Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 261

Business Ethics

Collection Editor: William Frey

Business Ethics

Collection Editor: William Frey Authors: Jose A. Cruz-Cruz William Frey

Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col10491/1.9/ >

CONNEXIONS Rice University, Houston, Texas

This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by William Frey. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/). Collection structure revised: January 2, 2009 PDF generated: April 30, 2012 For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see p. 252.

Table of Contents
1 Ethical Leadership 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

heory fuilding etivitiesX wountin errorist ixerise F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F I heoryEfuilding etivitiesX irtue ithis F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F S worl ixemplrs in fusiness nd rofessionl ithis F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IP ithis of emwork F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IU ithil ights for orking ingineers nd yther rofessionls F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PQ hree prmeworks for ithil heision wking nd qood gomputing eports F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PW luesEfsed heisionEwking in qilne qold F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F RI oioEehnil ystems in rofessionl heision wking F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F RS e hort ristory of the gorportion F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F SQ worl iologies in gorporte qovernne F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F TI hree iews of g @gorporte oil esponsiilityA F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UH heory fuilding etivitiesX 4esponsiility nd snident t worles4 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VH ithil sssues in isk wngement for fusiness F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VV hi'erent epprohes to gorporte qovernne F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F WW heveloping ithis godes nd ttements of lues F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IIP irte gode for ingineering ithis F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IPQ gorporte ithis gompline y0er eport F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F IQH feing n ithil to gndidte F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IQS

2 Ethical Decision-Making

3 CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

4 CG (Corporate Governance) 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

5 Business Ethics Case Studies 5.1 fiomtrix gse ixerises E tudent wodule F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IRS 5.2 qry wtters for the rughes eirrft gse F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ITV 5.3 gse enlysis woduleX herEPS F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IVP 5.4 oysmrt gse ixerises E tudent wodule F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IWH 5.5 ithis nd vptopsX sdentifying oil esponsiility sssues in uerto io F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PIQ 5.6 gse enlysis nd resenttionX whdo F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PIV 6 Business Ethics Bowl

rtil nd rofessionl ithis fowl etivityX pollowEp snEhepth gse enlE ysis F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PPS 6.2 ithis fowlX gses nd ore heets F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PQR
6.1 7 Course Procedures 7.1 uris for ixms nd qroup rojets in ithis F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PQW 7.2 elizing esponsiility hrough glss rtiiption F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PRQ Index F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PSH Attributions F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FPSP

iv

Chapter 1
Ethical Leadership
1.1 Theory Building Activities: Mountain Terrorist Exercise
1.1.1 Module Introduction
his module poses n ethil dilemmD tht isD fored hoie etween two d lterntivesF our jo is to red the senrio nd hoose etween the two horns of the dilemmF ou will mke your hoie nd then justify it in the (rst tivityF sn the seond tivityD you will disuss your hoie with othersF rereD the ojetive is to reh onsensus on ourse of tion or desrie the point t whih your group9s progress towrd onsensus stoppedF he wountin errorist ixerise lmost lwys genertes lively disussion nd helps us to re)et on of our morl eliefsF hon9t expet to reh greement with your fellow lssmtes quikly or e'ortlesslyF @sf you doD then your instrutor will (nd wys of throwing monkey wrenh into the whole proessFA ht is more importnt here is tht we lern how to stte our positions lerlyD how to listen to othersD how to justify our positionsD nd how to ssess the justi(tions o'ered y othersF sn other wordsD we will ll hve hne to prtie the virtue of resonlenessF end we will lern resonleness not when it9s esy @s it is when we greeA ut when it eomes di0ult @s it is when we disgreeAF he seond hlf of this module requires tht you re)et refully on your morl resoning nd tht of your lssmtesF he wountin errorist ixerise triggers the di'erent morl shems tht mke up our psyhologil pity for morl judgmentF ghoosing one horn of the dilemm mens tht you tend to fvor one kind of shem while hoosing the other horn generlly indites tht your fvor notherF he dominnt morl theories tht we will study this semester provide detiled rtiultions nd justi(tions of these morl shemsF e)eting on your hoieD the resons for your hoieD nd how your hoie di'ers from tht of your lssmtes will help you get strted on the pth of studying nd e'etively utilizing morl theoryF he following senrio omes originlly from the philosopherD fernrd illimsF st is lso presented in introdutory ethis textooks @suh s qeo'rey homs9 en sntrodution to ithisAF he (rst time this module9s uthor eme wre of its use in the lssroom ws in workshop on egriulture ithis led y ul hompsonD then of exs e8w niversityD in IWWPF
1

1.1.2 Moral Theories Highlighted


IF tilitrinismX the morl vlue of n tion lies in its onsequenes or results PF heontologyX the morl vlue of n tion liesD not in its onsequenesD ut in the forml hrteristis of the tion itselfF QF irtue ithisX etions sort themselves out into virtuous or viious tionsF irtuous tions stem from virtuous hrter while viious tions stem from viious or morlly )wed hrterF ho we re is revels through wht we doF
1 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13764/1.11/>.

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

1.1.3 Mountain Terrorist Scenario


ou re in remote mountin villgeF e group of terrorists hs lined up PH people from the villgeY they pln on shooting them for ollorting with the enemyF ine you re not from the villgeD you will not e killedF king dvntge of your positionD you pled with the terrorists not to rry out their plnF pinllyD you onvine the leder tht it is not neessry to kill ll PHF re tkes gunD empties it of ll its ullets exept oneD nd then hnds it to youF re hs deided to kill only one villger to set n exmple to the restF es n honored guest nd outsiderD you will deide who will e killedD nd you will rry out the deedF he terrorists onlude with wrningY if you refuse to kill the villgerD then they will revert k to the originl pln of killing ll PHF end if you try ny funny usinessD they will kill the PH villgers nd then kill youF ht should you doc
Your Options

IF ke the gunD selet villgerD nd kill him or herF PF efuse the terrorists9 o'er nd wlk wy from the situtionF
Spanish Translation by Dr. Halley Sanchez

il errorist de l wont eres un ntroplogo que por un mes h estdo viviendo on y oservndo @o seD estudindoA los residents de un lde en un re remot montoz de un pis en emri vtinF il d que te dispone irte de l ldeD pree un grupo de homres rmdos que renen los ldenos y les nunin que se hn enterdo de que ellos hn estdo ooperndo on el goierno represivo y queD omo leinD hn de ejeutr viente de ellosF il lder de los terrorists te mir y te die que t te puedes irD y que no ests involurdo en l luh ptriti y que ellos no estn en l ostumre de tomr rehnes extrnjerosF heido que te d l impresin de que el lder de los supuestos ptrits @terroristscA es un homre edudoD t te treves trtr de rzonr on lF ve expli que llevs un mes en l lde y que los ldenos no hn ooperdo de form volutri on el goiernoF D por supuestoD ls trops del goierno psron por l lde y on(sron lguns provisionesD pero los ldenos no se ls dieron liremente sino que estn indefenso y no podieron prevenir que le on(srn ls mismsF il lder piens un tiempo y te die que por t ser forstero y ovimente un ntroplogo estudiosoD te v dr el eni(io de l dudD y que por tnto no vn ejeutr viente ldenosF ero ddo que l luh ptriti est en un proeso rtio y que l lde s le provey provisiones l goiernoD por el ien de l luh ptriti y el ien de l humniddD es menester drle un lein l ldeF es que tn slo hn de ejeutr un ldenoF wsD omo huespedD t hs de esoger quin h de morir y t hs de mtrlo t mismoF e d un pistol on un sol l y te die que proedD mientrs que l vez te dvierte que de trtr lgo heroioD te ejeutrn inmeditmente y proedern ejeutr los viente ldenos omo dijeron l omienzoF eres el ntroplogoF u hrsc
Activity 1

sn short essy of I to P pges desrie wht you would do if you were in the position of the touristF hen justify your hoieF
Activity 2

fring your essy to lssF ou will e divided into smll groupsF resent your hoie nd justi(tion to the others in your groupF hen listen to their hoies nd justi(tionsF ry to reh group onsensus on hoie nd justi(tionF @ou will e given IHEIS minutesFA sf you sueed present your results to the rest of the lssF sf you filD present to the lss the disgreement tht loked onsensus nd wht you did @within the time limitA to overome itF

1.1.4 Taxonomy of Ethical Approaches


here re mny ethil pprohes tht n e used in deision mkingF he wountin errorist ixerise is sed on n rti(il senrio designed to seprte these theoretil pprohes long the lines of the di'erent 4horns4 of dilemmF tilitrins tend to hoose to shoot villger 4in order to sve IWF4 sn other words they fous their nlysis on the onsequenes of n tion lterntive nd hoose the one tht produes the lest hrmF heontologists generlly elet to wlk wy from the situtionF his is euse they judge n tion on the sis of its forml hrteristisF e deontologist might rgue tht killing the villger violtes

Q nturl lw or nnot e mde into lw or rule tht onsistently pplies to everyodyF e deontologist might sy something likeD 4ht right do s hve to tke nother person9s lifec4 e virtue ethiists might try to imgine how person with the virtue of ourge or integrity would t in this situitonF @illims lims tht hoosing to kill the villgerD duty under utilitrinismD would undermine the integrity of person who horred killingFA
Table Connecting Theory to Domain

IF ow IX tilitrinism onerns itself with the domin of onsequenes whih tells us tht the morl vlue of n tion is 4olored4 y its resultsF he hrmGene(ene testD whih sks us to hoose the lest hrmful lterntiveD enpsultes or summrizes this theoretil pprohF he si priniple of utilitrinism is the priniple of utilityX hoose tht tion tht produes the gretest good for the gretest numerF gostGene(ts nlysisD the reto riterionD the ulderGriks riterionD riskGene(ts nlysis ll represent di'erent frmeworks for lning positive nd negtive onsequenes under utilitrinism or onsequentilismF PF ow PX heontology helps us to identify nd justify rights nd their orreltive duties he reversiility test summrizes deontology y sking the questionD 4hoes your tion still work if you swith @areverseA roles with those on the reeiving endc 4ret others lwys s endsD never merely s mensD4 the pormul of indD represents deontology9s si prinipleF he rights tht represent speil ses of treting people s ends nd not merely s mens inlude @A informed onsentD @A privyD @A due proessD @dA propertyD @eA free speehD nd @fA onsientious ojetionF QF ow QX irtue ethis turns wy from the tion nd fouses on the gentD the person performing the tionF he wordD 4irtueD4 refers to di'erent sets of skills nd hits ultivted y gentsF hese skills nd hitsD onsistently nd widely performedD supportD sustinD nd dvne di'erent ouptionlD soilD nd professionl prtiesF @ee wsntyreD efter irtueD nd olomonD ithis nd ixelleneD for more on the reltion of virtues to prtiesFA he puli identi(tion test summrizes this pE prohX n tion is morlly eptle if it is one with whih s would willingly e pulily ssoited given my morl onvitionsF sndividul virtues tht we will use this semester inlude integrityD justieD responsiilityD resonlenessD honestyD trustworthinessD nd loyltyF govering ell the fses ithil himension gonsequenes govering ithil epproh tilitrinism inpsulting ithil est rrmGfene(ene @weigh hrms ginst ene(tsA eversiility @test y reversing roles etween gent nd ojet of tionA fsi riniples riniple of tilE ityX gretest good for gretest numE er gtegoril smE pertivepormul of indeutonomy epplition or fridging ools fene(t 8 ost omprisontility wximiztion pree 8 snformed gonsentD rivyD ropertyD hue roessD pree peehD gonsienE tious ojetion

porml ghrterE istis of et

heontology @hutyE sedD rightsE sedD nturl lwD soil onE trtA

continued on next page

R kills nd hits ultivted y gent irtue ithis uli sdenti(E tion @impute morl import of tion to person of gentA

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

irtues re mens etween extremes with regrd to gent nd E tionirtues re ultivted disposiE tions tht promote entrl ommunity vlues

sntegrityD justieD responsiilityD reE sonlenessD honE estyD trustworthiE nessD loylty

Table 1.1

1.1.5 Comments on the Relation Between Ethical Approaches


he wountin errorist ixerise hsD in the pstD given students the erroneous ide tht ethil pprohes re neessrily opposed to one notherF es one student put itD 4sf deontology tells us to wlk wy from the villgeD then utilitrinism must tell us to sty nd kill villger euse deontology nd utilitrinE ismD s di'erent nd opposed theoriesD lwys reh di'erent nd opposed onlusions on the tions they reommendF4 he wountin errorist dilemm ws speilly onstruted y fernrd illims to produe sitution tht o'ered only limited numer of lterntivesF re then tied these lterntives to di'erent ethil pprohes to seprte them preisely euse in most rel world situtions they re not so redily distinguishleF vter this semesterD we will turn from these philosophil puzzles to rel world ses where ethil pprohes funtion in very di'erent nd mostly omplimentry wyF es we will seeD ethil pE prohesD for the most prtD onverge on the sme solutionsF por this resonD this module onludes with Q metEtestsF hen pprohes onverge on solutionD this strengthens the solution9s morl vlidityF hen pprohes diverge on solutionD this wekens their morl vlidityF e third metEtest tells us to void frmE ing ll ethil prolems s dilemms @afored hoies etween undesirle lterntivesA or wht grolyn hitek lls 4multipleEhoie4 prolemsF ou will soon lern tht e'etive morl prolem solving requires morl imgintion nd morl retivityF e do not 4(nd4 solutions 4out there4 redy mde ut design them to hrmonize nd relize ethil nd prtil vluesF
Meta-Tests

hivergene estX hen two ethil pprohes di'er on given solutionD then tht di'erene ounts ginst the strength of the solutionF olutions on whih ethil theories diverge must e revised towrds onvergeneF gonvergene estX gonvergene represents metEtest tht ttests to solution strengthF olutions on whih di'erent theoretil pprohes onverge reD y this ftD strengthenedF gonvergene demonE strtes tht solution is strongD not just over one dominD ut over multiple dominsF evoid prming rolem s hilemmF e dilemm is noEwin sitution tht o'ers only two lE terntives of tion oth of whih re eqully dF @e trilemm o'ers three d lterntivesD etFA hilemms re etter dissolved thn solvedF efrme the dilemm into something tht dmits of more thn two noEwin lterntivesF hilemm frming @frming sitution s n ethil dilemmA disourE ges us from designing retive solutions tht integrte the on)iting vlues tht the dilemm poses s inomptileF

1.1.6 Module Wrap-Up


IF Reasonableness and the Mountain Terrorist Exercise. st my seem tht this senrio is the lst ple where the virtue of resonleness should previlD ut look k on how you responded to those of your lssmtes who hose di'erently in this exerise nd who o'ered rguments tht you hd not initilly thought ofF hid you 4listen nd respond thoughtfully4 to themc ere you 4open to new ides4

S even if these hllenged your ownc hid you 4give resons for4 your viewsD modifying nd shping them to respond to your lssmtes9 rgumentsc hid you 4knowledge mistkes nd misunderstndings4 suh s responding ritilly nd personlly to lssmte who put forth di'erent viewc pinllyD when you turned to working with your groupD were you le to 4ompromise @without ompromising personl integrityA4c sf you did ny or ll of these thingsD then you prtied the virtue of resonleness s hrterized y wihel rithrd in his ookD esonle ghildrenX worl idution nd worl verning @IWWTD niversity of unss ressD pF IIAF gongrtulte yourself on exerising resonleness in n exerise designed to hllenge this virtueF ou pssed the testF PF Recognizing that we are already making ethical arguments. sn the pstD students hve mde the following rguments on this exeriseX @A s would tke the gun nd kill villger in order to sve nineteenY @A s would wlk wy euse s don9t hve the right to tke nother9s lifeY @A hile wlking wy might pper owrdly it is the responsile thing to do euse stying nd killing villger would mke me ompliit in the terrorists9 projetF es we disussed in lssD these nd other rguments mke use of modes of thought ptured y ethil theories or pprohesF he (rst employs the onsequentilist pproh of utilitrinism while the seond mkes use of the priniple of respet tht forms the sis of our rights nd dutiesF he third works through on)it etween two virtuesD ourge nd responsiilityF his relies on the virtue pprohF yne omplishment of this exerise is to mke you wre of the ft tht you re lredy using ethil rgumentsD iFeFD rguments tht ppel to ethil theoryF verning out the theories ehind these rguments will help you to mkes these rguments more e'etivelyF QF Results from Muddy Point Exercises he wuddy oint ixerises you ontriuted kept oming k to two pointsF @A wny of you pointed out tht you needed more informtion to mke deision in this situtionF por exmpleD who were these terroristsD wht uses were they (ghting forD nd were they orret in using the villge of ollorting with the enemyc our request for more informtion ws quite ppropriteF fut mny of the ses we will e studying this semester require deisions in the fe of unertinty nd ignorneF hese re unvoidle in some situtions euse of ftors suh s the ost nd time of gthering more informtionF worl imgintion skillfully exerised n do lot to ompenste when ll of the fts re not inF @A eondD mny of you felt overly onstrined y the dilemm frming of the senrioF hose of you who entered the relm of 4funny usiness4 @nything eyond the two lterntives of killing the villger or wlking wyA took ig step towrd e'etive morl prolem solvingF fy rejeting the dilemm frming of this senrioD you were trying to refrme the sitution to llow for more!nd more ethilly vile!lterntivesF rying to negotite with the errorists is good exmple of refrming the senrio to dmit of more ethil lterntives of tion thn killing or wlking wyF RF gongrtultions on ompleting your (rst ethis module3 ou hve egun reognizing nd prtiing skills tht will help you to tkle rel life ethil prolemsF @xotie tht we re going to work with 4prolems4 not 4dilemms4FA e will now turnD in the next moduleD to look t those who mnged to do good in the fe of di0ultyF tudying morl exemplrs will provide the neessry orretive to the 4noEwin4 wountin errorist ixeriseF

1.2 Theory-Building Activities: Virtue Ethics

fsed on mteril presented y ghuk ru' @tF ylf gollegeA nd illim prey t the essoition for rtil nd rofessionl ithis in PHHS t n entonioD F reliminry versions were distriuted during this presenttionF
2 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13755/1.13/>.

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

1.2.1 Module Introduction


his module uses mterils eing prepred for qood gomputingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithisD to set up n exerise in whih you will identify nd spell out virtues relevnt to your professionl disiplineF efter identifying these virtuesD you will work to ontextulize them in everydy prtieF imphsis will e pled on the eristotelin pproh to virtues whih desries virtue s the disposition towrd the men loted etween the extremes of exess nd defetF ou will lso e sked to identify ommon ostles tht prevent professionls from relizing given virtue nd morl exemplrs who demonstrte onsistent suess in relizing these virtues nd responding to ostles tht stnd in the wy of their reliztionF sn vrition on this module you ould e sked to ompre the virtues you hve identi(ed for your profession with virtues tht elong to other morl eologies suh s those of the romeri wrrierF

1.2.2 Three Versions of Virtue Ethics: Virtue 1, Virtue 2, and Virtue 3


irtue ethis hs gone through three historil versionsF he (rstD irtue ID ws set forth y eristotle in nient qreeeF hile tied losely to prties in nient qreee tht no longer exist todyD eristotle9s version still hs lot to sy to us in this dy nd geF sn the seond hlf of the twentieth enturyD fritish philosophil ethiists put forth relted ut di'erent theory of virtue ethis @virtue PA s n lterntive to the dominnt ethil theories of utilitrinism nd deontologyF irtue P promised new foundtion of ethis onsistent with work going on t tht time in the philosophy of mindF roponents felt tht turning from the tion to the gent promised to free ethil theory from the intrtle dete etween utilitrinism nd deontology nd o'ered wy to expnd sope nd relevne of ethisF irtue Q reonnets with eristotle nd virtue I even though it drops the dotrine of the men nd eristotle9s emphsis on hrterF sing reent dvnes in morl psyhology nd morl pedgogyD it seeks to rework key eristotelin onepts in modern termsF sn the followingD we will provide short hrteriztions of eh of these three versions of virtue ethisF

1.2.3 Virtue 1: Aristotle's Virtue Ethics


Eudaimonia. rppinessD for eristotleD onsists of life spent ful(lling the intelletul nd morl virtuesF hese modes of tion re utoEteliD tht isD they re selfEjustifying nd ontin their own endsF fy rrying out the morl nd intelletul virtues for lifetimeD we relize ourselves fully s humnsF feuse we re doing wht we were ment to doD we re hppy in this speil sense of eudimoniF Arete. erete is the qreek word we usully trnslte s 4virtue4F fut rete is more fithfully trnslted s exelleneF por eristotleD the morl nd intelletul virtues represent exellenesF o the morl life is more thn just stying out of trouleF nder eristotleD it is entered in pursuing nd hieving exellene for lifetimeF Virtue as the Mean. eristotle lso hrterizes virtue s settled disposition to hoose the mean etween the extremes of exess nd defetD ll reltive to person nd situtionF gourge @the virtueA is the men etween the extremes of exess @too muh ourge or reklessnessA nd defet @too little ourge or owrdieAF eristotle9s lim tht most or ll of the virtues n e spei(ed s the men etween extremes is ontroversilF hile the dotrine of the men is dropped in irtue P nd irtue QD we will still use it in developing virtue tlesF @ee exerise I elowFA ou my not (nd oth extremes for the virtues you hve een ssigned ut mke the e'ort nonethelessF Ethos. 4ithos4 trnsltes s hrter whihD for eristotleD omposes the set of the virtuesF irtues re well settled dispositions or hits tht hve een inorported into our hrtersF feuse our hrters re mnifested in our tionsD the ptterns formed y these over time revel who we reF his n e formulted s deisionEmking testD the public identication testF feuse we revel who we re through our tions we n skD when onsidering n tionD whether we would re to e pulily identi(ed with this tionF 4ould s wnt to e pulily known s the kind of person who would perform tht kind of tionc ould sD through my owrdly tionD wnt to e pulily

U identi(ed s owrdc ould sD through my responsile tionD wnt to e pulily identi(ed s responsile personc feuse tions provide others with window into our hrtersD we must mke sure e sure tht they portry us s we wnt to e portryedF Aisthesis of the Phronimos. his qreek phrseD roughly trnslted s the pereption of the morlly experiened gentD revels how importnt prtie nd experiene re to eristotle in his oneption of morl developmentF yne mjor di'erene etween eristotle nd other ethiists @utilitrins nd deontologistsA is the emphsis tht eristotle ples on developing into or eoming morl personF por eristotleD one eomes good y (rst repetedly performing good tionsF o morlity is more like n quired skill thn mehnil proessF hrough prtie we develop sensitivities to wht is morlly relevnt in situtionD we lern how to struture our situtions to see morl prolems nd possiilitiesD nd we develop the skill of 4hitting4 onsistently on the men etween the extremesF ell of these re skills tht re ultivted in muh the sme wy s sketll plyer develops through prtie the skill of shooting the ll through the hoopF Bouleusis. his word trnsltes s 4deliertionF4 por eristotleD morl skill is not the produt of extensive deliertion @refulD exhustive thinking out resonsD tionsD priniplesD oneptsD etFA ut of prtieF hose who hve developed the skill to (nd the men n do so with very little thought nd e'ortF irtuous individulsD for eristotleD re surprisingly unre)etiveF hey t virtuously without thought euse it hs eome seond nture to themF Akrasia. oss trnsltes this word s 4inontinene4 whih is outmodedF e etter trnsltion is wekness of willF por eristotleD knowing where virtue lies is not the sme s doing wht virtue demndsF here re those who re unle to trnslte knowledge into resolution nd then into tionF feuse krsis @wekness of willA is very rel for eristotleD he lso ples emphsis in his theory of morl development on the ultivtion of proper emotions to help motivte virtuous tionF vter ethiists seek to oppose emotion nd right tionY eristotle sees properly trined nd ultivted emotions s strong motives to doing wht virtue requiresF Logos eristotle9s full de(nition of virtue is 4 stte of hrter onerned with hoieD lying in menD iFeF the men reltive to usD this eing determined y rtionl prinipleD nd y tht priniple y whih person of prtil wisdom would determine itF4 @oss9s trnsltion in Nichomachean EthicsD IIHTD QTFA e hve tlked out hrterD the menD nd the person of prtil wisdomF he lst key term is 4logos4 whih in this de(nition is trnslted y resonF his is good trnsltion if we tke reson in its fullest sense so tht it is not just the pity to onstrut vlid rguments ut lso inludes the prtil wisdom to ssess the truth of the premises used in onstruting these rgumentsF sn this wyD eristotle expnds reson eyond logi to inlude fuller set of intelletulD prtilD emotionlD nd pereptul skills tht together form prtil kind of wisdomF

1.2.4 Virtue 2
he following summry of irtue P is tken lrgely from oslind rursthouseF hile she extensively quli(es eh of these theses in her own version of virtue ethisD these points omprise n exellent summry of irtue P whih strts with qFiFwF ensome9s rtileD 4wodern worl hilosophyD4 nd ontinues on into the presentF rursthouse presents this hrteriztion of irtue P in her ookD On Virtue Ethics @PHHIA FuFX yxford niversity ressX IUF Virtue 2 is agent centered. gontrry to deontology nd utilitrinism whih fous on whether tions re good or rightD P is gent entered in tht it sees the tion s n expression of the goodness or dness of the gentF tilitrinism fouses on tions whih ring out the gretest hppiness for the gretest numerY deontology seeks those tions tht respet the utonomy of individuls nd rry out morl oligtionsD espeilly dutiesF hese theories emphsize doing wht is good or rightF irtue PD on the other hndD fouses on the gent9s eoming or being goodF Can Virtue 2 tell us how to act? feuse P is gentEenteredD ritis lim tht it nnot provide insight into how to t in given situtionF ell it n sy isD 4et the wy morl exemplr would tF4 fut wht morl stndrds do morl exemplrs use or emody in their tionsc end wht morl

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

stndrds do we use to pik out the morl exemplrs themselvesc rursthouse knowledges tht this ritiism hits homeF roweverD she points out tht the morl stndrds ome from the morl onepts tht we pply to morl exemplrsY they re individuls who t courageouslyD exerise justiceD nd relize honestyF he morl onepts 4ourgeD4 4justieD4 nd 4honesty4 ll hve independent ontent tht helps guide usF he lso lls this ritiism unfirX while virtue P my not provide ny more guidne thn deontology or utilitrinismD it doesn9t provide ny lessF irtue P my not provide perfet guidneD ut wht it does provide is fvorly omprle to wht utilitrinism nd deontology provideF

Virtue 2 replaces Deontic concepts (right, duty, obligation) with Aretaic concepts (good, virtue)F his gretly hnges the sope of ethisF heonti onepts serve to estlish our minimum oligtionsF yn the other hndD reti onepts ring the pursuit of exellene within the purview of ethisF irtue ethis produes hnge in our morl lnguge tht mkes the pursuit of exellene n essentil prt of morl inquiryF pinllyD there is somewht di'erent ount of virtue P @ll it virtue PA tht n e ttriuted to elisdir wsntyreF his version 4historiizes4 the virtuesD tht isD looks t how our onepts of key virtues hve hnged over timeF @wsntyre rgues tht the onept of justieD for exmpleD vries gretly depending on whether one views justie in romeri qreeeD eristotle9s qreeeD or wedievl iuropeFA feuse he rgues tht skills nd tions re onsidered virtuous only in reltion to prtiulr historil nd ommunity ontextD he rede(nes virtues s those skill sets neessry to relize the goods or vlues round whih soil prties re uilt nd mintinedF his notion (ts in well with professionl ethis euse virtues n e derived from the hitsD ttitudesD nd skills needed to mintin the rdinl idels of the professionF

1.2.5 Virtue 3
Virtue 3 can best be outlined by showing how the basic concepts of Virtue 1 can be reformulated to reect current research in moral psychology.

