paU6epM.
BTOPO, np030pU;MTe Ha nbpBMTe eTa)KM, OCTbKJIeHMTe BpaTM Ha 6aJI-
KOHMTe M JIOp;)KMMTe, np030pU;M, 6JIM30 P;O nO)KapHa cTbJI6a, P;O p;bpBe-
Ta, P;O nOKpMBM Ha OKOJIHM crpap;M, Tp5l6Ba p;a ce npMKpM51T C pellleTKM.
3a p;a He 3anpMJIMQa )KMJIMI.l(eTO BM Ha 3aTBOp, cHa6p;eTe ce C pellleTKM C
He06MQaUHa KOH<pMrypaU;M5I, OTrOBap5lI.l(M Ha onpep;eJIeHM eCTeTMQeCKM
M3MCKBaHM5I.
TpeTO, M3n0J13BaUTe 3aI.l(MTHM JIeHTH BbPXY CTbKJIaTa (TMn EPlOK-
ca<pOJI , APM 360 M p;p.). TaKMBa JIeHTH 3ap;bp)KaT cqyneHoTo MJIM npo-
nyKaHo CTbKJIO B paMKaTa, 6e3 p;a My p;ap;aT p;a ce pa36Me Ha napQeTa.
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
245
To npOp;bJI)KaBa p;a M3nbJIH5IBa 3aI.l(MTHMTe CM <PYHKU;MM M He n03BOJI5IBa
p;a ce BJIe3e HaBbTPe. Me)Kp;y p;pyroTo, CTbKJIO C HaHeceHa 3aI.l(MTHa
JIeHTa YCT05lBa Ha B3pMBHa BbJIHa M Ha 6YTMJIKa CbC 3anaJII:ITeJIHa CMec
("KoKTeuJI MOJIOTOB").
vl.leTBbpTO, 3aKpIlBaUTe OTBbTPe C nJIbTHM I.l(OpM BCeKM np030peu;, B
KOMTO MO)Ke p;a ce Hap;3bpTa OTBbH (OT YJIMu;aTa, OT np030pU;MTe Ha
cpeI.l(ynOJIO)KHIfTe crpap;M). JIMncan Ha MH<popMaU;M5I KaKBO CTaBa B
nOMeI.l(eHMeTO e CbI.l(O H51KaKBa 3aI.l(MTHa M5IpKa OT He)KeJIaHM nOceI.l(e-
HM5I.
EaJIKOHMTe, He3aBMCMMO OT eTa)Ka, TP5I6Ba p;a ce orpa)Kp;aT C p;eKO-
paTHBHM pellleTKM C p;OCTaTbQHa 3p;paBMHa. Hau-p;06pe e p;a ce npeBbp-
HaT B OCTbKJIeHM JIO)J;)KMM, a CTbKJIaTa p;a ce 06JIenBaT CbC 3aI.l(MTHa
JIeHTa. CPOKbT Ha rO)J;HOCT e He nO-MaJIKO OT 10 rop;MHM.
***
CurHaJlu3aquBTa. QeJIecb06pa3HO e p;a ce CKJIlOqIf p;orOBOp C MeCT-
HaTa nOJIMU;M5I 3a TeXHMQeCKa oxpaHa Ha )KMJIMI.l(eTO. AKO TOBa e HeBb3-
MO)KHO no H5IKaKBM npIfqMHM (MJIM He)KeJIaTeJIHO), cHa6p;eTe )KMJIMI.l(eTO
CM CbC CMCTeMa 3a CMrHaJIM3aU;M5I. IIMeHHO CMCTeMa, T. e. U;51JI KOMn-
JIeKC OT npM60pM, a He ep;HO-e,!l;MHCTBeHO YCTPOUCTBO Ha BpaTaTa.
Ha na3apa MMa rOJI5IM M360p Ha CMrHaJIHM YCTPOUCTBa 3a oxpaHa.
Cpep; T5IX ca p;eTeKTopM 3a qyneHe Ha CTbKJIa, B3JIOM Ha BpaTM M 6paBM,
p;BM)KeHMe Ha xopa B nOMeI.l(eHMeTO, npeMeCTBaHe Ha pa3JIIfqHM npep;-
MeTM. Ha CMrHaJIHMTe npM60pM MoraT p;a ce nOMeCTBaT Ha
BpaTaTa, np030pU;MTe, pellleTKMTe, CTeHMTe, TaBaHa, Me6eJIMTe, p;a ce
nOCTaB5IT B OCBeTMTeJIHaTa apMarypa, 6MTOBMTe npM60pM. B 3aBMCM-
MOCT OT npMHU;Mna Ha p;eUCTBMe Te ca MH<ppaQepBeHM, CeM3MIfqHM, MMK-
POBbJIHOBM, aKYCTIfqHM, TeJIeBM3MOHHM, KOMnJIeKCHM (HanpMMep MH<P-
paQepBeHM-MMKPOBbJIHOBM). Hau-e<peKTMBHM ca KOMnJIeKCHMTe YCT-
pOUCTBa, HO Te ca M HaU-CKbnM.
KaTo pelllaBaMe Bbnpoca 3a nOCTaB5IHe Ha OXpaHMTeJIHa CMrHaJIM3a-
U:M5I, TP5I6Ba p;a ce 3aMMCJ1HM npe,!l;M BCIfqKO Ha Koro I.l(e M3npaI.l(a CMrHa-
JIM CMCTeMaTa? Ha BalllaTa oxpaHa, Ha nOJIMI.J;M5lTa, Ha Cbce,!l;MTe, Ha cny-
QaUHMTe MMHYBaqIf? IIJIM Henocpep;CTBeHO Ha c06CTBeHMKa qpe3 pa,!l;MO-
CMrHaJI? BTOPM Bbnpoc OT nop;06eH pop;: C KaKBa 6bp3MHa MO)Ke p;a ce
n05lBM Ha MeCTonp0M3111eCTBMeTO BalllaTa ,,6pMrap;a 3a 6bP30 pearMpa-
He"? II MMaTe JIM CneU;MaJIMCTM 3a cpeI.l(a C HeKaHeHM rOCTM?
Ceii$OBeTe. AKo HMI.l(O He e CnaCMJIO BallleTO )KMJIMI.l(e MJIM O<p
MC
OT BMbKBaHeTO Ha npeCThnHMU;M, TP5I6Ba p;a HMaTe nOCJIe)J;Ha "oT6pa-
246 AHATonl!1lii TAPAC
HIITeJIHa nIIHIDI" - ClIrypHII CeHcpOBe. B CTaU;IIOHapHIITe II CTeHHIITe
CeHcpOBe TP5I6Ba p;a ce C'hXpaH5IBaT rraplI, u;eHHII KHIDKa, p;OKYMeHTII,
CK'hrrOu;eHHOCTII, Op'h)KlIe II p;pyrlI rrpep;MeTII, KOIITO IICKaTe p;a C'hXpa-
HIITe HerrpIIKOCHOBeHlI.
Ha rra3apa MOraT p;a ce HaMep5IT CeHcpOBe C pa3nWIHlI pa3MeplI II KOH-
CTPYKU;IDI: OT HaH-ManKlITe (16,5 Ha 37,5 Ha 35 CM), rrpe,Il;Ha3HaqeHII 3a
6eTOHlIpaHe B cTeHaTa, p;o 6pOHlIpaHlI IIIKacpoBe (1400 Ha 65 Ha 60 CM).
ca Mop;enIITe, KOIITO IIMaT MeXaHlI3'hM C MlIKpOrrpo-
u;ecopHO KOMaH,Il;BaHe II aBTOHOMHa CIICTeMa 3a 3axpaHBaHe (rapaH[(lIO-
HeH CpOK Ha pa60Ta 6e3 rrpe3ape)K,Il;aHe Ha 6aTeplilITe - 2 ro,Il;lIHlI) II OCII-
ryp5IBaT 3arwrra He caMO OT B3nOM, HO II OT rrO)Kap.
Ha 61I3HeCMeHa IInlI Ha qneHOBe Ha HerOBOTO CeMeHCTBO
3apap;1I OTKyII e e,Il;lIH OT HaH-pa3rrpOCTPaHeHlITe BlI,Il;OBe KplIMIIHanHII
rrpeCThrrneHIDI. OCBeH TOBa MO)KellI p;a CTaHellI 3anO)KHIIK cnyqaHHo,
HarrplIMep rrplI orpa6BaHe Ha 6aHKa, Mara3lIH, arrapTaMeHT, BlIna IInlI
rrplI aK[(lI5I.
3anO)KHlIK'hT e qOBeK, KOHTO ce HaMlIpa B'hB BnaCTTa Ha rrpeCThrrHII-
U;IITe. Ka3aHOTO He 03HaqaBa, qe TOH e Harr'hnHO nlIllIeH OT B'h3MO)K-
HOCTTa p;a ce 60PlI 3a 6narorronyqHoTo pa3pellIeHlIe Ha clIryaU;IDITa, B
K05ITO ce e OKa3an. HarrpOTIIB, OT HerOBOTO rrOBep;eHlIe 3aBlIClI TB'hpp;e
MHoro. Tp5I6Ba p;a IIMallI C'hOTBeTHIITe rr03HaHIDI, 3a p;a 1I36epellI rrpa-
BlInHaTa nlIHIDI Ha rrOBep;eHlIe. 3HaHII5ITa ca He06xop;IIMII KaKTO Ha ca-
MII5I 61I3HeCMeH, TaKa II Ha HerOBOTO CeMeHCTBO.
KnaClIqeCKaTa cxeMa 3a OTBnlIqaHe 1I3rne)Kp;a TaKa: rrnaHlIpaHe, rrop;-
rOTOBKa, 3anaB5IHe, CKplIBaHe Ha 3anO)KHIIKa, pa3rOBOp II pa3rrlIT, Bop;e-
He Ha rrperOBoplI, rronyqaBaHe Ha OTKYII, OCB060)Kp;aBaHe IInlI y6IIHCT-
BO Ha )KepTBaTa.
Ha eTarr rrnaHlIpaHe rrpeCThrrHIIU;IITe Ha6en5I3BaT 06eKTa 3a OTBnlI-
qaHe, CYMaTa Ha rrpep;rronaraeMII5I OTKYrr, yqacTHIIU;IITe B orrepaU;II5ITa,
MeCTa 3a OTBnlIqaHe, Bop;eHe Ha rrperOBoplI, rrony-
qaBaHe Ha OTKYrra. HaH-Ba)KHIITe MOMeHTII Ha eTarra rrnaHlIpaHe ca ,Il;Ba,
KOIITO ca B3aIIMHO CB'hp3aHII: 1I360p Ha )KepTBa II orrpep;e-
n5IHe Ha CYMaTa 3a OTKYIIa. HaH-rOneMII5IT OTKYrr B Hallie BpeMe e 60
MlInlIOHa p;onapa. TOH 6lIn 1I3rrnaTeH Ha rrpeCThrrHIIU;lITe rrpe3 1975 ro-
p;IIHa B Ap)KeHTlIHa 3a OTKYrr Ha p;BaMaTa 6paT5I 13opH. HaH-rOneMII5IT
1I3BeCTeH OTKyrr B PyClI5I e 1I3rrnaTeH Ha 6aHp;aTa Ha 5IKllIll5IHU; (5 ,IJ;yllIlI),
Hapb'lHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
247
KOIITO rrpe3 p;eKeMBplI 1989 rop;IIHa OTBnlIqaT 30 yqeHIIu;1I 3aep;HO C
yqIITenKaTa - 3 MnH. p;onapa.
B 61I3Heca He BIIHarlI OTBnlIqaHeTO e CB'hp3aHO C OTKYrr. Qpe3 Hero
qeCTO ce orrlITBaT p;a rronyqaT H5IKaKBa Ba)KHa IIHcpopMaU;lI5I, p;a 3aCTa-
B5iT 61I3HeCMeHa p;a ce C'hrnaCII Ha He)KenaHO p;a ce
OTKa)Ke OT peanII3aU;lI5I Ha Ha6en5I3aHlI rrnaHOBe II T. H.
IIpeBaHTIIBHIITe MepKII 3a Ha 61I3HeCMeHa Ha T031I eTarr ce
CBe)Kp;aT P;O Ha KOMrrneKC OT MepKII 3a 6e30rrac-
HOCT. Cpep; T5IX oc06eHO 3HaqeHlIe IIMaT CKplIBaHeTO Ha IIHcpopMaU;IDI-
Ta 3a CBoeTO 6narOC'hCT05IHlIe, MaCKlIpOBKaTa II p;e3IIHcpopMaU;II5ITa,
oxpaHa, rrpOBe)Kp;aHeTO Ha orrepaTIIBHa pa60Ta 3a pa3KplIBaHe
Ha rrOTeH[(lIanHlITe rrOXlITlITenlI.
Ha eTarr rrop;rOTOBKa rrpeCThrrHIIU;IITe OTp;en5IT rOMMO BHIIMaHlIe
Ha p;eTaHnHOTO 1I3yqaBaHe Ha HaqlIHa Ha )KIIBOT Ha Ha6en5I3aHaTa )Kep-
TBa (II Ha BClIqKII qneHOBe Ha ceMeHCTBOTO), 3a HaH-qeCTO
HIITe MeCTa, 3a rrpep;rrplIeMaHIITe OT T5IX MepKII Ha 6e30rraCHOCT. Te
CTapaTenHO 1I3yqaBaT MeCTHOCTTa, YTOqH5IBaT MapllIpyTIITe Ha ,Il;B1I-
)KeHlIe Me)Kp;y p;OMa, pa60TaTa, p;pyrlITe MeCTa, 1I35ICH5I-
BaT CII pa3rrOnO)KeHlIeTO Ha B arrapTaMeHTa IInlI OCPII-
ca, ceKTopa Ha 0630p OT rrp030peu;a II T. H. B HaBeqeplIeTO Ha OTBnlI-
qaHeTO Ha ep;IIH MOCKOBCKII 61I3HeCMeH TOH 3a6en5I3an, qe B rrpop;'hn-
)KeHlIe Ha H5IKOnKO P;HII rro rr'hT5I K'hM pa60TaTa ro rrpecnep;Bana ep;Ha II
Kona, K05ITO rrocne p;'hnro BpeMe 6lIna raplIpaHa P;O ocplIca. Xo-
paTa He 1I3nlI3anlI OT He5I, CT05InlI rro MeCTaTa ClIo 3a6en5I3an, HO He ce
3aMlIcnlIn, a H5IMan II oxpaHa.
IIpecThrrHlI[(lITe 1I3yqaBaT II 6nlI3KlITe rrplI5ITenlI, p;enOBIITe rrapT-
HhOplI, rrplI6nlI)KeHlITe C'hTPYP;HIIU;1I Ha 61I3HecMeHa. TOBa ce rrpaBII, 3a
p;a ce orrpep;en5IT nlIu;aTa, KOIITO MoraT p;a ce OKa)KaT rrone3HlI rrplI BO-
p;eHe Ha rrperoBoplITe. YTOqH5IBaT ce IIMeHaTa II cpaMIInlIlITe lIM, ap;pe-
CIITe, Ha KOIITO )KIIBe5IT, TenecpOHHlITe HOMepa, MapKlITe II perIICTPa[(lI-
OHHlITe HOMepa Ha lIM aBTOM06IInlI, 6ene31I
3a 6'hP30 pa3rr03HaBaHe.
MepKII Ha T031I eTarr ca aHanOrlIqHII Ha rrpep;xop;HIITe C
yroBopKaTa, qe rro-rOMMO 3HaqeHlIe lIMa orrepaTIIBHaTa pa60Ta
Ha cnY)K6aTa 3a ClIfypHOCT. AKo B HeHHII5I ca BKnl{)qeHII KBanlIcplI-
U;lIpaHII C'hTpyp;HIIU;II, Te HerrpeMeHHo 3aceKaT rrpecnep;BaHeTo, rro-
BlIllIeHOTO BHIIMaHlIe K'hM 61I3HecMeHa, HerOBOTO CeMeHCTBO II CPIIP-
MaTa. 3aToBa ca rrpocpeCIIOHanlICTII.
3anaB5IHeTO e u;eHTPanHaTa qaCT Ha orrepaU;IDITa. AHanII3'hT Ha rro-
P;06HII aKU;1I1I Ha 3arrap; e rroKa3an, qe 90% OT Ha
248 AHATOm1li1 TAPAC
6II3HeCMeHII CTaBa B MOMeHT, KOraTO )l(epTBaTa ce HaMIIpa no n'bT}l
K'bM pa60TaTa IIJIII ce OT He5I, MaJIKO npe.n:II .n:OMa IIJIII oqlIIca. C
.n:pyrII p;yMII, 3a OTBJIIIqaHe II36IIpaT 06IIKHOBeHO TaKOBa MJlCTO, K'b.n:e-
TO e HeB'b3MO)l(HO .n:a ce II3MeHII MapIIIPYT'bT Ha .n:BII)I(eHIIe, .n:OpII aKO
ycneJlBaT .n:a npOMeHJlT BpeMeTO Ha Tp'brBaHe II
Cnope.n: pa3Ka3IITe Ha 6IIBIIIIITe )l(epTBII II yqaCTHIIQII TIInOBaTa pe-
aKQIIJI no 3aJIaBJlHeTO ce no CJIep;HII5I HaqIIH. EP;IIH OT
npeCThnHIIQIITe .n:OKJIa.n:Ba no pa.n:IIOTO IIJIII TeJIe<pOHa, qe 06eKT'bT e
HarrycHaJI M5ICTOTO CII Ha pa60Ta (IIJIII anapTaMeHTa CII), .n:pyr
ThnHIIK qe aBTOM06IIJI'bT Ha 06eKTa ce npII6JIII)I(aBa K'bM
Ha6eJIJl3aHII5I nyHKT. DJIOKIIpaT YJIIIQaTa C Hapoquo npe.n:II3BIIKaHn'b-
TeH IIHQII.n:eHT IIJIII 5I 3anpeqBaT C "BHe3anHO" nOBpe.IJ:IIJI ce aBTO<PYP-
rOH IIJIII Te)l('bK KaMIIOH.
CaMOTO OTBJIIIqaHe CTaBa B MOMeHTa, KoraTO aBTOM06IIJI'bT Ha 06eK-
Ta ce cnIIpa npe.n: II3KYCTBeHO C'b3.n:a.n:eHOTO npenJlTCTBIIe. TYK B .n:eiicT-
BIIeTO ce BKJIIOqBa rpyrraTa no 3aJIaB5IHeTO, KOJITO MO)l(e .n:a e CKpIITa B
aBTOM06IIJIa, Koiho ce .n:BII)I(II 3a.n: o6eKTa, MaCKIIpaHa e cpe.n: neIllexo.n:-
QIITe IIJIII ce HaMIIpa B aBTO<pyproHa, 6JIOKIIpaJI YJIIIQaTa. Ha OTKPIITII-
Te KpaMrpa.n:CKII yqaCThQII Ha n'bT5I npeCThnHIIQIITe ce npaBJlT Ha KaTa-
.IJ:)l(IIII, n'bTHII pa60THIIQII II .n:p. AKo lIMa oxpaHa, TJI ce pa3CTpeJIBa, He-
YTPaJIII3IIpa ce C eJIeKTPOlliOKOBe, II3Ba)l(.n:a ce OT CTPOJI C ra30BO OP'b-
)l(IIe, 6yxaJIKII. C KaKBOTO II npeB03HO cpe.n:CTBO .n:a ce OTBe.n:e )l(epTBaTa
OT M5ICTOTO Ha C'b6IITIIeTO, CJIe.n: HJlKOJIKO KIIJIOMeTPa TO ce CMeHJI.
OT e nO-CJIO)l(Ha onepaQII5I, K05ITO e CB'bP-
3aHa C Heo6xo.n:IIMOCTTa .n:a ce npOHIIKHe B anapTaMeHTa. IIpeCThnHII-
QIITe 06IIKHOBeHO ce MaCKIIpaT KaTO pa60THIIQII no nOMp'b)l(KaTa Ha
6IITOBaTa TeXHIIKa, CJIY)l(IITeJIII, MIIJIIIQIIOHepII. no-
TPy.n:HO e OT B'bTPelliHIITe Ha O<pIIca, oc06e-
HO aKO TaM lIMa oxpaHa, npe.n:BII.n:eHa e 6JIOKIIpOBKa Ha BpaTIITe, lIMa
CIIrHaJIII3aQII5I.
KaKTO nOKa3Ba npaKTIIKaTa, qeCTO 3aJIaB5IHeTO CTaBa, KoraTO 06eK-
ThT II3JIII3a OT .n:OMa (o<pIIca), HaCOqeH K'bM CBOJI aBTOM06IIJI, IIJIII 06-
paTHOTO, II3JIII3a OT aBTOM06IIJIa II ce HaCOqBa K'bM .n:OMa IIJIII o<pIIca.
