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Underwater embankments on soft soil: a case history

BALKEMA – Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences

BALKEMA – Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences

Underwater embankments on soft soil: a case history

W.F. Van Impe R.D. Ver´astegui Flores

University of Ghent, Laboratory of Geotechnics, Zwijnaarde, Belgium

University of Ghent, Laboratory of Geotechnics, Zwijnaarde, Belgium LONDON / LEIDEN / NEW YORK / PHILADELPHIA

LONDON / LEIDEN / NEW YORK / PHILADELPHIA / SINGAPORE

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Published by: Taylor & Francis/Balkema P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden, The Netherlands e-mail: Pub.NL@tandf.co.uk www.balkema.nl, www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk, www.crcpress.com

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Van Impe, W.F.

Underwater embankments on soft soil : a case history / W.F. Van Impe, R.D. Ver´astegui Flores. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-415-42603-9 (hardcover : alk. paper)

1. Embankments.

Flores, R. D. II. Title.

2. Soil stabilization.

TA760.V3576 2007 627 .58–dc22

ISBN 0-203-94629-4 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN: 978-0-415-42603-9(Hbk) ISBN: 978-0-203-94629-9(eBook)

3. Underwater construction. I. Ver´astegui

2007001786

Contents

About the Authors

IX

Preface

XI

List of symbols

1

1 Introduction

1

2 Construction on soft soil

 

3

2.1 Clay foundation behavior

 

3

2.2 Staged construction

 

5

2.2.1 Methodology for analysis

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7

2.2.2 Consolidation analysis

 

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3 Discussion on undrained shear strength of soft soils

 

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3.1 Preamble

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3.2 Shear behavior

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11

3.3 Normalized

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3.4 Shear behavior of overconsolidated clay

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14

3.5 Laboratory testing techniques

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3.5.1 Overview

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16

SHANSEP

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18

Discussion

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19

3.6 Undrained strength

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20

3.7 Final

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23

4 Discussion on slope stability evaluation

 

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4.1 Preamble

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4.2 Causes of slope instability

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26

4.3 conditions for analysis

Stability

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28

Stability

4.4 analysis

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30

VI

Contents

4.4.1 Limit equilibrium methods

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30

4.4.2 Strength reduction methods

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31

4.4.3 Limit equilibrium versus strength reduction methods

 

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4.5 Failure mechanisms for highly sensitive

clays

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35

4.5.1 Flake type sliding of quick clay

 

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4.5.2 Analysis taking pore water pressures into account

 

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sliding in quick 4.5.4 . .

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4.6 Risk of liquefaction

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44

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49

4.7 Slope stability analysis of the Doeldok embankment

 

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5 Evaluation of consolidation

 

57

5.1 One-dimensional consolidation theory

 

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5.2 Infinitesimal strain theory

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58

5.2.1 Numerical solution

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60

5.2.2 Applications

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SSCON-FD

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62

5.3 theory

Finite strain

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64

5.4 strain versus finite strain theory

Infinitesimal

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66

5.5 Consolidation at the Doeldok site

 

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5.6 Conclusions .

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70

6 Geotechnical characterization of the site

 

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6.1 Overview

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71

6.2 Soil profile and

characterization

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71

6.3 Selection of parameters for design

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72

6.3.1 Dredged

material

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73

6.3.2 Boom

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78

6.3.3

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79

6.3.4

Summary of soil properties

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80

7 Design of underwater embankment of soft soil

 

81

7.1 Overview

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81

7.2 Geometry of the embankment

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82

7.3 Stability analysis

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7.3.1 Undrained analysis

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83

7.3.2 Drained stability analysis

 

86

7.4 Settlements

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7.4.1 Constitutive

From

relationships

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87

7.4.2 finite element

From

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7.5 Conclusions

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8 Ground improvement by deep mixing

 

91

Introduction

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91

8.2 applications

Deep mixing

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92

Contents

VII

Stabilization

8.3.1 with

lime

 

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94

Stabilization

8.3.2 with

cement-like

binders

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94

8.4 Methods of

installation

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8.5 Belgian experience on on-land

deep

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8.5.1 Properties of untreated

soils on land

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98

8.5.2 Binders employed on land

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100

8.5.3 Lime-cement stabilization in the laboratory

 

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8.5.4 Lime-cement

stabilization

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102

8.5.5 Remarks on the experience of dry deep mixing on land . 107

 

8.6 Deep mixing assessment

on the underwater site

 

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109

8.6.1 Properties of the artificially cemented soil in the

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laboratory

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110

8.6.2 Properties

of the cemented soil

. in the field

 

116

8.6.3 Laboratory versus in-situ behavior

 

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9

Construction and monitoring of embankment

 

123

9.1 Introduction

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123

9.2 Construction .

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123

9.3 Quality control of the

embankment sand

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124

9.4 Instrumentation and monitoring

 

128

9.4.1 Excess pore water pressure

 

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129

9.4.2 Settlements .

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133

9.5 Conclusions

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