IF Reformulating Happiness (Eudaimonia). wihly gsikszentmihlyi hs desried )ow experiE enes @see text ox elowA in whih utoteli tivities ply entrl roleF por eristotleD the virtues lso re utoteliF hey represent fulties whose exerise is key to relizing our fullest potentilities s humn eingsF husD virtues re selfEvlidting tivities rried out for themselves s well s for the ends they ring outF plow experienes re lso importnt in helping us to oneptulize the virtues in professionl ontext euse they represent well prtied integrtion of skillD knowledgeD nd morl sensitivityF PF Reformulating Values (Into Arete or Excellence). o rry out the full projet set forth y virtue QD it is neessry to reinterpret s exellene key morl vlues suh s honestyD justieD responsiilityD resonlenessD nd integrityF por exmpleD morl responsiility hs often een desried s rrying out siD miniml morl oligtionsF es n exelleneD responsiility eomes refoused on extending knowledge nd power to expnd our rnge of e'etiveD morl tionF esponsiility reformulted s n exellene lso implies high level of re tht goes well eyond wht is minimlly requiredF QF De-emphasizing Character. he notion of hrter drops out to e repled y more or less enduring nd integrted skills sets suh s morl imgintionD morl retivityD resonlenessD nd perseverneF ghrter emerges from the tivities of integrting personlity tritsD quired skillsD nd deepening knowledge round situtionl demndsF he unity hrter represents is lwys omE plex nd hngingF RF Practical Skill Replaces Deliberation. worl exemplrs develop skills whihD through prtieD eome seond ntureF hese skills ovite the need for extensive morl deliertionF worl exemplrs resemle more skillful thletes who quikly develop responses to dynmi situtions thn rmlets stepping k from tion for prolonged nd gonizing deliertionF

W SF Greater Role for Emotions. xny hermn disusses howD for eristotleD emotion is not treted s n irrtionl fore ut s n e'etive tool for morl tion one it hs een shped nd ultivted through proper morl edutionF o step eyond the ontrovery of wht eristotle did nd did not sy out the emotions @nd where he sid itA we ple this enhned role for emotions within virtue QF imotions rry out four essentil funtionsX @A they serve s modes of ttentionY @A they lso serve s modes of responding to or signling vlueY @A they ful(ll reveltory funtionY nd @dA they provide strong motives to morl tionF xny hermnD Making a Necessity of Virtue: Aristotle and Kant on Virtue @IWWUAD FuFX gmridge niversity ressX QWESHF

1.2.6 Flow Experiences


he psyhologistD wihly gsikszentmihlyiD hs rried out fsinting reserh on wht he terms 4)ow experienesF4 wike wrtin in Meaningful Work @PHHHA FuFX yxfordDX PRD summrizes these in the following ulletsX 4ler gols s one proeeds4 4immedite feedk out progress4 4 lne etween hllenges nd our skills to respond to them4 4immersion of wreness in the tivity without disruptive distrtions4 4lk of worry out filure4 loss of nxious selfEonsiousness4 time distortions @either time )ying or timeslowing plesurlyA4 the tivity eomes autotelicX n end in itselfD enjoyed s suh4

1.2.7 Virtue Tables


he tle just elow provides formt for spelling out individul virtues through @IA generl desriptionD @PA the orreltive vies of exess nd defetD @QA the skills nd mentl sttes tht ompny nd support itD nd @RA rel nd (tionl individuls who emody itF pollowing the tle re hints on how to identify nd hrterize virtuesF e strt with the virtue of integrityX

IH irtue hesription ixess hefet

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

ystles to relizing the virtue in professionl prties sndividul orruptionX snE dividuls n e tempted y greed towrd the vie of defetF vk of morl ourge n lso move one to oth extremes

worl plr

ixemE

sntegrity

e metEvirtue in whih the holder exE hiits unity of hrter mnifested in holding together even in the fe of strong disrupE tive pressures or tempttions

ixessX igidity! stiking to ones guns even when one is oviously wrong@PDQA

hefetX nE tonnessF e ondition where one exhiits no stility or onsisteny in hrter

int homs wore s porE tryed in oert folts e wn for ell esonsF wore refuses to tke n oth tht goes ginst the ore eE liefs in terms of whih he de(nes himselfF

snstitutionl gorruptionX yne my work in n orgniE ztion where orruption is the normF his genertes dilemms like following n illegl order or getting (redF
continued on next page

II

Table 1.2

1.2.8 Exercise 1: Construct Virtue Tables for Professional Virtues


IF hisuss in your group why the virtue you hve een ssigned is importnt for the prtie of your professionF ht goods or vlues does the onsistent employment of this virtue produec PF se the disussion in 5I to develop generl desription of your virtueF hink long the following linesX people who hve virtue tend to exhiit ertin hrteristis @or do ertin thingsA in ertin kinds of situtionsF ry to think of these situtions in terms of wht is ommon nd importnt to your profession or prtieF QF sdentify the orresponding viesF ht hrterizes the points of exess nd defet etween whih your virtue s the men liesc RF ht ostles rise tht prevent professionls from prtiing your virtuec ho wellEmening profesE sionls lk power or tehnil skillc gn virtues interfere with the reliztion of nonEmorl vlues like (nnil vluesc ee if you n think of supporting senrio or se hereF SF sdentify morl exemplr for your virtueF wke use of the exemplrs desried in the Moral Exemplars in Business and Professional Ethics moduleF TF qo k to tsk 5PF ede(ne your desription of your virtue in light of the susequent tsksD espeilly the morl exemplr you identi(edF ghek for ohereneF UF pinllyD does your virtue stnd lone or does it need support from other virtues or skillsc por exmpleD integrity might lso require morl ourgeF

1.2.9 Exercise 2: Reect on these Concluding Issues


hid you hve troule identifying morl exemplrc wny turn to populr (gures for their morl exemplrsF wovies nd (tion lso o'er powerful modelsF hy do you think tht it is hrd to (nd morl exemplrs in your professionc ss it euse your profession is den of orruptionc @roly notFA ho we fous more on villins thn on heroesc hy or why notc ht did you think out the morl leders portryed in the Moral Exemplars in Business and Professional Ethics modulec hid you hve troule identifying oth viesD iFeFD vies of exess nd defetc sf soD do you think this euse some virtues my not hve vies of exess nd defetc ht do you think out eristotle9s dotrine of the menc hid you notie tht the virtue pro(les given y your group nd the other groups in the lss overlppedc ss this prolem for virtue theoryc hy do our oneptions of the key morl vlues nd virtues overlpc hid you (nd the virtues di0ult to pplyc ht do you think out the utilitrin nd deontologil ritiism of virtue ethisD nmelyD tht it nnot provide us with guidelines on how to t in di0ult situtionsc hould ethil theories emphsize the t or the personc yr othc he most tenious ostle to working with virtue ethis is to hnge fous from the morlly miniml to the morlly exemplryF irtue is the trnsltion of the qreek wordD rteF fut exellene isD perhpsD etter wordF nderstnding virtue ethis requires seeing tht virtue is onerned with the exemplryD not the rely pssleF @eginD looking t morl exemplrs helpsFA erte trnsforms our understnding of ommon morl vlues like justie nd responsiility y moving from minimlly eptle to exemplry modelsF
worl veders3 he pro(les of severl morl leders in prtil nd professionl ethisF gomputer ithis gses4 his link provides severl omputer ethis ses nd lso hs desription of deision mking nd
3 http://www.onlineethics.org 4 http://www.computingcases.org

IP

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

soioEtehnil systems frmeworksF worl ixemplrs in fusiness nd rofessionl ithis @etion IFQA ro(les of severl morl leders in prtil nd professionl ethisF

1.2.10 Presentation on Virtue Ethics


[Media Object]

1.2.11 Resources
wurdohD sF @IWUHAF he overeignty of qoodF uX vondonD outledgeF hermnD xF @IWVWAF he pri of ghrterX eristotle9s heory of irtueF uX yxfordD yxford niversity ressF rursthouseD F @IWWWAF yn irtue ithisF uX yxfordD yxford niversity ressF irtue ithisF @PHHQAF idited y tephen hrwllF uX yxfordX flkwellF flumD vF @IWWRAF worl ereption nd rtiulrityF uX gmridge niversity ressF ino'sD iFvF @IWVTAF undries nd irtuesX eginst edutivism in ithisF vwreneD uX niE versity of unss ressF irtue ithis @IWWUAF idited y grispD F nd loteD wF uX yxfordD yxford niversity ressF invironmentl irtue ithisF @PHHSAF idited y ndlerD F nd gfroD F xew orkX owmn nd vittle(eldF preyD F @PHHVAF ingineering ithis in uerto ioX sssues nd xrrtivesF iene nd ingineering ithisD IRX RIUERQIF preyD F @PHIHAF ehing irtueX edgogil smplitions of worl syhologyF iene nd ingiE neering ithisD ITX TIIETPVF ru'D gFD frnrdD vF nd preyD F @PHHVA qood omputingX pedgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputing @prts I nd PAF4 snformtionD gommunition nd ithis in oietyD T@QAD PRTEPUVF ru'D gFD frnrdD vF nd preyD F @PHHVA qood omputingX pedgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputing @prts I nd PAF snformtionD gommunition nd ithis in oietyD T@RAD PVREQITFD

1.3 Moral Exemplars in Business and Professional Ethics


1.3.1 Module Introduction

hrough the tivities of this module you will lern to lne utionry tles in usiness nd professionl ethis with new stories out those who onsistently t in morlly exemplry wyF hile utionry tles teh us wht to voidD nrrtives from the lives of morl exemplrs show us how to e goodF e study of morl est prties in usiness nd professionl ethis shows tht morl exemplrs exhiit positive nd lernle skillsF his moduleD thenD looks t morl exemplrs in usiness nd the professionsD outlines their outstnding omplishmentsD nd helps you to unpk the strtegies they use to overome ostles to doing goodF ou will egin y identifying outstnding individuls in usiness nd ssoited prties who hve developed morl 4est prtiesF4 our tsk is look t these individulsD retell their storiesD identify the skills tht help them do goodD nd uild foundtion for more omprehensive study of virtue in ouptionl nd professionl ethisF
5 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <An Introduction to Virtue Ethics.pptx> 6 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14256/1.10/>.

IQ

1.3.2 Exercise 1: Choose a moral exemplar


sdentify morl exemplr nd provide nrrtive desription of his or her life storyF o get this proess strtedD look t the list of morl exemplrs provided in this moduleF he links in the upper left hnd orner of this module will help you to explore their omplishments in detilF peel free to hoose your own exemplrF wke sure you identify someone in the ouptionl nd professionl res suh s usiness nd engineeringF hese res hve more thn their shre of exemplrsD ut they tend to espe puliity euse their tions void puliity generting dissters rther thn ring them outF

1.3.3 Moral Exemplars


IF illim vewesseurF vewesseur designed the gitiorp fuilding in xew orkF hen student identi(ed ritil design )w in the uilding during routine lss exeriseD vewesseur respondedD not y shooting the messengerD ut y developing n intrite nd e'etive pln for orreting the prolem efore it issued in drsti rel world onsequenesF ghek out vewesseur9s pro(le t onlineethis nd see how he turned potentil disster into good deedF PF pred gunyD strting in IWTW with fifrD rried out series of inresingly e'etive interventions in interntionl disstersF re rought e'etive methods to disster relief suh s engineering knowE howD politil svvyD good usiness senseD nd ggressive dvoyF ris timely interventions sved thousnds of uurdish refugees in the ftermth of the ersin qulf r in IWWIF re lso helped design nd implement n innovtive wter (ltrtion system in rjevo during the fosniEer on)it in IWWQF por more detilsD onsult the iogrphil sketh t onlineethisF QF oger foisjoly worked on tem responsile for developing oEring sels for fuel tnks used in the ghllenger huttleF hen his tem notied evidene of gs leks he mde n emergeny presenttion efore o0ils of worton hiokol nd xee reommending postponing the lunh sheduled for the next dyF hen deision mkers refused to hnge the lunh dteD foisjoly wthed in horror the next dy s the ghllenger exploded seonds into its )ightF pind out out the ourgeous stnd foisjoly took in the ftermth of the ghllenger explosion y reding the iogrphil sketh t onlineethisF RF wuhmmd unus won the xoel rize for ee in PHHTF ris e'ort in setting up 4miroEusinesses4 funded through 4miroElending4 hs ompletely hnged the prdigm on how to extend usiness prties to individuls t the ottom of the pyrmidF vern out his strtegies for reting miroE usinesses nd how those strtegies hve een extended throughout the worldD inluding vtin emeriD y listening to n interview with him rodst y the ynline xews rourF @ee link inluded in this moduleFA SF fill qtes hs often een portryed s villinD espeilly during the ntiEtrust suit ginst wirosoft in the mid IWWH9sF gertinly his ggressive nd often ruthless usiness prties need to e evluted openly nd ritillyF fut reently qtes stopped prtiipting in the dyEtoEdy mngement of his ompnyD wirosoftD nd hs set up hritle foundtion to oversee interntionl good works projetsF glik on the link inluded in this module to listen to nd red n interview reently onduted with him nd his wifeD welindD on their hritle e'ortsF TF te'rey killingD former giy of inronD n hrdly e lled morl exemplrF et when inron ws t its pekD its giyD te'rey killingD ws onsidered mong the most innovtiveD retiveD nd rillint of ontemporry orporte giysF iew the doumentryD he mrtest quys in the oomD red the ook of the sme titleD nd lern out the on(gurtion of hrter trits tht led to killing9s initil suesses nd ultimte filureF e link inluded in this module will led you to n interview with killing onduted on wrh PVD PHHIF snez eustin worked to prevent ontmintion from nuler wstes produed y plutonium prodution filityF isit ynline ithis y liking on the link ove to (nd out more out her heroi stndF hel grson9s ookD he ilent pringD ws one of the key events inugurting the environmentl movement in the nited ttesF por more on the ontent of her life nd her own personl t of ourgeD visit the iogrphil pro(le t ynline ithisF ou n lik on the upplimentl vink provided oveF

IR

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

1.3.4 Exercise Two: Moral Exemplar Proles



ht ht ht ht re the positive nd negtive in)uenes you n identify for your morl exemplrc good deeds did your exemplr rry outc ostles did your morl exemplr fe nd how did he or she overome themc skillsD ttitudesD eliefsD nd emotions helped to orient nd motivte your morl exemplrFc

1.3.5 Exercise Three


repre short drmtiztion of key moment in the life of your group9s morl exemplrF

1.3.6 Textbox: Two dierent Types of Moral Exemplar


tudies rried out y ghuk ru' into morl exemplrs in omputing suggest tht morl exemplrs n operte s rftspersons or reformersF @ometimes they n omine oth these modesFA grftspersons @IA drw on preEexisting vlues in omputingD @PA fous on users or ustomers who hve needsD @QA tke on the role of providers of servieGprodutD @RA view rriers s inert ostles or puzzles to e solvedD nd @SA elieve they re e'etive in their roleF eformers @IA ttempt to hnge orgniztions nd their vluesD @PA tke on the role of morl rusdersD @QA view rriers s tive oppositionD nd @RA elieve in the neessity of systemi reform hese desriptions of morl exemplrs hve een tken from presenttion y ru' t the olE loquium t the niversity of irgini on ytoer PHHTF ru'9s presenttion n e found t the link provided in the upper left hnd orner of this moduleF

1.3.7 What Makes a Moral Exemplar? PRIMES Explained


General Comments on Exemplars

worl exemplrs hve sueeded in integrting morl nd professionl ttitudes nd eliefs into their ore identityF qoing ginst these onsidertions for morl exemplrs is tntmount to ting ginst selfF eting in ordne with them eomes seond ntureF worl exemplrs often hieve their ims with the support of 4support groupsF4 sn ftD morl exemplrs re often prtiulrly dept t drwing support from surrounding individulsD groups nd ommunitiesF his goes ginst the notion tht exemplrs re isolted individuls who push ginst the urrentF @xot ll exemplrs need (t s heroes into eyn nd novelsFA worl exemplrs often do not go through periods of intensive nd prolonged deliertion in order to hit upon the orret tionF sf we wnt literry exmpleD we need to reple the tortured deliertions of rmlet with the quik nd intuitive insight of n isther ummersonF @ummerson is hrter in ghrles hikens9 novelD flek rouseF ee oth illim hkespere nd ghrles hikens for more exmples of villins nd exemplrsFA ome hve situted morl exemplrs within virtue ethisF hey hve ultivted morl hits tht llow them to do good s seond ntureF hey hve lso found wys to integrte morl resoning with emotion @s motiveAD pereption @whih helps them zero in on morl relevneAD nd skill @whih helps implement morl vlueAF sn this senseD morl expertise funtions muh s thleti or tehnil expertiseY ll re di0ult to quire ut one quired led to highly skilled tions performed lmost e'ortlesslyF
PRIMES

rimes stnds for ersonlityD sntegrting vlue into selfEsystemD worl iologyD nd worl kills etsF hese re the elements omposing morl expertise tht hve een identi(ed y ru' nd ogerson sed on interviews they onduted with exemplrs in the res of omputingF
Personality

IS

worl exemplrs exhiit di'erent on(gurtions of personlity trits sed on the ig (veF vote the morl exemplr you hve hosen in terms of the following (ve ontinuums @or ontinuAX xeurotiism to vk of xeurotiism @tilitycA egreeleness to hisgreeleness ixtrversion to sntroversion ypenness to glosedness gonsientiousness to vk of gonsientiousness ixmine your exemplr on eh of these slesF sn nd of themselvesD these qulities re neither good nor dF hey n e integrted to form d hrters or good hrtersF sn mny sesD morl exemplrs stnd out through how they hve put their personlity hrteristis to 4good useF4 @hey hve used them s vehiles or hnnels to exelleneFA
Integrating Moral Value into Self-System

es sid oveD morl exemplrs stnd out y the wy in whih @nd the extent to whihA they hve integrted morl vlue into their selfEsystemF feuse of thisD they re strongly motivted to do good nd void doing dF foth @doing good nd refrining from doing dA express who they reF sf they slip into d deedsD this motivtionl system pushes them to improve to void repeting d deedsF yne wy of integrting morl vlue into selfEsystem is y looking t stories nd nrrtives of those who hve displyed morl exelleneF wny of the individuls portryed ove @grsonD foisjolyD vewesseurD gunyD eustinD nd unusA provide onrete models of outstnding morl reersF viterture lso provides its models of morl exemplrsF ghrles hikens pints espeilly powerful portrits of oth morl heroes @isther ummerson nd 4vittle horritt4A nd villins @reep nd kimE poleAF yther vehiles for integrting morl vlue entrlly into the selfEsystem lie in 0litionsD reltionshipsD nd friendshipsF eristotle shows the importne of good friendships in developing virtuesF worl exemplrs most often n point to others who hve served s mentors or strong positive in)uenesF por exmpleD oger foisjoly tells of how he one went to senior ollegue for dvie on whether to sign o' on design tht ws less thn optimlF ris ollegue9s dvieX would you e omfortle with your wife or hild using produt sed on this designc he ethiistD fernrd illimsD hs rgued forefully for the importne of personl projets in estE lishing nd mintining integrityF ersonl projetsD rolesD nd life tsks ll onvey vlueY when these hold positive morl vlue nd eome entrl unifying ftors in one9s hrterD then they lso serve to integrte morl vlue into the self systemF eugusto flsiD well known morl psyhologistD gives prtiulrly powerful ount @ked y reserhA of the integrtion of morl vlue into selfEsystem nd its motivtionl e'etF
Moral Ecology

worl iologiesX 4he term morl eology enourges us to onsider the omplex we of reltionships nd in)uenesD the long persistene of some ftors nd the rpid evolution of othersD the vritions in strength nd omposition over timeD the miroEeologies tht n exist within lrger onesD nd the multidiretionl nture of uslity in n eologyF4 prom ru' etF lF worl eologies refer to soil surroundsD tht isD the di'erent groupsD orgniztionsD nd soieties tht surround us nd to whih we re ontinully respondingF e intert with these soil surrounds s orgnisms intert with their surrounding eosystemsF sn ftD morl eologies o'er us roles @like eologil nihesA nd envelop us in omplex orgniztionl systems @the wy eosystems re omposed of interting nd interrelted prtsAF e inhit nd t within severl morl eologiesY these morl eologiesD themselvesD intertF pinllyD morl eologiesD like nturl eosystemsD seek internl nd externl hrmony nd lneF snternllyD it is importnt to oordinte di'erent the onstituent individuls nd the roles they plyF ixternllyD it is di0ult ut eqully importnt to oordinte nd lne the on)iting ims nd tivities of di'erent morl eologiesF

IT

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

worl eologies shpe who we re nd wht we doF his is not to sy tht they determine usF fut they do hnnel nd onstrin usF por exmpleD your prents hve not determined who you reF fut muh of wht you do responds to how you hve experiened themY you gree with themD refuse to question their uthorityD disgree with themD nd reel ginst themF he rnge of possile responses is onsiderle ut these re ll shped y wht you experiened from your prents in the pstF he morl eologies module @see the link provided oveA desries three di'erent morl eologies tht re importnt in usinessX qulityED ustomerED nd (nneEdriven ompniesF @wore 4kinds4 ould e generted y omining these in di'erent wysX for exmpleD one ould hrterize ompny s ustomerEdriven ut trnsforming into qulityEdriven ompnyFA olesD strtegies for dissentD ssessment of lme nd priseD nd other modes of ondut re shped nd onstrined y the overll hrter of the morl eologyF worl eologiesD like selvesD n lso e hrterized in terms of the 4entrlity4 of morl vlueF ome support the expression of morl vlue or ertin kinds of morl vlue @like loyltyA while undermining or suppressing the expression of others @like ourge or utonomyAF pinllyD think in terms of how personlity trits integrted round morl vlue intert with di'erent types of morl eologyF sf morl eology undermines virtuous ondutD wht strtegies re ville for hnging itc yr resisting itc sf there re di'erent kinds of morl exemplrD whih pir est with whih morl eologyc @row would helper or rftsperson previl in (nneEdriven morl eology like those hrterized y oert tkll in Moral Mazesc
Moral Skills Sets

worl expertise is not reduile to knowing wht onstitutes good ondut nd doing your est to ring it outF elizing good ondutD eing n e'etive morl gentD ringing vlue into the workD ll require skills in ddition to 4good willF4 swi studies hve unovered four skill sets tht ply deisive role in the exerise of morl expertiseF Moral ImaginationX he ility to projet into the stndpoint of others nd view the sitution t hnd through their lensesF worl imgintion hieves lne etween eoming lost in the perspetives of others nd filing to leve one9s own perspetiveF edm mith terms this lne 4proportionlity4 whih we n hieve in empthy when we feel with them ut do not eome lost in their feelingsF impthy onsists of feeling with others ut limiting the intensity of tht feeling to wht is proper nd proportionte for morl judgmentF Moral CreativityX worl gretivity is lose to morl imgintion ndD in ftD overlps with itF fut it enters in the ility to frme sitution in di'erent wysF trii erhne drws ttention to lk of morl retivity in the pord into seF uey pord diretors frmed the prolem with the gs tnk from n eonomil perspetiveF rd they onsidered other frmings they might hve ppreited the llousness of refusing to rell intos euse the osts of doing so @nd retro(tting the gs tnksA were greter thn the ene(ts @sving livesAF hey did not see the trgi implitions of their omprison euse they only looked t the eonomi spetsF wultiple frmings open up new perspetives tht mke possile the design of nonEovious solutionsF ReasonablenessX esonleness lnes openness to the views of others @one listens nd imprtilly weighs their rguments nd evideneA with ommitment to morl vlues nd other importnt golsF yne is open ut not to the extent of elieving nything nd filing to keep fundmentl ommitmentsF he ithis of em ork module @see link oveA disusses strtegies for rehing onsensus tht re employed y those with the skill set of resonlenessF hese help void the pitflls of groupEsed deliertion nd tionF PerseveranceX pinllyD perseverne is the 4ility to pln morl tion nd ontinue on tht ourse y responding to irumstnes nd ostles while keeping ethil gols inttF4 ru' etF lF

IU

1.3.8 Presentation on Moral Exemplars


[Media Object]

1.3.9 Blbliography
flsiD eF @PHHRAF worl puntioningX worl nderstnding nd ersonlityF sn hFu vpsley nd hF xrvez @idsFA worl hevelopmentD elfD nd sdentityD @ppF QQSEQRUAF whwhD xF tFX vwrene irlum essoitesD snF golyD eFD hmonD F @IWWPAF ome do reX gontemporry lives of morl ommitmentF xew orkX pree ressF plngnD yF @IWWIAF rieties of morl personlityX ithis nd psyhologil relismF gmridgeD weX rrvrd niversity ressF ru'D gFD ogersonD F @PHHSAF grft nd reform in morl exemplrs in omputingF per presented t irsgywPHHS in vinko pingD eptemerF ru'D gFD preyD F @PHHSAF worl edgogy nd rtil ithisF Science and Engineering EthicsD II@QAD QVWERHVF ru'D gFD frnrdD vFD preyD F @PHHVAF qood omputingX pedgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputing @prt IAD tournl of snformtionD gommunition nd ithis in oietyD T@QAD PRTEPUVF ru'D gFD frnrdD vFD preyD F @PHHVAF qood omputingX pedgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputing @prt PAD tournl of snformtionD gommunition nd ithis in oietyD T@RAD PVTE QITF tkllD F @IWVVAF worl wzesX he orld of gorporte wngersF yxfordX yxford niversity ressF tohnsonD wF @IWWQAF worl smgintionX smplitions of gognitive iene for ithisF ghigoX ghigo niversity ressD IWWEPHPF vwreneD eF nd eerD tF @PHIHAF fusiness nd oietyX tkeholders ithis nd uli oliyD IQth iditionF xew orkX wqrwErillF rithrdD wF @IWWVAF 4rofessionl esponsiilityX pousing on the ixemplryD4 in iene nd ingiE neering ithisD RX PISEPQRF erhneD F @IWWWAF worl smgintion nd wngement heision wkingF yxfordX yxford niversity ressD WQEWTF
snsert prgrph text hereF

1.4 Ethics of Teamwork


ithis of em ork illim tF prey @working with mteril developed y ghuk ru' t tF ylf gollege gentro de l iti en ls rofesiones niversity of uerto io E wyguez

1.4.1 Module Introduction


wuh of your future work will e orgnized round group or tem tivitiesF his module is designed to prepre you for this y getting you to re)et on ethil nd prtil prolems tht rise in smll groups like work temsF pour issuesD sed on wellEknown ethil vluesD re espeilly importntF row do groups hieve justie @in the distriution of workAD responsiility @in speifying tsksD ssigning lmeD nd wrding reditAD
7 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Brief Comments on Moral Exemplars.pptx> 8 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13760/1.15/>.