IIPII opraHII3IIpaHeTO Ha onepaQII5I no 3aJIaB5IHeTO npeCThnHIIQIITe
ce CTapa5IT .n:a II3n0JI3BaT B CBOM IIHTepec TPaMHIITe HaBIIQII Ha o6eKTa
3a HanpIIMep e.n:IIH neTep6yprcKII 6II3HecMeH, OTBJIeqeH,
3a .n:a nOJIyqaT 3a Hero OTKyrr, no 065I.n: 3ae.n:HO C'bC ceKpe-
TapKaTa CII (6IIBIlla, Me)I(.IJ:y .n:pyroTO, HerOBa JII060BHIIQa) e.n:IIH II C'blQ
pecTopaHT 6JIII30 .n:o O<pIIca My. OTBJIeKJIII rII 3ae.n:HO. J(pyr 06eKT IIMaJI
HaBIIK Beqep .n:a pa60TII .n:o K'bCHO, a nOCJIe HanYCKaJI crpa.n:aTa OT pe-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
249
3epBHII5I II3XO.n:, KOMTO Bo.n:eJI B TIIxa YJIIIqKa. IIpeCThnHIIQIITe ce B'b3-
IIOJI3BaJIII OT T03II My HaBIIK II fO OTM'bKHaJIII, 6e3 HIIKOM .n:a rII yceTII.
I1Ma CJIyqaII Ha 3aJIaBJlHe Ha 6II3HeCMeHII, KOIITO paHO CYTPIIH pe.n:OBHO
IIpaB5IT rIIMHaC1'IIKa Ha CIIopTHaTa B C'bCe.IJ:HOTO
OTM'bKBaJIII rII no cnopTeH eKIIn II MapaTOHKII.
OCBeH HaBIIQIITe Ha )l(epTBIITe CII npeCThnHIIQIITe ca CTapa5lT .n:a
II3IIOJI3BaT II BC5IKaKBII 06CT05lTeJICTBa, KOIITO IIM nOMaraT .n:a cneqeJI5IT
BpeMe, npe.n:II p;a ce OTKpIIe HanpIIMep B MocKBa lIMa
CJIyqaM, KoraTO )l(eHa Ha 6II3HeCMeH II3JI5I3JIa OT .n:OMa CII 3ae.n:HO C .n:'b-
CII IIO Mara3IIHIITe, a TOM 51 IIpe.n:yrrpe.n:IIJI, qe CJIe.n: pa60Ta
IIOCeTII cnopTHaTa 3aJIa. TeJIe<poH'bT ce IIO.n:CJIYIIIBaJI. B cnOpTHIIJI KJIy6
HIIKOM He 3a6em(3aJI OTC'bCTBIIeTO MY, a )l(eHa My ce pa3TPeBO)l(IIJIa qaK
CJIe.n: TPII qaca. llpe3 TOEa BpeMe IIpeCThIIHIIQIITe CKPIIJIII )l(epTBaTa CII
Ha CIIrypHO M5ICTO.
IIOBeqeTO OT CJIyqaIITe Ha cTapaTeJIHO IIJIaHIIpaHII, .n:06pe IIo.n:roT-
BeHII oIIepaQIIII no OTBJIIIqaHeTO Ha xopa IIpOTIIqaT M'bJIHIIeHOCHO.
I1TaJIIIaHCKIITe TepopIICTII OT ,;qepBeHIITe 6pIIra.IJ:II" no.n:roTB5IJIII IIO-
xHll1;eHHeTo Ha.n: MHHHCThp-IIpe.n;ce.n:aTeJI5I AJI.n:o Mopo B npo.n:'bJI)I(e-
HHe Ha H5IKOJIKO MeceQa, a 3a caMaTa OIIepaQII5I IIM Tp5l6BaJIa caMO
e.n:Ha MIIHyTa.
rJIaBHaTa pOJI5I 3a HeYTPaJIII3IIpaHe Ha OIIHTRTe 3a OTBJIHqaHe Ha
6H3HeCMeH e npII3BaHa .n:a IIrpae My oxpaHa. I1Ma ce npe.n:BII.n:
HeMHaTa pa60Ta no IIpe)J;BapHTeJIHO OTPa60TeHH TRnOBII cxeMH, BKJIlOq-
BaI.QH rpaMoTHoTO IIpHKpIITHe Ha KJIIIeHTa, IIOCT05IHHaTa rOTOBHOCT 3a
HeOqaKBaHO HaIIa.n;eHIIe (B TOBa qHCJIO H H3II0JI3BaHeTO Ha orHecTPeJIHO
Op'b)KHe), .n;OII'bJIHIITeJIHH cpe.n;cTBa 3a 3all1;HTa (cBeT03BYKOBII rpaHaTH,
xyqeTa, CHrHaJIH3aQII5I).
* * *
IIPH OTBJIIIqaHe npeCThIIHHQHTe .n;eMcTBaT 6e3QepeMOHHO, .n:OpII
)KeCTOKO. qecTo )l(epTBaTa ce JIIIIllaBa OT C'b3HaHIIe C y.n:apII no rJIaBaTa
HJIII 5I ynoMBaT C Me.n;IIQIIHcKH IIpenapaTII. TaKa e no-
JIeCHO, B IIpoTIIBeH CJIyqaM )KepTBaTa MO)l(e .n:a ce C'bIIPOTIIBJI5I-
Ba, .n:a ce onHTa .n;a II365Ira, .n:a npIIBJIeqe BHHMaHHeTO Ha cTPaHIIqHII
xopa, .n:a pa36epe K'b.n;e H BO.IJ:5IT. 3a xopaTa C'bC CIIJIHII, HeOBJIa.n:eHH eMO-
QIIII B IIo.n;06eH CJIyqaM HapKOTIIQHTe ca nOJIe3HII, 3all1;OTO CHII)KaBaT B
II3BeCTHa CTeneH nCIIXHqeCKOTO HaIIpe)KeHIIe, YCIIoKmIBaT HepBHaTa
cHcTeMa, YHacHT B C'bH.
IIO-qeCTO o6aqe )KepTBaTa npocTO e JIHIlleHa OT B'b3MO)I(HOCTTa .n:a ce
250 AHATOJH1Jit T APAC
,lJ)3IDKII, KaTO 1I3rr0n3BaT Bb)KeHIJ;a IInlI 6ene3HIIIJ;II. OCBeH TOBa 3anerrBaT
O'llITe C nerreHKlI, YCTaTa - Cbru;O. CaMOTO TpaHCrrOpTIIpaHe OT MHCTOTO
Ha 3anaB5IHe e,lJ)3a nIl e KOMCPOPTHO: 06lIKHOBeHO 06eKT'hT ne)K1I Ha rro,n:a
B aBTOM06IIna rro,n: KpaKaTa Ha rrOXIITIITenlITe IIJIII ce HaMIIpa B 6ara)KHII-
Ka. MO)Ke ,n:a ce OKa)Ke B qyBan, qeKMeWKe, ,n:OplI B rOn5IM KYcpap.
lliKOII xopa rronyqaBaT rrplICThrr Ha KnaYCTpocp06IDI (CTpax OT 3aTBOpe-
HO rrpOCTpaHCTBO) B rro,n:06Ho rrOnO)KeHlIe, CbrrpOBo,n:eH C HerrpIDITHlI
cplI31I0nOrJItIIIlI yceru;aHIDI. Tp5I6Ba TBbp,n:o,n:a ce rrOHecaT BCJIqKJI Hey,n:06-
CTBa II ,n:a He ce 3a6paB5I, qe Ta31I clIryaIJ,IDI e BpeMeHHa, MaKCIIMYM 3a
H5IKOJIKO qaca.
PeanHaTa, B rrOBeqeTO cnyqalI e,n:IIHCTBeHa Bb3MO)KHOCT 3a 1I3MbK-
BaHe OT pbI\eTe Ha rrpeCThrrHIII\IITe e B- HaqanHIDI cTa,n:Illi Ha 3anaB5IHe-
TO, B MOMeHTa Ha Harra,n:eHlIeTO. HeOqaKBaHIITe 3a rrpeCThrrHIII\IITe II
peIIlIITemIlI ,n:ell:CTBIDI Ha Harra,n:HaTIDI 06eKT (oc06eHO B CbqeTaHlIe C
aHanOrlIqHII ,n:ell:CTBIDI Ha oxpaHaTa) MoraT ,n:a ,n:OBe,n:aT ,n:o crraceHlIe. B
PYCII5I II ,n:pyra,n:e rro CBen ca oT6en5I3aHII pe,lJ,lII\a cnyqalI, KoraTO Ha-
rra,n:HaTIITe 06eKTlI oT6nbCKBanlI C Kona H5IKOnKO rrpeCThrrHIII\lI, OTKPII-
BanlI orbH OT nJIqHOTO CII Opb)KlIe, rrpOMbKBanlI ce rro,n: KYPIIIYMIITe II
OCTaBanlI )KIIBII. Ho aKO e OqeBII,IJ,Ha 06peqeHOCTTa Ha OrrIITIITe, rro-
,n:06pe e ,n:a He ce rrplI65IrBa KbM Kpall:HII MepKII, a ,n:a ce ,n:ell:CTBa cb06-
pa3Ho 06CT05ITenCTBaTa.
OT MOMeHTa Ha 3anaB5IHeTO Tp5I6Ba,n:a ce KOHTponlIpaT BCJIqKII ,n:ell:c-
TBIDI lI,n:a ce cplIKClIpa BClIqKO, KoeTO MO)Ke,n:a crroc06cTBa 3a OCB060)K-
,n:aBaHeTo. Tp5I6Ba,n:a ce rrocTapaeTe,n:a 3arrOMHlITe BCJIqKJI rro,n:p06HOC-
TIl Ha rrpeMeCTBaHeTO OT MHCTOTO Ha 3anaB5IHe: BpeMeTO II CKopOCTTa
Ha ,n:BIDKeHlIe, 1I3KaqBaHeTO II crrYCKaHeTO, OCTpIITe 3aBOII, CIIlIpaHeTO
rrpe,n: CBeTocpaplI, )Kene30rrbTHIITe rrpene31I, xapaKTepHIITe 3BYI\II. I1PII
Bb3MO)KHOCT Te31I CBe,n:eHIDI Tp5I6Ba- ,n:a ce rrpe,n:a,n:aT Ha Bo,n:eru;lI5I rrpe-
rOBOplITe C rrpeCThrrHIII\IITe - C HaMeK IIJIII 6ene)KKa. 5ICHO e, qe TaK'bB
cnyqall: MO)Ke II ,n:a He ce rr05IBII, HO rrOMHeTe, qe ,n:OplI II Hall:-He3HaqlI-
TenHaTa IIHcpopMaI\IDI 3a ,,3aTBopa Ha 3anO)KHlIKa" MO)Ke ,n:a ce OKa)Ke
rrone3Ha 3a HerOBOTO OCB060)K,n:eHlIe, 3a 3anaB5IHeTO '1I 1I306nlIqaBaHe-
TO Ha rrpeCThIIHIII\IITe. Tp5I6Ba ,n:a ce 3arrOMHlI BCJIqKO BII,n:5IHO II qYTO
rro BpeMe Ha OTBnlIqaHeTO - pa3rrOnO)KeHlIe Ha rrp030pI\II, BpaTII, CThn-
61I, U:S5IT Ha TarreTIITe, CrreI\lIcplIqHII MlIp1I3MII, ,n:a He rOBoplIM 3a rna-
COBeTe, BbHIIlHOCTTa II MaHlIeplITe -Ha caMIITe rrpeCThrrHIII\II. Tp5I6Ba
,n:a ce Ha6mo,n:aBa rrOBe,n:eHlIeTO lIM, ,n:a ce cnYIIlaT pa3rOBoplITe lIM, ,n:a
ce 3arrOMHlI pa3rrpe,n:eneHlIeTO Ha ponlITe lIM. HaKpaTKO, ,n:a ce CbCTaBII
HayM 5ICeH rrCIIXOnOrJIqeCKlI rropTpeT Ha BceKII OT T5IX.
M3BeCTHlI ca cnyqalI, KoraTO OTBneqeHII xopa ca YCII5IBanlI ,n:a OCTa-
Hapb'1HUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
251
B5IT Ha MeCTa Ha crrlIpaHe ycnoBHII 3HaI\II, ,n:a rro,n:XBbpn5IT 6ene)KKlI, ,n:a
oT6ene)KaT IIO H5IKaKbB Ha'llIH MHCTOTO Ha 3aTOqeHlIeTO ClIo Te31I Heru;a
Tp5I6Ba ,n:a ce IIpaB5IT MHoro BHIIMaTenHO, 3 aru;OTO , aKO ce yceT5IT OT
IIpeCThrrHIIIJ;IITe, ru;e IIocne,n:Ba CypOBO HaKa3aHlIe. qOBeK CTaBa )KepTBa
B MOMeHTa Ha 3anaB5IHe II BbIIpeKlI qe TOBa CTaBa IIplI pa3nlIqHlI ycno-
BII5I, )KepTBaTa BIIHarlI M3IIlITBa ClIneH IICIIXJIqeCKII cTpec (IIlOK). Toll: ce
06ycnaB5I OT BHe3aIIeH p5I3bK IIpexo,n: OT cpa3a Ha CiiOKOll:CTBMe K'bM cpa3a
Ha cTpec. XopaTa pearMpaT Ha TaK'bB IIpexo,n: rro pa3nlIqeH Ha'llIH: e,n:-
HIITe 6YKBanHo ce IIapanlI3lIpaT OT cTpax, ,n:pyrM ce OIIIITBaT ,n:a ,n:a,n:aT
oTrrop. )J{1I3HeHOBa)KHO e 6bP30 ,n:a ce cIIpaBIITe C eMOI\lIlITe CII, 3a ,n:a
ce .n:np)KlITe paI\IIOHanHO, KaTO IIO T031I HaqlIH ysenlI'llITe IIlaHCOBeTe
CII 3a CIIaC5IBaHe.
I1peCThIIHIII\lITe ce OTHaC5IT CbC 3anO)KHIIKa TaKa, qe ,n:a MoraT ,n:a ro
1I3IIon3BaT MaKCIIManHO 3a CBOIITe lIHTepeCII. M TaKa, Te ,n:eMOHCTpII-
paT IIO BC5IKaKbB HaqlIH CBoeTO rrpeBb3xo,n:CTBO IInlI BnaCTTa CII Ha,n:
)KepTBaTa ,n:OpM T5I ,n:a He ce CbIIpOTIIBn5IBa. CTpeM5IT ce ,n:a IIOTIICHaT
BOn5ITa Ha CB05I nneHHMK II ,n:a ro 1I3nnaIIlaT. 3aTOBa 3anO)KHIIKbT Tp5I6-
Ba ,n:a OIIpe,n:enlI II031II\lI5ITa CII BbB B3aMMOOTHOIIleHlI5ITa C IIpeCThIIHII-
I\IITe. KaKTO CBII,n:eTenCTBa IIpaKTIIKaTa, 6e3BoneBOTO IIOBe,n:eHlIe, Mon-
6lITe 3a MlInOCT, CBPbXOTCThIIqlIBOCTTa He HOC5IT HIIKaKBa peanHa rron-
3a. I1peCThrrHIIIJ;IITe rrpM BCJIqKII cnyqalI IIOCThIIBaT B 3aBlIClIMOCT OT
CBOIITe nnaHOBe II HanO)KeHlITe 06CT05ITenCTBa.
BbHIIlHaTa rOTOBHOCT 3a KOHTaKT C rrpeCThIIHIII\IITe II 06Cb)K,n:aHe-
TO Ha IIHTepecyBaIJJ;IITe rM BbIIPOCII Tp5I6Ba ,n:a ce CbqeTae C r naBHOTO
rrpaBlIno: ,n:a ce IIOMara He Ha rrpeCThIIHIII\IITe, aHa ce6e CM. I1onyqeHa-
Ta OT 3anO)KHIIKa B Kpall:Ha CMeTKa ce 1I3IIon3Ba B HerOBa
Bpe,n:a, BbB Bpe,n:a Ha HerOBIITe 6n1I3KlI, Ha Ha CbTpy,n:HII-
I\IITe Ha opraHMTe Ha CMrypHOCTTa. KbM BbIIpOClITe Ha 6aH,n:MTIITe 3a
Bb3MO)KHaTa peaKIJ,IDI Ha 6nlI3KlITe BM KbM OTBnJIqaHeTO, 3a CYMaTa Ha
OTKY"a, 3a y,n:OBneTBOp5IBaHeTO Ha ,n:pyrlI M3IICKBaHII5I Tp5I6Ba ,n:a ce
IIo,n:XO)K,n:a 06MlIcneHO.
CBpbx3a,n:aqaTa ce CbCTOII C OITOBOpMTe CII ,n:a IIOMorHeTe Ha xopa-
Ta, KOIITO ce OIIlITBaT ,n:a HaMep5IT II OCBo60,n:5IT 3anO)KHIIKa, a He ,n:a ce
IIOCTaB5IT B 3aTpy,n:HeHO IIOnO)KeHlIe. I1o-KOHKpeTHO, aKO aprYMeHTII-
paHO y6e,n::HTe rrpeCThIIHlII\lITe B HepeanHOCTTa Ha e,n:HlI IInlI .n:pyrlI 1I31IC-
KBaHII5I, IIHI\II,n:eHThT MO)Ke ,n:a 6b,n:e pa3peIIleH IIo-neCHO. B Cbru;OTO
BpeMe e OqeBII,n:HO, qe He Tp5I6Ba ,n:a ce ,n:ell:CTBa Ha IIplIHI\IIIIa "BClIqKO
IInlI HIIru;O". Cb,n:60HoceH 3a 3anO)KHIIKa MO)Ke ,n:a ce OKa)Ke MOMeHThT,
KoraTO 6aH,n:IITlITe OCb3Ha5IT, qe 3aMMCbnbT lIM e HeoCbru;eCTBIIM, Cb-
qeTaH C Bb36y,n:eHOTO lIM IICIIXlIqeCKO CbCT05IHlIe, B KoeTO IIO IIpaBlIno
252 AHATOnvlli] T APAC
ce HaMlIpaT. K'hM TOBa ce rrp1I6aB51 qeCTO II Orr1I51HeHlIeTO OT aJIKOXOJIa
lIJIlI HapKOTlIQlITe, K'hM KOlITO rrp1I651rBaT 3a ycrroKOeHlIe.
OmITBaMTe ce ,n;a CMeK'llITe Bpa)J(,n;e6HOCrra Ha 6aH,n;lITlITe K'hM ce6e
ClI, ,n;a T'hpClITe B'h3MO)J(HOCTlI 3a YCTaHOB5IBaHe Ha lIH,n;lIBlI,n;YaJIeH KOH-
TaKT C H51KOlI OT T51X. HarrpaBeTe ro, 3a,n;a 1I36erHeTe <p1I31IqeCKlITe cTPa-
,n;aH1I51 II ,n;a rrO,n;06plITe YCJIOBlI5ITa Ha 3aTBOpa CII. Ho B'hHIllHaTa rOTOB-
HOCT ,n;a ce HaMeplI 06IT( e31IK C rrpeCT'hrrHlIQlITe,yqacTlIeTO B'hB B'hJIHy-
BaIT(lITe rlI rrp06JIeMlI He TP5I6Ba,n;a rrpOTlIBOpeqlI Ha crrOMeHaTlI5I rJIa-
BeH rrplIHQlIrr: ,n;a rrOMaraTe Ha ce6e ClI, a He Ha 6aH,n;lITlITe. 11 OIT(e e,IJ;Ha
,n;peBHa lICTlIHa B pe,n;lIQa CJIyqalI MO)J(e ,n;a rrplIHece rrOJI3a Ha 3aJIO)J(HlI-
Ka: pa3,n;eJI5IM II BJIa,n;eM! OrrlITaihe ce ,n;a BHeceTe pa3KOJI B rpyrraTa Ha
rrpeCT'hrrHlIQ1ITe, cimoHeTe H5IKOrO OT T51X Ha CB051 CTPaHa, KaTO MY o6e-
IT(aeTe BC1I'lKO, KoeTO MO)J(eTe peaJIHO ,n;a 06eIT(aeTe.
Pa3nHT. Ha rrpaKTlIKa BClI'lKlI OTBJIeqeHlI xopa ce rro,n;JIaraT Ha pa3-
rrlIT. TOM MO)J(e ,n;a rrpeMlIHe KaTO rrp1I5ITeJICKlI pa3roBop, a MO)J(e ,n;a e
C'hrrpoBo,n;eH II C'hC 3BepCKlI M'hqeH1I5I.
OrrlITHlITe rrpeCT'hlIHlIQlI ce CTapa51T ,n;a C'h3,n;a,n;aT BrreqaTJIeHlIe 3a
rrplI5ITeJICKa rrpe,n;pa3rrOJIo)J(eHocT, KoeTO ,n;eiIcTBa KaTO MeXJIeM Ha CMY-
TeHaTa ,IJ;yIlla Ha I1JIeHHlIKa, )J(a,n;ysaIT(a rrClIXOJIOr1I'leCKa rro,n;KpelIa rrOHe
Ha paBHlIIT(e eMOQ1I5I. OCBeH TOBa Bo,n;eIT(1I5IT pa3rrlITa 3arrJIaIllBa, 'Ie aKO
)J(epTBaTa e HeOTCT'hrrqlIBa, IT(e 6'h,n;e rrplIHY,n;eH ,n;a lIpe,n;a,n;e pa60TaTa B
p'hQeTe Ha rrOMOIT(HlIKa ClI, KOMTO e )J(eCTOK II T'hrr. 3aTOBa rro-,n;o6pe e
,n;a He yrropcTBa, BlI)J(,n;aTe JIll, HalIpa3HO, a ,n;a lIM C'hTPy,n;H1I'llI. CTap
TPlIK, HO ,I(eMCTBa!