IV

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

resonleness @ensuring prtiiptionD resolving on)itD nd rehing onsensusAD nd honesty @voiding deeptionD orruptionD nd improprietyAc his module sks tht you develop plns for relizing these morl vlues in your group work this semesterF purthermoreD you re provided with list of some of the more ommon pitflls of group work nd then sked to devise strtegies for voiding themF pinllyD t the end of the semesterD you will review your gols nd strtegiesD re)et on your suesses nd prolemsD nd rry out n overll ssessment of the experieneF

1.4.2 Module Activities


IF qroups re provided with key ethil vlues tht they desrie nd seek to relize thorugh group tivityF PF qroups lso study vrious ostles tht rise in olletive tivityX the eilene rdoxD qroupthinkD nd qroup olriztionF QF qroups prepre initil reports onsisting of plns for relizing key vlues in their olletive tivityF hey lso develop strtegies for voiding ssoited ostlesF RF et the end of the semesterD groups prepre selfEevlution tht ssesses suess in relizing ethil vlues nd voiding ostlesF SF extoxes in this module desrie pitflls in groups tivities nd o'er generl strtegies for preventing or mitigting themF here is lso textox tht provides n introdutory orienttion on key ethil vlues or virtuesF

1.4.3 Value Proles for Professional Ethics


IF he(nition E e vlue 4refers to lim out wht is worthwhileD wht is goodF e vlue is single word or phrse tht identi(es something s eing desirle for humn eingsF4 frint nd ikeD worlity nd the rofessionl vifeX lues t ork PF esonleness E hefusing disgreement nd resolving on)its through integrtionF ghrteristis inlude seeking relevnt informtionD listening nd responding thoughtfully to othersD eing open to new idesD giving resons for views heldD nd knowledging mistkes nd misunderstndingsF @prom wihel rithrdD esonle ghildrenA QF esponsiility E he ility to develop morl responses pproprite to the morl issues nd prolems tht rise in one9s dyEtoEdy experieneF ghrteristis inlude voiding lme shiftingD designing overlpping role reponsiilities to (ll responsiility 4gps4D expnding the sope nd depth of generl nd situtionEspei( knowledgeD nd working to expnd ontrol nd powerF RF espet E eognizing nd working not to irumvent the pity of utonomy in eh individulF ghrteristis inlude honoring rights suh s privyD propertyD free speehD due proessD nd prE tiiptory rights suh s informed onsentF hisrespet irumvents utonomy y deeptionD foreD or mnipultionF SF tustie E qiving eh his or her dueF tustie reks down into kinds suh s distriutive @dividing ene(ts nd urdens firlyAD retriutive @fir nd imprtil dministrtion of punishmentsAD dminisE trtive @fir nd imprtil dministrtion of rulesAD nd ompenstory @how to firly reompense those who hve een wrongfully hrmed y othersAF TF rust E eording to olomonD trust is the expettion of morl ehvior from othersF UF ronesty E ruthfulness s men etween too muh honesty @luntness whih hrmsA nd dishonesty @deeptivenessD misleding tsD nd mendiousnessAF VF sntegrity E e metEvlue tht refers to the reltion etween prtiulr vluesF hese vlues re inteE grted with one nother to form oherentD ohesive nd smoothly funtioning wholeF his resemles olomon9s ount of the virtue of integrityF

IW

1.4.4 Exercise 1: Developing Strategies for Value Realization


hesign pln for relizing key morl vlues of tem workF our pln should ddress the following vlueEsed tsks row does your group pln on relizing justiec por exmpleD how will you ssign tsks within the group tht represent fir distriution of the work lod ndD t the sme timeD reognize di'erenes in individul strengths nd weknessesc row does your group pln on deling with memers who fil to do their fir shrec row does your group pln on relizing responsiilityc por exmpleD wht re the responsiilities tht memers will tke on in the ontext of olletive workc ho will e the lederc ho will ply devil9s dvote to void groupthinkc ho will e the spokesperson for the groupc row does your group pln to mke ler to eh individul his or her tsk or role responsiilitiesc row does your group pln on implementing the vlue of resonlenessc row will you gurntee tht eh individul prtiiptes fully in group deisions nd tivitiesc row will you del with the di'erenesD nonEgreementsD nd disgreements tht rise within the groupc ht proess will your group use to reh greementc row will your group insure tht every individul hs inputD tht eh opinion will e herd nd onsideredD nd tht eh individul will e respetedc row does your group pln on implementing the vlue of @demiA honestyc por exmpleD how will you void heting or plgirismc row will you detet plgirism from group memersD nd how will you respond to itc xoteX se your imgintion here nd e spei( on how you pln to relize eh vlueF hink prevenE tively @how you pln on voiding injustieD irresponsiilityD injustieD nd dishonestyA nd protively @how you n enhne these vluesAF hon9t e frid to outline spei( ommitmentsF ixpet some of your ommitments to need reformultionF et the end of the semesterD this will help you write the (nl reportF hesrie wht workedD wht did not workD nd wht you did to (x the ltterF

1.4.5 Obstacles to Group Work (Developed by Chuck Hu for Good Computing: A Virtue Approach to Computer Ethics)
IF he eilene rdoxF 4he story involves fmily who would ll rther hve een t home tht ends up hving d dinner in lousy resturnt in eileneD exsF ih elieves the others wnt to go to eilene nd never questions this y giving their own view tht doing so is d ideF sn the eilene prdoxD the group winds up doing something tht no individul wnts to do euse of rekdown of intrEgroup ommunitionF4 @prom ru'D qood gomputingD n unpulished mnusript for textook in omputer ethisF ee mterils from tnisY omplete referene elowFA PF qroupthinkF he tendeny for very ohesive groups with strong leders to disregrd nd defend ginst informtion tht goes ginst their plns nd eliefsF he group olletively nd the memers individully remin loyl to the prty line while hppily mrhing o' the li'D ll the while lming them @iFeFD outsidersA for the height nd sitution of the li'F @elso from ru'D qood gomputingD n unpulished mnusript for textook in omputer ethisFA QF qroup olriztionF rereD individuls within the group hoose to frme their di'erenes s disgreeE mentsF prming di'erene s nonEgreement leves open the possiility of working towrd greement y integrting the di'erenes or y developing more omprehensive stndpoint tht diletlly syntheE sizes the di'erenesF prming di'erene s disgreement mkes it zero sum gmeY one9s prtiulr side is goodD ll the others dD nd the only resolution is for the good @one9s own positionA to win out over the d @everything elseAF @eston provides nie ount of group polriztion in rtil gompnion to ithisF his is not to e onfused with gss unstein9s di'erent ount of group polriztion in snfotopiFA RF xoteX ell of these re instnes of soil psyhologil phenomenon lled onformityF fut there re other proesses t work tooD like group identi(tionD selfEserving isesD selfEesteem enhnementD selfEful(lling propheiesD etF

PH
Best Practices for Avoiding Abilene Paradox

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

et the end of the solution generting proessD rry out n nonymous survey sking prtiipnts if nything ws left out they were relutnt to put efore groupF hesignte hevil9s edvote hrged with ritiizing the group9s deisionF esk prtiipnts to re0rm group deision!perhps nonymouslyF
Best Practices for Avoiding Groupthink (Taken from Janis, 262-271)

4he leder of poliyEforming group should ssign the role of ritil evlutor to eh memerD enourging the group to give high priority to iring ojetions nd doutsF4 4he leders in n orgniztion9s hierrhyD when ssigning poliyEplnning mission to groupD should e imprtil insted of stting preferenes nd expettions t the outsetF4 4hroughout the period when the fesiility nd e'etiveness of poliy lterntives re eing surE veyedD the poliyEmking group should from time to time divide into two or more sugroups to meet seprtelyFFFF4 yne or more outside experts or quli(ed ollegues within the orgniztion who re not ore memers of the poliyEmking group should e invited to eh meeting FFFnd should e enourged to hllenge the views of the ore memersF4 4et every meeting devoted to evluting poliy lterntivesD t lest one memer should e ssigned the role of devil9s dvoteF4
Best Practices for Avoiding Polarizatoin (Items taken from "Good Computing: A Virtue Approach to Computer Ethics" by Chuck Hu, William Frey and Jose Cruz (Unpublished Manuscript)

Set Quotas. hen rinstormingD set quot nd postpone ritiism until fter quot hs een metF Negotiate Interests, not Positions. ine it is usully esier to integrte si interests thn spei( positionsD try to frme the prolem in terms of interestsF Expanding the Pie. gon(ts tht rise from situtionl onstrints n e resolved y pushing k those onstrints through negotition or innovtionFF Nonspecic Compensation. yne side mkes onession to the other ut is ompensted for tht onession y some other oinF Logrolling. ih prty lowers their spirtions on items tht re of less interest to themD thus trding o' onession on less importnt item for onession from the other on more importnt itemF Cost-Cutting. yne prty mkes n greement to redue its spirtions on prtiulr thingD nd the other prty grees to ompenste the prty for the spei( osts tht redution in spirtions involvesF Bridging. pinding higher order interest on whih oth prties greeD nd then onstruting solution tht serves tht greedEupon interestF

1.4.6 Exercise 2 - Avoiding the Pitfalls of Group Work



hesign pln for voiding the pitflls of group work enumerted in the textox oveF row does your group pln on voiding the eilene rdoxc row does your group pln on voiding qroup olriztionc row does your group pln on voiding qroupthinkc xoteX se imgintion nd retivity hereF hink of spei( senrios where these ostles my riseD nd wht your group n do to prevent them or minimize their imptF

PI

1.4.7 Exercise 2a: Socio Technical System


repre soioEtehnil system tle for your group to help struture your group selfEevlutionF snlude hrdwreGsoftwreD physil surroundingsD stkeholders @other groupsD teherD other lssesD etFAD proeE dures @relizing vluesD voiding pitfllsAD university regultions @ttendneAD nd informtion strutures @olletingD shringD dissemintingA
Socio-Technical System Table for Groups

rrdwreGoftwre hysil urE roundings

tkeholders

roedures

niversity egultions

snformtion trutures

Table 1.3

1.4.8 Exercise 3: Prepare a Final, Group Self-Evaluation



hue hteX yne week fter the lst lss of the semester when your group turns in ll its mterilsF vengthX e minimum of (ve pges not inluding em wemer ivlution porms gontentsX IF estte the ithil nd rtil qols tht your group developed t the eginning of its formtionF PF rovide refulD doumented ssessment of your group9s suess in meeting these golsF @hon9t just ssert tht yur group suessfully relized justie in ll its tivities this semesterF row did your group hrterize justie in the ontext of its workc ht spei( tivities did the group rry out to relize this vluec htD mong these tivitiesD worked nd wht did not workcA QF sdentify ostlesD shortomings or filures tht you group experiened during the semesterF row did these risec hy did they risec row did you respond to themc hid your response workc ht did you lern from this experienec RF essess the plns you set forth in your initil report on how you intended to relize vlues nd void pitfllsF row did these workc hid you stik to your plns or did you (nd it neessry to hnge or ndon them in the fe of hllengesc SF hisuss your group9s proedures nd prtiesc row did you divide nd llote work tsksc row did you reh onsensus on di0ult issuesc row did you ensure tht ll memers were respeted nd llowed signi(nt nd meningful prtiiptionc ht worked nd wht did not work with respet to these proeduresc ill you repet them in the futurec ould you reommend these proedures s est prties to future groupsc TF ht did you lern from your experiene working s tem this semesterc ht will require further re)etion nd thoughtc sn other wordsD onlude your selfEevlution with sttement tht summrizes your experiene working together s tem this semesterF

1.4.9 Wrap Up: Some further points to consider...


IF hon9t gloss over your work with generliztions likeD yur group ws suessful nd hieved ll of its ethil nd prtil gols this semesterF rovide evidene for suess limsF hetil the proedures designed y your group to ring out these resultsF ere they est prtiesc ht mkes them est prtiesc PF ometimes"espeilly if di0ulties rose"it is di0ult to re)et on your group9s tivities for the semesterF wke the e'ortF hedule meeting fter the end of the semester to (nlize this re)etionF sf things worked wellD wht n you do to repet these suesses in the futurec sf things didn9t work outD wht n you do to void similr prolems in the futurec fe honestD e desriptive nd void lme lngugeF

PP

CHAPTER 1.

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP

QF his my sound hrsh ut get used to itF elfEevlutions"group nd individul"re n integrl prt of professionl lifeF hey re not esy to rry outD ut properly done they help to seure suess nd void future prolemsF RF tudent groups"perhps yours"often hve prolemsF his selfEevlution exerise is designed to help you fe them rther thn push them sideF vook t your golsF vook t the strtegies you set forth for voiding eileneD groupthinkD nd group polriztionF gn you modify them to del with prolemsc ho you need to design new proeduresc

1.4.10 Ethics of Team Work Presentations


Values in Team Work (Thought Experiments) 9 [Media Object] Pitfalls to Avoid in Group Work 10 [Media Object] Thought Experiments on Group Work 11 [Media Object] Team Member Evaluation Forms (Required) 12 [Media Object] New Ethics of Teamwork Presentation (Spring 2012) 13 [Media Object]

1.4.11 Bibliography
IF estonD eF @PHHPAF A Practical Companion to Ethics: 2nd EditionF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ress PF ploresD pF nd olomonD F @PHHQAF Building Trust: In Business, Politics, Relationships and Life. yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF QF frintD gynthi eF nd ikeD itori F @PHHHA Morality and the Professional Life: Values at WorkF pper ddle iverD xtX rentie rllF RF rn lkerD wF @PHHTAF Moral Repair: Reconstructing Moral Relations After WrongdoingF gmridgeD uX gmridge niversity ressF SF rithrdD wF @IWWTAF Reasonable Children: Moral Education and Moral LearningF vwreneD uX unss niversity ressF TF ru'D ghuk nd twerD frueF @IWWRAF 4owrd hesign ithi for gomputing rofessionlsF4 Social Issues in computing: Putting Computing in its Place. idsF ghuk ru' nd homs pinholtF xew orkX wqrwErillF IQHEIQTF UF tnisD sF Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes2nd Ed.F fostonD wssX dsworthF VF unsteinD gFF @PHHTAF Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce KnowledgeF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressD PIUEPPSF

media object is a downloadable le. Please <Ethics of Team Work.pptx> 10 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Pitfalls to Avoid in Group Work.pptx> 11 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Thought Experiments on Group Work.docx> 12 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <TEAM MEMBER RATING SHEET-3.docx> 13 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Ethics of Teamwork.pptx>

9 This

view or download it at view or download it at view or download it at view or download it at view or download it at

Chapter 2
Ethical Decision-Making
2.1 Ethical Rights for Working Engineers and Other Professionals
2.1.1 Module Introduction
reliminry hrft distriuted t eiD PHHS in n entonioD ingineers nd other professionls work in lrge orportions under the supervision of mngers who my lk their expertiseD skillsD nd ommitment to professionl stndrdsF his retes ommunition nd ethil hllengesF et the very lestD professionls re put in the position of hving to dvote their ethil nd professionl stndrds to those whoD while not eing opposed to themD my not shre their understnding of nd ommitment to themF his module is designed to give you the tools nd the prtie using them neessry to previl in situtions tht require dvoy of ethil nd professionl stndrdsF sn this module you rry out severl tivitiesF @IA ou will study the philosophil nd ethil foundtions of modern rights theory through rief look t untin pormlismF @PA ou will lern frmework for exmining the legitimy of rights limsF @QA ou will prtie this frmework y exmining severl rights lims tht engineers mke over their supervisorsF his exmintion will require tht you rejet ertin elementsD rephrse othersD nd generlly rest the lim to stisfy the requirments of the rights justi(tion frmeworkF @RA pinllyD in smll groups you will uild tles round your reformultion of these rights lims nd present the results to the lssF his module will help you to put your results together with the rest of your lssmtes nd olletively ssemle toolkit onsisting of the legitimte rights lims tht engineers nd other professionls n mke over their mngers nd supervisorsF por more kground on rights theory nd the reltion of rights nd duties see @IA renry hueD Basic Rights: Subsistence, Auence, and U.S. Foreign PolicyD Pnd editionD rinetonD IWVH nd @PA homs honldsonD The Ethics of International BusinessD yxfordD IWVWF his exerise hs een used in omputer nd engineering ethis lsses t the niversity of uerto io t wyguez from PHHP on to the presentF st is eing inorported into the textookD qood gomputingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithis y ghuk ru'D illim preyD nd tose gruzF
1

2.1.2 What you need to know...


Problematic Right Claims

IF il dereho pr tur de uerdo l onieni eti y rehzr trjos en los ules exist un vriion de opinones morlesF PF il dereho de expresr juiio profesionlD y her pronunimientos pulios que sen onsistentes on restriiones orportivs sore l informion propietriF
1 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m15554/1.1/>.

PQ

PR

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

QF il dereho l leltd orportiv y l liertd de que se heho un hivo expitorio pr tstrofes nturlesD ineptitud de dministrion u otrs fuerzs ms ll del ontrol del ingenieroF RF il dereho usr el mejormiento personl medinte estudios postgrdudos y envolverse en soiE iones profesionlesF SF Fil dereho prtiipr en tividdes de prtidos politios fuer de ls hors de trjoF TF il dereho soliitr posiiones superiores on otrs ompnis sin que l ompnis en l que trje tome represlis ontr el ingenieroF UF il dereho l deido proeso de ley y l liertd de que se le pliquen penliddes ritrris o despidosF VF il dereho pelr por revision nte un soiion profesionlD omudsmn o ritro independienteF WF il dereho l prividd personlF IHF hese rights re tken from iti en l rti rofesionl de l sngenieri y ilfredo wunoz omn pulished in IWWV y the golegio de sngenieros y egrimensores de uerto io nd niversidd oliteni de uerto io
Problematic Rights Claims (translated)

IF he right to t in ordne with one9s ethil onsiene nd to refuse to work on projets tht go ginst one9s onsiene or personl or professionl morl viewsF PF he right to express one9s professionl judgment nd to mke puli delrtions s long s these do not violte orportion9s rights to proprietry informtionF QF he right to orporte loylty nd freedom from eing mde spegot for nturl tstrophesD dministrtive ineptitudeD nd other fores tht re eyond the ontrol of the individul engineerF RF he right to etter oneself through postgrdute studies nd through prtiiption in one9s professionl soietyF SF he right to prtiipte in politil tivities outside of work hoursF TF he right not to su'er retlition from one9s urrent employer when one seeks etter employment elsewhereF UF he right to due proess under the lw nd freedom from the pplition of rtirry penlties inluding eing (red t will without just useF VF he right to ppel judgments mde ginst one efore professionl ssoitionD omudsmnD or independent ritrtorF WF he right to personl privyF
Kantian Formalism, Part I: Aligning the moral motive and the moral act

unt9s morl philosophy hs exerised sustntil in)uene over our notions of right nd dutyF e egin with rief summry of this theory sed on the workD The Foundations of the Metaphysics of MoralsF unt sttes tht the only thing in this world tht is good without quli(tion is good willF re hrterizes this will in terms of its motiveD 4duty for duty9s skeF4 gonsider the following exmpleF ou see oy drowningF iven though the wter is rough nd the urrent strong you re good enough swimmer to sve himF o while your inlintion my e to give wy to fer nd wlk wyD you re dutyEound to sve the drowning oyF en tion @sving or not sving the drowning oyA hs morl worth depending on the the orret orreltion of right tion nd right motiveF he following tle shows thisF
Duty for Duty's Sake

PS wotive a snlintion @desire for rewrd or ferA et gonforms to huty ou sve the drowning oy for the rewrdF et onforms to duty ut is motivted y inlintionF rs no morl worthF ou don9t sve the drowning oy euse you re too lzy to jump inF et violtes duty motivted y inlintionF wotive a huty ou sve the drowning oy eE use it is your dutyF et onE forms to duty nd is for the ske of dutyF our t hs morl worthF ou drown trying to sve the drowning oyF re lso diesF et fils to rry out duty ut is moE tivted y duty nywyF he t misrries ut sine the motive is duty it still hs morl worthF

et violtes dutyF

Table 2.1

Part II of Kantian Formalism: Giving content to Duty for Duty's Sake

unt sees morlity s the expression nd reliztion of the rtionl willF he (rst formultion of this rtionl will is to will onsistently nd universllyF his leds to the gtegoril smpertiveX I should act only on that maxim (=personal rule or his formultion is n impertive euse it ommnds the will of ll resonle eingsF st is tegoril euse it ommnds without exeptions or onditionsF he gs tells me unonditionlly not to lieF st does not syD do not like unless it promotes your self interest to do soF he following tle shows how to use the gtegoril smpertive to determine whether s hve duty not to lieF
Applying the Categorical Imperative rule that I give to myself ) that can be converted into a universal law (a rule that applies to everybody) without self-contradictionF

IF pormulte your mxim @apersonl ruleA PF niverslize your mximF QF ghek for ontrdition @logil or prtilA

henever s m in di0ult situtionD s should tell lieF henever nyody is in di0ult situtionD he or she should tell lieF hen s lieD s will the opposite for the universl lwF ut di'erentlyD s will tht everyody @ut meA e truthEteller nd tht everyody elieve me truthE tellerF s then mke myself the exeption to this universl lwF hus my mxim @s m lirA onE trdits the lw @everyody else is truthEtellerA

Table 2.2

Kantian Formalism, Part III: The Formula of the End

hen s will one thing s universl lw nd mke myself the exeeption in di0ult irumstnesD s m treting othersD in untin termsD merely s mensF his implies tht s suordinte or end them to my interests nd projets without their onsentF s do this y irumventing their utonomy through @IA foreD @PA frud @often deeptionAD or @QA mnipE ultionF reting them with respet would involve telling them wht s wnt @wht re my plns nd projetsA nd on this sis sking them to onsent to prtipte nd help meF he extreme se for treting others merely s mens is enslving themF

PT

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

e do on osion tret others s mens @nd not s mere mensA when we hire them s employeesF fut this is onsistent with their utonomy nd rtionl onsent euse we explin to them wht is expeted @we give them jo desriptionA nd ompenste them for their e'ortsF por this reson there is world of di'erene etween hiring others nd enslving themF The Formula of the End a Act so as to treat others (yourself included) always as ends and never merely as meansF
Some Key Denitions for a Rights Framework

untin formlism provides foundtion for respet for the intrinsi vlue of humns s utonomous rtionl eingsF sing this s point of deprtureD we n develop method for identifyingD spelling outD nd justifying the rights nd duties tht go with professionlismF his frmework n e summrized in four generl propositionsX IF he(nitionX e right is n essentil pity of tion tht others re oliged to reognize nd respetF his de(nition follows from utonomyF eutonomy n e roken down into series of spei( pitiesF ights lims rise when we identify these pities nd tke soil tion to protet themF ights re inviolle nd nnot e overridden even when overriding would ring out sustntil puli utilityF PF ell rights lims must stisfy three requirementsF hey must e @IA essential to the autonomy of individuls nd @PA vulnerable so tht they require speil reognition nd protetion @on the prt of oth individuls nd soietyAF woreoverD the urden of reognizing nd respeting lim s right must not deprive others of something essentilF sn other wordsD it must e @QA feasible for oth individuls nd soil groups to reognize nd respet legitimte rights limsF QF he(nitionX e duty is rule or priniple requiring tht we oth reognize nd respet the legitimte rights lims of othersF huties ttendnt on given right fll into three generl formsX @A duties not to depriveD @A duties to prevent deprivtionD nd @A duties to id the deprivedF RF Rights and duties are correlativeY for every right there is orreltive series of duties to reognize nd respet tht rightF hese four summry points together form system of professionl nd ouptionl rights nd orrelE tive dutiesF
Right Claim Justication Framework

EssentialX o sy tht right is essentil to utonomy is to sy tht it highlights pity whose exerise is neessry to the generl exerise of utonomyF por exmpleD utonomy is sed on ertin knowledge skillsF reneD we hve right to n edution to develop the knowledge required y uE tonomyD or we hve right to the knowledge tht produes informed onsentF sn generlD rights re devies for reognizing ertin pities s essentil to utonomy nd respeting individuls in their exerise of these pitiesF VulnerableX he exerise of the pity proteted under the right needs protetionF sndividuls my interfere with us in our ttempt to exerise our rightsF qroupsD orportionsD nd governments might overwhelm us nd prevent us from exerising our essentil pitiesF sn shortD the exerise of the pity requires some sort of protetionF por exmpleD n individul9s privy is vulnerle to violtionF eople n gin ess to our omputers without our uthoriztion nd view the informtion we hve storedF hey n even use this informtion to hrm us in some wyF he right to privyD thusD protets ertin pities of tion tht re vulnerle to interferene from othersF sndividul nd soil energy needs to e expended to protet our privyF FeasibleX ights mke lims over othersY they imply duties tht others hveF hese lims must not deprive the orreltive dutyEholders of nything essentilF sn other wordsD my rights lims over you re not so extensive s to deprive you of your rightsF wy right to life should not deprive you of your right to selfEprotetion were s to ttk youF husD the sope of my right lims over you nd the rest of soiety re limited y your ility to reiproteF s nnot push my lims over you to reognize nd respet my rights to the point where you re deprived of something essentilF

PU
Types of Duty Correlative to a Right

Duty not to depriveX e hve si duty not to violte the rights of othersF his entils tht we must oth reognize nd respet these rightsF por exmpleD omputing speilists hve the duty not to deprive others of their rights to privy y hking into privte (lesF Duty to prevent deprivationX rofessionlsD euse of their knowledgeD re often in the position to prevent others from depriving third prties of their rightsF por exmpleD omputing speilist my (nd tht lient is not tking su0ient pins to protet the on(dentility of informtion out ustomersF yutsiders ould ess this informtion nd use it without the onsent of the ustomersF he omputing speilist ould prevent this violtion of privy y dvising the lient on wys to protet this informtionD syD through enryptionF he omputing speilist is not out to violte the ustomers9 rights to privyF fut euse of speil knowledge nd skillD the omputing speilist my e in position to prevent others from violting this rightF Duty to aid the deprivedX pinllyD when others hve their rights violtedD we hve the duty to id them in their reovery from dmgesF por exmpleD omputing speilist might hve duty to serve s n expert witness in lwsuit in whih the plinti' seeks to reover dmges su'ered from hving her right to privy violtedF rt of this duty would inlude urteD imprtilD nd expert testimonyF
Application of Right/Duty Framework

IF e n identify nd de(ne spei( rights suh s due proessF woreoverD we n set forth some of the onditions involved in reognizing nd respeting this rightF PF hue roess n e justi(ed y showing tht it is essentil to utonomyD vulnerleD nd fesileF QF ight holders n e spei(edF RF gorreltive duties nd duty holders n e spei(edF SF pinllyD the orreltive dutyElevels n e spei(ed s the duties not to violte rightsD duties to prevent rights violtions @whenever fesileAD nd the duties to id the deprived @whenever is fesileAF

PV

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

Example Rights Table: Due Process

ightX ess

hue roE

tusti(tion

ightE rolderXingineer s employee nd memer of profesE sionl soietyF rofessionls who re sujet to proE fessionl odes of ethisF upports professionls who re ordered to viE olte professionl stndrdsF

gorreltive hutyE rolderX ingineer9s upervisorD ofE (ils in profesE sionl soietyF rumn esouresD wngementD ersonnel heprtE mentF@sndividuls with duty to deE signD implementD nd enfore due proess polE iyAgorporte diretors hve the duty to mke sure this is eing doneF

huty vevel

he(nitionX he right to respond to orgniztionl deisions tht my hrm one in terms of serious orgniztionl grievne proeE dureFxeessry gonditionsXIF everl levels of ppelFPF ime limits to eh level of ppelFQF ritten notie of grievneFRF eer representE tionFSF yutside ritrtionF

issentilX hue roess is essentil in orgniztions to prevent the deprivtion of other rights or to provide id in the se of their deprivtionF ulnerleX ights in generl re not reognized in the eonomi sphereD espeilly in orgniztionsF pesileX yrgE niztionsD hve suessfully imE plemented due proess proeE duresF

xot to heE priveXsndividuls nnot e (redD trnsferredD or demoted without due proess revent heprivE tionX yrgnizE tions n prevent deprivtion y deE signing nd impleE menting ompreE hensive due proE ess poliyF eid the heE privedfinding ritrtion nd legl mesures must exist to id those deprived of due proess rights

Table 2.3

2.1.3 What you are going to do...


Exercise: Develop a Rights Table

IF ou will e divided into smll groups nd eh will e ssigned right lim tken from the ove listF PF hesrie the lim @essentil pity of tionA mde y the rightF por exmpleD due proess lims the right to serious orgniztionl grievne proedure tht will enle the rightEholder to respond to deision tht hs n dverse impt on his or her interestsF st my lso e neessry in some situtions to speify the lim9s neessry onditionsF QF tustify the right lim using the rights justi(tion frmeworkF sn other words show tht the right lim is essentilD vulnerleD nd fesileF RF fe sure to show tht the right is essentil to autonomyF sf it is vulnerle e sure to identify the standard threatF @e stndrd thret is n existing ondition tht thretens utonomyFA SF rovide n exmple of sitution in whih the right lim eomes opertiveF por exmpleD n engineer my lim right to due proess in order to ppel wht he or she onsiders n unfir dismisslD trnsferD or performne evlutionF TF sdentify the orreltive dutyEholder@sA tht need to tke steps to reognize nd respet the rightF por exmpleD privte nd government orgniztions my e dutyEound to rete due proess proedures to reognize nd respet this rightF

PW UF purther spell out the right y showing wht tions the orreltive duties involveF por exmpleD mnger should not violte n employee9s due proess right y (ring him or her without just useF he orgniztion9s humn resoures deprtment might rry out trining progrm to help mngers void depriving employees of this rightF he orgniztion ould id the deprived y designing nd implementing inding ritrtion involving n imprtil third prtyF fe prepred to derief on your right lim to the rest of the lssF hen other groups re derie(ngD you re free to hllenge them on whether their lim is essentil to utonomyD whether they hve identi(ed vlid 4stndrd thretD4 nd whether the orreltive duties re fesile or deprive others of something essentilF our gol s lss is to hve short ut e'etive list of rights tht professionls tke with them to the workpleF

2.1.4 Conclusion
Conclusion: Topics for Further Reection

xot every lim to right is legitimte or justi(le limF he purpose of this frmework is to get you into the hit of thinking ritilly nd skeptilly out the rights lims tht you nd others mkeF ivery legitimte right lim is essentilD vulnerleD nd fesileF gorreltive duties re sorted out ording to di'erent levels @not to depriveD prevent deprivtionD nd id the deprivedAY thisD in turnD is sed on the pity of the orreltive duty holder to rry them outF pinllyD duties orreltive to rights nnot deprive the dutyEholder of something essentilF nless you integrte your right nd its orreltive duties into the ontext of your professionl or prtil dominD it will remin strt nd irrelevntF hink out your right in the ontext of the rel worldF hink of everydy situtions in whih the right nd its orreltive duties will riseF snvent ses nd senriosF sf you re n engineering studentD think of informed onsent in terms of the puli9s right to understnd nd onsent to the risks ssoited with engineering projetsF sf you re omputing student think of wht you n do with omputing knowledge nd skills to respet or violte privy rightsF hon9t stop with n strt ounting of the right nd its orreltive dutiesF ights nd duties underlie professionl odes of ethisF fut this is not lwys oviousF por exmpleD the right of free nd informed onsent underlies muh of the engineer9s intertion with the puliD espeilly the ode responsiility to hold prmount puli helthD sfetyD nd welfreF vook t the di'erent stkeholder reltions overed in ode of ethisF @sn engineering this would inlude puliD lientD professionD nd peerFA ht re the rights nd duties outlined in these stkeholder reltionsc row re they overed in odes of ethisc his module is e'etive in ounterEting the tendeny to invent rights nd use them to rtionlize duious tions nd intentionsF hink of rights lims s redit ked y promise to py t lter timeF sf you mke right limD e redy to justify itF sf someone else mkes right limD mke them k it up with the justi(tion frmework presented in this moduleF

2.2 Three Frameworks for Ethical Decision Making and Good Computing Reports
2

2.2.1 Module Introduction


sn this module you will lern nd prtie three frmeworks designed to integrte ethis into deision mking in the res of prtil nd ouptionl ethisF he (rst frmework divides the deision mking proess into four stgesX prolem spei(tionD solution genertionD solution testingD nd solution implementtionF st is sed on n nlogy etween ethis nd design prolems tht is detiled in tle presented elowF
2 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13757/1.22/>.