3a,I(a ce rrpeqyrrlI lIClIXOJIOrlIqeCKlI 3aJIO)J(HlIK'hT, ce 1I3rrOJI3BaT CJIe,n;-
HlITe MepKlI 3a HaTlICK:
- OrpaH1I'laBaT ,I(BlI)J(eHlI5ITa MY, 3peHHeTO, CJIyxa (,I('hp)J(aT ro 3a-
B'hp3aH Ha BepHra HJIlI B 6eJIe3HlIQlI, C'hC 3aB'hp3aHH OqH, 3arryIlleHH
ylliH II T. H.);
- XpaH5IT ro JIOIllO, M'hqaT ro C rJIa,n; H )J(a)J(,I(a; JIHIllaBaT ro OT QlIra-
pH;
- C'h3,I(aBaT My JIOlliH YCJIOBlI5I (TeCHOTH51, MP'hCOTH51, BOH5I, IllyM,
HaceKOMH, BJIara, CTY,I(, MHIllKH H T. H.).
3a CJIa6H HarypH BCHqKO rrOCOqeHO e rrOBeqe OT ,n;ocTaT'hqHO, 3a ,n;a
H3rr'hJIHH BClI'lKH 1I3HCKBaHH5I Ha rrOXlITHTeJIHTe. Ho 3a 3arrac rrpecT'hrr-
HHQHTe lIMaT oIT(e e,n;Ho cpe,n;cTBo - M'hqeH1I5ITa. B HCTOp1I'leCKOTO CH
pa3BHTHe qOBeqeCTBOTO e H3pa6oTHJIO orpoMHo KOJI1I'leCTBO M'hqeHH5I.
MHoro OT T51X ca 6e30TKa3HH. KaTo Q5IJIO M'hqeHH5ITa MoraT ,n;a ce pa3-
JJ;eJI5IT Ha JJ;Be OCHOBHH rpyrrlI: TaKlIBa, KOHTO rrpHqHH5IBaT CHJIHa 60JIKa,
H TaKHBa, qHHTO rJIaBHO JJ;eMCTBHe e cTPaX'hT.
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm
253
B rr'hpBaTa rpyrra ca rro6oM, 60M C rrp'hqKH, CMaqKBaHe Ha rrOJIOBHTe
opraHH H HaTHCKaHe Ha TOqKHTe 3a 60JIKa, H3K'hJIqBaHe Ha CTaBHTe
rrp06HBaHe H Ba,n;eHe Ha 3'h6H, p5I3aHe H pa3K'hCBaHe Ha KO)J(aTa, 3 a 6 H B a ~
He Ha lIrJIHqKH, ropeHe C Bp51JIa BOJJ;a H rOpeIT(H rrpe,n;MeTH, eJIeKTpHqeC-
KH IllOKOBe H ,n;p.
B'hB BTopaTa rpyrra ca rrpeJJ;HMHO 3arrJIaXH 3a yJJ;YIllBaHe, yJJ;aB51He,
XB'hpJI5IHe OT rOJI5IMa BHCOqlIHa, 06e306pa351BaHe Ha JIHQeTO, 3arrJIaXa
3a 1I3HaCHJIBaHe H T. H. KOJIKOTO H JJ;a e CTpaHHO, M'hqeHH5ITa OT rr'hpBa-
Ta rpyrra ce rrOHaC51T rrO-JIeKO, OTKOJIKOTO OT BTopaTa. TOBa e TaKa, 3a-
IT(OTO C'hIT(eCTByBa TaKa HapeqeH1I5IT rrpar Ha qYBCTBHTeJIHOCrra K'hM
60JIKa. III;OM ce rrpeMHHe, opraHH3M'hT OTKa3Ba ,n;a 51 B'h3rrpHeMa. OCBeH
TOBa e H3BeCTeH rrClIXOJIOr1I'leCKH rrOXBaT: aKO qOBeK HCKa ,n;a 1I3T'hprrH
<p
H3
1I'leCKOTO cTPa,IJ;aHHe, TOM OTMaJI51Ba H ce caMoy6e)J(JJ;aBa JJ;a ,,3ao-
61I;:a 60JIKaTa", T. e. rrpeBp'hIT(a ce B'hB BHJJ; Ma30xHcT, HeHOpMaJIHHK,
KOlITO 1I3rrHTBa HaCJIaJJ;a OT yceIT(aHeTo 3a 60JIKa.
III;0 ce OTHaC5I JJ;0 MepKHTe 3a rrCHXOJIOrHqeCKlI 3alIJIaXH, rrOHaC51He-
TO lIM 1I3HCKBa OTC'hCTBHe Ha B'hTPelliHOTO "A3" Ha JJ;aJJ;eHOTO M5ICTO, B
JJ;a,n;eHH5I MOMeHT OT BpeMe. He BceKlI YMee JJ;a H3rraJJ;a B TaKOBa C'hCTO-
51HlIe - He06xo,n;HMa e crreQH<pHqHa TPeHHpoBKa. 3aIT(OTO, KoraTO TH
HaJJ;5IHaT qyBaJI Ha rJIaBaTa HJIH Te rrOTOrr51T C rJIaBaTa HaJJ;ony B'hB BaHa
C BOJJ;a, TII He MO)J(elli JJ;a CH rroeMelli JJ;'hX II Te 063eMa Y)J(ac. )l{eHlITe
JIeCHO MoraT ,n;a 6'hJJ;aT H3rrJIaIlleHlI C rpyrroBO H3HaClIJIBaHe lIJIH C JJ;e-
MOHCTPaQH5I Ha orrHT JJ;a ce 06e306pa3H JIlIQeTO HM. Oc06eHO e<peKTH-
BeH e MeTOJJ;'hT Ha "pa3rrHT C rrplICTpaCTHe", rrpH KOllTO B rrpHC'hCTBlIe
Ha JJ;aJJ;eH qOBeK M'hqaT JJ;pyr. Oc06eHO aKO TOBa ca 6JI1I3KlI xopa.
HaKpaTKO Ka3aHo, lIOXHTHTeJIHTe IT(e C'hyMe51T ,n;a BH HaKapaT JJ;a ro-
BopHTe. 3aToBa BHe TP516Ba,n;a orrpeJJ;emITe: a) ,n;OKOJIKO e Ba)J(Ha 3a Bac
cKpHBaHaTa lIH<popMaQ1I5I, 6) ,n;OK'h,n;e MoraT JJ;a CTlIrHaT rrpeCT'hrrHHQH-
Te B 3BepcTBaTa CH (KOJIKOTO rro-rOJI5IMa e 3arrJIaXaTa ,,6" H KOJIKOTO
lIO-MaJIKa e Ba)J(Hocrra "a", TOJIKOBa rrO-MaJI'hK e CMlIC'hJI'hT JJ;a ce T'hP-
lI5IT CTpa,n;aH1I5I), B) KaKBO Tp516Ba ,n;a CKplIeTe OT 6aH,I(HTHTe Ha BC51Ka
QeHa. TIoMHeTe: e3HK'hT e JJ;aJJ;eH Ha qOBeK, 3a ,n;a CKpHBa CBOHTe MHCJIl!.
P'hKOBOJJ;eTe ce OT CJIe,n;HHTe rrpaBlIJIa:
- IIpe,n;H BceKH OTrOBOp Ha rropeJJ;eH B'hlIpOC rrpaBeTe rro-,n;'hJIra rray-
3a, 3a ,n;a pa36epeTe HaK'h,n;e KJIOHH rrpeCT'hrrHHK'hT H ,n;a He MO)J(e TOll ,n;a
pa36epe BaIllHTe CJIa61I MeCTa. IIaY31ITe 065ICH51BaMTe C TOBa, 'Ie ce
M'hqHTe JJ;a CH crrOMHlITe rro,n;p06HOCTlI H ce orrHTBaTe JJ;a ce H3pa31ITe
rrO-ToqHO.
- fOBopeTe, KaTO 1I3rrOJI3BaTe MaKCHMaJIHO rrpO<peCHOHaJIHH TepMH-
HH II BceKlI 1I3BeCTeH BH )J(aproH, 3a JJ;a BH pa361IpaT rro-TPYJJ;HO.
254 AHATOJl\!11i1 TAPAC
- CT}JeMeTe ce ,lJ;a ce M3pa3RBaTe HeRCHO, IJ:BYCMMCJIeHO, MHOr03Ha-
qMTeJIHO.
- CImpaMTe ce rrO-rrO,lJ;p06HO Ha HeC'brn;eCTBeHM ,lJ;eTaMJIM, Ha pa3HM
,lJ;pe60JIMM, KOMTO HRMaT rrpRKO OTHOIIleHMe K'bM C'brn;MHaTa Ha 3a,lJ;aBa-
HMR B'brrpOC.
- H rrpM HaM-MaJIKHR Y,lJ;06eH CJIyqaM rrOBTapRMTe, qe He pa3rrOJIaraTe
C H)')KHaTa MH<pOPMaJ.UUI, ThM KaTO TOBa He BJIM3a B C<pepaTa Ha BarllIITe
3a,lJ;'bJDKeHHR, MHTepeCM, KOMrreTeHTHOCT.
- TIpecTopeTe ce, qe rrOpa,lJ;M 60JIKa, CTpax, B'bJIHeHMe He CTe crro-
C06HM ,lJ;a C'b6epeTe MHCJIHTe CM, ,lJ;a pa3C'b)l(,D;aBaTe JIOrMqHO, rrOCJIe)J;o-
BaTeJIHO ,lJ;a pa3Ka3BaTe.
- B HRKOM CJIyqau MO){(e ,lJ;a CM ,lJ;a,lJ;eTe BH)J;, qe He pa36MpaTe 3a,lJ;a,lJ;e-
HMTe BM B'brrpOCM 3apa)J;H aKIJ;eHTa Ha rrpeCThrrHMKa, M3rrOJI3BaHeTO Ha
6aH,lJ;MTCKM ){(aprOH, HeRCHOTO rrpOM3HOIIleHMe M ,lJ;p.
- [OBopeTe MOHOTOHHO, 6e3 eMOIJ;MM, 6e3 ){(eCTMKYJIaI.J;HM, 3a )J;a pa3-
6epaT rrO-T}JY,lJ;HO K'b,lJ;e e MCTMHaTa M K'b)J;e - JI'b){(aTa. H36RrBaMTe ,lJ;a
rJIe,lJ;aTe rrpeCThrrHMIJ;MTe B oquTe.
- E'b,lJ;eTe Be){(JIMBM B M3pa3HTe CM, He 06M){(,lJ;aMTe 6aH,lJ;MTHTe, He MM
Ka3BaMTe TOBa, KoeTO He MCKaT )J;a qYRT, He crropeTe, He KpMTHKYBaMTe.
TIpoBe)l(,D;aMTe JIHHHRTa CM He C B'b3pa){(eHHR, a C rrpMBM,lJ;HO C'brJIaCMe.
C'bXpaHRBaHe Ha rrCMXOJIOrMqeCKaTa rrpM rrpO)J;'bJDKM-
TeJIHO 3aTOqeHMe e e)J;HO OT HaM-Ba){(HMTe YCJIOBMR 3a crraceHMeTO Ha
3aJIO){(HMKa. TYK ca ,lJ;06PM BCMqKM HaqMHM M MeTO)J;H, KOHTO MoraT )J;a ro
OTBJIeKaT OT HerrpHRTHMTe ycern;aHHR M rrpe){(HBRBaHMR M rr03BOAABaT
,lJ;a ce C'bXpaHH RCHOTaTa Ha MMCJIMTe, a,lJ;eKBaTHaTa OIJ;eHKa Ha cMryaIJ;M-
RTa. TIOJIe3HO e ,lJ;a ce YCBORT CJIe)J;HHTe rrpaBMJIa:
- CTapaMTe ce, ,lJ;OKOJIKOTO e B'b3MO){(HO, )J;a crra3BaTe ,lJ;o6pa JIHqHa
XMrMeHa.
- TIpaBeTe ,lJ;OCThrrHMTe 3a ,lJ;a,lJ;eHHTe YCJIOBMR <pM3uqeCKM yrrpa){(He-
HMR. KaTO MHHMMYM HarrpMaifTe M OTIIYCKaMTe rrOCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIHO BCuqKH
MYCKYJIM Ha TRJIOTO, aKO He MO){(eTe ,lJ;a M3II'bJIHRBaTe 06uqaMHHR rMM-
HaCTHqeCKM KOMrrJIeKC. }l{eJIaTeJIHO e ,lJ;a rrOBTapRTe rrO,lJ;06HM yrrpa){(He-
HHR rrOHe TpM rr'bTM Ha )J;eH.
- MHoro e rrOJIe3HO ,lJ;a rrpaKTMKYBaTe aBTOT}JeHMHr M Me,lJ;MTaIJ;II5L
TIO,lJ;06HM MeTO,lJ;M rrOMaraT ,lJ;a ce ,lJ;'bP){(H rrCMXMKaTarrO,lJ; KOHT}JOJI.
- CrrOMHRMTe CM rrpOqeTeHM KHMrM, 06MMCAAMTe rrOCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIHO
pa3JIuqHM OTBJIeqeHM rrp06JIeMM (peIIlaBaMTe MaTeMaTII'IeCKM 3a,lJ;aqrr,
crrOMHRMTe CM qy){(,lJ;M ,lJ;YMM M T. H) BaIIlII5IT yM TpR6Ba ,lJ;a pa60TM.
BRpBarn;MTe MoraT ,lJ;a ThpCRT YTeIIleHMe B MOJIHTBMTe.
- AKO MMaTe B'b3MO){(HOCT, qeTeTe BCuqKO, KoeTO BM ce OKa){(e rro,lJ;-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
255
p'bKa, ,lJ;OpM aKO TeKCT'bT BM e C'bBCeM 6e3MHTepeceH. Mo){(e C'brn;o ,lJ;a
rrMIIleTe, B'brrpeKM qe HarrMcaHOTO rn;e ce rrpM6Mpa. Ba){(eH e caMMRT
rrpOIJ;ec, KOMTO rrOMara ,lJ;a ce 3arra3M pa3C'b,lJ;'bK'bT.
- Ba){(HO e ,lJ;a CJIe)J;MTe BpeMeTO, MaKap qe 06MKHOBeHO rrOXMTHTe-
JIMTe rrpM6MpaT qaCOBHMIJ;MTe M OTKa3BaT ,lJ;a 06C'b){(,lJ;aT KOM ,lJ;eH M 'laC e
M30JIMpaT OT B'bHIIlHHR CBID'. TIHIIleTe CM KaJIeH,lJ;ap, oT6eJIR3BaMTe
HaTa Ha ,lJ;eHR M HOrn;Ta (rro arrHBHocrra Ha rrpeCThrrHMIJ;MTe, rro 3BYIJ;M-
Te, rro pe){(MMa Ha xpaHeHe M T. H.).
- CTapaifTe ce ,lJ;a ce OTHaCRTe K'bM CTaHaJIOTO C Bac KaTO qe JIM
OTCT}JaHM, 6e3 ,lJ;a ro CJIaraTe Ha C'bpIJ;eTO CM, HaMBaMTe ce ,lJ;OKpaM Ha
6JIarorrOJIyqeH M3XO,lJ;. CT}JaX'bT, ,lJ;errpeCMRTa, arraTHRTa ca T}JMTe BM
rJIaBHM BparOBe. Te ca B'bTpe B'bB Bac.
- He M3XB'bpJIRifTe Bern;M, KOMTO MoraT ,lJ;a BM rrOCJIy){(aT (JIeKapCTBli,
oquJIa, MOJIMBM, K'bprrHqKM M )];p.), cTapaMTe ce,lJ;a C'b3,lJ;a,lJ;eTe, MaKap M
MMHMMaJIeH, 3arrac OT BO,lJ;a 3a rrMeHe M xpaHa, B CJIyqaM qe BM M30CTa-
BRT 3a ,lJ;'bJIro M rrpeCTaHaT,lJ;a BM xpaHRT.
OTKyn. TIpeCThIIHHIl;HTe RCHO pa36MpaT, qe ca rrO,lJ;JIO){(eHM Ha HaM-
rOJIRMaTa orraCHOCT, KoraTO T}JR6Ba,lJ;a rrOJIyqaT OTKyrra. 3aToBa Te pa3-
pa60TBaT CJIO){(HH, MHOrOCTerreHHM CMCTeMM 3a rrOJIyqaBaHe Ha rrapM-
Te. [(eJITa Ha rrpe,lJ;rrpMeTHTe Mepm e ,lJ;a ce M36erHe Harra,lJ;eHMe OT 3aca-
,lJ;a, <pMKcMpaHe Ha <parra rrpe,lJ;aBaHe Ha ImpMTe, pa3rr03HaBaHe Ha rrpec-
ThrrHMIJ;MTe. EaH,lJ;MTMTe orrpe,lJ;eJIRT BpeMeTO M MRCTOTO, K'b,lJ;eTO ,lJ;a
rrpMCTHrHe qOBeK'bT C rrapMTe, rrOCOqBaT MapIIIpYTa. TIpeCThrrHMI.J;HTe
rrpOBe){(,lJ;aT CKpHTO Ha6JIIO,lJ;eHMe Ha MRCTOTO M KYPMepa C rrapMTe.
MoraT )J;a rrpe)J;JIO){(aT Ha KYpMepa ,lJ;a Ce,lJ;He B rrpe,lJ;BapHTeJIHO rrpM-
rOTBeH aBTOM06MJI M ,lJ;a om'bryBa C 6aH,lJ;MTHTe, CJIe,lJ; TOBa ro CBaJIRT
Ha Y,lJ;06HO 3a TRX MRCTO. MoraT ,lJ;a ro OTBe,lJ;aT B MHoroeTa){(eH 6JIOK M
,lJ;a rrOJIyqaT rrapMTe B'bB BXO,lJ;, KOMTO MMa M BTOpM M3XO,lJ;. TIpe3 u;RJIOTO
BpeMe Ha KOHTaKTa ce BO,lJ;M Ha6JIIO)J;eHMe 3a OKOJIHMTe MeCTa, 3a ,lJ;a
HRMa CJIe,lJ;eHe. T'bM KaTO MHMIJ;MaTMBaTa e Ha rrpeCThIIHMIJ;MTe, Te ce
CT}JeMRT ,lJ;a C'b3)J;a,lJ;aT YCJIOBHR, KOMTO He 6Mxa rr03BOJIMJIM Ha C'bTPY,lJ;-
HMIJ;MTe Ha rrOJIMIJ;HRTa (aKo ca 3a,lJ;eMCTBaHM) ,lJ;a ce rrpM6JIH){(aT Ha pa3c-
TORHMe, OT KoeTO MoraT ,lJ;a pa3rro3HaRT JIuqflOcrra Ha rrpeCThrrHMIJ;MTe
MJIM ,lJ;a rM 3aJIOBRT. TIo C'brn;MTe rrpMquHM Te M36MpaT 3a KypMep xopa OT
6JIM3KOTO 06Kp'b){(eHMe Ha 3aJIO){(HMKa, qMMTO BM,lJ; MM e ,lJ;o6pe M3BeCTeH
orn;e rrpM rrO,lJ;rOTOBKaTa Ha orrepaIJ;HRTa.
TIOJIyqaBaHeTo Ha OTKyrr He e 3a,lJ;'bJI){(MTeJIHO ,lJ;a BO,lJ;M CJIe,lJ; ce6e CM
oCBo6o){(,lJ;aBaHe Ha 3aJIO){(HMKa. C Hero MoraT,lJ;a ce caMopa3rrpaBRT, 3a
)J;a ce OThpBaT OT B'b3MO){(eH CBM,lJ;eTeJI. OCBeH TOBa TOM MO)[(e ,lJ;a OCTa-
He B p'bIJ;eTe Ha 6aH,lJ;HTMTe ,lJ;OToraBa, ,lJ;OKaTO He ce peaJIM3MpaT rrony-
256 AHATOJJI.1V1 T APAC
qeHllTe napH. 06HKHOBeHO napHTe ce peaJIH3HpaT qpe3 nOK)'nKa Ha CK'h-
nOI.(eHHOCTH, pa3JIHqHH CTOKH, HeABH)KHMO H ABH)KHMO HMYlIJ,eCTBO B
perHOHHTe, OTAaJIeqeHH OT MnCTOTO Ha H3B'hpllleHOTO npeCT'hnJIeHHe.
I1oHnKora ce OnHTBaT Aa H3HeCaT napHTe 3aA rpaHHI.(a HJIH Aa rH BJIO-
)KaT B 6aHKa Ha HMeTO Ha JIHI.(a, qHnTO Bp'h3Ka C npeCT'hnHHI.(HTe ce
na3H B TaMHa.
B CJIyqan, KoraTO npeCT'hnHHI.(HTe caMH nycKaT
3aJIO)KHHKa, Te ro 3aKapBaT Ha HHKaKBO 6e3JIlO)lHO MHCTO H ro OCTaBnT
caM. ,[{pyr BapHaHT - 3aXB'hpJIHT ro B 3aTBopeHO nOMelIJ,eHHe H H3-
JIe3e OTTaM My TPH6BaT He MaJIKO BpeMe H CHJIH. TpeTH BapHaHT - H3-
Be)KAaT qOBeKa Ha O)KHBeHa YJIHI.(a (AaJIeqe OT nOCTOBe Ha KAT, OT C'hT-
PYAHHI.(H Ha nOJIHI.(HHTa) H H3qe3BaT. TOBa 3aXB'hpJInT KOJIaTa HJIH
H CMeHHT HOMepa.