QH

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

he seond frmework fouses on the proess of solution testing y providing four tests tht will help you to evlute nd rnk lterntive ourses of tionF he reversiilityD hrmGene(eneD nd puli identi(tion tests eh 4enpsulte4 or summrize n importnt ethil theoryF e vlue reliztion test ssesses ourses of tion in terms of their ility to relize or hrmonize di'erent morl nd nonmorl vluesF pinllyD fesiility test will help you to unover interestD resoureD nd tehnil onstrints tht will 'et nd possily impede the reliztion of your solution or deisionF ken togetherD these three frmeworks will help steer you towrd designing nd implementing ethil deisions the professionl nd ouptionl resF wo online resoures provide more extensive kground informtionF he (rstD wwwFomputingsesForgD provides kground informtion on the ethis testsD soioEtehnil nlyE sisD nd intermedite morl oneptsF he seondD httpXGGonlineethisForgGessysGedutionGtehingFhtmlD explores in more detil the nlogy etween ethis nd design prolemsF wuh of this informtion will e pulished in qood gomputingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithisD textook of ses nd deision mking tehniques in omputer ethis tht is eing uthored y ghuk ru'D illim preyD nd tose eF gruzEgruzF

2.2.2 Problem-Solving or Decision-Making Framework: Analogy between ethics and design


rditionllyD deision mking frmeworks in professionl nd ouptionl ethis hve een tken from rtionl deision proedures used in eonomisF hile these re usefulD they led one to think tht ethil deisions re lredy 4out there4 witing to e disoveredF sn ontrstD tking design pproh to ethil deision mking emphsizes tht ethil deisions must e retedD not disoveredF hisD in turnD emphsizes the importne of morl imgintion nd morl retivityF grolyn hitek in ithis in ingineering rtie nd eserh desries this spet of ethil deision mking through the nlogy she drws etween ethis nd design prolems in hpter oneF rere she rejets the ide tht ethil prolems re multiple hoie prolemsF e solve ethil prolems not y hoosing etween redy mde solutions given with the situtionY rther we use our morl retivity nd morl imgintion to design these solutionsF ghuk ru' uilds on this y modifying the design method used in softwre engineering so tht it n help struture the proess of frming ethil situtions nd reting tions to ring these situtions to suessful nd ethil onlusionF he key points in the nlogy etween ethil nd design prolems re summrized in the tle presented just elowF enlogy etween design nd ethis prolemEsolving hesign rolem gonstrut prototype tht optimizes @or stis(esA designted spei(tions esolve on)its etween di'erent spei(tions y mens of integrtion est prototype over the di'erent spei(tions ithil rolem gonstrut solution tht integrtes nd relizes ethil vlues @justieD responsiilityD resonleE nessD respetD nd sfetyA esolve on)its etween vlues @morl vsF morl or morl vsF nonEmorlA y integrtion est solution over di'erent ethil onsidertions enpsulted in ethis tests
continued on next page

QI smplement tested design over kground onE strints smplement ethilly tested solution over resoureD interestD nd tehnil onstrints

Table 2.4

2.2.3 Software Development Cycle: Four Stages


@IA prolem spei(tionD @PA solution genertionD @QA solution testingD nd @RA solution implementtionF

2.2.4 Problem specication


rolem spei(tion involves exerising morl imgintion to speify the soioEtehnil system @inluding the stkeholdersA tht will in)uene nd will e in)uened y the deision we re out to mkeF tting the prolem lerly nd onisely is essentil to design prolemsY getting the prolem right helps struture nd hnnel the proess of designing nd implementing the solutionF here is no lgorithm ville to rnk out e'etive prolem spei(tionF snstedD we o'er series of guidelines or rules of thum to get you strted in proess tht is omplished y the skillful exerise of morl imgintionF por roder prolem frming model see rrrisD rithrdD nd insD Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, Pnd iditionD felmontD geX dsworthD PHHHD ppF QHESTF ee lso gynthi frint nd itori ikeD Morality and Professional Life: Values at WorkD xew terseyX rentie rllD IWWWF
Dierent Ways of Specifying the Problem

wny prolems n e spei(ed s disgreementsF por exmpleD you disgree with your supervisor over the sfety of the mnufturing environmentF hisgreements over fts n e resolved y gthering more informtionF hisgreements over onepts @you nd your supervisor hve di'erent ides of wht sfety mensA require working towrd ommon de(nitionF yther prolems involve on)iting vluesF ou dvote instlling pollution ontrol tehnology euse you vlue environmentl qulity nd sfetyF our supervisor resists this ourse of tion euse she vlues mintining solid pro(t mrginF his is on)it etween morl vlue @sfety nd environmentl qulityA nd nonmorl vlue @solid pro(tsAF worl vlues n lso on)it with one nother in given situtionF sing tohn hoe lwsuits to fore snternet ervie roviders to revel the rel identities of defmers ertinly protets the privy nd reputtions of potentil trgets of defmtionF fut it lso ples restritions on legitimte free speeh y mking it possile for powerful wrongdoers to intimidte those who would puliize their wrongdoingF rere the morl vlues of privy nd free speeh re in on)itF lue on)its n e ddressed y hrmonizing the on)iting vluesD ompromising on on)iting vlues y prtilly relizing themD or setting one vlue side while relizing the other @avlue trde o'sAF sf you speify your prolem s disgreementD you need to desrie the fts or onepts out whih there is disgreementF sf you speify your prolem s on)itD you need to desrie the vlues tht on)it in the situtionF yne useful wy of speifying prolem is to rry out stkeholder nlysisF e stkeholder is ny group or individul tht hs vitl interest t risk in the situtionF tkeholder interests frequently ome into on)it nd solving these on)its requires developing strtegies to reonile nd relize the on)iting stkesF enother wy of identifying nd speifying prolems is to rry out soioEtehnil nlysisF oioE tehnil systems @A emody vluesF rolems n e ntiipted nd prevented y speifying possile vlue on)itsF sntegrting new tehnologyD proedureD or poliy into soioEtehnil system n rete three kinds of prolemF @IA gon)it etween vlues in the tehnology nd those in the F por exmpleD when n ttempt is mde to integrte n informtion system into the of smll usinessD the vlues present in n informtion system n on)it with those in the soioEtehnil systemF @orkers my feel tht the new informtion system invdes their privyFA @PA empli(tion

QP

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

of existing vlue on)its in the F he introdution of new tehnology my mgnify n existing vlue on)itF higitlizing textooks my undermine opyrights euse digitl medi is esy to opy nd disseminte on the snternetF @QA rrmful onsequenesF sntroduing something new into soioE tehnil system my set in motion hin of events tht will eventully hrm stkeholders in the soioEtehnil systemF por exmpleD giving lptop omputers to puli shool students my produe long term environmentl hrm when reless disposl of spent lptops releses toxi mterils into the environmentF he following tle helps summrize some of these prolem tegories nd then outlines generi soluE tionsF rolem ype hisgreement uEype ptul goneptul gon)it worl vsF worl xonEmorl morl xonEmorl nonEmorl prming gorruption oil tustie lue eliztion sntermedite worl lue uli elfreD pithful egenyD rofessionl snE tegrityD eer gollegility elizing lue emoving on)its vlue rioritizing vlues for trde o's vsF vsF trtegy for minE tining integrity trtegy for restoring justie lue integrtiveD design strtegy lue sntegrtive olution yutline ype nd mode of gthering informtion gonept in dispute nd method for greeing on its de(nition rtilly lue snE tegrtive rde y'

Table 2.5

Instructions for Using Problem Classication Table

IF ss your prolem on)itc worl versus morl vluec worl versus nonEmorl vluesc xonEmorl versus nonEmorl vluesc sdentify the on)iting vlues s onisely s possileF ixmpleX sn oysmrtD the (nnil vlues of reditors ome into on)it with the privy of individuls in the dt seX (nnil versus privy vluesF PF ss your prolem disgreementc ss the disgreement over si ftsc ere these fts oservlec ss it disgreement over si oneptc ht is the oneptc ss it ftul disgreement thtD upon further re)etionD hnges into oneptul disgreementc QF hoes your prolem rise from n impending hrmc ht is the hrmc ht is its mgnitudec ht is the proility tht it will ourc RF sf your prolem is vlue on)it then n these vlues e fully integrted in vlue integrting solutionc yr must they e prtilly relized in ompromise or trded o' ginst one notherc SF sf your prolem is ftul disgreementD wht is the proedure for gthering the required informtionD if this is fesilec TF sf your prolem is oneptul disgreementD how n this e overomec fy onsulting government poliy or regultionc @yre on sfety for exmpleFA fy onsulting theoretil ount of the vlue in questionc @eding philosophil nlysis of privyFA fy olleting pst ses tht involve the sme onept nd drwing nlogies nd omprisons to the present sec

QQ
If you are having problems specifying your problem

ry identifying the stkeholdersF tkeholders re ny group or individul with vitl interest t stke in the sitution t hndF rojet yourself imgintively into the perspetives of eh stkeholdersF row does the sitution look from their stndpointc ht re their interestsc row do they feel out their interestsc gompre the results of these di'erent imgintive projetionsF ho ny stkeholder interests on)itc ho the stkeholders themselves stnd in on)itc sf the nswer to one or oth of these questions is 4yes4 then this is your prolem sttementF row does one reonile on)iting stkeholders or on)iting stkeholder interests in this situtionc
Framing Your Problem

e miss solutions to prolems euse we hoose to frme them in only one wyF por exmpleD the wountin errorist hilemm is usully frmed in only one wyX s dilemmD tht isD fored deision etween two eqully undesirle lterntivesF @qilne qold is lso frmed s dilemmX low the whistle on Egorp or go long with the exess polutionFA prming prolem di'erently opens up new horizons of solutionF our requirement from this point on in the semester is to frme every prolem you re ssigned in t lest two di'erent wysF por exmples of how to frme prolems using soioEtehnil system nlysis see module mIRHPSF hese di'erent frmes re summrized in the next ox elowF
Dierent Frames for Problems

Technical FrameX ingineers frme prolems tehnillyD tht isD they speify prolem s rising tehnil issue nd requiring tehnil design for its resolutionF por exmpleD in the rughes seD tehnil frme would rise the prolem of how to stremline the mnufturing nd testing proesses of the hipsF Physical FrameX sn the vminting ress seD the physil frme would rise the prolem of how the lyout of the room ould e hnged to redue the white powderF ould etter ventiltion eliminte or mitigte the white powder prolemc Social FrameX sn the 4hen in egudill4 seD the tpnese engineer is unomfortle working with the uerto in womn engineer euse of soil nd ulturl eliefs onerning women still widely held y men in tpnF prming this s soil prolem would involve sking whether there would e wys of getting the tpnese engineer to see things from the uerto in point of viewF Financial or Market-Based FramesX he hyiD in the isk essessment se elowD uses the lortory nd its engineers of trying to extend the ontrt to mke more moneyF he supervisor of the hed of the risk ssessment tem pressures the tem leder to omplete the risk ssessment s quikly s possile so s not to lose the ontrtF hese two frmings highlight (nnil issuesF Managerial FrameX es the leder of the uerto in tem in the 4hen in egudill4 seD you need to exerise ledership in your temF he refusl of the tpnese engineer to work with memer of your tem retes mngement prolemF ht would good lederD good mngerD do in this situtionc ht does it men to ll this mngement prolemc ht mngement strtegies would help solve itc Legal FrameX yre my hve ler regultions onerning the white powder produed y lminting pressesF row n you (nd out out these regultionsc ht would e involved in omplying with themc sf they ost moneyD how would you get this moneyc hese re questions tht rise when you frme the vminting ress se s legl prolemF Environmental FramingX pinllyD viewing your prolem from n environmentl frme leds you to onsider the impt of your deision on the environmentF hoes it hrm the environmentc gn this hrm e voidedc gn it e mitigtedc gn it e o'setc @gould you replnt elsewhere the trees you ut down to uild your new plntcA gould you develop short term environmentl solution to 4uy time4 for designing nd implementing longer term solutionc prming your prolem s n environmentl

QR

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

prolem requires tht you sk whether this solution hrms the environment nd whether this hrming n e voided or remedied in some other wyF

2.2.5 Solution Generation


sn solution genertionD gents exerise morl retivity y rinstorming to ome up with solution options designed to resolve the disgreements nd vlue on)its identi(ed in the prolem spei(tion stgeF frinE storming is ruil to generting nonovious solutions to di0ultD intrtle prolemsF his proess must tke ple within nonEpolrized environment where the memers of the group respet nd trust one notherF @ee the module on the ithis of qroup ork for more informtion on how groups n e suessful nd pitflls tht ommonly trip up groupsFA qroups e'etively initite the rinstorming proess y suspending ritiism nd nlysisF efter the proess is ompleted @syD y meeting quotAD then prtiipnts n re(ne the solutions generted y omining themD eliminting those tht don9t (t the prolemD nd rnking them in terms of their ethis nd fesiilityF sf prolem n9t e solvedD perhps it n e dissolved through reformultionF sf n entire prolem n9t e solveD perhps the prolem n e roken down into prts some of whih n e redily solvedF
Having trouble generating solutions?

yne of the most di0ult stges in prolem solving is to jump strt the proess of rinstorming solutionsF sf you re stuk then here re some generi options gurnteed to get you 4unstukF4 Gather InformationX wny disgreements n e resolved y gthering more informtionF feuse this is the esiest nd lest pinful wy of rehing onsensusD it is lmost lwys est to strt hereF qthering informtion my not e possile euse of di'erent onstrintsX there my not e enough timeD the fts my e too expensive to gtherD or the informtion required goes eyond sienti( or tehnil knowledgeF ometimes gthering more informtion does not solve the prolem ut llows for newD more fruitful formultion of the prolemF rrrisD rithrdD nd ins in ingineering ithisX gonepts nd gses show how solving ftul disgreement llows more profound oneptul disgreement to emergeF Nolo ContendereF xolo gontendere is ltin for not opposing or ontendingF our interests my on)it with your supervisor ut he or she my e too powerful to reson with or opposeF o your only hoie here is to give in to his or her interestsF he prolem with nolo ontendere is tht nonEopposition is often tken s greementF ou my need to doument @eFgFD through memosA tht your hoosing not to oppose does not indite greementF NegotiateF qood ommunition nd diplomti skills my mke it possile to negotite solution tht respets the di'erent interestsF lue integrtive solutions re designed to integrte on)iting vluesF gompromises llow for prtil reliztion of the on)iting interestsF @ee the moduleD he ithis of em orkD for ompromise strtegies suh s logrolling or ridgingFA ometimes it my e neessry to set side one9s interests for the present with the understnding tht these will e tken re of t lter timeF his requires trustF OpposeF sf nolo ontendere nd negotition re not possileD then opposition my e neessryF ypposition requires mrshlling evidene to doument one9s position persusively nd imprtillyF st mkes use of strtegies suh s leding n 4orgniztionl hrge4 or 4lowing the whistleF4 por more on whistleElowing onsult the disussion of whistle lowing in the rughes se tht n e found t omputing sesF ExitF ypposition my not e possile if one lks orgniztionl power or doumented evideneF xolo ontendere will not su0e if nonEopposition implites one in wrongdoingF xegotition will not sueed without neessry sis of trust or serious vlue integrtive solutionF es lst resortD one my hve to exit from the sitution y sking for ressignment or resigningF
Rening solutions

ere ny solutions ltntly unethil or unrelizlec

QS

ho ny solutions overlpc gn these e integrted into roder solutionsc gn solutions e rought together s ourses of tion tht n e pursued simultneouslyc qo k to the prolem spei(tionc gn ny solutions e eliminted euse they do not ddress the prolemc @yr n the prolem e revised to etter (t whtD intuitivelyD is good solutionFA gn solutions e rought together s suessive ourses of tionc por exmpleD one solution represents ln eY if it does not work then nother solutionD ln fD n e pursuedF @ou negotite the prolem with your supervisorF sf she fils to greeD then you oppose your supervisor on the grounds tht her position is wrongF sf this filsD you onform or exitFA The goal here is to reduce the solution list to something manageable, say, a best, a
second best, and a third best. Try adding a bad solution to heighten strategic points of comparison. The list should be short so that the remaining solutions can be intensively examined as to their ethics and feasibility.

2.2.6 Solution Testing: The solutions developed in the second stage must be tested in various ways.
IF eversiilityX ss the solution reversile etween the gent nd key stkeholdersc PF rrmGfene(eneX hoes the solution minimize hrmc hoes it produe ene(ts tht re justly disE triuted mong stkeholdersc QF uliityX ss this tion one with whih you re willing to e pulily identi(edc hoes it identify you s morl personc en irresponsile personc e person of integrityc en untrustworthy personc RF godeX hoes the solution violte ny provisions of relevnt ode of ethisc gn it e modi(ed to e in ord with ode of ethisc hoes it ddress ny spirtions ode might hvec @ingineersX hoes this solution hold prmount the helthD sfetyD nd welfre of the pulicA SF qlol pesiilityX ho ny ostles to implementtion present themselves t this pointc ere there resouresD tehniquesD nd soil support for relizing the solution or will ostles rise in one or more of these generl resc et this pointD ssess glolly the fesiility of eh solutionF TF he solution evlution mtrix presented just elow models nd summrizes the solution testing proE essF olutionGest hesription eversiility ss the solution reversile with stkeholdersc hoes it honor si rightsc rrmG fene(E ene hoes the soE lution produe the est eneE (tGhrm rtioc hoes the soluE tion mximize utilityc uliityGlues gode hoes the soE lution express nd integrte key virtuesc hoes the soE lution violte ny ode provisionsc qlol ility pesiE

ere there onE strints or oE stles to relE izing the soluE tionc

fest solution eond fest orst


Table 2.6

2.2.7 Solution Implementation


he hosen solution must e exmined in terms of how well it responds to vrious situtionl onstrints tht ould impede its implementtionF ht will e its ostsc gn it e implemented within neessry time

QT

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

onstrintsc hoes it honor reognized tehnil limittions or does it require pushing these k through innovtion nd disoveryc hoes it omply with legl nd regultory requirementsc pinllyD ould the surrounding orgniztionlD politilD nd soil environments give rise to ostles to the implementtion of the solutionc sn generl this phse requires looking t interestD tehnilD nd resoure onstrints or limittionsF e pesiility wtrix helps to guide this proessF he pesiility ests fouses on situtionl onstrintsF row ould these hinder the implementtion of the solutionc hould the solution e modi(ed to ese implementtionc gn the onstrints e removed or remodeled y negotitionD ompromiseD or edutionc gn implementtion e filitted y modifying oth the solution nd hnging the onstrintsc pesiility wtrix esoure gonstrints ime gost wterils epplile ehnology wnufturility
Table 2.7

ehnil gonstrints

snterest gonstrints ersonlities yrgniztionl vegl oilD olitilD gulturl

Dierent Feasibility Constraints

IF he pesiility est identi(es the onstrints tht ould interfere with relizing solutionF his test lso sorts out these onstrints into resource @timeD ostD mterilsAD interest @individulsD orgniztionsD leglD soilD politilAD nd technical limittionsF fy identifying situtionl onstrintsD prolemE solvers n ntiipte implementtion prolems nd tke erly steps to prevent or mitigte themF PF TimeF ss there dedline within whih the solution hs to e entedc ss this dedline (xed or negotilec QF FinancialF ere there ost onstrints on implementing the ethil solutionc gn these e extended y rising more fundsc gn they e extended y utting existing ostsc gn gents negotite for more money for implementtionc RF TechnicalF ehnil limits onstrin the ility to implement solutionsF htD thenD re the tehnil limittions to relizing nd implementing the solutionc gould these e moved k y modifying the solution or y dopting new tehnologiesc SF ManufacturabilityF ere there mnufturing onstrints on the solution t hndc qiven timeD ostD nd tehnil fesiilityD wht re the mnufturing limits to implementing the solutionc yne ginD re these limits (xed or )exileD rigid or negotilec TF LegalF row does the proposed solution stnd with respet to existing lwsD legl struturesD nd regultionsc hoes it rete disposl prolems ddressed in existing regultionsc hoes it respond to nd minimize the possiility of dverse legl tionc ere there legl onstrints tht go ginst the ethil vlues emodied in the solutionc eginD re these legl onstrints (xed or negotilec UF Individual Interest ConstraintsF sndividuls with on)iting interests my oppose the implemenE ttion of the solutionF por exmpleD n inseure supervisor my oppose the solution euse he fers it will undermine his uthorityF ere these individul interest onstrints (xed or negotilec VF OrganizationalF snonsistenies etween the solution nd the forml or informl rules of n orgE niztion my give rise to implementtion ostlesF smplementing the solution my require support of those higher up in the mngement hierrhyF he solution my on)it with orgniztion rulesD mngement struturesD trditionsD or (nnil ojetivesF yne ginD re these onstrints (xed or )exilec WF Social, Cultural, or PoliticalF he soioEtehnil system within whih the solution is to e impleE mented ontins ertin soil struturesD ulturl trditionsD nd politil ideologiesF row do these

QU stnd with respet to the solutionc por exmpleD does limte of suspiion of high tehnology threten to rete politil opposition to the solutionc ht kinds of soilD ulturlD or politil prolems ould risec ere these (xed or n they e ltered through negotitionD edutionD or persusionc

2.2.8 Ethics Tests For Solution Evaluation


hree ethis tests @reversiilityD hrmGene(eneD nd puli identi(tionA enpsulte three ethil pE prohes @deontologyD utilitrinismD nd virtue ethisA nd form the sis of stge three of the hgD solution testingF e fourth test @ vlue reliztion testA uilds upon the puli identi(tionGvirtue ethis test y evluting solution in terms of the vlues it hrmonizesD promotesD protetsD or relizesF pinlly ode test provides n independent hek on the ethis tests nd lso highlights intermedite morl onepts suh s sfetyD helthD welfreD fithful genyD on)it of interestD on(dentilityD professionl integrityD ollegilityD privyD propertyD free speehD nd equityGessAF he following setion provides dvie on how to use these testsF wore informtion n e found t wwwFomputingsesForgF

2.2.9 Setting Up the Ethics Tests: Pitfalls to avoid


etEp itfllsX wistkes in this re led to the nlysis eoming unfoused nd getting lost in irrelevniesF @A egentEswithing where the nlysis flls prey to irrelevnies tht rop up when the test pplition is not grounded in the stndpoint of single gentD @A loppy tionEdesription where the nlysis fils euse no spei( tion hs een testedD @A estEswithing where the nlysis fils euse one test is sustituted for notherF @por exmpleD the puli identi(tion nd reversiility tests re often redued to the hrmGene(ene test where hrmful onsequenes re listed ut not ssoited with the gent or stkeholdersFA
Set up the test

IF sdentify the gent @the person who is going to perform the tionA PF hesrie the tion or solution tht is eing tested @wht the gent is going to do or performA QF sdentify the stkeholders @those individuls or groups who re going to e 'eted y the tionAD nd their stkes @interestsD vluesD goodsD rightsD needsD etF RF sdentifyD sort outD nd weigh the onsequenes @the results the tion is likely to ring outA

2.2.10 Harm/Benecence Test


ht hrms would ompny the tion under onsidertionc ould it produe physil or mentl su'eringD impose (nnil or nonE(nnil ostsD or deprive others of importnt or essentil goodsc ht ene(ts would this tion ring outc ould it inrese sfetyD qulity of lifeD helthD seurityD or other goods oth morl nd nonEmorlc ht is the mgnitude of eh these onsequenesc wgnitude inludes likelihood it will our @proE ilityAD the severity of its impt @minor or mjor hrmA nd the rnge of people 'etedF sdentify one or two other vile lterntives nd repet these steps for themF ome of these my e modi(tions of the si tion tht ttempt to minimize some of the likely hrmsF hese lterntives will estlish sis for ssessing your lterntive y ompring it with othersF heide on the sis of the test whih lterntive produes the est rtio of ene(ts to hrmsc ghek for inequities in the distriution of hrms nd ene(tsF ho ll the hrms fll on one individul @or groupAc ho ll of the ene(ts fll on notherc sf hrms nd ene(ts re inequitly distriutedD n they e redistriutedc ht is the impt of redistriution on the originl solution imposedc
Pitfalls of the Harm/Benecence Test

IF rlysis of enlysis4 omes from onsidering too mny onsequenes nd not fousing only on those relevnt to your deisionF

QV

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

PF snomplete enlysis results from onsidering too few onsequenesF yften it indites filure of morl imgintion whihD in this seD is the ility to envision the onsequenes of eh tion lterntiveF QF pilure to ompre di'erent lterntives n led to deision tht is too limited nd oneEsidedF RF pilure to weigh hrms ginst ene(ts ours when deision mkers lk the experiene to mke the qulittive omprisons required in ethil deision mkingF SF pinllyD justie filures result from ignoring the firness of the distriution of hrms nd ene(tsF his leds to solution whih my mximize ene(ts nd minimize hrms ut still give rise to serious injusties in the distriution of these ene(ts nd hrmsF

2.2.11 Reversibility Test


IF et up the test y @iA identifying the gentD @iiA desriing the tionD nd @iiiA identifying the stkeE holders nd their stkesF PF se the stkeholder nlysis to identify the reltions to e reversedF QF everse roles etween the gent @youA nd eh stkeholderX put them in your ple @s the gentA nd yourself in their ple @s the one sujeted to the tionAF RF sf you were in their pleD would you still (nd the tion eptlec
Cross Checks for Reversibility Test (These questions help you to check if you have carried out the reversibility test properly.)

hoes the proposed tion tret others with respetc @hoes it reognize their utonomy or irumvent itcA hoes the tion violte the rights of othersc @ixmples of rightsX free nd informed onsentD privyD freedom of onsieneD due proessD propertyD freedom of expressionA ould you reommend tht this tion eome universl rulec ere youD through your tionD treting others merely s mensc
Pitfalls of the Reversibility Test

veving out key stkeholder reltion piling to reognize nd ddress on)its etween stkeholders nd their on)iting stkes gonfusing treting others with respet with pitulting to their demnds @eversing with ritlerA piling to reh losureD iFeFD n overllD glol reversl ssessment tht tkes into ount ll the stkeholders the gent hs reversed withF

2.2.12 Steps in Applying the Public Identication Test


et up the nlysis y identifying the gentD desriing the tionD nd listing the key vlues or virtues t ply in the situtionF essoition the tion with the gentF hesrie wht the tion sys out the gent s personF hoes it revel him or her s someone ssoited with virtue or viec
Alternative Version of Public Identication

hoes hoes hoes hoes hoes

the the the the the

tion tion tion tion tion

under onsidertion relize justie or does it pose n exess or defet of justiec relize responsiility or pose n exess or defet of responsiilityc relize resonleness or pose too muh or too little resonlenessc relize honesty or pose too muh or too little honestyc relize integrity or pose too muh or too little integrityc

QW
Pitfalls of Public Identication

etion not ssoited with gentF he most ommon pitfll is filure to ssoite the gent nd the tionF he tion my hve d onsequenes nd it my tret individuls with respet ut these points re not s importnt in the ontext of this test s wht they imply out the gent s person who deliertely performs suh n tionF pilure to speify morl qulityD virtueD or vlueF enother pitfll is to ssoite the tion nd gent ut only srie vgue or miguous morl qulity to the gentF o syD for exmpleD tht willfully hrming the puli is d fils to zero in on preisely wht morl qulity this sries to the gentF hoes it render him or her unjustD irresponsileD orruptD dishonestD or unresonlec he virtue list given ove will help to speify this morl qulityF

2.2.13 Code of Ethics Test


hoes the tion hold prmount the helthD sfetyD nd welfre of the puliD iFeFD those 'eted y the tion ut not le to prtiipte in its design or exeutionc hoes the tion mintin fithful geny with the lient y not using trustD voiding on)its of interestD nd mintining on(denesc ss the tion onsistent with the reputtionD honorD dignityD nd integrity of the professionc hoes the tion serve to mintin ollegil reltions with professionl peersc

2.2.14 Meta Tests


he ethis nd fesiility tests will not lwys onverge on the sme solutionF here is omplited nswer for why this is the se ut the simple version is tht the tests do not lwys gree on given solution euse eh test @nd the ethil theory it enpsultesA overs di'erent domin or dimension of the tion situtionF wet tests turn this disdvntge to your dvntge y feeding the intertion etween the tests on given solution k into the evlution of tht solutionF hen the ethis tests onverge on given solutionD this onvergene is sign of the strength nd roustness of the solution nd ounts in its fvorF hen given solution responds well to one test ut does poorly under notherD this is sign tht the solution needs further development nd revisionF st is not sign tht one test is relevnt while the others re notF hivergene etween test results is sign tht the solution is wekF

2.2.15 Application Exercise


ou will now prtie the four stges of deision mking with rel world seF his seD isk essessmentD me from retret on fusinessD ieneD nd ingineering ithis held in uerto io in heemer IWWVF st ws funded y the xtionl iene poundtionD qrnt f WVIHPSQF
Risk Assessment Scenario

gse enrioX ou supervise group of engineers working for privte lortory with expertise in nuler wste disposl nd risk ssessmentF he hyi @heprtment of inergyA wrded ontrt to your lortory six yers go to do risk ssessment of vrious nuler wste disposl sitesF huring the six yers in whih your tem hs een doing the studyD new nd more urte lultions in risk ssessment hve eome villeF our lortory9s studyD howeverD egn with the olderD simpler lultions nd nnot integrte the newer without sustntilly delying ompletionF ouD s the leder of the temD propose dely to the hyi on the grounds tht it is neessry to use the more dvned lultionsF our position is tht the lortory needs more time euse of the extensive lultions requiredY you rgue tht your group must use stte of the rt siene in doing its risk ssessmentF he hyi sys you re using overly high stndrds of risk ssessment to prolong the proessD extend the ontrtD nd get more money for your ompnyF hey

RH

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

wnt you to use simpler lultions nd (nish the projetY if you re unwilling to do soD they pln to (nd nother ompny tht thinks di'erentlyF wenwhileD k t the lortoryD your supervisor @ high level ompny mngerA expresses to you the onern tht while good siene is importnt in n demi settingD this is the rel world nd the ontrt with the hyi is in jeoprdyF ht should you doc
Part One: Problem Specication

IF peify the prolem in the ove senrioF fe s onise nd spei( s possile PF ss your prolem est spei(le s disgreementc fetween whomc yver whtc QF gn your prolem e spei(ed s vlue on)itc ht re the vlues in on)itc ere the morlD nonmorlD or othc
Part Two: Solution Generation

IF uikly nd without nlysis or ritiism rinstorm S to ten solutions PF e(ne your solution listF gn solutions e elimintedc @yn wht siscA gn solutions e ominedc gn solutions e omined s pln nd pln c QF sf you spei(ed your prolem s disgreementD how do your solutions resolve the disgreementc gn you negotite interests over positionsc ht if your pln of tion doesn9t workc RF sf you formulted your prolem s vlue on)itD how do your solutions resolve this on)itc fy integrting the on)iting vluesc fy prtilly relizing them through vlue ompromisec fy trding one vlue o' for notherc
Part Three: Solution Testing

IF gonstrut solution evlution mtrix to ompre two to three solution lterntivesF PF ghoose d solution nd then ompre to it the two strongest solutions you hveF QF fe sure to void the pitflls desried ove nd set up eh test refullyF
Part Four: Solution Implementation

IF hevelop n implementtion pln for your est solutionF his pln should ntiipte ostles nd o'er mens for overoming themF PF repre fesiility tle outlining these issues using the tle presented oveF QF ememer tht eh of these fesiility onstrints is negotile nd therefore )exileF sf you hoose to set side fesiility onstrint then you need to outline how you would negotite the extension of tht onstrintF

Decision-Making Presentation

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `heision wking wnul RFpptxb
Figure 2.1: Clicking on this gure will allow you to open a presentation designed to introduce problem solving in ethics as analogous to that in design, summarize the concept of a socio-technical system, and provide an orientation in the four stages of problem solving. This presentation was given February 28, 2008 at UPRM for ADMI 6005 students, Special Topics in Research Ethics.

RI
Problem Solving Presentation 3 [Media Object] Vigo Socio-Technical System Table and Problems 4 [Media Object] Decision Making Worksheet

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `heision wking orksheetFdoxb

This exercise is designed to give you practice with the three frameworks described in this module. It is based on the case, "When in Aguadilla."
Figure 2.2:

Test Rubric Fall 2009: Problem-Solving 5 [Media Object]

2.3 Values-Based Decision-Making in Gilbane Gold


2.3.1 Module Introduction

he pederl entening quidelines introdued in the erly IWWH9s hve trnsformed the wy usinesses respond to ethisF pormerlyD orportions relied on ompline mesures whih eme tivted only fter wrongdoing ourredF ioltions ourred nd ompline responses onsisted of identifying nd punishing those responsileF fut the pederl entening quidelines push orportions towrd muh more protive stneY if orportion is found guilty of lw violtionD its punishment is determined y the mesures the orportion hs lredy implemented to prevent the rime s well s the mesures the orportion develops in response to the rime to mitigte it nd prevent future reourrenesF orking to prevent rimeD epting responsiility for rimes tht ould not e preventedD nd lerning from pst mistkes ll serve to )g orporte intentionF sn other wordsD orportions n demonstrte good intentions y doumenting mesures implemented to prevent rime nd y showing responsive djustment to rimes they ould not preventF st is in this new orporte ontext tht orportions hve egun to dopt vluesEsed deision mkingF snsted of setting forth rules tht outline minimum levels of fored omplineD they now sk employees to work eyond the morl minimum nd seek osions to tully relize or enhne morl vlueF sn the deision mking ontextD employees skX @IA ht n s do to mke this more just environmentc @PA row do s go out respeting my oEworkersc nd @QA row do s identify nd rry out my responsiilitiesD inluding soil responsiilitiesD in my dily workc hese questionsD representing instnes of vluesEsed deisionEmkingD serve to hnge your fous from getting y with the morl minimum to religning your morl nd workple e'orts towrd morl exelleneF sn this module you will lern out ethil ledershipD ethil deisionEmkingD orporte soil responsiE ilityD nd orporte governneF he osion for this lerning is the lssil ethis videoD qilne qoldF ou will view the video nd prtie vluesEsed deisionEmking from within the role of hvid tksonD the young engineer round whom the nrrtive of this video is uiltF o get you strtedD you will use the
3 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Decision Making Manual V5.pptx> 4 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Vigo STS.docx> 5 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <PE_Rubric_EO_S09.docx> 6 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m15783/1.6/>.

RP

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

vlues portryed in the niversity of uerto io9s gollege of fusiness edministrtion ttement of lE uesF wodule setions will outline wht you will e doing nd wht you need to know s well s provide opportunities for you to re)et on wht you hve lerned upon ompletion of this moduleF

2.3.2 What you need to know...


Value-Based Decision Making

sn vlueEsed deisionEmkingD you use morl vlues to pose prolems nd solutionsF por exmpleD prolems n e posed s on)its etween vlues @morl vsF nonEmorl or morl vsF morlAD lk of informtion out how to relize or mintin vluesD nd situtions where key vlues need to e defendedF he point in vlueEsed deision mking is to design solutions tht relize the mximum numer of vlues possile y integrting themD drwing suessful ompromises etween themD or hoosing to t upon the most importnt vlue given the situtionF sn this moduleD you will e working from within hvid tkson9s position to design solution to his prolem tht est responds to the vlue needs in his situtionF
Gilbane Gold

ou re hvid tkson young engineer working for the omputer mnufturerD EgorpF our studies into the wste emissions of Egorp indite tht they re little it over the orderline of wht is leglly eptle in the qilne metropolitn reF wo further issues omplite your (ndingsF @IA qilne drws sludge from the river nd sells it to frmers to over their (eldsY if hevy metls re present in this sludgeD they will e pssed on to onsumers who et the vegetles grown in (elds overed with this 4qilne qoldF4 his ould produe long nd short term helth prolems for the qilne ommunityF @PA Egorp hs just entered into new greement with tpnese ompny tht will produe (veEfold inrese in demnd for their produtF hile this will lso inrese their emissions of hevy metls into the wter supply y the sme mountD it will not violte ity regultions euse these regultions only tke into ount the onentrtion of hevy metls in eh dishrgeF Egorp merely dilutes the hevy metls dumped into qilne9s wter supply to re)et eptle onentrtion levelsF hvid tkson holds tht this loophole in environmentl regultions ould endnger the helth nd sfety of the itizens in the qilneF fut he hs troule shring these onerns with his supervisorsD hine gollinsD hil ortD nd prnk eedersF hvid @youA hs mde severl e'orts to mke his onerns known to Egorp o0ilsD inluding hil ortD prnk eedersD nd hine gollinsF heir response is tht spending money on inresed pollution ontrol mesures will threten Egorp9s thin pro(t mrginF hine puts the issue even more strongly when she sys tht Egorp9s soil responsiility is to provide the qilne ommunity with good jos nd to oey lol environmentl regultionsF sf the ity wnts striter regultionsD then they need to pss them through the legisltive proessF fut tking protive mesures on this ount goes fr eyond Egorp9s ethil nd soil responsiilities to the qilne ommunityF ou re hvidF ht vlues do you see involved in this situtionc hesign solution tht est preserves nd integrtes themF
Partial List of Characters

IF David JacksonX oung engineer whose mesurements show tht Egorp9s emissions into the qilne wter supply rely exeed lol stndrdsF re expresses onern to his supervisors on the impt on the sfety nd helth of the lol ommunityF PF Diane CollinsX hvid9s supervisor who is under strong pressure to mintin the Egorp qilne plnt9s thin pro(t levelsF he is onerned out environment responsiility ut de(nes it s stying within the limits of the lw s put forth y the qilne ommunityF qilne sets for the lw nd Egorp is responsile for stying within its limitsF sf the lw is indequteD then qilne is responsile for hnging itF QF Tom RichardsX invironmentl engineer hired to mesure Egorp9s hevy metl emissions into the qilne wter supplyF ihrds wrns hvid tht he ers ultimte responsiility for Egorp9s emisions into the qilne wter supplyF

RQ RF Phil PortX Egorp9s o0il in hrge of the ompny9s ompline with environmentl regultionsF re lls hvid during the doumentry to lim tht it portrys him s n 4environmentl rpistF4 SF Frank SeedersX prnk is the point mn on helping to ger up Egorp9s opertions to meet the new demnd reted y their reent venture with tpnese ompnyF re sks hvid to help him stremline Egorp9s mnufturing proessF TF Maria RenatoX vol reporter who produes doumentry exposing Egorp9s potentilly dngerous emissionsF he hs prepred her report sed on doumenttion provided y hvid tksonF
Statement of Values List

IF Justice / FairnessX fe imprtilD ojetive nd refrin from disrimintion or preferentil tretment in the dministrtion of rules nd poliies nd in its delings with studentsD fultyD st'D dministrE tionD nd other stkeholdersF PF ResponsibilityX eognize nd ful(ll its oligtions to its onstituents y ring for their essentil interestsD y honoring its ommitmentsD nd y lning nd integrting on)iting interestsF es responsile gentsD the fultyD employeesD nd students of the ollege of usiness edministrtion re ommitted to the pursuit of exelleneD devotion to the ommunity9s welfreD nd professionlismF QF RespectX eknowledge the inherent dignity present in its diverse onstituents y reognizing nd respeting their fundmentl rightsF these inlude rights to propertyD privyD free exhnge of idesD demi freedomD due proessD nd meningful prtiiption in deision mking nd poliy formtionF RF TrustX eognize tht trust solidi(es ommunities y reting n environment where eh n exE pet ethilly justi(le ehvior from ll othersF hile trust is tolernt of nd even thrives in n environment of diversityD it lso must operte within the prmeters set y estlished personl nd ommunity stndrdsF SF IntegrityX romote integrity s hrterized y sinerityD honestyD uthentiityD nd the pursuit of exelleneF sntegrity shll permete nd olor ll its deisionsD tions nd expressionsF st is most lerly exhiited in intelletul nd personl honesty in lerningD tehingD mentoring nd reserhF

2.3.3 What you are going to do...


IF th the video nd mke sure you understnd the sitution from hvid9s point of viewF et the end hvid mkes his deisionF ou should e open to the possiility tht there my e other deisions tht n e tken in this sitution tht my e etter from morl point of viewF PF ht is hvid9s prolemc ry formulting it in terms of vlues tht re under thret nd on)its etween vluesF ou my even wnt to identify informtion needs relevnt to solving this prolemc QF ht solutions do di'erent individuls in the video reommend to hvidc row good re they in terms of relizing or proteting key morl vluesc hoes hvid @nd the videoA py su0ient ttention to these di'erent reommendtionsc hoes he miss etter vlueEintegrtive solutionsc RF wke your deisionF hefend it in terms of key morl vluesF se the vlues provided ove in the w gollege of fusiness edministrtion9s ttement of luesF SF qive speil ttention to the links provided in this moduleF ere there solutions to hvid9s prolem not mentioned in the videoc

2.3.4 Conclusion
wore nd moreD usiness ethis is onentrting on four generl themes or issuesF sn this setionD you will use the videoD qilne qoldD to re)et on these di'erent themesF gonsider this your (rst inursion into usiness ethisF wost importntD rememer tht ethis forms entrl prt of everydy usiness prtie nd is essentil to good usinessF
Ethical Leadership: In terms of the values mentioned in the SOV, discuss and rate the following characters in terms of the leadership skills and qualities they exhibit:

RR

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

hine gollins hvid tkson hil ort om ihrds prnk eeders

Social Responsibility:

hvid reminds hine tht orportions like Egorp re responsile for the helth nd sfety impts of their opertionsF hine disgrees pling more emphsis on following the lw nd serving the ommunity y reting eonomi opportunity nd josF ho sets for the etter rgumentc sing these positions s springordD set forth your own oneption of orporte soil responsiilityF
Corporate Governance:

owrd the end of the videoD hvid goes to lol reporterD wri entoD nd provides her with inside informtion on his nd om ihrds9s environmentl nd sfety onernsF s this neessry tionc hid hvid hve other options whih would hve llowed him to work within !gorp for n e'etive response to his onernsc row do engineers dvote within forEpro(t orportions for inluding ethil vlues into orporte deisionsc ht do rel world orportions do to reognize nd respond to dissenting professionl opinions held y their employeesc
Values in Gilbane Gold Handout

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `lues in qilne qold rndoutFdob
Figure 2.3:

This handout for students provides exercises based on Gilbane Gold that introduces the three AACSB business ethics themes: ethical leadership, ethical decision-making, and social responsibility.

Virtues for ADMI 3405

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `irtues for ehws QRHSFpptxb
Figure 2.4: Clicking on this le are the virtues worked out in the previous module. Use these to carry out the values-based decision making exercise in Gilbane Gold.

Presentation on Values Based Decision Making

[Media Object]7 Working from an analogy between design and ethics problem-solving, this presentation
Ethics Assessment Activity: Pre and Post Test
7 This

media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at

<Values Based Decision Making.pptx>

RS

[Media Object]8 This is a short pre and post test to examine short term impact of the module.
Solution Brainstorm for Gilbane Gold 9 [Media Object]

2.4 Socio-Technical Systems in Professional Decision Making


2.4.1 Module Introduction
Milagro Beaneld War

10

toe wondrgon hs reted quite stir in wilgroD smll villge in xew wexioF re hs illeglly diverted wter from the irrigtion dith to his (eld to grow ensF eess to sre wter in xew wexio hs reted shrp politil nd soil disputes whih hve rehed rises point in wilgroF gompeting with trditionl susistene frmers like toe is the pro(tle reretion industryF vdd hevineD welthy developerD hs joined with the stte government in xew wexio to uild lrge reretionl enter onsisting of resturntD trvel lodgeD individul ins nd lvish golf ourseF ine there is not enough wter to over oth reretionl nd griulturl uses nd sine vdd hevine9s projet promises lrge tx revenues nd new josD the stte government hs fllen ehind him nd hs promised to give to the reretionl filities ll the wter it needsF reneD the prolem reted y wondrgon9s illegl tF ou work for vdd hevineF re hs sked you to look into lol opposition to the reretionl filityF elong these linesD you ttend the town meeting sheduled y uy erhulet in the town9s hurhF ou re onerned out ghrlie floom9s presenttion nd the impt it my hve on the lol ommunityF repre nlysis to test floom9s ssertions nd etter prepre vdd hevine for lol opposition to his filityF
Incident at Morales

pred is hemil engineer hired y hust gorportion to design nd mke opertionl new hemil plnt for the mnufture of their newly redesigned pint thinnerF nder (nnil pressure from the prent prenh ompnyD ghemistreD they hve deided to lote their new plnt in worlesD wexio to tke dvntge of lower osts nd more )exile government regultionsF ou re well on the wy towrd designing this new plnt when news omes from ghemistre tht ll udgets re eing ut PH7 to (nne ghemistre9s ltest tkeover quisitionF ou re pred nd re now fed with series of di0ult (nnilEengineering deisionsF hould you hold out for the more expensive vutz nd vutz ontrols or use the heper ones produed lollyc hould you ontinue with the urrent plnt size or ut plnt size nd pity to keep within udgetry onstrintsc ou hve lso een mde wre of the environmentl nd helth risks ssoited with not lining the wste ponds used y the plntF ho you dvote lining the ponds or notD the ltter eing within ompline for wexin environmentl nd helth regultionsF repre nlysis to help you mke nd justify these deisionsF wke series of reommendtions to your supervisors sed on this studyF
Puerto Rican Projects

our ompnyD gogentrixD proposes ogenertion plnt tht uses olD produes eletriityD nd retes stem s yEprodut of eletriity genertion proessF feuse the stem n e sold to nery tun nning plntsD your ompny wishes to study the fesiility of loting its plnt in or ner wyguezD uerto ioF @goEgenertion tehnology hs eome very populr nd useful in some plesFA grry out nlysis to identify potentil prolemsF wke reommendtion to your ompnyF sf your reommendtion is positiveD disuss how the plnt should e modi(ed to (t into the wyguezD uerto io F
8 This

media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at

<Ethics Assessment.docx>
9 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Solutions to Gilbane Gold.docx> 10 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14025/1.9/>.

RT

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

our ompnyD outhern qold esouresD is interested in mining di'erent regions in entrl uerto io for opper nd goldF fut you know tht twenty yers erlierD two proposls y two interntionl mining ompnies were turned down y the governmentF grry out study to exmine the fesiility of designing di'erent projet tht my e more eptle to lol groupsF ht does your nlysis tell you out soil nd ethil imptsD (nnil promiseD nd likely lol oppositionF gn pro(tle mining opertions e developed tht respet the onerns of opposed groupsc ht is your reommendtion sed on your nlysisc indmrD ompny tht mnuftures nd opertes windmills for eletriity genertion hs proposed to lote windmill frm in lotion djent to the fosque eo de quniF hey hve enountered onsiderle lol oppositionF grry out nlysis to understnd nd lrify this oppositionF gn the onerns of lol stkeholders e ddressed nd the windmill frm still remin pro(tlec row should the windmill projet e modi(ed to improve its hnes of implementtionc

2.4.2 Things to Know about STSs


What is a Socio-Technical System? (STS)

e soioEtehnil system @aA is tool to help usiness ntiipte nd suessfully resolve interdisiE plinry usiness prolemsF 4snterdisiplinry usiness prolems4 refer to prolems where (nnil vlues re intertwined with tehnilD ethilD soilD politilD nd ulturl vluesF @efereneX ghuk ru'D qood gomputingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithisD drft mnusript for tones nd frtlett ulishersA
Four Things to Know About STSs

IF Socio-Technical Systems are rst and foremost systems: their components are interrelated ones requires djusting the di'erent elements in reltion to one nother to mintin or strengthen key vlues emedded in the systemF PF STS have dierent components which interact with one another. ome of these re desried just elowF hey inlude usiness projetsGproessesD physil surroundingsD stkeholdersD proeduresD lws nd regultionsD (nnil nd mrket systemsD informtion systemsD nd environmentl systemsF he (rst prt of nlysis is to identify these omponents nd further desrie them so s to inlude wht mkes eh system speil nd uniqueF QF Socio-Technical systems embody values which can be located in the system's components and throughout the system as a whole. @A hese vlues my e vulnerleD under ttkD or t riskF por exmpleD the wy ompny stores employee dt mkes mke it vulnerle to unuthorized essF his would endnger the vlue of privyF @A hese vlues my ome into on)it with one nother so tht resolving these on)its my require djusting the entire systemF @A he system nd its omponents my hnge in suh wy s to produe signi(nt risks or hrmsF RF s hngeD nd this hnge displys trajectory or pthF prequently this trjetory is rought out y the power exerised y entrenhed interestsF vdd hevineD s welthy usiness personD is le to exerise onsiderle over stte poliies regrding the distriution of wterF ris exerise of this power sets the ommunity of wilgro on trjetory of hnge wy from griulture nd more towrd the reretion industryF
and interact so that a change in one component often produces changes in the other components and in the system as a whole. fringing out good hnges nd preventing d

2.4.3 Constituents
IF Technology inluding hrdwreD softwreD designsD prototypesD produtsD or serviesF ixmples of engineering projets in uerto io re provided in the gridF sn the herEPS seD the hrdwre is the doule pss elertorD in rughes the nlogueEtoEdigitl integrted iruitsD nd in whdo the xs softwre system nd the omputers in the gs lortories tht re on(gured y

RU this systemF feuse tehnologies re strutured to rry out the intentions of their designersD they emed vluesF Physical SurroundingsF hysil surroundings n lso emed vluesF hoorsD y their weightD strengthD mterilD sizeD nd tthments @suh s loksA n promote vlues suh s seurityF hysil surroundings promoteD mintinD or diminish other vlues in tht they n permit or deny essD filitte or hinder speehD promote privy or trnsprenyD isolte or disseminte propertyD nd promote equlity or privilegeF People, Groups, and RolesF his omponent of hs een the fous of trditionl stkeholder nlysesF e stkeholder is ny group or individul whih hs n essentil or vitl interest in the sitution t hndF eny deision mde or design implemented n enhneD mintinD or diminish this interest or stkeF o if we onsider prnk i deisionEmker in the rughes seD then the rughes orportionD the FF eir poreD the rughes suEgroup tht runs environmentl tests on integrted iruitsD nd rughes ustomers would ll e onsidered stkeholdersF ProceduresF row does ompny del with dissenting professionl opinions mnifested y employeesc ht kind of due proess proedures re in ple in your university for ontesting wht you onsider to e unfir grdesc row do reserhers go out getting the informed onsent of those who will e the sujets of their experimentsc roedures set forth ends whih emody vlues nd legitimize mens whih lso emody vluesF Laws, statutes, and regulations ll form essentil prts of sF his would inlude engineering odes s well s the stte or professionl orgniztions hrged with developing nd enforing them he (nl tegory n e formulted in vriety of wys depending on the spei( ontextF gomputing systems gtherD storeD nd disseminte informtionF reneD this ould e leled data and data storage structureF @gonsider using dt mining softwre to ollet informtion nd enrypted nd isolted (les for storing it seurelyFA sn engineeringD this might inlude the informtion generted s devie is implementedD opertesD nd is deommissionedF his informtionD if fed k into re(ning the tehnology or improving the design of next genertion prototypesD ould led to unovering nd preventing potentil identsF iletril engineers hve eleted to renme this tegoryD in the ontext of power systemsD rtes nd rte struturesF