MO)Ke Aa ce CJIyqH H TaKa, qe Aa BH OCBo60AH nOJIHI.(HHTa. B T03H
CJIyqaM Tpn6Ba Aa ce OnHTaTe Aa y6eAHTe npeCT'hnHHI.(HTe, qe HaM-
A06pe lIJ,e HanpaBHT, aKO ce npeAaAaT. ToraBa Te lIJ,e MoraT Aa pa3QH-
TaT Ha nO-MeKa npHC'hAa. AKo nOA06eH onHT He ycnee, nOCTapaMTe
ce Aa HM BHYlllHTe, qe c'hA6aTa HM ce HaMHpa B npnKa 3aBHCHMOCT OT
BalllaTa. AKo ce pelllaT Aa BH y6HnT, BCHQKH nperoBopH C BJIaCTHTe
ry6nT CMHC'hJI. VI ToraBa HM OCTaBa caMO HanaAeHHe C H3nOJI3BaHe
Ha Op'h)KHe.
KoraTo npeCT'hnHHI.(HTe H 3aJIO)KHHI.(HTe H3JIH3aT OT y6e)KHlIJ,aTa CH,
HM 3anoBHABaT Aa A'hp)KaT p'hI.(eTe 3aA rJIaBaTa CH. He TPH6Ba Aa ce
B'h3MYlIJ,aBaTe OT TOBa, Aa npaBIITe pe3KH ABH)KeHHH. ,[(OKaTO He ce H3-
B'hPlllH npOI.(eAYpaTa Ha on03HaBaHe, MepKHTe 3a CHrypHOCT ca He06-
XOAHMH.
AKo 3anOQBa HanaAeHHe HJIH CJIeA MaJIKO lIJ,e 3anOQHe, onHTaMTe
ce Aa cKpHeTe THJIOTO CH OT KyplllyMHTe. HaM-A06pe e Aa JIemeTe Ha
nOAa nO-AaJIeqe OT np030pI.(HTe H BpaTHTe C JIHI.(e HaAOJIY, He Ha npn-
Ka JIHHHH K'hM OTBopHTe Ha np030pI.(HTe H BpaTHTe. B MOMeHTa Ha
lIJ,ypMa He B3HMaMTe B p'hI.(e Op'h)KHeTO Ha npeCT'hnHHI.(HTe. 3alIJ,OTO
60MI.(HTe OT lIJ,ypMOBaTa rpyna MoraT Aa BH nOMHCJInT 3a npeCT'hnHHK
H Aa BH npOCTPeJIHT. Te HHMaT BpeMe Aa ce opHeHTHpaT KOM KaK'hB e.
HepnAKO no BpeMe Ha HanaAeHHeTO npeCT'hnHHI.(HTe ce onHTBaT Aa ce
CKpHnT cpeA 3aJIO)KHHI.(HTe. CTapaMTe ce cnopeA B'h3MO)KHOCTHTe CH
Aa He HM n03BOJInBaTe Aa ro HanpaBnT, nOCOqeTe rH Ha BTypHaJIHTe
ce 60MI.(H.
VI nOCJIeAHO. B CJIYQaHTe, KoraTO MnCTOTO, K'hAeTO A'hp)KaT 3a-
JIO)KHHKa, e 3aCeQeHO, cneI.(CJIY)K6HTe ce CTpeMnT Aa H3nOJI3BaT Ha-
JIHqHHTe TeXHHqeCKH cpeACTBa 3a npOCJIYlllBaHe Ha pa3rOBopHTe B
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
257
i CTaHTe. I10MHeTe TOBa H B pa3rOBOp C 6aHAHTHTe C'h06lIJ,aBaiiTe HH-
t' . <popMaI.(H5I, KonTO MO)Ke Aa 6'h!J;e H3nOJI3BaHa npH nOArOTOBKaTa Ha
HanaAeHHeTO. Oc06eHO Ba)KHH ca CBeAeHHnTa 3a 5IpKH H 6HelIJ,H Ha
OqH 6eJIe3H, no KOHTO MO)Ke Aa ce pa3JIHqH 3aJIO)KHHK'hT OT npeCT'hn-
W
"t HHI.(HTe, 3a B'hOp'h)KeHHeTO Ha 6aHAHTHTe, 3a KOJIHQeCTBoTO My, 3a
.; pa3nOJIO)KeHHeTO Ha nOMelIJ,eHHnTa, 3a MOpaJIHOTO C'hCTOHHHe H Ha-
MepeHHHTa Ha nOXHTHTeJIHTe.
7. 3aw,vna OT TeXHVl4eCKVl cpeACTBa
3a ill n VlOHa>K
BcnKa <pHpMa, BC5IKO npeAnpH5ITHe HMa pa3Ho06pa3HH TeXHHQeCKH
cpeACTBa, npeAHa3HaqeHH 3a npHeMaHe, npeAaBaHe, 06pa60TKa H C'hX-
paWIBaHe Ha HH<popMaI.(H5ITa. <PH3uqeCKHTe npOI.(eCH, KOHTO ce OC'hlIJ,ec-
TBHBaT B TaKHBa YCTPOMCTBa npH <PYHKI.(HOHHpaHeTo HM, C'h3AaBaT B
OKOJIHOTO npOCTpaHCTBO BTOPHquH H3JI'hqBaHHH, KOHTO MoraT Aa ce
OTKpHHT Ha AOCTa rOJIeMH pa3CTOHHHH (AO HeKOJIKOCTOTHH MeTpa) H
CJIeAOBaTeJIHO Aa 6'hAaT 3aCeqeHH.
<PH3HqeCKHTe HBJIeHHn, KOHTO ca B OCHOBaTa Ha H3JI'hqBaHeTO, HMaT
pa3JIuqeH xapaKTep, H3THqaHeTO Ha HH<popMaI.(Hn OT BTopuqHHTe H3-
JI'hqBaHHH CTaBa no CBoero pOAa "CHCTeMa 3a Bp'h3Ka", C'hCTOnlIJ,a ce OT
npeAaBaTeJIn (H3TOQHHKa Ha H3JI'hqBaHe), cpeAaTa, B KOHTO ce pa3npoc-
TPaHHBaT H3JI'hQBaHHHTa, H npHeMHHKa. Ta3H "CHCTeMa Ha Bp'h3Ka" e
npHeTO Aa ce HapHqa TeXHHqeCKH KaHaJI 3a H3TuqaHe Ha HH<popMaI.(HH.
TeXHHqeCKHTe KaHaJIH 3a H3TuqaHe Ha HH<popMaI.(HH ce AeJInT Ha:
- paAHOKaHaJIH (eJIeKTpOMarHHTHHTe H3JI'hqBaHHH Ha paAHOAHana-
30Ha);
- eJIeKTPuqeCKH (Hanpe)KeHHeTO Ha TOKa B pa3JIHQHHTe TOKOnpOBO-
MlIJ,H KOMYHHKaI.(HH);
- aK)'CTHQHH (pa3npOCTPaHeHHe Ha 3BYKOBH KOJIe6aHH5I B'hB BceKH
3BYKonpOBOA5IlIJ, MaTepHaJI);
- OnTHQeCKH (eJIeKTPOMarHHTHH H3JI'hqsaHH5I B'hB BHAHMaTa, HH<P-
paQepBeHa H YJITPaBHOJIeTOBa QaCT Ha CneKT'hpa).
VI3TOQHHI.(H Ha H3JI'hQBaHe B TeXHHQeCKHTe KaHaJIH ca pa3Hoo6pa3-
HHTe TeXHHQeCKH cpeACTBa, oco6eHO Te3H, B KOHTO I.(HpK)'JIHpa KOH<pH-
AeHI.(HaJIHa HH<popMaI.(HH. K'hM THX ce OTHacnT:
- Mpe)KaTa 3a 3axpaHBaHe H Ka6eJI'hT 3a 3a3eM5IBaHe;
258 AHATOnl!lIiJ T APAC
- aBTOManlqHlUe Mpe)KM 3a TeJIecpOHHa Bp'b3Ka;
- CMCTeMMTe 3a cpaKC, TeJIeKO,ll;OBa M TeJIerpacpHa Bp'b3Ka;
- Cpe,ll;CTBaTa 3a CMJIHOrOBOp5lmaTa Bp'b3Ka;
- Cpe,ll;CTBaTa 3a 3ByxO- M BM,ll;e03anMC;
- CMCTeMMTe 3a 3BYKOYCMJIBaHe Ha peqTa;
- eJIeKTpOHHOM3qMCJIMTeJIHaTa TeXHMKa;
- eJIeKTpOHHMTe Cpe,ll;CTBa Ha 0cpMCTeXHMKaTa.
OCBeH TOBa Ha U3JI'bqnaHe B TeXHMqeCKMTe KaHaJIM Ha M3m-
qaHe Ha MHcpopMa[(IDI MO)Ke,ll;a 6'b,ll;e rJIaC'bT Ha qOBeK. Cpe,ll;a 3a pa3IIpOC-
TPaHeHMe Ha aKyCnRHliTe M3JI'bqnaHlrn B T03M cnyqaM e B'b3.IJ:YX'bT, a IIpM
3aTBOpeHM IIp030PQM M Bpam - B'b3.IJ:YX'bT M pa3JIuqHliTe 3BYXOIIPOBOM-
mu KOMYHMKaQUM. AKo 3a 3acuqaHe ce M3II0JI3BaT CIIeQMaJIHlI MHKpOCPO-
HM, TO ce 06pa3yna aKyCnJ:qeH KaHaJI 3a M3nJ:qaHe Ha MHCPOPMa[(IDI.
Ba)KHO e ,ll;a ce oT6eJIe)KM, qe TeXHJlqeCKMTe cpe,ll;CTBa He caMO M3-
JI'hqBaT CMrHaJIM B "POCTPaHCTBOTO, KOMTO C'b,ll;'bp)KaT 06pa60TBaHaTa
OT T5IX HO M YJIaB5IT 6JIarO,ll;apeHMe Ha MMKpocpOHMTe MJIM
aHTeHHMTe YCTPOMCTBa ,ll;Pyru M3JI'bqnaHM5I (aKYCTlfqHM, eJIeKTpoMar-
HMTHU), C'bmeCTBYBamu B HeIIOCpe,ll;CTBeHa 6JIM30CT ,ll;0 T5IX. CJIe,ll; KaTO
rM YJIOB5IT, Te IIpe06pa3ynaT "pMemTe M3JI'bqBaHlffi B eJIeKTPuqecKM CMr-
HaJIM M 6e3KOHTPOJIHO rM IIpe,ll;aBaT IIO CBOMTe JIMHMM 3a CBp'b3Ka Ha
3HaqMTeJIHM pa3CT05lHM5I. TOBa ome IIOBeqe YBeJIMqaBa OIIaCHOCTTa OT
H3THqaHe Ha HHcpopMa[(IDI. K'bM TeXHuqeCKMTe YCTPOMCTBa, CIIoc06HH
,ll;a 06pa3ynaT eJIeKTpHqeCKM KaHaJIH 3a H3TuqaHe, ce OTHaC5IT TeJIecpo-
HMTe (oc06eHO C 6YTOHH), ,ll;aTqHU;HTe 3a oxpaHa M IIO)KapHa CHrHaJIM3a-
U;M5I, JIHHMMTe MM H eJIeKTPOIIpOBO,ll;MMaTa Mpe)Ka.
3a C'b3,ll;aBaHe Ha CMCTeMa 3a 3amuTa Ha 06eKTa OT M3TuqaHe Ha MH-
cpopMaU;M5I IIO TeXHuqeCKM KaHaJIM Tp5l6Ba ,ll;a ce "pOBe,ll;aT pe,ll;Uu;a Me-
pOIIpM51TM5I. I1pe,ll;M TP5I6Ba ,ll;a ce IIpOaHaJIH3MpaT CIIeU;McpuqHM-
Te OC06eHOCTH Ha pa3IIOJIO)KeHMeTO Ha Crpa,ll;aTa, IIOMemeHM5ITa B He5l,
OKOJIHaTa TepHTOpM51 M "poKapaHMTe KOMYHMKaU;HM. CJIe,ll; TOBa e He06-
XO,ll;MMO ,ll;a ce OT,ll;eJI5IT Te3M IIOMemeHM5I, B'bB B'bTPellIHoCTTa Ha KOMTO
U;MPKYJIMpa KOHcpM,ll;eHU;MaJIHa MHcpOpMaU;M5I, M ,ll;a ce IIpeu;eH51T TeXHM-
qeCKHTe cpe,ll;CTBa, H3II0JI3BaHM B T5IX. CJIe,ll;BaT TeXHMqeCKMTe MepOII-
pmITHH:
- ,ll;a ce IIpOBepM M3II0JI3BaHaTa TeXHMKa ,ll;aJIM BTOPfIqRO M3JI'bqBa ,ll;o
,ll;OIIycmMoTo paBHMme;
-,ll;a ce eKpaHMpaT CTaMTe C TeXHHKa MJIM Ta3H TeXHMKa B CTaMTe;
- ,ll;a ce IIpeMOHTHpaT OT,ll;eJIHM BepHrM, JIHHMM, Ka6eJIM;
- ,ll;a ce M3IIOJI3BaT CIIeU;HaJIHM YCTpOMCTBa H cpe,ll;CTBa 3a IIaCMBHa U
aKTMBHa 3aIUHTa.
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm
259
Ba)KHO e ,ll;a ce IIO,ll;qepTae, qe Ha BceKM MeTO,ll; 3a IIOJIyqaBaHe Ha
MHcpopMaU;M51 IIO TeXHMqeCKM KaHaJIM Ha M3TMqaHe C'bmecTBYBa MeTO,ll;
3a "POTMBO,ll;eMCTBMe, qeCTO He caMO e,ll;MH, KOMTO MO)Ke ,ll;a CBe,ll;e 3aII-
JIaXaTa ,ll;0 MMHMMYM. I1PM TOBa YCIIeX'bT 3aBMCM OT ,ll;Ba cpaKTopa - OT
BarnaTa KOMIIeTeHTHOCT IIO B'bIIpOCMTe Ha 3amMTaTa Ha HHcpopMall;M5l-
Ta (HJIM OT KOMIIeTeHTHOCTTa Ha JIMu;aTa, KOMTO ce 3aHMMaBaT C Ta3H
pa60Ta) M OT HaJIMqHOTO 060pY,ll;BaHe, He06xo,ll;MMO 3a 3amUTHM Me-
pOIIpM51TM5I. I1'bpBM51T cpaKTOp e IIO-Ba)KeH OT BTOPM51, 3amOTO M HaM-
C'bB'bprneHaTa aIIaparypa me OCTaHe M'bpTBa r<yrrqHHa B p'bu;eTe Ha ,ll;U-
JIeTaHT.
B KaKBM CJIyqaM e u;eJIeC'b06pa3HO ,ll;a ce "pMJIaraT 3aIUHTHH MepKH
IIpOTMB TeXHuqeCKO IIpOHMKBaHe? I1pe,ll;M TaKaBa pa60Ta TP5I6Ba
,ll;a ce OC'bmeCTBHBa IIpeBaHTMBHO, 6e3 ,ll;a ce qaKa ,ll;a "IIa,ll;He rp'bM".
POJI5ITa Ha IIo,ll;6Y)K,ll;am MOTMB MoraT ,ll;a M3Mrpa5lT CBe,ll;eHM5ITa 3a M3-
THqaHe Ha MHcpopMaU;M5ITa, K05lTO ce 06c'b)K,ll;a B KOHKpeTHO IIOMeme-
HMe Ha T5ICHa rpy"a JIMu;a, MJIH 06pa60TeHaTa C KOHKpeTHH TeXHMqeC-
KH cpe,ll;CTBa. TJIaC'bK 3a ,ll;eMCTBMe MoraT ,ll;a CTaHa CJIe,ll;HTe, KOMTO
CBM,ll;eTeJICTBaT 3a "pOHMKBaHe Ha B'bHrnHM JIMu;a B'bB BarnaTa cpHpMa
MJIM H5IKaKBM CTPaHHM 5IBJIeHM5I, CB'bp3aHM C M3IIOJI3BaHaTa TeXHMKa
(HaIIpMMep IIO,ll;03pMTeJIeH rnYM B TeJIecpOHa).
KoraTo OC'bmeCTB5IBaTe KOMIIJIeKC OT 3amMTHM MepKM, He ce CTa-
paMTe,ll;a OCHrypMTe 3amMTaTa Ha ll;5IJIaTa crpa,ll;a. HaM-rJIaBHOTO e,ll;a
OrpaHMqMTe ,ll;OCT'bIIa B Te3M MeCTa M ,ll;0 Ta3M TeXHMKa, K'b,ll;eTO e C'bC-
pe,ll;OTOqeHa KOHcpM,ll;eHU;HaJIHaTa MHcpopMaU;M5I (KaTO He 3a6paB5ITe,
pa36Mpa ce, 3a B'b3MO)KHOCTHTe M MeTO,ll;MTe Ha ,ll;MCTaHU;MOHHOTO ir
nOJIyqaBaHe). B qaCTHOCT H3IIOJI3BaHe Ha KaqeCTBeHM KJIlOqaJIKM, cpe,ll;-
CTBa 3a CHrHaJIM3aU;M5I, ,ll;06pa 3BYKOH30JIaU;H5I Ha CTeHMTe, BpaTMTe,
TaBaHMTe U nO,ll;a, 3BYKOBa 3amMTa Ha BeHTMJIaU;MOHHHTe KaHaJIU, OT-
BepCTM5I U TP'b6H, KOHTO MMHaBaT IIpe3 Te3M IIOMemeHM5I, ,ll;eMOHTa)K
Ha H3JIUrnHMTe Ka6eJIM, a C'bmO M U3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha CIIeU;MaJIHMYCT-
pOMCTBa (reHepaTOpu Ha rnyM, aIIapaTypa 3AC H ,ll;p.) cepM03Ho 3aT-
pY,ll;H5IBaT MJIU IIpaB5IT 6e3CMMCJIeHM OIIMTMTe 3a BHe,ll;p.HBaHe Ha CIIe-
U;MaJIHa TeXHMKa.
MMeHHo 3aTOBa 3a pa3pa60TKa U peaJIM3aU;H5I Ha MepOIIpM5ITM51Ta IIO
3amMTa Ha MHcpopMaU;M51Ta OT M3TUqaHe IIO TeXHuqeCKM KaHaJIM TP.H6Ba
,ll;a ce KaH51T KBaJIMcpMQMpaHM CIIeU;UaJIMCTM MJIM ,ll;a ce IIO,ll;rOTB5IT c06c-
TBeHM Ka,ll;pM IIO C'bOTBeTHMTe IIporpaMM B C'bOTBeTHMTe yqe6HM u;eHT-
pOBe.
3a KpaTKOCT me ce ,ll;OrOBOpMM, qe a6peBMarypaTa TCI1M 03HaqaBa
TeXHuqeCKM Cpe,ll;CTBa 3a npe,ll;aBaHe Ha MHcpopMall,M51.
260 AHATOnvllil T APAC
3a3eMRBaHe Ha TCn/ll
EP;HO OT HaM-Ba)KHlITe YCJIOBH5I 3a 3aW:HTa Ha TCITil e npaBHJIHOTO
3a3eM5IBaHe Ha Te3H YCTpOMCTBa. Ha npaKTHKa npep;H BCHqKO ce HaJIara
p;a ce pa60m C pap;HaJIHa CHCTeMa 3a 3a3eM5IBaHe, K05ITO HMa nO-MaJIKO
06W:H 3a npOTmaHe Ha CHrHaJIHH H 3axpaHBarn:H TOKOBe B
06paTHa nOCOKa (OT TCITil KbM CTpaHmHH5I Ha6JIIop;aTeJI).
Tp5I6Ba p;a ce HMa npep;BHp;, qe I1IHHaTa 3a 3a3eM5IBaHe H 3a3eM5IBa-
W:H5IT KOHryp He Tp5I6Ba p;a HMaT npHMKa, a ce H3nbJIH5IBaT BbB BHP; Ha
pa3KJIOHeHO P;bPBO, Kbp;eTO CbnpOTHBJIeHHeTO Ha KOHrypa He npeBH-
I1IaBa ep;HH OM. TOBa H3HCKBaHe ce yp;OBJIeTBOp5IBa C H3nOJI3BaHeTO KaTO
3a3eMHTeJI nbJIHHTeJI OT MeTaJI, KOMTO HMa BHCOKa eJIeKrponpoBop;H-
MOCT, KoraTO ca nOTbHaJIH B 3eM5ITa H ca Cbep;HHeHH C MeTaJIHHTe KOH-
Ha TCITil. TOBa ca npe)J;H BCHqKO BepTHKaJIHO 3a6HTH B 3e-
M5ITa CTOMaHeHH TPb6H C p;bJI)KHHa 2-3 MeTpa H p;HaMeTbp 35-50 MM.
Tpb6HTe ca nOp;XOMrn:H, 3aW:OTO MoraT p;a P;OCTHTHaT BJIa)KHHTe CJIoe-
Be Ha nOqBaTa, a Te npHTe)KaBaT MHoro BHCOKa npOBop;lfMOCT If He ca
lf3JIO)KeHH Ha onaCHOCTTa p;a H3CbXHaT lfJIlf lf3Mpb3HaT. OCBeH TOBa
lf3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha rpb6lfTe He e CBbp3aHO CbC 3HaqlfTeJIHH H3KOrrqHMC-
KIf pa60Tlf.
CbnpOmBJIeHHeTO Ha 3a3eM5IBaHeTO ce onpep;eJI5I rrpep;lf qpe3
CbnpOTHBJIeHlfeTO Ha lf3THqaw:H5I B 3eM5ITa TOK. To MO)Ke p;a ce HaMaJIlf
3HaqHTeJIHO 3a CMeTKa Ha HaMaJI5IBaHeTO Ha npexop;HoTO cbnpOmBJIe-
Hlfe (Me)KP;Y 3a3eMHTeJI5I H nOqBaTa) qpe3 cTapaTeJIHO nOqlfCTBaHe Ha
Ha Tpb6aTa OT KaJI If pb)Kp;a, nOClfnBaHe Ha 5IMaTa no
If BlfCOqlfHa C rOTBapcKa COJI If rpaM60BaHe Ha nOqBaTa OKOJIO
BC5IKa rpb6a. 3a3eMlfTeJIlfTe (rpb6lfTe) rp5I6Ba p;a ce Cbep;lfH5IBaT no-
Me)K,D;y Clf C I1IlfHH, KOlfTO ce 3aBap5IBaT. CeqeHHeTO Ha I1IlfHlfTe If Ma-
rlfCTpaJIlfTe Ha 3a3eM5IBaHe 3a p;oCTlfraHe Ha MeXaHHqHa 3p;paBlfHa If
p;06pa npoBop;HMOCT ce npenOpbqBa p;a e He nO-MaJIKO OT 24 Ha 4 MM.
MarlfcrpaJIHTe Ha 3a3eM5IBaHe H3BbH crpap;aTa rp5I6Ba p;a ce npOKO-
naBaT Ha p;bJI60qlfHa OKOJIO 1,5 Merpa, a BbTpe B crpap;aTa - no CTeHlf-
Te HJIH B KaHaJIlf, 3a p;a MoraT pep;oBHo p;a ce npOBep5IBaT.
).J;a ce Cbep;HWlBaT MarlfCTpaJIHTe CbC 3a3eMHTeJIlfTe caMO C nOMOW:Ta
Ha 3aBap5IBaHe, a KbM TCITil MarlfcrpaJIaTa ce BKJIIOqBa 60JITOBO Cbe-
p;HHeHlfe B ep;Ha TOqKa. B CJIyqaM qe KbM MarlfcrpaJIaTa Ha 3a3eM5IBaHe
ce BKJIIOqaT H5IKOJIKO TCITil, Te Tp5I6Ba p;a ce Cbep;lfH5IBaT C He5I napa-
JIeJIHO (npH nOCJIep;OBaTeJIHOTO Cbep;HHeHlfe BKJIIOqBaHeTO Ha ep;HOTO
TCITil MO)Ke p;a p;OBep;e p;o Ha BCHqKlf OCTaHaJIlf). ITplf
npoKapBaHe Ha 3a3eM5IBaHeTO Ha TCITH He rp5I6Ba p;a ce nplfJIaraT ec-
Hapb4HUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 261
TeCTBeHH 3a3eMHTeJIlf: MeTaJIHHTe Ha crpap;lfTe, KOHTO
ce Cbep;HH5IBaT CbC 3eM5ITa, npoKapaHHTe B 3eM5ITa MeTaJIHH rpb6lf,
MeTaJIHHTe 06BHBKH Ha nop;3eMHHTe Ka6eJIlf.
Tp5I6Ba p;a ce lf3n0JI3BaT <pOPMYJIH H nplf H3qIfC-
JI5IBaHeTO Ha 3a3eM5IBarn:H ycrpoMCTBa.
Mpe)f(oBu l/JuAmpu
IT05IBaTa Ha nop;CJIYIlIBaTeJIH B Mpe)KlfTe Ha 3axpaHBaHe Ha TCITH
e CBbp3aHO npep;lf BcmKO C TOBa, qe Te ca BKJIIOqeHH KbM 06W:HTe JIH-
Hlflf Ha 3axpaHBaHe. Mpe)KOBHTe <plfJITPlf H3nbJIH5IBaT )];Be <pyHKIJ;Hlf B
JIlfHlfHTe Ha 3axpaHBaHe Ha TCITH: 3aW:HTa Ha anaparypaTa OT BbHIII-
Hlf lfMrryJICHlf CMyw:eHlf5I H 3aW:lfTa OT cMYrn:eHH5I, KOlfTO C'b3p;aBa ca-
MaTa anaparypa. Ep;HO<pa3HaTa ClfCTeMa Ha pa3npep;eJIeHlfe Ha eJIeKT-
pOeHeprH5ITa rp5I6Ba p;a ce OCbw:eCTB5IBa qpe3 TpaHC<popMaTOp CbC 3a-
3eMeHa cpep;Ha TOqKa, rplf<pa3HaTa - C BHCOKOBOJITOB nOHlf)KaBaw: rpaH-
c<popMaTOp.
ITPlf lf360pa Ha <plfJIrplf rpH6Ba p;a ce OrqlfTa: HOMlfHaJIHHTe 03Ha-
qeHlfH Ha TOKa If Hanpe)KeHlfeTO BbB BeplfraTa Ha 3axpaHBaHe, CbW:O If
p;orrycmMlfTe 03HaqeHH5I Ha nap;aHe Ha Hanpe)KeHHeTO Ha <plfJITbpa nplf
MaKCHMaJIHO HaToBapBaHe; p;onycTHMlfTe 03HaqeHH5I Ha peaKTHBHaTa
CbCTaBJI5IBaw:a Ha TOKa Ha OCHOBHaTa qeCTOTa Ha Hanpe)KeHlfeTO Ha 3ax-
paHBaHeTo; He06xop;lfMOTO 3aTHXBaHe Ha <plfJITbpa; MeXaHmHlfTe xa-
paKTeplfcTlfKIf Ha cplfJITbpa (pa3Mep, Maca, THn Ha Kopnyca, HaqHH Ha
MOHTlfpaHe); CTeneH Ha eKpaHlfpaHe Ha cplfJITbpa OT crpaHmHlf nOJIe-
Ta.
B'bB BeplfrlfTe Ha 3axpaHBaHe CPlfJITplfTe MoraT p;a lfMaT CbBceM
MacaTa HM ce KOJIe6ae OT 0,5 p;o 90 Kr, a 06e-
MbT lfM OT 0,8 p;o 1,6 Ky6. CM.
Ha cplfJIT'bpa rp5I6Ba p;a OClfryp5IBa Cbw:eCTBeHO CHlf-
)KeHlfe Ha BepOHTHOCTTa OT Bb3HlfKBaHe Bbrpe B Kopnyca Ha crpaHHq-
HH Bp'b3Klf Me)Kp;y Bxop;a H lf3xop;a Me)Kp;y MarHHTHlf, eJIeKTpmeCKH
lfJIH eJIeKTpOMarHHTHH nOJIeTa.
EKpaHlfpaHe Ha IIOMem:eHlfHTa. 3a p;a ce OTcrpaH5IT CMYrn:eHlf5ITa
B nOMew:eHlf5ITa OT TCITH, qHHTO JIHHlfH lf3JIH3aT OT npep;eJIlfTe Ha
KOHrpOJIlfpyeMaTa 30Ha, Tp5I6Ba He caMO p;a ce 3arJIyIIIaT B lf3JIH3aW:lf-
Te OT H3TOqHHKa Ka6eJIlf, HO H p;a ce OrpaHHqIf C<pepaTa Ha p;eMCTBlfe Ha
eJIeKTpOMarHHTHOTO nOJIe, Cb3p;aBaHO B CHCTeMaTa OT B'brpelliHaTa
eJIeKrpOMpe)Ka. Ta3lf 3ap;aqa ce pelliaBa qpe3 eKpaHlfpaHe.
TeopeTHqHo, OT rJIep;Ha TOqKa Ha CTOMHocTTa Ha MaTeplfaJIa H JIec-
262
AHATom11ii T APAC
HOTaTa Ha npaBeHe, npe,n:HMCTBaTa ca Ha CTpaHaTa Ha eKpaHH OT JIHC-
TOBa CTOMaHa. Ho H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha Mpe)KH 3Ha'IHTeJIHO OnpOCT5IBa
B'bnpOCa 3a BeRTHJIan;H5ITa H OCBeT5IBaHeTO. 3a,n:a ce pernH B'bnpOC'bT 3a
MaTepHaJIa Ha eKpaHa, Tp5l6Ba ,n:a ce 3Hae KOJIKO n'bTH Tp5l6Ba ,n:a ce
HaMaJIH paBHH.r.u;eTO Ha H3JI'b'IBaHe OT TCIIM. HaH-'IeCTO e Me)K,!l;Y 10 H
30 ll'hTH. TaKaBa e<peKTHBHOCT oCHryp5lBa eKpaH'bT, HanpaBeH OT e,n:H-
HH'IHa Me,n:Ha Mpe)Ka C KJIeTKa 2,4 MM HJIH OT T'bHKOJIHCTHa nOn;HHKOBa-
Ha CTOMaHa C .n;e6eJIHHa 0,51 MM H nOBe'Ie.
MeTaJIHHTe JIHCTOBe (HJIH nJIaTHa Ha Mpe)KaTa) Tp5l6Ba ,n:a 6'b,n:aT
eJIeKTpH'IeCKH 3.n;paBo C'be,n:HHeHH rroMe)K)J;y CH rro n;eJIH5I nepHMeT'bp,
3a .n;a oCHryp5lT eJIeKTp03aBapKaTa HJIH cnoHKaTa. BpaTHTe Ha nOMe-
.r.u;eHH5ITa C'b.r.U;O Tp5l6Ba ,n:a ce eKpaHHpaT, C oCHryp5lBaHe Ha Ha,n:e)K,n:eH
eJIeKTpoKoHTaKT C paMKaTa Ha BpaTaTa rro n;eJIH5I rrepHMeT'bp He rro-
Hap5l.D;KO OT 10-15 MM. IIpHJIara ce npY)KHHHO rpe6eH'Ie OT <poc<popeH
6POH3, KaTO ce 3aKpenBa no n;eJIH5I B'bTperneH rrepHMeT'bp Ha paMKaTa
Ha BpaTaTa. AKo B rroMe.r.u;eHHeTo HMa np030pn;H, Te ce rrOKpHBaT C e,n:HH
HJIH ,n:Ba CJI051 Me,n:Ha Mpe)Ka C KBa,n:paT'Ie He rrOBe'Ie OT 2 Ha 2 MM, rrpH
TOBa pa3CT05lHHeTO Me)K)J;y CJIOeBeTe Ha Mpe)KHTe He Tp5l6Ba ,n:a 6'b,n:e
rrO-MaJIKO OT 50 MM. ABaTa CJI051 Tp5l6Ba ,n:a HMaT ,n:06'bp eJIeKTpOKOH-
TaKT C'bC CTeHaTa Ha rrOMe.r.u;eHHeTO 'Ipe3 C'b.r.u;OTO rpe6eH'Ie OT <pOC<p
O
-
peH 6POH3 HJIH cnOHKa (aKO Mpe)KaTa He MO)Ke,n:a ce CBaJI5I).
B 3aBHCHMOCT OT rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'IeHHeTO Ha eKpaHHpaHOTO rrOMe.r.u;eHHe,
OT HaJIH'IHeTO Ha cB06o,n:Ha rrJIo.r.u; H CTOHHOCTTa Ha pa60TaTa ce orrpe-
,n:eJI5IT H pa3MepHTe My. 06HKHOBeHO e ,n:OCTaT'b'IHO ,n:a HMa nOMe.r.u;emte
C rrJIo.r.u; OT 6-8 KB. M rrpH BHCO'IHHa 2,5-3 MeTpa.
3aI.QHTa Ha TeJIe!>oHHTe H !>aKcoBeTe. KaKTo BC5IKO eJIeKTpOHHO
YCTpOUCTBO TeJIe<poH'bT H <PaKC'bT, a c'b.r.u;o H TeXHHTe Ka6eJIH, H3JI'b'IBaT
B OTKPHTOTO npocTpaHcTBo rrOJIe B ,n:Hana30Ha Ha 'IeCTOTH.n;O 150 MHz.
3a,n:a ce 3arJIyrnaT Han'bJIHO BCH'IKH H3JI'b'IBaHH5I OT Te3H TCIIM, Tp5l6-
Ba .n;a ce OT<pHJITpHpaT H3JI'b'IBaHH5ITa B Ka6eJIHTe Ha MHKpOTeJIe<poHa,
B Ka6eJIHTe, KOHTO H3JIH3aT OT arrapaTa, H ,n:a ce oCHrypH ,n:OCTaT'b'IHa
eKpaHHpoBKa Ha B'bTpernHaTa cxeMa Ha anapaTa. M e,n:HOTO, H ,n:PyroTo
e B'b3MO)KHO caMO 'Ipe3 rrpepa60TKa Ha KOHCTpYKn;H5ITa Ha arrapaTHTe H
H3MeH5IHe Ha eJIeKTpH'IeCKHTe HM napaMeTpH. C ,n:pyrH .D;yMH, H3HCKBa
ce ,n:a ce 3a.r.u;HT5IT BepHraTa Ha MHKPO<pOHa, BepI1:raTa Ha 3B'bHen;a H
,n:BYKa6eJIHaTa JIHHH5I Ha TeJIe<pOHHaTa Bp'b3Ka. JICHO e, 'Ie caMO cnen;H-
aJIHCTH MoraT ,n:a H3B'bprnaT rrOCO'IeHHTe MepOnpH51TH5I, KaTO H3rrOJI3.,
BaT C'bOTBeTHOTO 060py,n:BaHe H CTaH,n:apTHH cxeMH. C'b.r.u;OTO ce OTHa-
C5I H 3a rrp06JIeMa C'bC 3aIlIHTaTa Ha JIHHHHTe 3a CBp'b3Ka, KOHTO H3JIH-
3aT H3B'bH rrpe,n:eJIa Ha nOMe.r.u;eHH5ITa C arrapaTHTe.
Hapbl{HUK 3a pa3yJHa6aHe U CU2ypHocm 263
HaKpaTKO Ka3aHO, T03H rrp06JIeM e MHoro cepH03eH, 3a.r.u;OTO rro-
.n;06HH JIHHHH Ha rrpaKTHKa ca BHHarH 6e3KOHTpOJIHH H KOM T5IX MoraT
.n;a ce BKJIlO'IaT HaH-pa3Ho06pa3HH cpe,n:CTBa 3a CHeMaHe Ha HH<popMa-
n;H5I. MMa ,n:Ba rr'bT5I: rr'bpBH5IT e ,n:a ce H3rrOJI3BaT Crren;HaJIHH Ka6eJIH
(eKpaHHpaH 6H<pHJI5IP, TpHqmwp, KOKCHaJIeH Ka6eJI, eKpaHHpaH nJIO-
C'bK Ka6eJI). BTOPH5IT - CHCTeMHO ,n:a ce npOBep5lBa C'bC CrreIJ;HaJIHa arra-
, parypa HMa JIH BKJIlO'IBaHe Ha rro,n:cnylllBaTeJIHH YCTpOUCTBa. OrKPH-
BaHeTO Ha OT6HTH CHrHaJIH 06HKHOBeHO CTaBa Ha rpaHHIJ;aTa Ha KORT-
pOJIHpyeMaTa 30Ha HJIH Ha KOMYTan;HOHHHTe (npeBKJIlO'IBaIlIH) YCTpOHC-
TBa, HJIH Ha KOMyTan;HOHHHTe YCTpOUCTBa B p03eTKHTe HJIH pa3npe,n:e-
JIHTeJIHHTe lllKa<pOBe. CJIe,n: TOM HJIH ce onpe,n:eJIH KOHKpeTHOTO MHCTO
Ha BKJIlO'IBaHe, HJIH (aKO TaKOBa onpe,n:eJIHHe e HeB'b3MO)KHO) nOCTaB5IT
rnyMoBa 3aIlIHTa.
Hau-e<peKTHBeH Ha'IHH Ha 3a.r.u;HTa Ha HH<popMaIJ;H5lTa, rrpe.n;aBaHa
no TeJIe<pOH HJIH <paKC, e H3rr0JI3BaHeTO Ha 3AC (3aceKpeTHBalIJ;a ana-
parypa 3a CBp'b3Ka). Ha 3arra.n; TaKMBa YCTpOHCTBa ce HapH'IaT cKpeM6-
JIepH. E,n:HH OT HaH-.n;06pHTe arrapaTH OT T03H THn HMa CJIe.n;HHTe ra6a-
pHTH: 26,5 Ha 16 CM Ha 5 CM, Maca 1,3 Kr. MOlIJ;HOCT H ~ nOTpe6JIeHHe
He rrOBe'Ie OT 5 BaTa. B cTpaHHTe Ha OHA (PYCHH, YKpaHHa) ce rrpoH3-
Be)K.n;aT 3AC Ha paBHHlI(eTO Ha HaH-BHCOKMTe Me)K)J;YHapo.n;HH H3HCK-
BaHHH.
3aI.QHTa Ha Brpa,LJ.eHHTe H THCHO HaCO'leHH MHKP0!>OHH. MHK-
po<poHHTe, KaKTO e H3BeCTHO, rrpe06pa3YBaT 3ByKa B eJIeKTpH'IeCKH
CHrHaJI. B C'bBt<yrrHocT C'bC Crren;HaJIHH YCHJIBaTeJIH H <pHJITpH Te MoraT
)J;a ce H3rr0JI3BaT KaTO rrO)J;CJIYlllBaTeJIHH YCTpOUCTBa. 3a Ta3H n;eJI ce
C'b3)J;aBa CKpHTa Ka6eJIHa JIHHH5I 3a Bp'b3Ka, KOHTO MO)Ke )J;a 6'b)J;e OTKPH-
Ta caMO 'Ipe3 <pH3H'IeCKO T'bpCeHe HJIH (KoeTO e rrO-CJIO)KHO) 'Ipe3 KOHT-
POJIHII H3MepBaHHH Ha CHrHaJIHTe B'bB BCH'IKH Ka6eJIH, KOHTO ca B no-
MelI(eHHeTO. MeTO)J;HTe 3a pa)J;HOKOHTpOJI, KOHTO ca e<peKTHBHH 3a T'bp-
ceHe Ha pa)J;H03arJIYlllaBaHe, B T03H CJIyqaH ca 6e3CMHCJIeHH.
OCBeH YJIaBHHeTO Ha 3ByKOBH KOJIe6aHHH Crren;HaJIHHTe MHKPO<p
OHH
CTeTOCKorrH MHoro )J;o6pe B'b3rrpHeMaT 3Byn;HTe, KOHTO ce pa3rrpOCTpa-
HHBaT rro CTpOHTeJIHHTe KOHCTpyKIJ;HH Ha crpa)J;aTa. C THXHa rrOMOlIJ; ce
OC'blI(eCTBHBa rrO)J;CJIYlllBaHe npe3 CTeHHTe, np030pIJ;HTe, BpaTHTe. M
HaKpM, HMa pe,n:Hn;a MO)J;H<pHKan;HH Ha TeCHocneIJ;HaJIH3HpaHIiTe MHK-
PO<p
OHH
, KOHTO B'b3rrpHeMaT H YCHJIBaT e)J;HorrOCO'IHHTe 3BYIJ;H, KaTO
oTcJIa6BaT BCH'IKH OCTaHaJIH. TaKHBa MHKPO<pOHH HMaT <popMa Ha )J;'bJI-
ra Tp'b6H'IKa HJIH Ha napa60JIH'IHa 'IIIHHH C KOnyc KOHn;eHTpaTOp. T ~
YJIaB5IT 3ByIJ;HTe Ha 'IOBelllKH rJIac Ha pa3CT05lHlIe)J;0 e,n:HH KMJIOMeT'bp.