PF

QF

RF

SF TF

2.4.4
Ethics of STS Research

Right of Free and Informed ConsentX his is the right of prtiipnts in reserh projet to know the hrms nd ene(ts of the reserhF st lso inludes the right not to e fored to prtiipte in projet utD instedD o'er or withdrw voluntrily their onsent to prtiipteF hen prepring nlysisD it is mndtory to tke tive mesures to filitte prtiipnts9s free nd informed onsentF eny nlysis must tke tive mesures to reognize potentil hrms nd minimize or eliminte themF his is espeilly the se regrding the informtion tht my e olleted out di'erent individulsF peil provisions must e tken to mintin on(dentility in olletingD storingD nd using sensitive informtionF his inludes reful disposl of informtion fter it is no longer neededF

2.4.5 Participatory Observation


es we sid oveD soioEtehnil system @A is n intelletul tool to help us reognize ptterns in the wy tehnology is used nd produedF gonstruting these tools requires omining modes of nlysis tht re ordinrily kept seprteF feuse s emed vluesD they re normtiveF hese vlues n help to hrt out trjetories of hnge nd development euse they outline vlues tht the system needs to relizeD mintinD or even enhneF sn this wyD the study of s is normtive nd legitimte inquiry for prtil nd professionl ethisF yn the other hndD nlysis requires

RV

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

(nding out wht is lredy there nd desriing itF o nlysis is desriptive s wellF sn this textoxD we will tlk rie)y out the desriptive or empiril omponents of nlysisF his mteril is tken from the drft mnusript of qood gomputingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithis nd hs een developed y ghuk ru'F InterviewsX emiEtrutured nd trutured snterviews onduted with those fmilir with given provide n exellent soure of informtion on the onstituents of given nd how these (t together into n interrelted wholeF por exmpleD the grid on power systems ws put together y experts in this re who were le to provide detiled informtion on power rtes nd protoolsD softwre used to distriute energy through the gridlinesD nd di'erent soures @representing oth hrd nd soft tehnologiesA of power genertionF Field ObservationX hose onstruting nlysis go diretly to the system nd desrie it in its dyEtoEdy opertionF wo ooks provide more informtion on the types nd tehniques of (eld oservtionX IF hvid wF pettermnD ithnogrphyX Pnd iditionD epplied oil eserh wethods eriesD ol IUF vondonD uFX ge ulishersD IWWV nd PF tmes F prdleyD rtiipnt yservtionF xew orkD rrourtD IWVHF he dt olleted in this method n lso e used to onstrut dyEinE theElife senrios tht desrie how given tehnology funtions on typil dyF hese senrios re useful for unovering vlue on)its nd ltent identsF ee tmes F esonD rumn irrorD gmridgeD uFX gmridge niversity ressD IWWH for informtion on ltent identsD how they re detetedD nd how they re preventedF QuestionnairesX uestionnires re useful for gthering generl informtion from lrge numers of people out F gonstruting good questionnires is di0ult proess tht requires ptiene s well s tril nd errorF @rying out questions on lssmtes nd friends is the est wy to identify unler or misleding questionsFA evoiding omplexD overly ledingD nd loded questions represent few of the hllenges fing those who would onstrut useful questionniresF Archival and physical trace methodsX vooking t user mnuls provides insight into how system hs een designed nd how it worksF tudying whih keys re worn down on omputer keyords provides informtion on the kind of work eing doneF gompring how system is intended to work with how it is in ft eing used is lso illumintingD espeilly when one is interested in tring the trjetory of F orking with rhivl nd physil tre methods requires ritil thought nd detetive workF xone of the ove methodsD tken in isoltionD provides omplete informtion on F ringultion represents the est wy to verify dt nd to reonile on)iting dtF rere we generte evidene nd dt from vriety of soures then ompre nd ollteF glims mde y interviewees tht mth diret onEsite oservtions on(rm one nother nd indite dt strength nd verityF ividene olleted through questionnires tht on)its with evidene gthered through rhivl reserh highlights the need for detetive work tht involves further oservtionD omprisonD interprettionD nd ritiismF heveloping nlyses ers striking resemlne to requirements nlysisF sn oth sesD dt is olletedD re(nedD nd put together to provide n nlysisF e key to suess in oth is the proper omintion of normtive nd desriptive proeduresF

2.4.6 Exercise 1: Make a Table that Describes the Socio-Technical System


Directions: Identify the constituents of the Socio-Technical System. Use the broad categories to prompt you.

IF PF QF RF SF TF

ht re the mjor hrdwre nd softwre omponentsc hesrie the physil surroundingsF ht re the mjor people groups or roles involvedc hesrie ny proedures in the F stemize the lwsD sttutesD nd regultionsF hesrie the dt nd dt strutures in your F se the two templtes elow tht (ll in this tle for energy genertion systems nd for engineering ethis in uerto ioF

RW
Socio Technical System Table Hardware Software Physical Surroundings People, Groups, Roles Procedures Laws Data and Data Structures

Table 2.8

2.4.7 Exercise 2: Identify Value Mismatches in the STS


Directions: identify the values embedded in the STS. Use the table below to suggest possible values as well as the locations in which they are embedded.

IF IntegrityX 4sntegrity refers to the ttriutes exhiited y those who hve inorported morl vlues into the ore of their identitiesF uh integrtion is evident through the wy vlues denoting morl exE ellene permete nd olor their expressionsD tionsD nd deisionsF ghrteristis inlude wholenessD stilityD sinerityD honesty to self nd othersD suthentiityD nd striving for exelleneF PF JusticeX tustie s firness fouses on giving eh individul wht is his or her dueF hree senses of jusE tie re @IA the properD firD nd proportionte use of sntionsD punishments nd disiplinry mesures to enfore ethil stndrds @retriutive justieAD @PA the ojetiveD dispssionteD nd imprtil distriE ution of the ene(ts nd urdens ssoited with system of soil oopertion @distriutive justieAD @QA n ojetively determined nd firly dministered ompenstion for hrms nd injusties su'ered y individuls @ompenstory justieAD nd @RA fir nd imprtil formultion nd dministrtion of rules within given groupF QF RespectX espeting persons lies essentilly in reognizing their pity to mke nd exeute deisions s well s to set forth their own ends nd gols nd integrte them into life plns nd identitiesF espets underlies rights essentil to utonomy suh s propertyD privyD due proessD free speehD nd free nd informed onsentF RF ResponsibilityX @worlA esponsiility lies in the ility to identify the morlly slient fetures of sitution nd then develop tions nd ttitudes tht nswer to these fetures y ringing into ply morl nd professionl vluesF esponsiility inludes severl sensesX @IA individuls re responsile in tht they n e lled upon to nswer for wht they doY @PA individuls hve responsiilities euse of ommitments they mke to rrying out the tsks ssoited with soil nd professionl rolesY @QA responsiility lso refers to the wy in whih one rries out one9s oligtions @his n rnge from indi'erene to others tht leds to miniml e'ort to high re for others nd ommitment to exelleneA SF Free SpeechX pree peeh is not n unlimited rightF erhps the est ple to strt is will9s rgument in On LibertyF gompletely trueD prtilly trueD nd even flse speeh nnot e ensoredD the ltter euse ensoring flse speeh deprives the truth of the opportunity to lrify nd invigorte itself y defending itselfF will only llows for limittion of free speeh sed on hrm to those t whih the speeh is diretedF peeh tht hrms n individul @defmtory speeh or shouting 4(re4 in rowded thetreA n e ensored out of onsidertion of selfEdefenseD not of the spekerD ut of those who stnd to e hrmed y the speehF TF PrivacyX sf n item of informtion is irrelevnt to the reltion etween the person who hs the inforE mtion nd the person sho seeks itD then tht informtion is privteF rivy is neessry to utonomy euse ontrol over informtion out oneself helps one to struture nd shpe one9s reltions with othersF

SH

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

UF PropertyX eording to vokeD we own s property tht with whih we hve mixed our lorF homs te'erson rgues tht ides re prolemti s property euseD y their very ntureD they re shred one they re expressedF hey re lso nonrivlrous nd nonexlusiveF
Drawing Problems from Embedded Values

ghnges in @eFgFD the integrtion of new tehnologyA produe vlue mismthes s the vlues in the new omponent on)it with those lredy existing within the F qiving lptops to hildren produes on)it etween hildren9s sfety requirements nd the sfety fetures emedded in lptops s designed for dultsF ghnges within n exggerte existing vlue on)itsF sing digitlized textooks on lptop omputers mgni(es the existing on)it onerning intelletul propertyY the lne etween opyE rights nd edutionl dissemintion is disrupted y the ese of opying nd distriuting digitlized mediF ghnges in n lso led to long term hrmsF qiving lptops to hildren thretens environmentl hrm s the lptops eome osolete nd need to e sfely disposed ofF
Values Embedded in STS Hardware Software Physical Surroundings People, Groups, Roles Procedures Laws Data and Data Structures

Integrity Justice Respect Responsibility for Safety Free Speech Privacy Intellectual Property
Table 2.9

2.4.8 Using Socio-Technical System Grids for Problem Specication


he tivity of frming is entrl omponent of morl imgintionF prming sitution strutures its elements into meningful wholeF his tivity of struturing suggests oth prolems nd solutionsF prming sitution in di'erent wys o'ers lterntive prolem spei(tions nd solution possiilitiesF ine skillful frming requires prtieD this prt of the module suggests how soioEtehnil system tles n help provide di'erent frmes for prolem spei(tion nd solution genertionF
Dierent Problem Frames

Technical FrameX ingineers frme prolems tehnillyD tht isD they speify prolem s rising tehnil issue nd requiring tehnil design for its resolutionF por exmpleD in the grid ppended elowD the furger wn orportion wishes to mke its food preprtion res more sfeF prming this tehnillyD it would e neessry to hnge the designs of ovens so they re more identEproofF

SI

Physical FrameX row n the furger wn orportion redesign its resturnts s physil filities to mke them more essilec yne wy is to hnge the ess points yD syD designing rmps to mke resturnts wheel hir essileF prming this s physil prolem suggests solutions sed on hnging the physil struture nd rrngement of the furger wn F Social FrameX furger wn s orportion hs stkeholdersD tht isD groups or individuls who hve n essentil interest t ply in reltion to the orportionF por exmpleD frming the prolem of mking furger wn more sfe s soil prolem might suggest the solution of integrting workple sfety into worker trining progrms nd onduting regulr sfety udits to identify emedded risksF Financial or Market-Based FramesX furger wn is forEpro(t orportion whih implies tht it hs ertin (nnil responsiilitiesF gonsequentlyD furger wn should e onerned with how to provide sfeD hildEproof hirs nd tles tht do not ut unduly into orporte pro(tsF fut like the legl perspetiveD it is neessry to ondut ethil nd soil frming tivities to ompenste for the oneEsidedness of (nnil frmingF Managerial FrameX wny times ethil prolems n e frmed s mngeril prolems where the solution lies in hnging mngeril struturesD reporting reltionsD nd operting proeduresF por exmpleD furger wn my develop spei( proedure when shier (nishes shift nd turns over the sh register nd its ontents to nother shierF furger wn my develop lening proedures nd routines to minimize the possiility of serving ontminted or spoiled food to ustomersF Legal FrameX furger wn my hoose to frme its environmentl responsiilities into developing e'etive proedures for omplying with yree nd ie regultionsF prming prolem leglly ertinly helps to identify e'etive nd neessry ourses of tionF futD euse the ethil nd soil nnot e redued to the leglD it is neessry to pply other frmes to unover dditionl risks not suggested y the legl frmingF Environmental FramingX pinllyD how does furger wn look from the environmentl stndpointc hoes it onsider environmentl vlue @environmentl helthD sfetyD nd integrityA s merely side onstrint to e ddressed only insofr s it interferes with relizing supposedly more importnt vlues suh s (nnil vluesc ss it vlue to e trded o' with other vluesc @por exmpleD furger wn my destroy the lol environment y utting down trees to mke room for its ltest resturnt ut it o'sets this destrution through its progrm of plnting new trees in uerto in tropil rin forestsFA prming prolem s n environmentl prolem puts the environment (rst nd sets s gol the integrtion of environmentl vlues with other vlues suh s worker sfety nd orporte pro(tsF
Burger Man Socio-Technical System Table

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `oio ehnil ystem qrid for fusiness ithisFdoxb

Clicking on this gure will open as a Word le a STS table based on the ctional corporation, Burger Man. Below are a list of problems suggested by the STS analysis.
Figure 2.5:

2.4.9 Media File Uplinks


his module onsists of two tthed wedi pilesF he (rst (le provides kground informtion on sF he seond (le provides two smple grids or tlesF hese grids will help you to develop spei( s to nlyze ses in engineeringD usinessD nd omputer ethis without hving to onstrut ompletely new for eh seF snstedD using the two tles s templtesD you will e le to zero in on the tht is unique to the sitution posed y the seF his module lso presents kground onstrints to prolemE solving in engineeringD usinessD nd omputer ethisF hese onstrints do not di'er solutely from the

SP

CHAPTER 2.

ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING

onstituents of sF roweverD they pose underlying onstrints tht outline the fesiility of n ethil deision nd help us to identify ostles tht my rise when we ttempt to implement ethil deisionsF
Socio-Technical Systems

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `fkgroundQFdob


Figure 2.6:

Socio-Technical Systems: Constituents, Values, Problems, and Constraints.

STS Templates

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `empltesFdob


Figure 2.7:

Two STSs, Power Engineering and the Puerto Rican Context of Engineering Practice.

References

IF frintD gynthi eF nd ikeD itori F @PHHHA worlity nd the rofessionl vifeX lues t orkF pper ddle iverD xtX rentie rllF PF ru'D ghuk nd twerD frueD 4owrd hesign ithis for gomputing rofessionls in Social Issues in Computing: Putting Computing in its PlaceD ru'D ghuk nd pinholtD homs idsF @IWWRA xew orkX wqrwErillD snF QF olomonD oert gF @IWWWA e fetter y to hink eout fusinessX row ersonl sxtgrity veds to gorporte uessF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF RF ikeD itori F @PHHIA 4rofessionl ingineering ithis fhviorX e luesEsed epprohD4 Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and ExpositionD ession PRTIF Bibliographical Information on Power STS

IF eeptle ivideneX iene nd lues in isk wngementD edited y heorh qF wyo nd helle hF rollnderF vondonD uX yxford niversity ressD IWWIF PF uF F hrderEprehetteF ithis nd inergy in irthoundX xew sntrodutory issys in invironE mentl ithisD Ist iditionD edited y om egnF xD xX ndom rouseD IWVRF QF xny qF vevesonF fewreX ystem fety nd gomputersF xD xX eddisonEesley ulishing gompnyD IWWSF RF ghrles errowF xorml eidentsX viving with righ isk ehnologiesF xorth emeriD fsi fooksD IWVRF SF wlolm qldwellF flowup in he xew orkerD tnury PPD IWWTX QPEQTF TF tmes esonF rumn irrorF gmridgeD uX gmridge niversity ressF IWWHF UF wrk go'F he ionomy of the irthX hilosophyD vwD nd the invironmentF gmridgeD uX gmridge niversity ressD IWVVF

Chapter 3
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)
3.1 A Short History of the Corporation
HOW TO EDIT:

Word Version of this Template

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t ` ieg u h iwveiFdob
Figure 3.1:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

3.1.1 Introduction
sn this module you will lern out the history of orportionsF enteednts of the modern orportion n e found in the widdle egesD the enissneD nd in the sndustril evolution in qret fritin nd the nited ttesF gorportions hve evolved into their present form s the synthesis of disrete solutions to spei( historil prolems tht hve risen in the prtie of usinessF his module hs een designed for ourses in @IA usinessD soietyD nd governmentD @PA usiness ethisD @QA orporte governneD nd @RA orporte soil responsiilityF

3.1.2 What you need to know . . .


3.1.2.1 The History of the Corporation This historical process has produced ve functions that characterize the modern corporation. Corporations have emerged as...

IF 4ssive devies4 tht hold property PF trutures designed to exert monopoly ontrol over nd regulte domin of speilized knowledge nd skill
1 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17314/1.3/>.

SQ

SR

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

QF wens designed to pool pitl nd resoures inluding humn resoures RF e legl shield tht protets owners nd investors from liility nd helps to spred nd distriute (nnilD morlD nd legl risk SF yrgniztionl deisionEmking strutures tht suordinte nd synthesize the tions of humn gents to ring out olletive gols suh s uilding rilrodD designing nd mnufturing utomoilesD nd pursuing legitimte usiness venturesF
3.1.2.1.1 Passive Devices that hold property

hen the ot of medievl monstery diedD puli o0ils hd di0ulty determining to whom its propertyD welthD nd resoures pssedF hile this is hrd to oneptulize from modern stndpointD during the widdle egesD no legl distintion ould e mde etween @IA mnging property owned y othersD @PA exerising stewrdship over property owned y othersD nd @QA owning propertyF woreoverD the onept nd prtie of owning property is omplexF 4roperty4 in its modern sense hs een spelled out s undle of distint rights inluding 4the right to possessD ontrolD useD ene(t fromD dispose of nd exlude others from the propertyF4 @hestrdinsX QUA hese distint rights re not given s entilments of nturl onept of property ut represent leglly endowed pities designed to respond to spei( prtil prolemsF oD to return to the prolem reted y the deth of the otD legl entity @lled the hurhA ws reted nd endowed with the one of the undled rights ompnying the notion of propertyD nmelyD the right to possess nd hold property @tone IWURX IIA
3.1.2.1.2 Structures that exert monopoly control and regulate a domain of specialized

hose fmilir with iuropen history know tht the university me from student guildsF tudents nded together to hire noted sholrs willing to teh their reserhF yther guilds were formed round prtil ouptions s uthering or shoe mkingF iventullyD guilds evolved to ddress series of prtil prolemsX @IA how to edute individuls onerning the skills nd knowledge required y the prtieD @PA how to identify those responsile for the improper prtie of the rftD @QA how to ontrol who ould nd ould not prtiipte in @nd pro(t fromA the rftD nd @RA how to regulte the rft to promote the interests of its prtitioners nd its ene(iries or lientsF quilds eme responsile for ontrolling the privileges of trdeD estlishing rules nd stndrds of prtieD nd holding ourts to djudite grievnes etween prtiipntsF @toneX IIEIQA
3.1.2.1.3 A set of means specially designed to pool capital and resources including human resources.

es usiness ventures eme more mitiousD their suessful exeution required rising onsiderle funds nd pitl long with the oordintion of the tivities of diverse humn gentsF yrgniztionl strutures were reted slowly over time to rise moneyD quire pitlD nd mnge these omplex venturesF his inluded reting roles tht were oordinted through omplex orgniztionl systemsF he distintion etween the owner nd manager funtionsD so ruil to the struture of the modern orportionD emerged slowly during this periodF ywners provided money nd pitl nd determined the overll gols pursued y the orgniztionF wngers rried out dministrtive tsks onerned with dy to dy opertionsY their morl nd legl duty ws to remin fithful to the ims nd interests of the ownersF nhrtered joint stok ompnies served s protoEorportions tht generted pitlD proteted monopolies of trde nd rftD nd mnged omplex ventures suh s importing spies nd te from the yrientF es these strutures evolvedD they inresingly emodied the importnt distintion etween the ownership nd mngement funtionsF
3.1.2.1.4 Providing a legal shield to limit owner and operator liability

ndls in IVth entury qret fritin reveled nother set of prolems esetting the emerging orportionF hen the unhrtered joint stok ompnyD the outh e gompnyD went nkruptD ll the investors

SS nd owners found themselves responsile for overing the huge det reted when risky investments nd questionle ventures went sourF his det went well eyond resoures of the investors destroying their personl fortunes nd pling mny of them in detor9s prisonF @his nd other (soes were drmtized y ghrles hikens in his novelD Little DorritFA he speter of unlimited liility sred o' potentil investors nd set k the development of the orportionF st eme neessry to endow joint stok ompnies with powers nd devies tht limited nd distriuted (nnilD morlD nd legl riskF @foth owners nd mngers required protetion lthough in di'erent wysFA sndividuls would invest in joint stok ompnies only when the ssoited risks eme mngele nd widely distriutedF
3.1.2.1.5 Organizational structure that subordinate and synthesize the actions of human agents NegativelyD

the development of the modern orportion ws filitted y reting shield tht limited the liility of owners nd mngersF viility for owners ws limited leglly to the mount investedF viility for mngers required proving tht they filed to remin fithful to the interests of the stokholdersD the prinipls or origintors of their tionsF his roke down into demonstrting filure to exerise 4sound usiness judgment4 yD mong other thingsD llowing outsideD ompeting interests to orrupt their usiness judgmentF PositivelyD the orportion emerged out of series of legl innovtions designed to estlish nd then ontrol the olletive power of orporte orgniztionsF gomplex orgniztionl strutures were reted tht designed di'erentited roles (lled y employeesF hese strutures served to hnnel the tivities of employees towrd orporte endsF he investor role stilized into tht of stockholders who owned or held shres of the orportionF o promote their interests nd to estlish the rdinl or fundmentl ojetives of the orportionD the stokholders eleted representtives to serve on ord of diretorsF he diretors then ppointed mngers responsile for running the orportion nd relizing the interests nd ojetives of the stokholdersF wngersD in turnD hired nd supervised employees who exeuted the ompny9s dy to dy opertions @line employeesA nd provided expert dvie @sta employeesAF hese roles @nd the individuls who oupied themA were relted to one nother through omplex deisionEmking hierrhiesF hvis @IWWWA in his disussion of the rithi eport shows how mny modern ompnies hve dropped or deemphsized the st'Eline distintionF ythers @toneD xderA ite instnes where mngers hve eome so powerful tht they hve supplnted the diretoril roleF @hey hnd pik the diretors nd refully (lter the informtion mde ville to stokholdersFA fut these two distintions @st' vF line nd owner vF opertorA remin essentil for understnding nd lssifying modern orportionsF @ee pisseD toneD nd xderFA
3.1.2.1.6 Prole of the Modern Corporation

gorportions eme full lown legl personsF hey quired legal standing @n sue nd e suedAD hve een endowed with legal rights @due proessD equl protetionD nd free speehAD nd hve quired legal duties @suh s tx liilitiesAF @ee tle elow for the ommon lw deisions through whih these orporte powers nd rights hve een estlishedFA he powers of the orportion were regulted y the stte through founding hrters whih served roughly the sme funtion for orportion s onstitution did for stteF snitillyD hrters limited orporte powers to spei( eonomi tivitiesF ilrod ompniesD for exmpleD hd hrters tht restrited their legitimte opertions to uilding nd operting rilrodsF hen they sought to expnd their opertions to other tivities they hd to relte these to the powers uthorized in the founding hrterF sf hrter did not spei(lly llow n opertion or funtionD then it ws literlly ultra viresD iFeFD eyond the power of the orportion @toneX PIEPPAF his method of ontrol grdully disppered s sttesD ompeting to ttrt usiness onerns to inorporte within their ordersD egn to loosen hrter restritions nd roden legitimte orporte powers in proess lled 4hrter mongeringF4 iventully hrters de(ned the legitimte powers of orportions so rodly tht they esed to e e'etive regultory vehilesF qiven this vuumD governments hve hd to resort to other mesures to ontrol nd diret orportions towrd the puli goodF he prtie of punishmentD e'etive in ontrolling humn ehviorD ws extended to orportionsF fut fron hurlow @ fritish legl theoristA frmed the entrl dilemm in orporte punishment with his oft quoted omment tht orportions nnot e punished euse they hve 4no soul

ST

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

to dmn4 nd 4no ody to kikF4 he unique ttriutes of orportions hs given rise to retive options for orporte ontrol nd punishmentX (ningD stok dilutionD ourtEmndted hnges in orporte strutureD dverse puliity ordersD nd ommunity servieF @ee pisseA wost reentlyD pederl entening quidelines hve sought to provide inentives for orportions to tke preventive mesures to void wrongdoing y developing ethis ompline progrmsF hese guidelines djust punishments in light of ethis progrms tht the orportions hve designed nd implemented to prevent wrongdoingF gorportions found guilty of wrongdoing would still e punishedF fut punishments n e redued when guilty orportions show tht they hve developed nd implemented ompline progrms to promote orgniztionl ethis nd to prevent orporte wroingdoingF hese inlude ompline odesD ethis trining progrmsD ethis risk identi(tion mesuresD nd orporte ethil uditsF
History of Corporation Problem Solution Organizational Form

uessfully trnsferring stewE rdship over hurh holdings to new ot gontrol over nd regultion of prtie or skill

grete 4pssive devie to hold property4 grete devie to @A hold the privileges of some prtiE ulr trdeD @A estlish rules nd regultions for ommereD nd @A hold ourts to djudite grievnes mong memersF grete devie @A to hold proviE leges of trdeD @A where investors provide pitlD nd @A tht delE egtes opertions to mngers gorportion evolves into legl person with @A legl rights nd dutiesD @A owned y shreholdE ersD @A run y mngersD @dA regE ulted through stte hrter qrnted rod powers through more rodly de(ned hrters @A hue proessD equl proteE tionD nd free speeh rightsD @A legl dutiesD @A legl stndingD @dA pederl entening quideE linesD nd rnesEyxley et

rotoEorportion

wedievl guilds tht evolve into regulted ompniesF

ooling pitl nd resoures nd direting omplex ventures

nhrtered joint stok ompE nies

vimiting investor liilityD limitE ing mnger liilityD nd lnE ing the two

vimited orportion whose operE tions re de(ned in nd limited y the hrter

ltr ires @hrter prevents growthA nd ghrter wongering pinding gent responsile for wrongdoing

pull flown gorportion gorportion s Legal erson

Table 3.1

X wodi(ed from ghristopher toneD here the vw inds

Options for Corporate Punishment (Fisse and French)

SU
DescriptionExample Target of Punishment Deterrence NonTrap nancial Avoided? Values Addressed? Responsive Interference Adjustwith ment Corporate Black Box

Monetary Exaction

pines

entgon roureE ment ndls

rrms inE noent

pils to ispe

pew or xone rgeted pew xone or

xone

xo interE ferene

Stock Dilution

hilute tok nd wrd to vitim gourt orders internl hnges @speil ord ppointE mentsA gourt orders orporE tion to puliize rime ig olE untry hislosure rogrm

tokholders @xot neE essrily guiltyA

ispes y ttkE ing future ernings

vimited

xo interE ferene

Probation

gorportion ispes nd its sine it wemers mndtes orgniE ztionl hnges

pouses on mngeE ment nd sugroup vlues

ssive djustE ment sine imposed from outside

ustntil entry into nd inE terferene with orE porte lk ox xo diret interE ferene @orpoE rtion motived to restore itselfA

Court Ordered Adverse Publicity

inglish fred ets @resE ter rynne shme in


Scarlet LetterA

rgets orporte imge

ispes @lthough dverse puliity indiretly ttks (nnil vluesA

voss of prestige G gorporte shme G voss of peGronor

etive dE justment triggered y shme

continued on next page

SV
Communitygorportion Service performs Orders servies

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

mndted y ourt

ellied hemil @tmes iver ollutionA

epresenttive ispes groupsGindividuls sine from orE trgets portion nonE (nnil vlues

edds vlue to ommuE nity

ssive or no dE justmentX sometimes puli does reE ognize tht s is punishE ment

xone

Table 3.2

Citation for Table

his tle provides lose summry of pisseD fF @IWVSAF 4ntions eginst gorportionsX he vimittions of pines nd the interprise of greting elterntives4 in Corrigible Corporations and Unruly LawD editors frent pisse nd eter eF prenhF n entonioD X rinity niversity ressD IQUEISUF ummry in tulr form of the txonomy developed y pisse to lssify nd ompre forms of orporte punishmentF
Requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (Summarized by Dyrud: 37)

rovide inresed protetion for whistleElowers edhere to n estlished ode of ethis or explin resons for nonEompline ingge in 4fullD firD timely nd understndle dislosure4 wintin4honest nd ethil4 ehviorF eport ethis violtions promptly gomply with 4pplile governmentl lwsD rulesD nd regultions4 hyurd itesX ivD Ethics and Code of ConductD nFdFY httpXGGwwwFeltEinFomGsolutionGethis ndodeofonduttriningoligtionsFhtml

Amended Federal Sentencing Guidelines (Taken from Dyrud: 37)

IF istlishing stndrds nd proedures to prevent nd detet riminl ondut PF romoting responsiility t ll levels of the progrmD together with dequte progrm resoures nd uthority for its mngers QF ixerising due diligene in hiring nd ssigning personnel to positions with sustntil uthority RF gommuniting stndrds nd proeduresD inluding spei( requirement for trining t ll levels SF wonitoringD uditingD nd nonEinternl guidneGreporting systems TF romiting nd enforing of ompline nd ethil ondut UF king resonle steps to respond ppropritely nd prevent further misondut in deteting vioE ltion
3.1.2.2 Legal Trail Toward Corporate Moral Personhood: A Table Summary

Date

Decision

Legal Right Armed

continued on next page

SW IVVW IVWQ winnepolis nd tF vF F goF vF fekwith xole vF nion iver vogging F golD rle vF renkel ermour king gF vF ttes nited ight for judiil review on stte legisltion ight for judiil review for rights infringement y federl legE isltion rotetion 4ginst unresonle serhes nd seizures @RthA ight to tril y jury @TthA ight to ompenstion for govE ernment tkings ight to freedom from doule jeoprdy @SthA ight to tril y jury in ivil se @UthA ight to free speeh for purely ommeril speeh @IstA ight to orporte speeh @IstA politil

IWHT IWHV IWPP IWTP IWUH IWUT IWUV IWVT

ennsylvni gol goF F whon pong poo vF nited ttes oss vF fernhrd irgini hrmy ford vF irE gini gonsumer gounilA pirst xtionl fnk of foston vF fellotti i( qs nd iletri gomE pny vF uli tility gommn of gliforni

ight ginst oered speeh @IstA

Table 3.3

X prom itzD henF @PHHUA 4gn gorporte ersonhood fe oilly esponsilec4 in edsF wyD FD gheneyD qFD nd operD tFD yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IWREIWSF

3.1.2.3

3.1.3 What you will do ...


3.1.3.1 Exercise One: Other People's Money Watch the shareholder's meeting in the movie, " Other People's Money." Then answer the questions below. Think generally about what the manager of a corporation should do with the money its stakeholders have invested in it.

ht is vrry the viquidtor9s si rgumentc ht is endrew torgensen9s si rgumentc ht is vrry the viquidtor9s oneption of the nture nd vlue of the orportionc ht is endrew torgensen9s oneption of the nture nd vlue of the orportionc ht is the soil responsiility of orportion ording to vrry the viquidtorc ht is it ording to endrew torgensenc rite prgrph on whih rgument you (nd most persusiveD tht of vrry or tht of endrewF ixplin why you (nd it persusiveF
3.1.3.2 Exercise Two: How to punish Arthur Andersen Watch the documentary, "The Smartest Guys in the Room," paying special attention to the role played in the Enron asco by the accounting rm, Arthur Andersen. Then answer the following questions.