264
AHATOmH1 T APAC
3a 3am;I1Ta OT TeCHOCrreU;lIaJIII3JIpaHJ1Te MlIKpOCPOHJI MOraT ,n;a ce
rrperrOp'bqaT CJIe,n;HlITe MepKlI:
- BCJIqKJI pa3rOBOpli ,n;a ce rrpOBe)K,n;aT B CTalI, KOliTO ca 1I30JIlipaHli
OT C'bCe,n;HlITe rrOMem;eHlI7I, rrpli 3aTBOpeHlI BpaTlI, rrp030pU;1I, MaJIKlI
rrp030pqeTa, C'bC CrrYCHaTli rrJI'bTHli m;Opli. CTeHlITe C'bm;O Tp7I6Ba ,n;a ca
1I30JIlipaHli OT C'bCe,n;HlITe Crpa,n;lI;
- rrO,n;OBeTe 1I TaBaHlITe Yp7I6Ba ,n;a ca 1I30JIlipaHli OT He)KeJIaTeJIHO
C'bCe,n;CTBO B'bB BlI,n; Ha areHTli C MlIKpOCPOHli 1I ,n;pyra arraparypa 3a rro,n;-
CJIYUlBaHe;
- He Bo,n;eTe Ba)KHlI pa3rOBopli Ha YJIlIu;aTa, B rpa,n;lIHKlI 1I ,n;pyrlI OT-
KpliTlI MeCTa, He3aBliCliMO ,n;aJIli ce,n;lITe, lIJIli ce pa3XO)K,D;aTe;
- B peCTopaHTa, B ,n;pyro 3aTBopeHO rrOMem;eHlIe 1I3B'bH ocplIca, aKO
ce HaJIO)KlI,n;a 06MeIDITe KOHcplI,n;eHU;lIaJIHa lIHcpopMaU;lI7I, P7I3KO (HeOqaK-
BaHO 3a Te31I, KOliTO Bli CJIeMT) CMeHeTe rrOMem;eHlIeTO C TaKOBa, Koe-
TO e rro,n; KOHYpOJIa Ha BaIIIaTa cJIY)K6a 3a oxpaHa (HarrpliMep OT,n;eJIeH
Ka61IHeT, 3arra3eH rrpe,n;BaplITeJIHO qpe3 rrapTHbop, B KorOTO CTe clIry-
peH, lIJIli qpe3 rrOMOm;HlIK);
- rrOMHeTe, qe orrlITliTe ,n;a ce 3arJIyrnli pa3rOBOp'bT C'bC 3ByU;1I Ha
Bo,n;a, K07ITO Teqe OT KpaHa (liJIli OT cpOHTaH), He ca ecpeKTlIBHlI;
- aKO HerrpeMeHHO Yp7I6Ba Hem;O ,n;a C'b06m;lITe lIJIli ,n;a qyeTe, a IDI-
MaTe rapaHU;lI7I, qe He Bli rro,n;CJIyIIIBaT, rOBopeTe IIIerrHeIIIKOM HarrpaBO
Ha YXOTO Ha rrapTHbopa lIJIli HaUlIIIIeTe C'b06m;eHlIeTO Ha JIlICTqe, KoeTO
CJIe,n; UpOqlITaHe ce 1I3rap7I.
3am;HTa OT Jla3epHH no,n;CJlYIIIBaTeJlHH YCTpoiicTBa. JIa3epliTe
ca TaKliBa YCYpoiicTBa, B KOliTO rrpe,n;aBaHeTO 1I rrOJIyqaBaHeTO Ha lIH-
cpopMaU;lI7I ce OC'bm;eCTB7IBa B OrrTlIqHlI7I ,D;lIarra30H. Te31I YCYpoikTBa ca
MaJIora6apliTHli 1I lIKOHOMlIqHlI, om;e rrOBeqe qe KaTO rrplIeMHlIK Hep7I,n;-
KO ce lI3rrOJ13BaT cpoTo06eKTlIBli C rOJI7IMO CPOryCHO pa3CT07IHlIe, KoeTO
,n;aBa B'b3MO)KHOCT ,n;a ce XBam;aT ClirHaJIli OT rOJIeMli pa3CT07IHlI7I.
IIplIHU;lIrr'bT Ha ,n;eiiCTBlie Ha JIa3epHlITe YCTpOHCTBa ce C'bCTOli B
1I3rrpam;aHe Ha COH,n;lIpam; JI'bq rro rrOCOKa Ha 1I3TOqHlIKa Ha 3BYKa 1I rrplI-
eMaHeTO Ha T031I JI'bq CJIe,n; OTpa35IBaHeTO y OT H7IKaKBli npe,n;MeTli.
Te31I rrpe,n;MeTlI, B1I6plIpam;1I rro,n; ,n;eHCTBlieTO Ha OKOJIHlITe 3BYU;1I KaTO
cBoe06pa3HlI MeM6paHlI, MoraT ,n;a 6'b,n;aT CT'bKJIa Ha rrp030pU;lITe, IIIKa-
cpOBeTe, orJIe,n;aJIaTa, C'b,n;OBeTe 1I ,n;p. C KOJIe6aHlI7ITa Cli Te Mo,n;YJIlipaT
JIa3epHlI5I JI'bq, KOHTO, YJIOBeH qpe3 rrplIeMHlIK, MO)Ke ,n;a B'b3CTaHOBli
3BYU;lITe Ha peqTa. Pa3rrpOCTpaHeHlITe ,n;Hec JIa3epHli YCYpOHCTBa MO-
raT CB060,n;HO ,n;a rro,n;CJIYIIIBaT qOBeIIIKaTa peq rrpe3 3aTBopeHlI rrp030p-
U;1I C ,n;BOHHlI paMKlI Ha pa3CT07IHlIe ,n;o 250 M.
HaH-rrpocT 1I B C'bm;OTO BpeMe MHoro clirypeH MeTO,n; 3a 3am;lITa OT
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUzypHocm 265
JIa3epHli YCYpoHcTBa e C'b3,n;aBaHeTO Ha 3arJIyrnlITeJIli C rrOMOm;Ta Ha
rrlIe30eJIeMeHTli. IIlIe30eJIeMeHThT Kapa CThKJIOTO ,n;a YperrTlI C rro-ro-
JI5IMa aMrrJIlIry,n;a, OTKOJIKOTO e r JIaC'bT Ha qOBeKa, rropa,n;lI KoeTO aMrr-
JIlIry,n;aTa Ha BlI6paIJ;lI5I Ha CThKJIOTO lI3KJIlOqBa rro,n;CJIYIIIBaHeTo.
TbpceHe Ha pa)J,HonpeXBam;a'lH. Pa,D;lIOrrpeXBam;aqlITe 3aeMaT BO-
,n;e+IJ;o M5ICTO cpe,n; cpe,n;cTBaTa Ha TeXHlIqeCKlI7I IIIrrlIOHa)K. liMa pa3-
JIlIqHlI KOHCTPYKu;lIlI, OT HaH-rrpOCTlI ,n;o HaH-CJIO)KHlI (c ,n;lICTaHU;lIOHHO
yrrpaBJIeHlIe, ClICTeMa 3a HaTpyrrBaHe Ha ClirHaJIlI, CliCTeMa 3a rrpe,n;a-
BaHe Ha ClirHaJIlI B c6lIT BlI,n; Ha KpaTKlI ceplIlI).
3a rrOBlIIIIaBaHe Ha CeKpeTHOCTTa MOIIJ;HOCTTa Ha pa,n;lIorrpeXBam;aqa
e MaJIKa, HO ,n;OCTaThqHa ,n;a YJIOBli BliCOKOqYSCTBlITeJIHlI pa,n;lIorrplIeM-
HlIU;lI Ha HerOJI5IMO pa3CT07IHlIe. Pa60THaTa qeCTOTa 3a rrOBHIIIaBaHe Ha
ceKpeTHocTTa MHoro qeCTO ce 1I36lIpa 6JI1I3Ka ,n;o Hocem;aTa qeCTOTa
Ha MOm;Ha pa,D;lIOCTaHU;lI5I. MlIKpocpoHliTe MoraT ,n;a 6'b)J,aT KaKTO Brpa-
,n;eHlI, TaKa 1I rrpeHOClIMli. Te ca ,n;Ba Tlirra: (T. e. qyBcTBlITeJI-
Hli K'bM rJIaCOBe Ha xopa) lIJIli BlI6paU;1I0HHlI (rrpe06pa3ysam;1I B eJIeKT-
plIqeCKlI ClirHaJIlI KOJIe6aH1I5ITa, KOliTO B'b3HlIKBaT OT qOBeIIIKaTa peq B
pa3Hoo6pa3HlI TB'bp,n;lI KOHCYpyKU;lIlI). Pa,n;lIorrpeXBam;a'llITe HaH-qeCTO
pa60T5IT Ha BlICOKli qeCTOTlI (rroBeqe OT 300 kHz).
Ho liMa 1I TaKlIBa YCYpOHCTBa, KOlITO pa60T5IT B HlICKOqeCTOTHlIH
,n;lIarra30H (50-300 kHz). 3a KaHaJI Ha CBp'b3Ka Te 061IKHoBeHo lI3rr0J13-
BaT Mpe)Ka lIJIlI TeJIecpOHHlITe JIlIHlIli. TaKliBa pa,n;lIO-
rrpeXBam;aqlI Ha rrpaKTlIKa He lI3JI'bqBaT ClIrHaJIlI B OKOJIHOTO rrpOCTpaH-
CTBO, T. e. rrplITe)KaBaT rrOBlIIIIeHa CeKpeTHOCT. AKO ce MOHTnpaT B Hac-
TOJIHaTa JIaMrra, B KOHTaKTa, BceKli eJIeKTpOrrplI6op, KOHTO ce BKJIlOqBa
K'bM Mpe)KaTa C rrpOMeHJIlIB TOK, TO Te, 3axpaHBaHli OT Mpe)KaTa, m;e
rrpe,n;aBaT rro HeH ,lJ;'bJIro BpeMe lIHcpopMaIJ;lI7I B'bB BCHKa TOqKa Ha crpa-
,n;aTa 1I ,n;OplI 1I3B'bH HeHHlITe rrpe,n;eJIli.
3a OTKplIBaHe Ha pa,n;lIorrpeXBam;aqlI ce rrpliJIaraT CrreU;lIaJIHlI lI3Me-
plITeJIHlI rrplIeMHlIU;lI, KOliTO aBTOMaTlIqHO CKaHlipaT rro ,n;lIarra30Ha. C
T7IXHa rrOMOm; ce OC'bm;eCTBHBa ThpCeHe 1I cplIKcaU;lIH Ha pa60THlITe qec-
TOTlI Ha pa,n;lIorrpeXBam;aqlITe, a C'bm;O TaKa ce orrpe,n;eJIH 1I THXHOTO
M5ICTO. Ta31I rrpou;e,n;ypa e ,n;OCTa CJIO)KHa, 1I3lICKBa C'bOTBeTHlITe TeXHlI-
qeCKlI rr03HaHlIH, rrpaKTlIqeCKlI HaBlIU;lI 3a pa60Ta C pa3Hoo6pa3Ha, ,n;OC-
Ta CJIO)l(Ha lI3MeplITeJIHa arraparypa.
AKO pa,n;lIorrpeXBam;aqlITe ca BKJIIOqeHlI B MOMeHTa Ha ThpCeHe 1I
lI3JI'bqBaT ClirHaJIlI, rro KOlITO MO)Ke ,n;a rli OTKplIe pa,n;lIorrplIeMHaTa arra-
parypa, TO 3a T7IXHOTO ThpCeHe (a C'bm;O II 3a ThpCeHe Ha MlIKPOCPOHlI-
Te Ha rro,n;CJIyrnBaTeJIHlITe YCYpOHCTBa II MlIHlIMarHeTocpOHlI) ce lI3rrOJI-
3BaT CrreU;lIaJIHa peHTIeHOBa arraparypa II HeJIlIHeHHlI ,n;eTeKToplI C Brpa-
266 AHATOmllit T APAC
.n;eHM reHepaTOpM Ha MMKPOB'bJIHOBM TpeIlTeHMR C HMCKa tIeCTOTa. Ta-
KMBa TpeIITeHMR rrpOHMKBaT rrpe3 CTeHMTe, TaB amITe, rro.n;a, Me6eJIIITe,
tIaHTMTe, C'b.n;OBeTe - B'bB BCRKO MRCTO, K'b.n;eTO MO)I(e .n;a 6'b.n;e CKpMT
MIIKpOCPOH, MarHeTocpOH. KoraTo MIIKPOB'bJIHOBM}IT
JI'bq ce .n;oKocBa .n;o TPaH3McTopa, .n;llo.n;a MJIM MIIKpocxeMaTa, JI'bq'bT ce
oTpa351Ba 06paTHO K'bM YCTPOiICTBOTO. ITo T03M HaqMH rrpllHrurn'bT Ha
.n;eiICTBlle B .n;a.n;eHM5I cJIyqaiI rrpMJIMqa Ha MIlHOThpCaq, KoiITO pearllpa
Ha rrpIIC'bCTBlieTO Ha MeTaJI.
B cJIyqaiI qe HRMa rrp1l6opll 3a llJIli H51Ma BpeMe
3a ThpCeHe, MO)I(e .n;a ce rrOJI3BaT reHepaTopM 3a 3arJIYIIIaBaHe Ha rrpll-
eMHIII.J;MTe. Te ca .n;ocTa rrpOCTll, MHoro ClirypHli II Harr'bJIHO CHeMaT
MHcpopMaI.J;IlRTa OT B IIIllpOK .n;llarra30H OT qeCTO-
Tll.
3aU(uma Ha nepCOHaAHUme KOMmompu
AKO rrepCOHaJIeH KOMrrlOThp ce 113rrOJI3Ba caMO OT e)J;llH qOBeK, Ba)I(-
HO e .n;a ce rrpe.n;OTBpaTli HeCaHKI.J;IlOHllpaH .n;OCThrr .n;o KOMrrlOThpa OT
.n;pyrll JIIII.J;a B'bB BpeMeTo, KoraTO B Hero ce HaMlipa IIH-
cpopMaI.J;IlR, II, BTOPO, .n;a ce OClirypll Ha .n;aHHIITe Ha B'bHIIIHll
HOCIITeJIM OT 0611p. AKO rrepCOHaJIHllSlT KOMrrlOThp ce 113rr0JI3Ba OT rpy-
rra JIllI.J;a, TO rroKpaiI nOCOqeHHTe MOMeHTll Ha MO)I(e .n;a B'b3HIIK-
He He06xo.n;llMOCT .n;a ce npe.n;OTBpaTli HeCaHKI.J;llOHlipaHIDIT .n;OCThn Ha
Te311 nOJI3BaTeJIM .n;o IIHcpopMaI.J;IDITa Ha .n;pyrIDI.
OCBeH TOBa B'bB BCllqKM CJIyqaM TP5I6Ba.n;a ce IIHcpopMaI.J;M-
}ITa OT rrOBpe)I(,lJ;aHe B pe3YJITaT Ha rpeIIIKll B nporpaMaTa II 06opy.n;Ba-
HeTo, 3apa3RBaHe Ha KOMmOThpa C BIlPYCli. ITpoBe)I(,lJ;aHeTO o6aqe Ha
MeponpllSlTliSl e 3a,o;'bJI)I(llTeJIHO 3a BCllqKll nOJI3BaTeJIli Ha
KOMIIIOThpa 6e3 113KJIlOqeHlle II He ce OTHacSI Henocpe,o;CTBeHO K'bM npo6-
JIeMa 3a Ha IIHcpopMaI.J;IlSlTa OT KOHKYPeHTHTe.
3a Ha MHcpopMaI.J;llSlTa ce M3nOJI3BaT CJIe,o;HIITe MeTo.n;ll:
- cpe.n;CTBa 3a Ha 113tIIICJIMTeJIHIITe pecypcll,
rrapOJIHa ll,o;eHTllcplIKaI.J;llSl II OrpaHlitIaBaw,1l .n;OCThrra Ha HeCaHKI.J;llOHll-
paH rrOJI3BaTeJI;
- 113rr0JI3BaHe Ha pa3JIllqHll IIIIICPPIl, KOMTO He 3aBIICSlT OT KOHTeKCTa
Ha IIHcpopMaI.J;IlSlTa.
III;e HarrOMHIIM, qe B nepCOHaJIHIIR KOMnlOThp 113tIIICJIIITeJIHIITe pe-
CypCll ca onepaTIIBHaTa naMeT, npOI.J;eCOp'bT, Brpa.n;eHIITe TB'bP)J;ll MJIll
r'bBKaBIlMarHIITHll.n;IlCKOBe,KJIaBllaTypaTa,)J;llCrrJIeSlT,rrplIHTep'bT,ne-
pllcpepHIITe YCTpoiIcTBa. 3aw,IlTaTa Ha orrepaTIIBHaTa naMeT II rrpOI.J;e-
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUc!ypHocm
267
copa rrpe.n;nOJIaraT KOHTPOJI 3a nORBRBaHeTO B onepaTIIBHaTa naMeT Ha
TaKa HapeqeHIITe pe311.n;eHTHll rrpOrpaMft, Ha CIlCTeMHIITe .n;aH-
HM, M3qllCTBaHe Ha OCTaThI.J;1l OT ceKpeTHa IIHCPOPMa:I.J;Il51 B HeM3nOJI3Ba-
eMliTe 06JIaCTil Ha naMeTTa. ,lJ;ocTaThtIHO e .n;a IIMaTe nporpaMa 3a Tec-
TBaHe Ha onepaTIIBHaTa rraMeT, KORTO .n;a KOHTPOJIllpa C'bCTaBa Ha pe311-
.n;eHTHIITe rrporpaMli II TRXHOTO pa3nOJIO)I(eHlle.
MHoro nO-Ba)I(Ha e 3aw,HTaTa qpe3 Brpa)K.n;aHe. liMa HRKOJIKO nma
nporpaMHIl cpe.n;CTBa, KOHTO MoraT ,o;a peIllaT Ta311 3a.n;aqa:
- Ha .n;MCKa OT 3anilC II qeTeHe;
- KOHTPOJI B'bpXy rrOJI3BaHeTO Ha .n;IlCKa;
- HaqllHIl 3a OTCTPaH5IBaHe Ha OCTaThI.J;IlTe OT ceKpeTHa IIHcpopMa-
I.J;IlR.
HaiI-CllrypHIIRT MeTO.n; Ha pa3611pa ce, e 3arIIllcppOBaHeTO,
B T0311 cJIyqaiI ce OXpaH51Ba Henocpe.n;CTBeHO caMaTa IIHCPOp-
MaI.J;IDI, a He .n;OCThII'bT .n;o HeR (HanpllMep 3aIIDICPPOBaHllRT cpai1JI He MO)Ke
.n;a ce rrpOqeTe .n;opllll.n;a ce OTKPa.n;He .n;IlCKeTaTa). Ho B pe)J;llI.J;a CJIyqall
3aIIIllcppOBaHeTO e 3aTPY)J;HeHO llJIll HeB'b3MO)I(HO, 3aTOBa TP5I6Ba .n;a ce
M3nOJI3BaT .n;BaTa MeTo.n;a e.n;HOBpeMeHHO. IIoBeqeTO cpe.n;CTBa 3a 3a-
ce peaJI1l311paT B'bB BAA Ha rrporpaMIl MJIM rraKeTIl OT rrporpaMll,
KOHTO pa3IIIMpRBaT B'b3MO)I(HOCTHTe Ha CTaH.n;apTHIITe orrepaI.J;IlOHHIl
CIlCTeMll, a M CIlCTeMMTe 3a nOJI3BaHe Ha 6a3MTe .n;aHHIl.
8. Cb3AasaHe Ha co6CTseHa cJ\y>K6a
3a CV1 ryPHOCT
PYCKMTe 6113HeCMeHIl ThpCRT 3a oxpaHMTeJIHIITe CPllpMll rro
CJIe.n;HIDI HatIMH (B Hll3xoMw,a cTerreH):
1. Ha cpe,o;CTBa (He Cll 3a .n;OCTaBeHa CTOKa,
He rrpIICTllra nJIaTeHa CTOKa, He ce napM B orrpe.n;eJIeHIDI CpOK).
2. JillqHaTa 6e30nacHocT Ha 6113HecMeHIITe II TeXHIITe ceMei1cTBa
B'bB Bp'b3Ka C'bC 3anJIaXil 111l3HY)J;BaHe.
3. OTKpa.n;HaTll CTOKli rrpll TPaHcnopTllpaHe.
4. Kpa)K6a Ha JIllqHO B arrapTaMeHTll, OCPIICIl, BllJIll, 113-
B'bHrpa.n;cKli rpa6e)I(ll, OTKpa.n;HaTIl aBTOM06MJIll.
5. Kpa)I(6a Ha TbprOBCKa MHcpopMaI.J;ll51 (Kpa)K6a Ha .n;oKyMeHTH, KO-
rrMpaHe Ha .n;oKyMeHTll, CHeMaHe Ha IIHcpopMaI.J;ll51 OT KOMnlOTPMTe M
cpaKcoBeTe, npOCJIYIIIBaHe 1l.3anllc Ha TeJIecpoHHM pa3ro-
BOpll B rro.D;KyII Ha C'bTPy.n;HIII.J;Il).
268
AHATOnt.-11it TAPAC
6. KpmK6a II rpa6e)J( Ha Mara3HHH, CKJIap:OBe H rrpoH3Bop:cTBeHH
rrOMeru;eHH5I.
7. TIoBpep:eHo HMyru;eCTBO H CTOKH. TIaJIe)J(H.
MHoro OT H36poeHHTe rrpeCnrrJIeHH5I 6Hxa MOrJIH p:a ce rrpep:oTB-
paT5IT, aKO ce B3eMaT CBoeBpeMeHHH MepKH OT rrpeBaHTHBeH xapaKTep.
3aru;o He ca 6HJIH OC'bru;ecTBeHH?
1. CKbnepl-iUl{ecmao. TB'bpp:e qeCTO 6II3HecMeHIITe (II <pHpMIITe KaTO
Q5IJIo) ce CK'brr5IT p:a 3ap:eJI5IT cpep:cTBa 3a oxpaHa II oxpaHIITeJIHII Me-
pOrrpII5ITII5I. Te ce Hap:5IBaT Ha K'bCMeT, Ha CJIyqa5I, Ha KaKBO JIll He, caMO
He II Ha TOBa, KoeTO e Heo6xop:IIMO. TIoCJIe, KoraTO rp5I6Ba p:a ce 6p'bK-
HaT 3a peMOHT, 3a npceHe Ha II3ry6eHoTo, 3a rrJIaru;aHe Ha peKeThOpII-
Te, Ha JIeKapHTe, 3a B'b3CTaHOB5IBaHe Ha 3ary6HTe, HacnIIBa rrp03peHH-
eTO. Ho TOBa rrocJIe, KoraTO p:onp:e "BTOPII5IT YM". OrryK H rroroBopKa-
Ta: "CKp'bHp:3aTa rrJIaru;a p:Ba, a rrOH5IKOra H TpH n'bTH."
2. HeaeJICecmao. EH3HeCMeHIITe He pa36IIpaT C'bru;HOCTTa Ha KOM-
nJIeKCHHTe oxpaHIITeJIHII MepOnpH5ITH5I II <paKTa, qe p:a OC'bru;eCTB5IT
pa3pa6oTKaTa Ha TaK'bB KOMnJIeKC MoraT caMO npo<peCHOHaJIHCTII.
JIorHKaTa HM e CJIep:HaTa: "IIl;OM C'bM p:OCTaT'bqHO YMeH p:a HaTpy-
naM rrapH, ru;e MH CTHrHe yM'bT II p:a rrpep:BIIp:5I BC5IKa onaCHOCT." C
p:pyrII P:yMH, BTopaTa rrpHqHHa CJIep: CK'bnepHIIqeCTBOTO e HeBe)J(ec-
TBOTO.
3. Helfuau/lU30aal-iOCm, T. e. JIHrrCaTa Ha onIIT B ThprOBCKaTa p:en-
HOCT rro npaBHJIaTa Ha IIrpaTa, a He rro rrpaBHJIaTa Ha KOJIX03HH5I rra3ap.
OTTYK e orraceHHeTO p:a ce 06'bpHeIII K'bM crreQHaJIIICT 3a KOHCYJITaQIIH
rro B'bnpOCH, rro KOHTO 6H3HeCMeH'bT e HeKOMrreTeHTeH, HeYMeHIIeTO p:a
ce nJIaHIIpa PHCK'bT, JIHrrCaTa Ha TaKaBa Ba)J(Ha H 3ap:'bJI)J(IITeJIHa npoQe-
p:ypa KaTO C'b6HpaHe Ha KOH<pnp:eHQHaJIHa IIH<popMaQH5I 3a napTHbopH-
Te, KOHTpareHTHTe H Kpep:HTOpHTe. HerrpeK'bCHaTO II OKOJIO Hac MO)J(e
p:a ce BHP:H KaK 6H3HeCMeH'bT "rrOThBa", 3aru;OTO e rrOB5IpBaJI Ha qeCTHa
p:YMa, qe rrpaBHJIHO e C'bCTaBHJI Ba)J(eH p:orOBOp, Hap:QeHHJI e aHaJIHTHq-
HHTe CII B'b3MO)J(HOCTII, He e npoyqIIJI rra3apHaTa KOHIOHKTYpa, He ce e
p:oceru;aJI, qe MY ThprOBCKH TanHII npeKpaCHO ce 3Ha5IT OT
KOHKYPeHTHTe My H TaKa HaTaThK.
4. HeMap/lUaocm. TeXHIIqeCKOTO oCIIryp5IBaHe Ha npOH3Bop:CTBe-
HHTe, CKJIap:OBIITe, KaHQeJIapCKHTe II )J(IIJIHI.QHIITe nOMeru;eHH5I MHoro
qeCTO He e Ha Heo6xop:IIMOTO paBHIIru;e IIJIII B'bo6ru;e JIHnCBa. I10JIyqa-
BaT ce p:OpH cIITyaQHH: CTOKa 3a MIIJIIIOHII rrOH5IKOra ce C'bX-
paH5IBa 3ap: 06HKHOBeHa BpaTa C Han-06IIKHOBeH KJIIOq, aHa np030PQII-
Te H5IMa peIIIeTKH!
HapblfHUK 3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CU2ypHocm
* * *
269
KaTO pa3rJIe)J(p:aMe rrp06JIeMa 3a JIIIqHaTa 6e30rraCHOCT B IIIHpOK
rrJIaH, rp5I6Ba p:a rrpII3HaeM, qe nOBeqeTO 6II3HeCMeHII ca JIeCHO Y5I3BH-
MH. BceKII B'bHIIIeH qOBeK 6H MOr'bJI p:a rrpOHHKHe B MHoro OT <pHPMH-
Te, B TeXHH5I O<pIIC rrop: KaK'bBTO H p:a e rrpep:JIor, p:a BJIe3e B'bB BceKH
Ka6IIHeT, 6e3IIIYMHO p:a 3aKOJIII )J(epTBaTa CH (P:0PH II H5IKOJIKO P:YIIIH) H
p:a ce OTp:aJIeqII, 6e3 p:a npHBJIeqe BHHMaHHeTO. He e 3ap:'bJI)J(llTeJIHO p:a
ce KOJIH, 3arJIYIIIHTeJI Ha P:YJIOTO Ha "EepeTa M -71" (p:06'bp rrHCTOJIeT,
He nO-Te)J('bK OT 600 rpaMa) IIJIII PYCKII5I TICC (c narpOHHTe Te)J(II 830
rpaMa) TH p:aBa B'b3MO)J(HOCT p:a 3aCTpeJI5IIII TOJIKOBa xopa, KOJIKOTO
rraTpOHa lIMa B n'bJIHHTeJI5I, T. e. He rrO-MaJIKO OT IIIeCTIIMa 3a 2 ceKYH-
p:II. Oru;e rro-rrpocTo: B HaBaJIHQaTa MoraT p:a BII y60p:aT C IIrJInql(a, qnllrO
Kpan e HaToneH B npenapaT, HapeqeH cTpo<paHTIIH. TOBa e HeBporrapa-
orpoBa, OT K05ITO YMHpaTe 3a 30 ceKYHp:II B pe3YJITaT Ha cnH-
paHe Ha p:IIIIIaHeTO.
3aTOBa HOpMaJIHH5IT, pa3YMeH, rrpep:BHp:JIHB 6II3HeCMeH Tp5I6Ba p:a
ce rpH)J(H 3a CB05ITa 6e30rraCHOCT, KaTO 3Hae KOJIKO e Y5I3BHM H KOJIKO e
KpeX'bK qOBeIIIKH5IT )J(IIBOT B'b06ru;e. Pa36IIpa ce, BCIIqKO C M5IpKa. He
rp5I6Ba p:a ce H3nap:a HIITO B ep:HaTa, HHTO B p:pyraTa KpanHocT: ep:HaK-
BO JIOlliO e JIHnCaTa Ha BC5IKaKBa oxpaHa H rrpep:eJIHOTO C'bCpep:OTOqaBa-
He B'bpXy MIIC'bJITa H p:enCTBH5ITa 3a c06CTBeHaTa 6e30naCHOCT.
* * *
P'bKOBop:eTe ce OT CJIep:HIITe rrpHHQHrrH, pa3pa6oTeHII OT cneQHa-
JIIICTHTe OT "illIIH EeT", CJIY)J(6aTa 3a p:'bp)J(aBHa CIIrypHOCT Ha I-!3paeJI.
1. B CB05ITa CHCTeMa 3a CIIrypHOCT C'bqeTaHTe rpH Bnp:a MepKH:
oxpaHa (TeJIOXpaHIITeJIH H cny)J(e6HII KyqeTa), cpep:cTBa 3a
oxpaHa (cIIrHaJIII3aQH5I, 6poHe)J(IIJIeTKH, KJIIOqaJIKII, cen<poBe H p:p.),
rrpaBHJIa Ha rrOBep:eHHe Ha BCIIqKII qJIeHOBe Ha ceMencTBoTo II HaeTII5I
rrepCOHaJI.
2. caMO Ha oxpaHa e Hep:OCTaThqHO 3a rapaHTH-
paHe Ha 95% OT CHrypHOCTTa (100% p:aBa caMO focrrop:). BHHarII ce
H3HCKBa HMeHHO KOMrrJIeKC'bT OT MepKII OT rrOCOqeHIITe rro-rope rpH
BIIp:a.
3. 3a HecHrypHocTTa Ha BC5IKa M5IpKa rp5I6Ba p:a ce C'bP:H no Han-
CJIa60TO M5ICTO B He5I (KaKTo 3a 3p:paBHHaTa Ha BepIIraTa ce C'bP:II rro
Han-cJIa6oTO iI 3BeHo).
4. BCHqKII II3rr0JI3BaHH MepKII 3a CIIrypHOCT rp5I6Ba p:a ce HaMHpaT
270
AHATOnH!i1 T APAC
nOJ( nOCT05IHHlUI KOHTPOJI Ha lIIe<pa Ha <plIpMaTa lIJIlI Ha HeHHlITe cne-
.QlIaJIlICTlI no clIrypHocrra.
5. B'h3nplIeTlITe MepKlI 3a clIrypHocT Tp5I6Ba J(a ce C'hfJIacYBaT C
YCJIOBlI5ITa Ha BCeKlI)J;HeBHlI5I )J(lIBOT Ha 6lI3HecMeHa, Ha HerOBOTO ce-
MeHcTBo, J(a He npeqaT Ha pa60TaTa Ha <plIpMaTa.
6. E<peKTlIBHOCrra Ha MepKlITe 3a ClIfypHOCT rn;e 6'hJ(e nO-BlICOKa,
aKO Te ca nJIaHlIpaHlI OT cne.QlIaJIlICTlITe B Ta3lI 06JIaCT, C Ha
cne.QlI<plIKaTa Ha BalIIlI5I 6lI3Hec II MeCTHlITe YCJIOBlI.sI.
7. B CJIyqalITe, KoraTO Bep05ITHOcrra OT lI3B'hplIIBaHe Ha nOKYlIIe-
HlIe cpern;y Bac P5I3KO HapacHe, TP.sI6Ba He caMO J(a lI3n'hJIH.sIBaTe BClIq-
KlI MepKlI 3a npeJ(na3BaHe, 3a J(a B'hBeJ(eTe KaqeCTBeHO HOBO paBHlIID;e
Ha ClIrypHOCT (KaTO 3anOqHeTe C lIH<popMa.QlIOHHaTa 3aID;lITa II 3aB'hp-
lIIlITe C'hC CM5IHa Ha MeCTO)J(lITeJICTBOTO).
* * *
CTpYKTypa Ha CJlY:IK6aTa 3a cHrypHocT. C'h3J(aBaHeTO Ha cne.QlI-
aJIHa cJIY)J(6a 3a peaJIlI3a.QlI5I Ha BCuqKlI 3arn;lITHlI MepOnplI.sITlI5I 3a 6e-
30naCHOCT Ha e)J;Ha <plIpMa ce 06YCJIaB.sI OT MHorocTPaHHocrra Ha c<p
e
-
paTa 3a oClIryp5IBaHe, BKJIlOquTeJIHO II 3arn;lITaTa Ha ThprOBCKlITe lIH-
TepeclI.
CTPyrrypaTa, qlICJIeHOCrra II C'hCTaB'hT Ha CJIY)J(6aTa 3a cHrypHocT
Ha <plIpMaTa ce onpeJ(eJI.sIT OT peaJIHlITe <pHHaHcOBlI B'h3MO)J(HOCTlI,
Marn;a6a Ha ThprOBCKaTa J(eHHocT, CTeneHTa Ha KOH<plIJ(eH.QHaJIHOCT Ha
lIH<popMa.QlI.sITa. B 3aBlIClIMOCT OT Te3lI <paKTOPlI CJIY)J(6aTa 3a clIryp-
HOCT MO)J(e J(a BaplIpa OT J(BaMa-TP"Ma J(YlIIlI, KOlITO pa60T.sIT no C'hB-
MeCTlITeJICTBO, J(o n'hJIHOMarn;a6Ha cJIY)J(6a C pa3BlITa cTPYKTYpa.
KaTo B3eMaM nOJ( BHlIMaHlIe HaTPynaHlI5I qY)J(J( II pOJ(eH onlIT, npeJ(-
JIaraM nplIMepeH Bap"aHT Ha cny)J(6a 3a clIrypHocT Ha <plIpMa OT cpe-
J(eH Marn;a6. T.sI ce C'hCTOlI OT qeT"p" ceKTopa (lIJIlI OTJ(eJIa). Ha CBOH
peJ( BceKlI TaK'hB ceKTOp lIMa B C'hCTaBa ClI OT J(BaMa J(O J(eceT-neTHaH-
ceT J(yrnlI. TOBa ca ceKTop oxpaHa, ceKTop pe)J(lIM, ceKTop TeXHuqeCKa
3arn;lITa II onepaTlIBeH ceKTop. TexHlITe rJIaBHlI 3aJ(aqu ca CJIeJ(HlITe:
CeKTop oxpaHa:
- oxpaHa Ha nOMern;eHlI.sITa II crpaJ(lITe;
- oxpaHa Ha 063aBe)J(J(aHeTo II lIMyrn;ecTBoTo;
-,-- oxpaHa Ha C'hTPYJ(HlI.QlITe II MepOnplI5ITlI5ITa;
- oxpaHa Ha npeB03BaHeTo.
CeKTop pe)J(lIM:
- oClIryp5IBaHe Ha ceKpeTHocrra Ha J(OKYMeHTlITe;
HapblJHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha6aHe U CUcypHocm
- oClIryp.sIBaHe Ha pe)J(lIMa Ha J(OCThn;
, - KOHTPOJI Ha nOCeTHTeJIlITe II TpaHcrropTa;
- pa3CJIeJ(BaHe Ha CJIyqalITe Ha HapYlIIeHlIe Ha pe)J(lIMa.
CeKTop TeXHlIqeCKa 3arn;lITa:
271
- oTKp"BaHe Ha TeXHuqeCKlITe KaHaJIlI 3a lI3TuqaHe Ha lIH<p0pMa-
.QlI.sI;
- KOHTPOJI Ha onlITlITe 3a HeCaHK.QlIoHlIpaH J(OCThn J(O lIH<popMa.QlI5I
C nOMOrn;Ta Ha TeXHI1KaTa;
Ka;
- 063aBe)J(J(aHe Ha <plIpMaTa C'hC cpeJ(cTBa 3a ClIrHaJIlI3a.QlI.sI II CBP'h3-
- 060py,nsaHe Ha <plIpMaTa C npOTHBOno)J(apHlI cpeJ(cTBa.
CeKTop OnepaTHBHa pa60Ta:
- OTKplIBaHe II lI3yqaBaHe Ha <plIPMlI II npeCThnHlI rpyrrH, KOlITO ca
nOTeB.QlIaJIHlI KOHKYPeHTH lIJIlI BparoBe Ha <plIpMaTa;
- pa3pa60TKa II OC'hrn;eCTB.sIBaHe Ha MepKlI 3a npoTlIBoJ(eHCTBlIe cpe-
my HanaJ(eHlI5I.
* * *
OCHOBeH 06eKT Ha npeCThnHlI nOCeraTeJICTBa CTaHa KanlITaJI'hT Ha
ThprOBCKlITe <plIPMlI, 3aTOBa Ha npeJ(eH IIJIaH B J(eHHocrra Ha c06cTBe-
HlITe lIM cny)J(6lI 3a ClIfypHOCT H3JIlI3aT lIH<p0pMa.QlIoHHO-aHaJIlITuq-
HOTO oClIryp.sIBaHe, lIKOHOMlIqeCKOTO pa3Y3HaBaHe II KOHTPapa3Y3Ha-
BaHe, C'hrn;O II opraHlI3a.QlI5ITa Ha OnepaTHBHlI MepOnplI.sITlI5I.
il3HCKBaHlI.sITa K'hM paBHlIrn;eTo Ha nOJ(roToBKa Ha P'hKOBoJ(lITeJIlITe
Ha 3a clIrypHocT II TeXHlITe BOJ(eID;lI C'hTPY)J;HlI.QlI HenpeK'hC-
HaTO HapaCTBaT.
B cTPaHlITe C na3apHa lIKOHOMlIKa 06yqeHlIeTo Ha cne.QlIaJIlICTlI no
clIrypHocT Ha 6lI3Heca ce OC'hrn;eCTB.sIBa OT HaJ( 100 Crre.QlIaJIlI3lIpaHIi
yqe6HlI 3aBe,lJ;eHlI.sI. B CAIIJ; 6lI3HecMeHlITe XapQaT 3a oxpaHa Ha
rOBCKlITe TaHHlI OKOJIO eJ(Ha neTa OT CYMaTa, OTJ(eJIeHa 3a MapKeTlIHr.
B Marn;a6a Ha .Q.sIJIaTa CTPaHa CYMaTa e OKOJIO 15 MJIP,lJ;. J(oJIapa rO)J;lII.1I-
HO.
):(Hec cneQlIaJIlICTHTe no clIrypHocT Ha 6lI3Heca TP.sI6Ba J(a
)J(aBaT n03HaHlI.sI B CJIe,lJ;HlITe 06JIacTH:
- lIH<p0pMaQlIOHHO-aHaJIlITuqHa pa60Ta;
- MeTO,lJ;lI Ha pa3Y3HaBaHe II KOHTpapa3Y3HaBaHe;
-- OnepaTHBHa pa60Ta;
- COQlIaJIHa nCI1XOJIorl1.sI 11 nClIXOJIOrl1.sI Ha JII1QHOCrra;
- OCHOBI1 Ha 6aHKoBoTO ,lJ;eJIO 11 CQeTOBO,lJ;eH OTQeT;
272
AHATOm-1li1 TAPAC
- OCHOBH Ha MeHH,n;)J(M'bHTa H MapKeTHHra;
- rpa)J(,n;aHCKO H HaKa3aTeJIHO npaBO.
fpaMOTHH5IT CneQHaJIHCT e 3a,n;'bJI)J(eH:
- ,n;a pa3pa6oTH KOMnJIeKCHH MepKH no OCHryp5IBaHe Ha CHrypHocrra
Ha ThprOBCKaTa qmpMa H JIIftlHaTa CMrypHOCT Ha HeMHOTO P'bKOBO,n;CTBO;
- ,n;a OC'brn;eCTBM 3arn;MTa Ha KOHqm,n;eHQMaJIHaTa MHcpopMaQH5I, B TOBa
'fMCJIO M C'bXpaHeHaTa B KOMnlOThpHaTa naMeT;
- ,n;a YMee ,n;a npMJIara TeXHH'feCKM cpe,n;CTBa 3a CKPMTO Ha6JIIO,n;eHMe
M npOCJIYlIlBaHe;
- ,n;a npOTMBo,n;eMCTBa Ha npOBe)J(,lJ;aHeTO Ha aHaJIOrM'fHH MepOnpM5I-
TH5I OT KOHKYpeHTHTe;
- ,n;a pa36Mpa OT cpMHaHCOBa OT'ieTHOCT;
- ,n;a ce 3aHMMaBa C npocpMJIaKTMKa Ha npaBOHapYI1leHH5ITa B'bB CPMP-
MaTa;
- ,n;a M3B'bpI1lBa B'bTpeI1lHO pa3CJIe,n;BaHe Ha CJIY'faM Ha Kpa)J(6M,
MOI1leHM'feCTBO, ca60Ta)J(M M cpMHaHCOBM npeCThnJIeHM5I;
-,n;a opraHM3Mpa npOBepKM (B TOBa '!MCJIO M HerJIaCHM) 3a 6JIarOHa-
,n;e)J(,n;Hocrra Ha C'bTpYMMQMTe Ha cpMpMaTa;
- ,n;a npe,n;ynpe)J(,n;aBa (M OTKpMBa) CJIyqaM Ha C'bTpy,n;HM'feCTBO Ha
Ha cpMpMaTa C KOHKYpeHTHTe MJIM C KpMMHHaJIHH CTpYK-
TYpH;
- ,n;a B3aHMo,n;eMCTBa C'bC CJIe,n;CTBeHHTe opraHH M MMJIHQH5ITa npH
pa3CJIe,n;BaHe Ha npeCThnJIeHH5ITa H ,n;pyrMTe npOlI3I1leCTBH5I;
- ,n;a no,n;rOTB5I ,n;OKYMeHTH, KOHTO C'b,n;'bp)J(aT aHaJIH3 Ha cpMHaHCOBO-
HKOHOMH'feCKOTO nOJIO)J(eHMe Ha napTHbopHTe, OQeHKa Ha KOHKYpeH-
THTe H nOTeHQMaJIHMTe KJIMeHTH;
- ,n;a pa3peI1laBa KOHcpJIMKTHTe Me)J(,n;y C'bTpy,n;HMQMTe Ha cpMpMaTa;
- KpaTKO M TO'fHO ,n;a M3JIara CBOMTe MMCJIM.
OnMThT M 3HaHH5ITa B M36poeHMTe 06JIaCTM Ha P'bKOBo,n;ern;MTe C'bT-
py,n;HMQH OT CJIY)J(6MTe 3a CMrypHOCT 3acera orn;e He ca ,n;OCTaTh'fHH npM
po,n;HHTe cpMPMH. ITo Ta3H npM'fHHa B'bnpOC'bT 3a T5IXHaTa no,n;rOTOBKa M
npeno,n;rOTOBKa e nOBe'fe OT aKTYaJIeH.