TH

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

row importnt should ee9s formerD exellent reputtion hve een in determining how to punish it in the role it plyed in the inron sec ixplin your nswerF inron ws only the lst of series of ethis sndls tht ee hd fllen intoF row should it hve djusted to prior sndlsc @ere the pederl entening quidelines of ny help herecA gonsider tht rnesEyxley ws pssed lrgely in response to inronF ho its provisions go fr enough to prevent future inronsc ho they go too frcF sing the tle tht summrizes punishment options provided y prenh nd pisseD how would you onstrut punishment for erthur endersenc ho should e trgetedc hould the ompny9s lk ox e left lonec ss it etter to ttk (nnil or nonE(nnil vluesc hould erthur endersen nd other orporte o'enders e enourged to reform themselves or should those reforms e designed nd direted from the outsidec
3.1.3.3

3.1.4 What did you learn?


eter prenh speultes on the possiility tht orportion ould onsist of nothing more thn sophisE tited softwre progrmF re lso holds forth the notion of orporte morl personhood @s opposed to nturl personhoodAF xow tht you hve hd n opportunity to study the history of nd struture of the modern orportionD wht do you think out the nture of orportionsc

3.1.5 Appendix
3.1.5.1 Bibliography

IF toneD gF hF @IWUSA Where the Law Ends: The Social Control of Corporate BehaviorF rospetr reightsD svX velnd ressD sxgX IEQHF PF ndelD wF @IWVPAF Liberalism and the Limits of JusticeF gmridgeX gmridge niversity ressF QF hes trdinsD tFF @IWWQA Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental PhilosophyF felmontD geX dsworth ulishing gompnyX QUF RF glrkeD F @PHHRA 4sntrodutionX heories of qovernne!eoneptulizing gorporte qovernne heory efter the inron ixperieneD4 in Theories of Corporate Governance: The Philosophical Foundations of Corporate GovernanceD edF homs glrkeF xew orkX outledgeX IEQHF SF prenhD FeF @IWVRA Collective and Corporate ResponsibilityF xew orkX golumi niversity ressFF TF prenhD FeF @IWWUA 4gorporte worl egeny4 in erhneD FrFD nd preemnD FiF Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business EthicsF yxfordD uX flkwellX IRVEISIF UF wyD vF @IWVUA The Morality of Groups: Collective Responsibility, Group-Based Harm, and Corporate RightsF xotre hmeD sxX niversity of xotre hme ressF VF erhneD F rF @PHHVA 4wentl wodelsX worl smgintion nd ystem hinking in the ege of qloE liztionD4 in Journal of Business EthicsD UVX RTQ!RURF WF erhneD F @PHHUA 4gorporte oil esponsiilityGgorporte worl esponsiilityX ss here hi'erene nd the hi'erene st wkesD4 in edsFD wyD FD gheneyD qFD nd operD tFD The Debate over Corporate Social ResponsibilityF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX RSWERURF IHF pisseD fF nd prenhD FeFD edsF @IWVSA Corrigible Corporations and Unruly LawF n entonioD X rinity niversity ressF IIF xderD F nd qreenD wFtFD edsF @IWUQA Corporate Power in AmericaF xew orkX qrossmnF IPF xder F qreenD wF nd eligmnD tF @IWUTA Taming the Giant CorporationF xew orkX xortonF IQF hvisD wF @IWWVA Thinking Like an Engineer: Studies in the Ethics of a ProfessionF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IIWEISTF

TI IRF tkllD F @IWVVA Moral Mazes: The World of Corporate ManagersF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF ISF grolD eF fFD 4oil esponsiilityD4 in erhneD FD nd preemnD F iFD edsF @IWWUD IWWVA Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business EthicsF yxfordD uX flkwell ulishersD sxgX SWQESWSF ITF hyrudD wFeF @PHHUA 4ithisD qmingD nd sndustril riningD4 in IEEE Technology and Society MagazineF inter PHHUX QTERRF IUF itzD henF @PHHUA 4gn gorporte ersonhood fe oilly esponsilec4 in edsF wyD FD gheneyD qFD nd operD tFD Corporate GovernanceF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IWREIWSF

3.1.6 EAC ToolKit Project


3.1.6.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense2 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF
3.1.6.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

3.2 Moral Ecologies in Corporate Governance


Word Version of this Template

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t ` ieg u h iwveiFdob
Figure 3.2:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

3.2.1 Two Thought Experiments


The Ring of Gyges (Plato's Republic II, S359)

qyges poor shepherd is tending his )ok when there is n erthqukeF e hugh rk opens in the erth to expose sropgusF qyges rehes in nd tkes the ring tht drws his ttentionF vterD when he is tlking mong friendsD he noties tht he eomes invisile when he turns the ring in towrd himselfF re tries this out few times nd then forms his plnsF snvisileD he gins entry to the king9s stle nd rpes the queenF hrwing her into his nefrious plnD they kill the king nd tke over the kingdomF qyges mrries the queen nd eomes ruler of lrge nd welthy kingdomF omehow it doesn9t seem (t to sy tht he lives 4hppily ever fterF4 futD sine he is never ughtD it doesn9t follow tht his illEgotten gin hs mde him miserleF fefore (nding his ringD qyges wsD t lest outwrdlyD wellEehvedD just itizenF fut the omintion of vst power nd no ountility drew qyges over to the drk sideF hoes the humn hrterD like tht of qygesD dissolve in the fe of tempttion nd lk of ountilityc ss the thret of punishment neessry
2 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 3 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17353/1.7/>.

TP

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

to keep individuls morlc ss visiility nd the thret of punishment ll tht stnds etween n individul nd life of injustiec
The Milgram Experiments

prom IWTH until IWTQD tnley wilgrmD soil psyhologistD rried out series of experiments on round IHHH sujetsF ih experiment rought together three prtiipntsD sujet @or teherAD lernerD nd n experimenterF sn the initil orienttionD the experimenter told the sujetGteher nd the lerner tht they were out to prtiipte in n experiment designed to mesure the in)uene of punishment @in the form of eletril shoksA on lerningF he lerner ws presented with informtionF he teher then sked questions sed on this informtionF sf the lerner nswered orretlyD then they went on to the next questionF sf the lerner nswered inorretlyD then he ws given n eletril shok y the teherF ith eh missed question the intensity of the shok inresedF he experiment ontinued until ll the questions were sked nd nsweredF roweverD these instrutions onstituted deeption rought upon the teherGsujet y the seret ollortion of the experimenter nd the lernerF he rel purpose of the experiment ws to determine how fr individuls would go in turning ginst their morl views on the sis of n externl uthorityF he lerner feigned pin nd su'ering euse there ws no tul eletril shokF end the lerner deliertely missed most of the questions in order to fore the teher to progress to higher nd wht ppered to e lifeEthretening levels of shokF hile tehers were not physilly fored to ontinue the experiment over the feigned protests of the lernersD whenever they tried to stop itD they were told y the experimenter tht they hd to ontinue to the endF fefore the wilgrm experiments were rried outD group of psyhogists were sked to predit how mny tehersGsujets would go ll the wy to the end nd give the lerner wht they thought were lifeE thretening nd highly pinful shoksF he onsensus ws tht most would stop the experiment erly on when the lerner (rst egn to protestF fut the tul results were quite 4shokingF4 xerly TH perent of the tehers went ll the wy nd gve the lerner the mximum shokF ou n red more out these experiments nd how they hve een interpreted y reding wilgrm IWUR nd plngn IWWIF ou ue hs severl video vignettes on the wilgrm ixperimentsF imply type 4wilgrm ixperiments4 in the serh window nd rowse the resultsF gn uthority nd environment override our everydy morl eliefs s well s the hrters onstruted from themc ss hrter roust nd 4trnsEsitutionlc4 yr is it rdilly dependent on sitution nd environmentc gn normlly deent nd wellEehved individuls turn into morl monsters given the right externl onditionsc
From Gyges and Milgram to Moral Ecology

foth of these thought experiments rise the question of the in)uene of environment on hrterF his module is designed to help inrese the strength of morl hrter y identifying di'erent orgniztionl environments @lled 4morl eologies4A nd hving you developing strtegies to resist their pressures nd mintin integrityF

3.2.2 Introduction
gorporte governne is de(ned in the flkwell inylopedi hitionry of fusiness ithis s 4onerned with those deisions mde y the senior exeutives of (rm nd the impts of their deisions on vrious stkeholder groupsF4 @ifi IRUA his module turns orporte governne insideEout nd looks t it from the perspetive of the governedD tht isD from the diretorsD mngersD nd employees sujet to the strutures nd strtegies of orporte governneF gorporte environments funtion s 4morl eologiesD4 tht isD 4the somewht stleD ut onstntly negotited set of vluesD prtiesD nd in)uenes within soietiesD orgniztionsD professionsD nd work groupsF4 @ru' etF lFD PHHVA he thrust of this module is to help you egin to strtegize on how to develop sustinle morl reers within di'erent morl eologiesF ou will study di'erent kinds of morl eologies using txonomy developed from the reserh of wihel hvis in Thinking Like an Engineer nd oert tkll in Moral MazesF ru' @PHHVA provides some generi strtegies for individuls to pursue within in these orgniztionl environmentsF fut the exerises inluded in this module will enourge you to expnd upon this listF orking through this module will help you to

TQ view orporte governne from within from the miro perspetive of the individulF enother module will llow you to see orporte governne from the outside from the mro point of viewF

3.2.3 What you need to know . . .


3.2.3.1 Personality Characteristics: The "Big Five" (plus one)

o muh of suess in prtil nd professionl ethis lies in ntiipting nd defusing potentil ethil hlE lengesF glled 4reventive ithisD4 this pproh enourges you to develop the skill of unovering ltent or hidden ethil prolems tht ould erupt into fullElown ethil dilemmsF 4en oune of prevention is worth pound of ureF4 his module is designed to help you re)et on your personltyD di'erent orgniztionl environments or eologiesD nd how your personlity (ts into these morl eologiesF our suess depends on developing plns for suessful morl reers tht respond to your personlity trits nd resist ethil hllenges presented y orgniztionl environmentsF
Personality Characteristics: Find your place on the continuum

IF ixtrversionsntroversion PF xeurotiismimotionl tility QF gonsientiousnessgrelessnessF RF egreelenesshisgreeleness SF ypenness @to experieneglosed @to experieneA TF ronestyGrumilityhishonestyGerrogne his ount of personlity modi(es tht presented y ru' et l in 4qood omputingX pedgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputingD prts I nd PF4
3.2.3.2 Three Moral Ecologies Summary Table Type / Characteristics Managers and engineers: role and participation Centrality of ethics and values Allocation of praise and blame Withholding information Treatment of dissent and DPOs

FinanceDriven

wngers ply line role @amke deisionsA inE gineers provide tehnil inforE mtion @ast' roleA

ithis nd vlues re side onstrints delt with when they opE pose (nnil onsidertions

elloted ording to hierrhiE l positionX prise goes up nd lme goes downF

wngers withhold to ontrol nd protet seretsF ingineers withhold d news to void lmeF

4hoot the messenger34 hissent a disloylty nd etrylF

continued on next page

TR
CustomerDriven

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

wngers mke deisions on (nnil mttersF inE gineers 4go to the mt4 on engineering mttersF wnger nd engineering distintion drops outF snterdisiE plinry work tems re emE powered nd responsile

ithis nd vlues re not entrl ut re still importntF

rise nd lme re firly lloE ted sed on ssigned responsiility nd ontriuE tionF rise nd lme re ttriuted to group nd distriuted to individE uls within ording to ontriutionF

snformtion not withheld ut gps rise euse or role di'erenesF

hi'erenes oE ur ut engiE neers re exE peted to dvoE te their perE spetive in deE ision mking proessF ingineers nd mngers work towrd onsensus y gthering more informtionD ontinuing the disussionD nd @s lst resortA postponing the deision until onsensus is rehedF

QualityDriven

ithis nd vlues re onE stitutive of the orgniztion9s identityF

ypen onsenE sus proess ensures tht needed inE formtion is integrted into deision mking

Table 3.4X his tle nd the explntory mteril elow summrizes mterils from studies reported y hvis @hinking vike n ingineerA nd tkll @worl wzesAF he reder should e wre tht it deprts somewht from the stritly reported results in order to dopt the results to the ide of morl eologyF his lter ide ws introdued y F rk in Human Communities: The City and Human EcologyD pree ressD qlenoeD svD IWSPF

Breakdown of Table

worl eologies n e tegorized ording to series of onsidertionsF he tle ove fouses on (veF pirstD mngers nd engineers oupy distint roles nd prtiipte di'erently in the deision mking proessF wngers ply the line roleF hey ollet informtion to mke deisions tht govern the dy to dy opertions of the orportionF ingineers re hired s sta employeesF hey provide tehnil informtion to deision mkers ut do not prtiipte diretly in the deision mking proessF his rises di0ulties when engineersD for tehnil or ethil resonsD disgree with the deisions tken y their mngersF he line nd st' roles hnnel deision mking nd onstrin dissentF worl eologies n lso e typed ording to the entrlity of ethil onsidertions in the orporE tion9s golsD hrterD opertionsD nd even identityF ithil onsidertions n rnge from @IA plying central roleD @PA to plying n importnt ut suordinte roleD @QA to eing mrginlized s irreleE vnt side constraintsF he importne orportion ples on ethis olors ll the other tegories mentioned in the tle oveF sf ethis is entrl to orportion then it plys entrl role in the deE ision mking proessD guides the llotion of prise nd lmeD determines the nture nd mount of informtion shred in the deision mking proessD nd determines how n orgniztion trets dissent nd disgreementF e orportion9s oneption of responsiility is reveled through the wys in whih it llotes prise nd lmeF igni(nt di'erenes rise etween the wy (nne ompnies ssign prise nd lme nd the wys these re lloted in qulity or ustomer driven ompniesF eginD this relted to the roles plyed y engineers nd mngers nd the entrlity of ethis in the orportion9s governneF ithil prolems rise when ruil informtion is withheld from the deision mking proessF reneD the )ow of ommunition nd the kinds of situtions in whih ommunition )ow is disrupted helps

TS to hrterize morl eologyF por exmpleD the rithi report sserts tht ommunition etween mngers nd engineers reks down preditly within (nneEdriven ompniesF his rekdown is grounded in the hrteristis of the (nneEdriven morl eologyD espeilly in di'erenes etween the mngeril nd engineering roles nd the extent to whih mngers nd engineers prtiipte in deision mkingF pinllyD morl eologies n e lssi(ed ording to how they tret dissent nd dissenting professionl opinionsF hissent is less likely in qulity thn in (nneEdriven ompniesF hile (nneEdriven ompnies tret dissent s disloyltyD qulityE nd ustomerEdriven driven ompnies tret dissent s stge in the proess of rehing onsensusF
Finance-Driven Companies

IF pinneEdriven ompnies ple (nnil ojetives t the very hert of their onstitutive ojetives nd orporte identityF por exmpleD suh ompnies re foused on mximizing returns for investorsF PF Manager and Engineer Roles and Participation in Decision Making ProcessX wngers ply the line role in tht they mke the deisions tht drive the dy to dy opertions of the orportionF hey er responsiility for the onsequenes of their deisions nd they re lso responsile s the fithful gents of the ompny9s diretorsF feing fithful gent requires tht one tret nother9s interests s one9s ownD mintin on(dentilitiesD nd void interests tht on)it with the diretorF ingineers ply the st' roleD tht isD they nswer questions put to them y mngers nd re responsile for providing ompetent tehnil informtionF roweverD they do not prtiipte diretly in the deision mking proessD nor do they er responsiility for the results of their mnger9s deisionsF QF Centrality of ethics and values in the corporations decision making processX ithil onsidE ertions ply only the role of side onstrits in the setting of orporte poliity nd in the formultion nd exeution of its deisionsF his mens tht ethil onsidertions re importnt only if they promote or interfere with the entrlD (nnil ojetivesF sf ppering philnthropil is good for orportion9s imge @nd genertes ustomers nd pro(tsA then the orportion ppers philnthropiF sf the orportion is likely to get ught in n ethil violtion @exessive pollutionA nd this negtive puliity will lower its prestige @nd pro(tsA then the orportion will not ommit the violtionF fut in eh seD the end is the promotion of (nnil ojetives nd the mens re ppering ethilF RF Allocating Praise and Blametkll goes into detil on how (nneEdriven orportions @nd uE reuries in generlA ssign prise nd lmeF he ruil ftor is one9s position in the orporte hierrhyF rise works its wy up the orporte ldderF sf engineer mith sves the ompny from sever (nnil lossD then mith9s supervisor @or his supervisor9s supervisorA gets the reditF roweverD if mith9s supervisor messes upD the lme psses down the orporte ldder to mithF rise moves up the orporte hierrhyD lme downF SF Information Exchange between Engineers and ManagersX sn (nne driven ompniesD mnE gers withhold informtion from the engineers under their supervision for vriety of resonsF por exmpleD if it is proprietry informtionD the mnger my withhold ll or prt to prevent engineers from leving the (rm nd reveling its serets to ompetitorF wngers my lso use informtion to wield power nd uthorityF fy keeping engineers in the drk @like mushroomsA they e'etively mintin uthority nd prevent dissentF yn the other hndD engineers withhold d news from their mngers to void lme s well s the 4shoot the messenger4 syndromeF @hen the inompetent generl reeives d news from soldierD he shoots the soldier rther thn respond to the newsFA TF Handling Dissenting Professional OpinionsX hissent is interpreted s disloylty in (nneEdriven ompniesF his orgniztionl hit @mintined y mngers to hold on to their uthorityA will even undermine hy @dissenting professionl opinionA proedures tht look good on pperF e good hy proedure ommunites the opinion to severl levels of supervisorD llows for the independent investigtion of the merits of the opinionD nd prevents retlition ginst the professionl sserting the opinionF fut ruthless mngers (nd wys to undermine suh proedure t ll levelsF ingineers my lim the right not to e held s spe gots to dministrtive inompeteneF @ee the heory fuilding etivitiesX ights moduleA his right my e supported on pper y detiled hy proedureF fut

TT

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

it lso hs to e implemented t ll levels nd ontinully monitoredF


Customer-Driven Companies

gustomerEdriven ompnies fous on ustomer stisftionF sf the ustomer sks for or is stis(ed with lower qulity produtD then this is n eptle result for this type of ompny s opposed to qulity driven ompny whih would stnd fst with the higher qulity produtF Managers and engineers: roles and participationX wngers mke deisions on (nnil mttersF fut engineers re expeted to 4go to the mt4 for engineering stndrds when these form ll or prt of the deisionF rene the distintion etween mngers @plying the line roleA nd engineers @plying the st' roleA wekensD nd engineers ply muh more tive role @dvotes for engineering stndrdsA in deision mkingF @ingineering stndrds inlude engineering ethis stndrdsFA Centrality of Ethics and ValuesX hile ustomer stisftion plys the entrl roleD ethil onsidE ertions re still importntD espeilly regrding the ethil tretment of ustomers nd re)eting the ethil vlues held y the ustomersF sn mny sesD it is di0ult to distinguish qulity nd ustomer driven ompnies s the role ethil stndrds ply gets loser to entrlD onstitutive oneF Allocation of Praise and BlameX esponsiility in ustomer driven ompnies is tied losely to individul performne nd ontriutionF his is euse ustomer stisftion is more ojetive riterion thn the internl politil stndrds tht dominte (nne driven ompniesF esponsiility is losely lligned with ontriutionF Withholding InformationX snformtion enhnes ontrol nd responsiilityF @he more you knowD the more reponsily you n tFA ine prise nd lme re lloted ording to ontriutionD there is less inentive to withhold informtionF sf ommunition gps rise etween engineers nd mngersD these re muh more likely to hinge on disiplinry di'erenesF ingineers my hve troule ommuniting tehnil informtion to mngersD or pper ondesending y 4duming down4 the informtionF wngers my hve di0ulties ommuniting (nnil onstrints to engineers who fous on qulity stndrdsF fut these re minorD resolvle gpsF Treatment of DissentX hissent nd disgreement re not only tolerted ut tully expetedF wngers expet engineers to dvote for issues in their sphere s they pertin to the deision mking proessF his proess itself is dversril euse it is ssumed tht this is the est wy to get ll the informtion out on the tleF fd news nd professionl dissenting opinions re not interpreted s disloyltyY in ftD disloylty lies in refusing to expose )ws in the hoies proposed y one9s supervisorF wngers expet their engineers to 4go to the mt4 when dvoting tehnil positions sed on their professionl judgmentF
Quality-Driven Companies

ulityEdriven ompnies stnd out for the emphsis they ple on hieving high engineering stndrds nd on elevting the prtiiption of the engineer in the deision mking proessF es is implied y the nmeD the entrl fous of these orportions is the hievement of high qulity in produts nd serviesF Managers and Engineers: Role and ParticipationX sn qulityEdriven ompniesD the distintion etween the mnger nd engineering roles drops outF por exmpleD while engineers ply the st' role nd provide expert engineering dvieD they lso prtiipte fully in the deision mking proessF he lous of deision mking moves from individul mngers to smll interdisiplinry groupsF hese groupsD in turnD rry out onsensusEsed deision mking proeduresF Centrality of Ethics and ValuesX sn qulityEdriven ompniesD ethis nd vlues re entrl to the orgniztion9s ojetivesD hrterD nd identityF his hs deisive impt on the role of the engineer in the deisionEmking proessF sn ustomer driven ompniesD engineers re expeted to dvote engineering nd ethil stndrds preisely euse these re not entrl to the orgniztion9s identityF fut the entrlity of ethil onerns in qulity driven ompnies hnges the engineer9s role from dvoy to hnneling tehnil expertise towrd relizing ethil vlueF

TU

Allocation of praise and blameX sn ustomerEdriven ompniesD lme voidne proedures no longer dominte the deision mking proessF sn qulity driven ompnies they dispper ompletelyF heisions re mde y interdisiplinry groups in whih engineers nd mngers prtiipte fully nd equllyF esponsiility @prise nd lmeA then is lloted to the groupF sf it is distriuted to memers inside the group it is done so on the sis of ontriutionF fut the primry trget of responsiility sriptions is the groupD not the individulF end the response to untowrd hppenings is not trgeting individuls nd groups for lme ut tking mesures to lern from mistkes nd voiding them in the futureF Withholding InformationX he openD onsensusEsed deision proess ensures tht the needed informtion is rought forth nd integrted into the deisionF his results from removing primry motivtion to withholding informtionD nmelyD lme voidneF ulityEdriven orportions ggresE sively move to prevent untowrd ourrenes ndD should prevention filD mke djustments to ensure they do not reourF he motive to withhold informtion does not rise in this morl eologyF Treatment of Dissent and DOPs (dissenting professional opinions)X ingineers nd mngers work towrd onsensus y gthering informtionD disussing the prolem nd ontinuing the disussion until onsensus is rehedF husD dissent does not stnd lone ut is onsidered to e n essentil nd helthy omponent to the deisionEmking proessF hen onsensus is not immeditely rehedD prtiipnts seek more informtionF sf onsensus is still not rehedD the deision is postponed @if this is possileAF he most vile strtegy to reh onsensus is to ontinue the disussionF por exmpleD n engineer nd mnger might pproh supervisorY in this wy they ring new perspetive into the deisionEmking proessF hey might onsult other expertsF he ruil point here is tht disgreement @relly nonEgreementA is not d thing ut neessry stge in the proess of rehing greement nd onsensusF
Skill Sets

he four skills desried elow re derived from studying the morl expertise displyed y morl exemplrsF ih morl eology will require the exerise of eh of the skills desried elowF roweverD eh skill hs to e ontextulized into the morl eologyF por exmpleD resonleness should not e exerised in the sme wy in (nneEdriven ompny s it should e exerised in qulityEdriven ompnyF he resonle exerise of dissent is mnifested di'erently in n environment where dissent is equted with disloylty thn in one in whih dissent is emred s neessry prt of the onsensusE rehing proessF o your joD in onstruting your morl reers within these di'erent morl eologiesD is to ontextulize the skillD tht isD desrie spei(lly how eh skill should e prtied in eh prtiulr morl eologyF Moral imagination onsists of projeting oneself into the perspetive of othersF st lso inludes multiple prolem de(nitions nd the ility to distne oneself from the deision sitution to gin imprtilityF Moral creativity is the ility to generte nonEovious solutions to morl hllenges while responding to multiple onstrintsF Reasonableness onsists of gthering relevnt evideneD listening to othersD giving resons for one9s own positions @rguments nd evideneAD nd hnging plnsGpositions only on the sis of good resonsF Perseverance involves plnning morl tion nd responding to unforeseen irumstnes while keepE ing morl gols inttF
Personality Traits