* * *
3a ,n;a ce npe,n;na3MM OT M3TH'faHe Ha KOHcpM,n;eHQHaJIHa HHcpopMa-
QH5I, Tp5I6Ba:
- ,n;a ce KOHTpOJIHpa ,n;OCThn'bT Ha C'bTpy,n;HHQM Ha cpMpMaTa ,n;o ceK-
peTHaTa MHcpopMaQH5I M ,n;a 6a3aTa ,n;aHHH;
HapbLfHUK 3a pa3Y3Ha8aHe U CUzypHocm
273
- nepHo,n;IftlHo,n;a ce nperJIe)J(,n;aT ,n;aHHHTe H,n;a ce onpe,n;eJI5I CTeneH-
Ta Ha '];5IXHaTa ceKpeTHOCT, KaTO ce nOMHH, 'fe BC5IKa HHcpopMaQH5I CTa-
pee 6'bp30;
- He 3JIoynoTpe65IBaHTe C HaeMaHeTO Ha BpeMeHHM C'bTpy,n;HMQH, aKO
no cne:U;McpMKaTa Ha CB05ITa pa60Ta aBTOMaTH'fHO nOJIyqaBaT ,n;ocThn
,n;o KOHcpH,n;eHQHaJIHa HHcpopMaQH5I;
- ,n;a ce o6opy.D;BaT 3BYKoHenpoHMQaeMM (eKpaHMpaHM) nOMern;eHH5I
3a 06C'b)J(,n;aHe Ha Ba)J(HM B'bnpOCM;
- pe,n;oBHo ,n;a ce 06CJIe,n;BaT Te3M nOMern;eHH5I, KaTO ce npOBep5IBa
C'bC cneQHaJIHa anapaTYpa HMa JIM B T5IX no,n;CJIYI1lBarn;H (CKaHHparn;M)
YCTpOI1:cTBa;
-,n;a ce B'bBe,n;aT cneQHaJIHM nJIHKOBe (nanKH), B KOHTO KOHcpH.D;eHQM-
aJIHaTa MHcpopMaQH5I rn;e QMpKYJIHpa B'bTpe B'bB cpMpMaTa;
- ,n;a ce onpe,n;eJI5IT MeCTa 3a npMeM Ha nOCeTHTeJIM, HHKora ,n;a He ce
OCTaB5IT caMH B ocpHca M ,n;pyrHTe nOMern;eHH5I Ha cpMpMaTa;
- He no-p5I.D;KO OT Be,n;H'b)J( ce,n;MH'iHO ,n;a ce 06CJIe,n;BaT BCH'fKM no-
MOrn;HH nOMern;eHH5I Ha cpHpMaTa (BKJIIO'iHTeJIHO KOpH.D;OpHTe M TOaJIeT-
HHTe) 3a OTKpHBaHe Ha no,n;CJIYlIlBaTeJIHH H 3BYK03aIIHCHH YCTpOMCTBa;
- ,n;a ce YCTaHOBM pe,n; npH H3nOJI3BaHeTO Ha pa3MHO)J(HTeJIHa M KO-
nHpHa TeXHHKa OT C'bTpYMHQHTe;
- ,n;a ce nOCTaBM anapaT 3a YHHrn;O)J(aBaHe Ha ,n;OKYMeH-
TH (BKJIIO'fHTeJIHO M H3n0J13BaHeTO Ha HH.D;HrO OT nHI1lern;HTe MaI1lMHH);
- 3a,n;'bJI)J(HTeJIHO ,n;a ce npMJIara npaBHJIOTO: ceKpeTHMTe ,n;OKYMeH-
TH ce YHHrn;O)J(aBaT JIM'fHO OT C'bTpy,n;HHQHTe, KOHTO OITOBap5IT 3a CH-
rypHocTTa Ha cpHpMaTa;
- 3a Bo,n;eHe Ha CJIY)J(e6HM 3anMCKH,n;a ce H3nOJI3BaT caMO cneQHaJI-
HH TeTpa,n;KH H 6eJIe)J(HHQH, KOMTO ca npe,n;BapHTeJIHO npOHOMepMpaHH;
- B Kpa5I Ha pa60THH5I ,n;eH TeTpa,n;KHTe ,n;a ce CKpMBaT B ceMcp MJIH B
HaM-JIOI1lH5I cnyqaM - B 'feKMe,lJ;)J(eTO Ha 6IOPOTO, cHa6,n;eHO C'bC ceKpeT-
Ha 6paBa;
- ,n;a ce onpe,n;eJIH JIH'fHa OTrOBopHOCT Ha C'bTpy,n;HHQHTe Ha cpHpMa-
Ta 3a C'bXpaH5IBaHeTO Ha KOHcpH,n;eHQMaJIHa HHcpopMaQH5I C 5ICHa rpa,n;a-
QM5I Ha MepKHTe 3a ,n;HCQHnJIMHapHO H MaTepHaJIHO B'b3,n;eMCTBMe npM
HeMHOTO H3TH'faHe.
BceKH C'bTpy,n;HHK He3aBMCMMO OT CH nOJIO)J(eHHe MJIH
CTeneH Ha PO,n;HHHCTBO C P'bKOBO,lJ;HTeJI5I Ha cpHpMaTa Tp5I6Ba ,n;a 3Hae
caMO HHcpopMaQH5ITa, K05ITO MY e Heo6xo,n;HMa 3a pa60Ta.
3arn;HTaBaMKH C06CTBeHaTa MHcpopMaQH5I, He 3a6paB5IMTe ,n;a HaTpyTI-
BaTe CBe,n;eHH5I 3a KOHKYpeHTHTe CM. )J;OCHeTO 3a BceKHOT T5IX MO)J(e,n;a
BKJIIO'fBa CJIe,n;HHTe pa3,n;eJIH:
274 AHATOJIltll;J TAPAC
- OpraHI13a[(1I51 II <pIIHaHCII;
- B'b3MO)l(HOCTII B 6II3HeCa;
- ImaHOBe II [(eJIH;
- ImaCMeHT;
- CIIJIHII II CJIa6II CTpaHII.
TloMHeTe: cIIrya[(lUITa BJIa.n;ee OH3II, KOUTO IIpIITe)l(aBa IIH<p0pMa-
[(II5ITa.
npegynpe>KgeHue:
)J.eUCTBaUTe IIpeCMeTJIIIBO, IIOJI3BaUKII C'bBeTIITe MIl. HaU-rJIaBHO-
TO e .n;a He ce IIpeCTapaBaTe. HaU-HeIIplUITHII5IT CIIOMeH OT II3II'bJIHeHa-
Ta C <paHaTII3'bM MOJIIITBa e pa36IITOTO qeJIo. IIOMHeUKII 3a TOBa, CTa-
paUTe ce .n;a .n;eUCTBaTe TaKa, 'Ie MepKIITe 3a 3aJ.I(IITa Ha IIH<popMaI(lI5ITa
.n;a He BJIII3aT B pa3pe3 C peKJIaMHaTa IIOJIIITIIKa, .n;a He IIpeqaT Ha 6II3He-
ca Ha BarrraTa <pIIpMa.
* * *
BceKII 6II3HeCMeH e .n;JI'b)l(eH caM .n;a peIIIII KaK'bB II'bT 3a OCIIryp5IBa-
He Ha JIII'IHaTa CIIrypHOCT .n;a II36epe: .n;a CII KYIIII IIIICTOJIeT, .n;a HaeMe
.n;BaMa-TPIIMa TeJIOXpaHIITeJIII, .n;a IIo.n;IIIIrrre .n;orOBOp C oxpaHIITeJIHa
<pIIpMa, .n;a C'b3.n;a.n;e co6CTBeHa cJIY)l(6a 3a CIIrypHOCT IIJIII ... HIII.I(O .n;a He
IIpaBII.
TIpe,IJ,UCJIOBUe ................................................................................................. 5
LIacT II'hpBa
HAqMHM 3A TIOJIyqABAHE M TIPEU:EHKA
HA MH<I>OPMAu:M5ITA .............................................................................. 7
1. YBO,IJ,HIT 6eJIe)!(KII ........................................................................................ 7
2. KpaTKa xapaKTepITCTlIKa Ha IT3TOQHITU:llTe Ha ITmpopMaU:ll5I ....................... 8
3. B3eMaHe Ha ITH<p0pMaU:IT5I OT ITH,IJ,ITBIT,IJ,a .................................................... 14
A. JlU'JHU MomU6U 3a npeoa6aHe Ha uHfj)0PMal1ufl .................................. 15
E. Memoou 3a aKmU6HO nOIlY'la6aHe Ha uHifjoPMal1ufl ......................... ... 16
B. TexHuKa Ha 6Heopfl6aHe Ha uHifjopMamopu ......................................... 18
4. CHeMaHe Ha ITH<p0pMaU:1l51 OT ,IJ,OKYMeHTIT ................................................. 20
A. 1l01lY'la6aHe Ha oocmon 00 ooryMeHmu .............................................. 21
E. llpex6aUjaHe U nepllycmpal1ufl Ha nUCMama ....................................... 22
B. 06pa6omKa Ha ,,60KIlYKa " .................................................................. 23
5. CHeMaHe Ha ITH<p0pMaU:IT5I OT CB'hP30QHIT Cpe,IJ,CTBa .................................. 25
A. llpex6aUjaHe Ha paouopa3206opU ....................................................... 25
E. CHeMaHe Ha uHifjoPMal1ufl om melleifjoHa ........................................... 26
6. ITonyQaBaHe Ha ITH<p0pMaU:ll5I Qpe3 npoCJIe,IJ,5lBaHe ................................... 32
A. Ha61l100eHUe Ha cmal1UOHapeH 06eKm ................................................ 32
E. CJleoeHe Ha omoelleH '106eK ................................................................. 34
B. Talmo noocIlYUl6aHe Ha pa32060pU U npe2060pu ................................ 38
r fhnOll36aHe Ha CIlYX06e ........................................................................ 44
7. ITPITHU:ITilIT 3a ou:eHKa IT aHaJIIT3 Ha ITH<PopMaD:ll5ITa ................................... 45
A. /{ocm06epHocm U CU2ypHocm Ha MamepUa/lume ................................ 45
E. J13Kpu6fl6aHe Ha uHifjopMal1uflma U oe3uHifjopMatfUfl ......................... 46
B. TexHuKa 3a UHmepnpemupaHe Ha oaHHume ......................................... 47
276 AHATOJIl!1li1 T APAC
HapblJHUK,3a pa3Y3HaBaHe U CUzypHocm 277
lJacT BTOpa
METO)lJf 3A TbPCEHE H BEPEYBAHE
HA HHcl>OPMATOPH ............................................................................... 50
11. (/JOH080 HacmpoeHue ......................................................................... 115
K. MUKpoKolle6aHuJI Ha HacmpoeHuemo ............................................... 117
3. HeBpOJIlfHrBI1CTI1QHO rrpOHI1KBaHe B rrCI1XI1KaTa ..................................... 118
1. YBO,!l.HI1 6eJIe)!(KI1 ....................................................................................... 50
A. Y800HU 6elleJICKU ................................................................................ 119
2. HaMl1paHe Ha KaH,!l.I1,!l.aTa ........................................................................... 52
3. Pa3pa60TKa Ha KaH,!l.I1,!l.aTa ......................................................................... 53
A. Ilpeo8apumeilliO npoY'i8aHe ................................................................ 53
E. Pa3no3Ha8aHe Ha Ha'iUHa 3a o6pa6omKa Ha UHifjOpMal1UJI ............... 120
B. KaJII16pYBaHe Ha rrapTHhopa ITO 06llJ,YBaHe ....................................... 122
r TeXHI1Ka 3a MaHl1rrYJIl1paHe C rrOMOllJ,Ta Ha HJIIl .............................. 123
E. YcmaH08J18aHe Ha KOHmaKm ................................................................ 54
B. 3aobJl6o'ia8aHe Ha KOHmaKma ............................................................. 61
r TeXHUKa Ha mecm8aHemo ..................................................................... 63
lJacT QeTB'bpTa
METO.l1.H 3A Bb3.l1.EMCTBHE BbPXY
4. C'bCTaBJIHe Ha ,!l.OCl1e .................................................................................. 68
A. (/Ju3U'ieCKU oco6eHocmu ...................................................................... 74
.................................................................................................... 125
1. YBO,!l.HI1 6eJIe)!(KI1 ..................................................................................... 125
E. (/JYHKl1UOHaIlHu oco6eHocmu ............................................ .................... 75
B. 06U{u oco6eHocmu ... ............................................................................ 75
r Ilcuxollo2UlJeCKU U UHmelleKmYMHU Ka'ieCm8a .................................. 77
5. TaKTI1Ka 3a Ha KaH,!l.I1,!l.aTa .............................................................. 78
6. IlpoBe)!(,!l.aHe Ha Bep6YBaHeTo ................................................................... 81
7. IloBe,!l.eHl1e C'bC 3aBep6YBaHIDI .................................................................. 83
A. HaCO'i8aHe Ha Oei:lHocmma My ............................................................. 83
E. Ha'iUHU 3a 3aObpJICaHe ........................................................................ 84
B. Ha'iUHU 3a np08epKa ............................................................................ 85
r Ha'iUHU 3a 8pb3Ka ................................................................................. 86
II IlpUKIllO'i8aHe Ha KOHmaKma ............................................................... 88
2. HaQI1HI1 3a B'b3,!l.eHCTBl1e .......................................................................... 126
A. Y6eJICOeHUe ......................................................................................... 126
E. BHYUJeHue ........................................................................................... 132
B. XunHo3a .............................................................................................. 135
r HapKo8b30eucm8ue ...................................... ....................................... 139
II CeKcMepOnpUJlmuJI ............................................................................ 144
E. TexHompoHHu MemoOuKu ................................................................... 147
)l( 30M6upaHe .... .................................................................................... 151
3. Ilo,!l.KYrr .................................................................................................... 153
4. lliaHTa)!( C KOMrrpoMaT ............................................................................. 155
5. 3arrJIalIIBaHe ............................................................................................. 164
6. M3Te3aHI1e ............................................................................................... 168
lJacT TPeTa
METO.l1.H 3A OCHfYP.SIBAHE HA PE3YJlTATHO
OEIIJ:YBAHE .............................................................................................. 90
1. Teopl1JI 11 rrpaKTI1Ka Ha pe3YJITaTHOTo o6llJ,YBaHe ..................................... 90
A. L{elleHaCO'ieHO KOHCmpYUpaHe .......................................... ................... 90
E. 06U{u npenopbKU no op2aHU3al1UJlma ................................................. 92
B. Ilcuxoifju3uol102U'iHU acneKmu ............................................................ 97
r Cbcma8Hu elleMeHmu Ha o6U{Y8aHemo ...................................... , ......... 99 .
2. TOqHOCT Ha B'b3rrpl1eMaHe Ha rrapTHhopa ITO 06llJ,YBaHe ......................... 104
A. Y800HU 6elle;J/cKu ................................................................................ 104
lJacT rreTa
fAPAHl(HH 3A CHfYPHOCT HA PA3Y3HABATEJlHATA
PAEOTA ..................................................................................................... 173
1. YBO,!l.HI1 rrOJIO)!(eHI1JI ................................................................................. 173
2. EJIeMeHTI1 Ha CI1CTeMaTa 3a Cl1rypHocT .................................................. 173
A. BbHUJHa CU2ypHocm ........................................................................... 174
E. BbmpeUJHa CU2ypHocm ....................................................................... 176
B. JIoKallHa CU2YpHoCm ........................................................................... 178
r 0p2aHu3upaHe Ha cpeU{u .................................................................... 181
E. MUMuKama Ha Ilulfemo .......... ; ............................................................ 106
B. Ilo21led 8 O'iume ................................................................................. 108
II "Cllu3aHe Ha ObHomo " ...................................................................... 184
3. OCl1rYP5lBaHe Ha TaHHaTa Ha rrOCJIaHH5ITa ............................................... 185
r Il03ama U HetlHUme demaullu ............................................................. 109
A. Kpunmo2paifjuJi ................................................................................. 185
II )J(ecmo8e U 08U;J/CeHUJI Ha mJlllomo ................................................... III
E. I1HmoHal1uu Ha 21laCa ........................................................................ 112
)J(. Oco6eHocmu Ha lleKCUKama ............................................................. 113
E. llIuifjpo8aHe .......... .............................................................................. 187
B. )J,eUJuifjpo8Ka ...................................................................................... 191
r Cme2aHo2paifjUJI ................................................................................. 192
3. Henpou38ollHU peaKlfuu ..................................................................... 114
278 AHATOnvllii T APAC
llpHJIOJKeHHe 1
CxeMH Ha cneqHaJIHaTa anapaTypa ........................................................ 196
llpHJIOJKeHHe 2
T'bpCeHe H o6e3BpeJK,IJ,aHe Ha B3pHBHH YCTpoiicTBa .............................. 210
1. Bll,lJ,OBe B3pllBHll YCT'pOHcTBa ............................................................. 210
2. IlocJIe,lJ,oBaTeJIHocT Ha o6e3Bpe)!(,lJ,aHe Ha B3pllBHllTe YCT'poHcTBa .... 211
3. Ha'IllHll3a 0'I'KpllBaHe Ha B3pllBHll YCT'pOHcTBa ................................. 213
llpHJIOJKeHHe 3
llpo6JIeMH Ha curypHocTTa Ha 6u3HecMeHa .......................................... 218
1. Hy)!(eH JIll e Ha 6ll3HecMeHa IIllCTOJIeT ............................................... 218
2. KaK'bB T'p5l6Ba ,lJ,a 6'b,lJ,e TeJIOXpaHllTeJI5lT ............................................ 221
3. KY'IeTO - HaH-,lJ,06pll5IT IIpll5lTeJI Ha 'IOBeKa ....................................... 231
4. 06IIl,ll MepKll 3a 3aIIl,llTa OT IIOKYIIIeHll51 ............................................ 234
5. 3aIIl,IlTa Ha aBTOM0611JIa II ,lJ,OMa ......................................................... 242
6. KaK ,lJ,a ce ,lJ,'bP)!(IlM IIpll OTBJIll'IaHe .................................................... 246
7. 3aIIl,llTa OT TeXHll'IeCKll Cpe,lJ,CTBa 3a IIIIIllOHa)!( ................................. 257
8. C'b3,lJ,aBaHe Ha co6cTBeHa cJIY)!(6a 3a CllrypHOCT ............................... 267
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NQ 1. MapKYC BOJI!}! CYIlEPmIlHOHHH
MeMoaplfTe Ha eKCIUe<pa Ha ID:a3H XB'hpmrr HOBa CBeTJIlfHa B'hPXy IKIfBOTa If
,n:eHHOCTTa Ha }IoBeKa 6e3 JIHlJ;e".
NQ 2. KUM cI>uJI6u MORT A TAHHA BOHHA
B aBT06lforpa<pmrra CIf TOIIIUIIlfOHlfH'hT Ha XX BeK pa3Ka3Ba 3a ceKpeTHaTa
CH ,n:eHHocT. 3a n'hpBIf n'hT Ha 6'hJIrapCKH KHlfraTa BKJ1IOQBa If CIIOMeHlfTe Ha
PY<PlfHa <PlfJI6lf3a C'hBMeCTHIUI H IKHBOT C KlfM B Pycml:.
NQ 3. TIuT'bP PaHT JIOBEIJ, HA mTIHOHH
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3a rrpo<pecHOHaJIHaTa CIf ,n:euHocT.
NQ 4. mIlHOHCKH AHfJIHHCKO-B1>JIrAPCKH H B1>JIrAP-
CKO-AHfJIHHCKH PEqHHK
,lJ;Bye3HQeH TeMaTll'-IeH petfR}!K Ha BCHtfKH CnelJ:H<pH'lHH TepMHHH OT
rrpo<pecHOHaJIHan JIeKCHKa H TallHHlI lKaprOH Ha llIIIHOHalKa HKOHTpa-IUnHOHalKa.
NQ 5. TIHT'bP IlOBE,[lA
ABTOP'hT pa36YJIBa TaliHaTa CTpaTerHlI Ha Pellr'hHoBaTa a,n:MHHHCTpa!J:HlI 3a
cpHBaHe Ha CCCP If .Ha 1f3TOQHlUl BoeHHO-IIOJIHTlftfeCKH 6JIOK.
NQ 6. MaKcHMoB BAH,[lHTCKA PYCHR
KOll ce pa3IIopelK).l;a B nOJIlfTlfqeCKlfll If cTorraHCKHl! IKHBOTHa PYClfll? 3aIUo
"KP'hCTHH!J:HTe" Ha pYCKaTa Ma<pml BJIlf3aT B 3aTBOpa caMO B tfYIK6HHa?
OQAKBAHTE:
NQ 7. P'bCeJl YOp'bH Xoy MATA XAPH
NQ 8. EHIJ,HKJIOIlE,[lHH HA mIlHOHA)KA
YHlfKaJIHO KaT066eM H H3tfepnaTemiocT Ha HH<P0PMalJ:lillTa a36ytJHo 1f3,n:a-
Hlfe 3a MHOrOJIlfKlfll CBlIT Ha IUnUOHalKa.
NQ 9. reH. HHIK. B'bJItfo rpUfOpOB, UHIK. KP'bCTbO
qaJI'bMOB 4IHPMEHO PA3Y3HABAHE H CHrYPHOCT (mnUOHalK'bT
KaTO 3aHa1lT)
BCHtfKO, KoeTO CTe IfCKaJIH ,n:a: 3HaeTe 3a pa3Y3HaBaHeTO, HO e HlIMaJIO OT
K'h,n:e ,n:a ro HaytflfTe.
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