ExtraversionX ixtrversionD whih is pired with its oppositeD introversionD hs lso een lled on(dent selfEexpressionD ssertivenessD soil extrversionD nd powerF en individul in whom this trit domintes tends to e ssertive nd outEgoingF ConscientiousnessX sndividuls with this trit re suessful in rrying out tsks euse they n disipline themselves to sty foused on tskF hey re suessful in the right morl eology nd tend

TV

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

to onform to the si norms of their environmentF his trit n led to d results if not guided y morl onsidertionsF NeuroticismX his trit indites lk of emotionl stilityF eording to ru' et lFD 4it is orrelted with less e'etive oping nd depressionF4 xeurotiism hs lso een shown to interfere with the exerise of morl skillsF ss there prtiulr morl eology tht n heighten the negtive impts of this personlity tritc AgreeablenessX eording to ru' et lD this trit hs lso een lled 4soil dptilityD likilityD friendly omplineD nd loveF4 egin think out how this trit would operte within (nneEdriven morl eology s opposed to qulityEdriven oneF
Two Kinds of Moral Expertise

tudies rried out y ghuk ru' into morl exemplrs in omputing suggest tht morl exemplrs n operte s rftspersons or reformersF @ometimes they n omine oth these modesFA grftspersons @IA drw on preEexisting vlues in omputingD @PA fous on users or ustomers who hve needsD @QA tke on the role of providers of servieGprodutD @RA view rriers s inert ostles or puzzles to e solvedD nd @SA elieve they re e'etive in their roleF eformers @IA ttempt to hnge orgniztions nd their vluesD @PA tke on the role of morl rusdersD @QA view rriers s tive oppositionD nd @RA elieve in the neessity of systemi reform hese desriptions of morl exemplrs hve een tken from presenttion y ru' t the olloE quium t the niversity of irgini on ytoer PHHTF
kill setsD personlity tritsD nd kinds of morl expertise re disussed in detil y ru' et lFD 4qood omputingX pedgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputerD prts I nd PF4 hese re pulished in Information, communication and Ethics in SocietyD imrld qroup ulishing vimitedD olF TD numers Q nd R in PHHVF

3.2.4 What you will do ...


sn this setionD you will lern out this module9s tivities ndGor exerisesF ou will lso (nd step y step instrutions on how to rry them outF
Exercise 1: What we do when nobody is looking

You will be asked either to defend or criticize the following position on the nature and intiendo que ser stigdo es un mner de edur l person ometi l flt y l soiedd en generl pr que omprendn y entiendn que su ondut es un flt y fet l soieddF in onlusin es un soluin vile hst el memento stnte efetiv siempre y undo el stigo se ejeutdo de un mner prudenteD sludle y dentro de lo que ls leyes permitenF s understnd tht punishment edutes oth the individul t fult nd soiety in generl in order tht they understnd tht their ondut is fulty nd tht it e'ets soietyF sn onlusionD it is vile solution ndD up to the momentD su0iently e'etive lwys nd when the punishment is exeuted in prudent nd sfe mnner within wht is permitted y the lwF estte this rgument in your own wordsF @ry to shorten it y summrizing its key pointsFA hen disuss nd lrify its key termsF y'er ethil nd prtil onsidertions in its defenseF
Exercise 2: Milgram and Business function of punishment

Continuing with the task in part one, you will be asked to either defend or criticize the he wilgrm experiments teh us tht under the right onditionsD nyone is ple of ommitting immorl tivitiesF sf strongD dominnt oss exists nd hs wekD dependle employerD then the employer will out of neessity do whtever the oss wntsF
following position on the meaning that the results of the Milgram experiments have for business administration

TW

wny people re willing to ommit immorl ts even though they know it is wrong if they know they re not eing wthedF st tehes us tht mny employees tend to do illegl works just euse their mngers sk them to so they ssume they will e tking full responsiility for the sitution even though it is unethilF
Exercise 3: Commentary Groups

Your job is to evaluate the arguments made by the teams debating in parts one and two. ho they se these on sound sttementsc ht kind of ethil nd prtil priniples @or vluesA do they use to mke their sec ho their frme their position rodly or nrrowlyc
Exercise 4: Closure Groups Be sure to focus on the argument and not the content of the position. Listen to their statements.

After listening to the debate and commentary, recap what has happened and discuss
whether there are any conclusions that can be drawn from this activity

ho people gree or disgree out these P issuesc sf there is greementD why does it existc sf there is disgreementD why does it existc ss greement possilec hy or why notc

Exercise 5

hih morl eology would you like to work inX (nneED ustomerD or qulityEdriven ompniesc hyc peify your nswer in terms of how the ompny llotes prise or lmeD the entrlity of morl onernsD the role given to professionlsD the irumstnes under whih informtion is withheldD nd the typil response to d newsF hyc ht on(gurtion of personlity trits est (ts within whih morl eologyc

3.2.5 What did you learn?


his module ws designed to help you visulize how to relize morl reer within three dominnt morl eologiesF epply these mtters to yourselfF hih morl eology would e est for youc yf the two morl reers mentioned oveD reformer nd helperD whih est (ts your personlityc hyc sn other wordsD egin the proess of visulizing nd plnning your own morl reerF

3.2.6 Appendix
References

IF hvisD wF @IWWVA Thinking Like an Engineer: Studies in the Ethics of a ProfessionF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IIUEISTF PF horisD tFwF @PHHPA Lack of Character: Personality and Moral BehaviorF xew orkX gmridge niversity ressF QF plngnD yF @IWWIA Varieties of Moral Personality: Ethics and Psychological RealismF gmE ridgeD wssX rrvrd niversity ressX PWQEQIRF RF rrrisD gFiFD rithrdD wFFD nd insD wFtF @IWWWA Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, 2nd EdF xew terseyX dsworthX IVIEIVVF SF ru'D gFD frnrdD vF nd preyD F @PHHVA 4qood gomputingX e edgogilly foused model of virtue in the prtie of omputingD rts I nd PD4 in The Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in SocietyF olF TD numers Q nd RF

UH

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

TF tkllDF @IWVQAF 4worl wzesX fureury nd wngeril orkD4 in Harvard Business ReviewX ept nd yt IWVQF UF tkllD F @IWVVA Moral Mazes: The World of Corporate ManagersF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF VF wnnixD iFD nd xeleD wFeF @PHHSA 4ht hi'erenes wke hi'erenecX he romise nd elity of hiverse ems in yrgniztionsD4 in American Psychological SocietyD T@PAX QIERWF WF wilgrmD F @IWURA Obedience to AuthorityF xew orkX rrper erennilF IHF rkD F @IWSPAF Human Communities: The City and Human EcologyD pree ressD qlenoeD svF IIF olomonD FgF @PHHQA 4itims of girumstnescX e hefense of irtue ithis in fusinessD4 in Business Ethics QuarterlyF olume IQD sssue IX RQETPF his optionl setion ontins dditionl or supplementry informtion relted to this moduleF st ould inludeX ssessmentD kground suh s supporting ethil theories nd frmeworksD tehnil informtionD disipline spei( informtionD nd referenes or linksF

3.2.7 EAC ToolKit Project


3.2.7.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense4 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF
3.2.7.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

3.3 Three Views of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)


Word Version of this Template

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t ` ieg u h iwveiFdob
Figure 3.3:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

- The first two links to this module are to sample corporate social responsibility statements put out by McDonalds and Starbucks. These will help you to benchmark your own efforts both in the fictional Burger Man case and in your efforts to develop CSR reports for real companies. - The other link is a story from reporter, Paul Solomon, that reports on
4 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 5 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17318/1.6/>.

UI

the annual Business for Social Responsibility conference. This story, first broadcast on December 23, 2004 reports on outstanding and successful efforts on CSR. Its title is "Good Business Deeds" and it was accessed for this module on August 17, 2008 at the following URL: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/corporate_12-23.html

3.3.1 Introduction
his module will introdue you to the theme of orporte soil responsiilityF hree representtive ses will help to pose the entrl prolems nd si issues of gF hen you will work on developing soil ontrt etween the usiness orportion nd soiety to rtiulte the interestsD goodsD nd rights t stke in gF hree di'erent pprohes dominte this (eldX the shreholder pproh set forth y wilton priedmnD the stkeholder pproh rtiulted y ivn nd preemnD nd trii erhne9s lline modelF pinllyD you will work on developing g progrm for the hypothetil orportionD furger wnF his will e sed on shreholder meeting tht onsists of six or seven stkeholder presenttionsF @ou will ply the role of one of the stkeholdersFA our g progrm will ddress nd integrte the needs nd interests of the furger wn stkeholdersF
Three CSR Challenges

trii erhne disusses how six orporte orgniztions del with three g hllengesX @IA rrying out oil drilling in orrupt politil environmentD @PA working with suppliers who impose swetshop onditions on employeesD nd @QA ddressing the rsGesh hllenge in efriF ih hllenge eliits two orporte responsesD one from shreholder or stkeholder perspetiveD the other from n lline perspetiveF hell yil9s response to politil orruption in xigeri will e ompred with ixxonGwoile9s response in ghd nd gmeroonF xike9s nswer to puli ritiism of the employment prties of its third world suppliers will e ompred to l wrt9s reputedly hevyEhnded tretment of its employees nd suppliersF pinllyD while the phrmeutil industry hs developed n expensive drug oktil to tret rsGesh in ptients in developed ntionsD the xqy @xon qovernment yrgniztionAD the pemle relth gompnyD hs designed progrm to distriute of ondoms to prevent infetion in the (rst pleF hese pired orporte responses to g hllenges re not provided in support of the position tht the superiority of the lline pproh is 4noErinerF4 snstedD they provide you with menu of g strtegies tht you will evlute using the g frmework you will develop out of the soil ontrt tht etween usiness nd soietyF hese three g hllenges ome from erhne @PHHUA
Operating in a Corrupt Environment

e ig hllenge fing multintionl orportions is how they should respond to lol orruptionF foth hell yil nd ixxonGwoile sought to rry out drilling opertions t sites plgued y orrupt lol nd ntionl governmentsF hell took shreholder pproh rguing tht their primry g ws to their stokholders nd tht involvement in orrupt lol politis would e tntmount to pternlismF ixxonGwoileD on the other hndD dopted more tive pprohF hey took expensive mesures to mitigte the environmentl impt of their opertionsF hey lso hired nd provided tehnil trining to lol residentsF pinllyD they worked to ensure tht the revenues they introdued into the lol ommunities were not lost through politil nd usiness orruptionF ht re the gs of multintionl orportions tht operte in orrupt lol environmentsc ere these fshioned round the miniml oligtion of reting no dditionl hrmc yr should they expnd to preventing hrm @if possileA tht others re out to in)itc o move even further up the ldder of responsiilityD do multintionl orportions hve positiveD supererogtory responsiilities tht onsist of dding vlue to the ommunities they do usiness inc
Vicarious CSR: Responding to Supplier Sweatshops

UP

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

irious responsiility ours when one gent epts responsiility for tions exeuted y notherF por exmpleD under geny theoryD the prinipl ers overll morl nd legl responsiility for the E tion sine he or she hs originted itF elthough the gent exeutes the tionD he or she is responsiility only for exeuting the tion fithfully nd treting the prinipl9s interests s his or her ownF sn this ontextD n we hold orportions suh s xike nd l wrt viriously responsile for the morlly questionle tions of their suppliersc sf soD then under wht onditionsc xike fell under siege when the press found out tht its suppliers sed in the third world imposed hrshD swetshop onditions on their employeesD inluding hild lorF xike ould hve rgued tht this ws eyond the sope of their repsonsiilityF row ould they e held vicariously responsible for the tions of notherc heir jo ws to produe shoes t the lowest possile prie to deliver n 'ordle qulity produt to ustomers nd to mximize shreholder vlueF fut xike went eyond this miniml responsiility to refully vet suppliers nd to work with them to improve working onditionsF husD they expnded the sope of their g to inlude improving working onditions forD not only their employeesD ut lso the employees of their suppliersF l wrt hs een identi(ed y gollins nd orrs @fuilt to vstA s highly suessful nd visionry ompnyF st hs ertinly led the wy in providing onsumers with high qulity produts t surprisingly low priesF fut the svings it provides to ustomers nd the high returns it gurntees investors re purhsed t high prieF l wrt prevents its employees from joining unions whih hs lowered their wges nd restrited their helth nd retirement ene(tsF l wrt employees re lso expeted to work long hours for the ompnyF hile it provides hepD high qulity produts to its ustomersD l wrt pushes suppliers nrrowing their pro(t mrgin nd pling upon them the responsiility of supplying produt justEinEtime to meet demndF sn its erlier dysD l wrt trgeted smll townsF heir ompetitive prties fored less ggressiveD lol usiness to leveF hile they hve rought onsiderle ene(ts to these ommunitiesD they hve lso seriously hnged estlished usiness nd soil struturesF pinllyD l wrtD like xike initillyD exerises miniml supervision over their suppliers mny of whom re overseesF l wrt suppliers lso hve een known to impose hrsh working onditions on their employeesF
Some CSR Questions for Nike and Wal Mart

IF prom roder g perspetiveD is xike mximizing stkeholder vluec ss it redistriuting urdens nd osts from ustomers nd investors to its suppliers nd their employeesc hoes g llow this redistriution of the orporte welth form the shreholders to other stkeholdersc @hink out priedmn9s rguments hereF PF sf it is neessry to trde o' stkeholder stkes s oth l wrt nd xike doD whih trde o' is more justc xike9s distriution of its welth from its stokholders to the needy mnifested in its e'orts to improve the working onditions nd inome of the employees of its suppliersc yr l wrt9s distriution of ene(ts to its stokholders nd its omprtively prosperous ustomersc QF hih model would priedmn prefer under the his version of the shreholder view of gc ixplin nd evluteF RF hih model would e preferle y ivn nd preemn under the stkeholder viewc ho re xike nd l wrt9s stkeholdersc ht re their stkesc row should the welth produed y these two orportions e distriuted mong their stkeholdersc SF erhneD in her lline modelD rgues for the importne of g model tht deentrlizes the orportion nd filittes morlly imgintive solutionsF hy does she rgue tht xike9s progrm is thn l wrt9s from this perspetivec ht ould l wrt do to improve its g on the lline viewc
Facing the AIDS Challenge in Africa

he widespred nd devstting e'ets of the esh epidemi in efri re well knownF fut wht re the responsiilities of orportions in the fe of this terrile g hllengec hould they do usiness

UQ s usul nd llow others who re perhps more quli(ed respond to this pervsive soil prolemc yr should they reognize roder responsiility to hnnel their welthD knowledge nd expertise towrd mitigting this soil prolemc hrmeutil orportions invest huge mounts of money in reserh nd developmentF he mrket ple is good ple for oth enourging this neessry risk nd for distriuting it mong severl groups nd interestsF heveloping new mediines requires ostly reserhF o priedmn9s question is highly pertinent hereX does imposing g on orportion do more hrm thn good euse it interferes with the delite mehnism of the mrketc et ny point long the wyD the produt my not meet expettionsD ompetitor my et the phrmeutil to the mrketD the regultory proess my dely or even prevent sleD nd so onF he rewrds from ptenting suessful mediine re stoundingly highF fut hevyD possily devstting losses re lso possileF edding g to the mixture my e the formul for orporte dissterF hrmeutil orportions lso fe dunting hllenges from regultory genies suh s the pood nd hrug edministrtionF xew produts must e exhustively nd pinstkingly tested to void prolems tht hve risen in the pst suh s the hlkon hield nd hlidomideF eginD onsiderle e'ort must e expended in exploring the middle nd long term onsequenes ompnying produt nd drug useD nd ll of this efore the produt n e mrketed nd pro(ts mdeF qovernment regultion lso rises nother prolemF ss government prodding neessry to fore orportions into proper g posturec yr should orportions e llowed to develop voluntrily their own g responsesc sn the se t hndD phrmeutil ompnies hve invested onsiderle resoures to rry out reserh into mediines tht ontrol rs infetion nd prevent it from developing into fullElown eshF fut these tretments re very expensive nd ring with them onsiderle side e'etsF en ntiE esh hemil oktil n ost ptients in developed ntions etween IS nd PH thousnd dollrs per ptient per yerF his is fr eyond the (nnil resoures ville to typil rsGesh ptient in efriF ome xqys nd ritis of the phrmeutil industry use the ltter of gouging vitims nd drwing exess pro(ts from the misfortune of othersF e spokesperson for 4hotors ithout fordersD4 for exmpleD lims tht the esh tretment 4oktil4 tht osts FF ptients IS to PH thousnd dollrs ould e mde ville to efrins t less thn QHH dollrs per ptient per yerF hrmeutilsD ording to their ritisD need to rethink their gD ese operting s forEpro(t usinessesD nd mke these drugs ville to third world su'erers t ostF ht re the gs of multintionl phrmeutil orportions for mking rsGesh drugs ville to vitims in the povertyEstriken ntions of efric ere they responsile for hrging wht the mrket will erc essuming they hve the right to reoup their hevy investment in reserhD should governmentsD reognizing the neessity of ompensting drug ompnies for their reserhD uy these drugs nd redistriute them t little or no ost to those who n9t 'ord themc yr should the phrmeutils hrge more to those who n py nd less to those who nnotc @his redistriutes the urden of ost from the hves to the hve notsFA wny xqys hve tken the stne tht their responsiility lies in pressuring drug ompnies to do the right thing nd donte mediines to ptients who nnot pyF his is their orporte soil responsiilityD nd the phrmeutil industry ertinly hs enough money to do thisF fut others hve tried to refrme this issue using morl imgintionF reting individuls for rs infetion one they hve ontrted it is expensive no mtter how you look t itF futD rede(ning the prolemD n moderte nd 'ordle mesures e tken to prevent the spred of the disesec his is the imgintive pproh tken y the pemle relth gompny whih hs initited widespred e'ort to distriute ondoms to those t risk for ontrting eshF row does the pproh of the pry exemplify erhne9s lline modelc row should phrmeutil ompnies respond to this kind of inititivec ss it neessry to frme the reltion etween the phrE meutil industry nd xqys s n dversril reltion or should roder llines e formed tht oordinte the e'orts of these groupsc

UR

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

3.3.2 The Social Contract between Business and Society


Every contract is built on the basis of three conditions (1) free and informed consent, (2) a quid pro quo, and (3) the rational self interest of the contracting parties.

Free and Informed ConsentX xo ontrt is legitimte tht is sed on foreD frud or deeptionF he prties must enter into this greement freely nd without ompulsionF hey must understnd the terms of the ontrt whih exludes deeption nd frudF sn shortD the ontrt presupposes the unoered prtiiption of ll the prtiesF o enter into the ontrt they must understnd ll the key issues nd onsent to the onstitutive exhngeF Quid Pro QuoX uid ro uo literlly mens something in exhnge for somethingF ivery ontrt is uilt round mutully ene(il exhngeF s give you my sell p in exhnge your ie remF wost exhnges re simultneousF fut some re wht roes lls 4ovenntsF4 rere s give you my sell p with the understnding tht lter this fternoon you will pss y your refrigertorD get my ie rem one nd give it to meF s give you my prt now nd trust you to rry out your prt lterF Rational Self InterestX ih of us should know the vlue of the items to e exhngedF @ht is one reson why ontrt requires free nd informed onsentFA his knowledge is determinedD in prtD y the preferene shedules tht we hve developed s rtionlly selfEinterested eingsF o legitimte ontrt ssumes tht s hve interestsD tht s m ple of determining wht promotes these interestsD nd tht s m rtionl enough to determine mens to promote them nd void other mens tht interfere with themF
Social Contracts

e soil ontrt di'ers from other ontrts euse it is hypothetilF fusiness nd oiety hve never st down in room nd hmmered out ontrt outlining their reltionF fut this hypothetil ontrt provides good mens of mking sense out of the reltion tht hs grdully evolved etween soiety nd usinessF porget for moment the historil detils of the reltion etween usiness nd soietyF sf this reltion is summrized s ontrtD wht does soiety give to usinessc ht does usiness give to soietyc ho these two institutions trust one nother or do they eh dopt mens to monitor nd ontrol the otherc ht re these mensc reting the reltion etween usiness nd soiety s ontrt etween two mutully onsenting gents or tors does get some of the fts wrongF fut it provides useful 4heuristi4 devieD iFeFD frmework tht will help us to summrizeD strutureD ndD in workD mke sense of the reltion etween the twoF woving from the terms of this 4ontrt4 you will e le to develop frmework for understnding the soil responsiilities of usiness orportionsF hisD in turnD will help you to understnd the g hllenges presented ove nd the gs of the (tionl ut relisti furger wn orportionF
Exercise 1: In small groups, spell out the social contract between society and business.

row n the sene of foreD deeptionD nd frud e gurnteed in this ontrtc row should eh side hold the other ountlec @his is espeilly the se where one side delivers t one time nd the other side is trusted to deliver lterFA ht ene(ts n usines ring to soietyc row n soiety ene(t usinessF hevelop tle with one olumn listing wht usiness hs to ontriute to soiety nd the other wht soiety hs to ontriute to usinessF his tle is the hert of your soil ontrtF essume tht soiety nd usiness re rtionlly self interestedF row does this e'et the formultion of the goods of the exhngec row does this enfore the terms of the ontrtc ere these self interests divergentc @hen eh side must monitor the other to prevent the orruption of the ontrtFA ere these interests onvergentc @hen the ontrt onsists lrgely in uilding soil pitl nd trust etween the ontrting prtiesFA honldsonD IWWQ uses soil ontrt theory to ount for the rights nd duties of multintionl orportions
Exercise 2: CSR and STS

ghoose one of the g hllenges ove nd onstrut soioEtehnil tle round it

US
STS Table Component Technology Technology Physical / Em(Hard(SoftSurbedded ware) ware) roundValue ings Justice Free Speech Property Privacy Safety
Table 3.5

Stakeholders Procedures Laws

Information and Information Systems

3.3.3 Three CSR Frameworks


Shareholder View

prom wilton priedmnD 4he oil esponsiility of fusiness is to snrese sts ro(tsF4 4fut the dotrine of 4soil responsiility4 tken seriously would extend the sope of the politil mehnism to every humn tivityF st does not di'er in philosophy from the most expliitly olletivist dotrineF st di'ers only y professing to elieve tht olletivist ends n e ttined without olletivist mensF ht is whyD in my ook Capitalism and FreedomD s hve lled it 4fundmentlly suversive dotrine4 in free soietyD nd hve sid tht in suh soietyD 4there is one nd only one soil responsiility of usiness!to use its resoures nd engge in tivities designed to inrese its pro(ts so long s it stys wihtin the rules of the gmeD whih is to syD engges in open nd free ompetition without deeption or frudF4 IWUH y xew ork imes gompny
Stakeholder View

e stkeholder must e distinguished from stokholderF he ltter owns shre of the orportionF yn the other hndD stkeholder is ny group or individul tht hs vitl interest in the doings of the orportionF rene the stokholder is stkeholder of the orportion whose vitl interest t ply is the shre owned of the orportion nd the money invested in this shreF here re severl other stkeholders of the orportionF hese inlude @IA employeesD @PA ustomersD @QA suppliersD @RA lol ommunityD @RA surrounding governmentsD @SA the surrounding humn nd nturl environmentD nd @TA the orportion9s mngersF @sn some situtions there re other stkeholders suh s ompetitorsFA tkeholder theory requires tht the orportion reognize nd respet the vitl interests of eh of its surrounding stkeholdersF his frequently issues in proposing stkeholder rights nd ssigning to others orreltive duties to reognize nd respet these rightsF tkeholder theory lso requires tht the orportion integrte interests where possileD medite or roker on)its etween interestsD nd only trde o' ompeting interests when solutely neessry nd when more onilitory e'orts hve lredy een mde nd hve filedF ee ivn nd preemn IWVV
Werhane's Alliance Approach

erhne9s lline pproh is similr to the stkeholder pproh in tht it reognizes severl groups tht surround the orportion nd hve vitl interests tht depend on the doings of the orportionF

UT

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

hese surrounding groups re more or less the sme s those in the stkeholder pprohX ownersD mngersD employeesD ustomersD suppliersD lol ommunitiesD governmentsD the environmentD etF fut erhne mkes two signi(nt deprtures from the stkeholder pprohF pirstD she uses morl imgintion to distne the orportion from the prolem solving proessY the lens of prolem solving refouses on eh of the other stkeholdersF heres for stkeholder theory the orportion is the enter of nlysis nd is visulized s surrounded y its stkeholdersD the lline pproh deentrlizes the orportion nd lterntively visulizes eh stkeholder s the enter for the purpose of frming prolems nd generting solutionsF eondD the lline pproh sees the orportion s prt of system of interrelted nd interdeE pendent prtsF reneD eh prolem sitution presents system formed of the orportionD ownersD mngersD employeesD suppliersD ustomersD lol ommunitiesD nd governmentsF rolems emerge from vlue on)its within nd etween the onstituent prts of the systemF hey re solved through the oopertion of the di'erent onstituenies of the llineF hile this pproh does not lend itself to lgorithms or rulesD it does promise solutions y highlighting nd filitting morl imgintion oth in the frming of prolems @prolems re posed in terms of frmings from multiple perspetivesA nd in terms of the genertion of solutions @multiple prolemE frmings help us to visulize new solution horizonsAF ee erhneD PHHU nd PHHVF

3.3.4 What you will do ...


Module Activities

IF ixmine the g hllenges presented oveF gompre the two responses to eh hllengeF PF vern out three models of orporte soil responsiilityF QF hevelop fully rtiulted soil ontrt etween usiness nd soietyF se this ontrt to understnd the si gs of usiness orportionsF RF repre oil smpt enlysis on the (tionl (rmD furger wnF SF repre for nd prtiipte in ord meeting for furger wn to exmine ethilly its prties nd develop for it vile nd sustinle progrm of orporte soil responsiilityF his requires tht you give short presenttion on the interests of prtiulr furger wn stkeholder TF hevelop full lown g progrm for furger wn tht rries out the responsiilities of this ompny to its stkeholdersF

3.3.5 Burger Man Stakeholders


he uthor eme wre of the furger wn exerise when prtiipting in n egEt rodst ourse in egriulturl ithis in IWWPF he exerise ws reted y the leder of the ourseD hrF ul hompsonF
Burger Man Prole

furger wn is frnhise tht egn y selling the fst food stples of hmurgersD frenh friesD nd milk shkesF es the ompny hs mtured nd fed other ompetitors in this mrket niheD it hsD of ourseD developed more sophistited set of produts nd serviesF fut it hs lso een hllenged on vrious issues relted to orporte soil responsiilityF qroups representing the rights nd interests of nimls hve ritiized the griusiness methods used y its suppliersF eentlyD puli interest groups hve lmed furger wn nd its ompetitors for enourging unhelthy dietry hits mong its ustomers nd the puli in generlF hreholdersD of ourseD re onerned tht the ompny ontinue to e pro(tle nd provide them with good return on investmentF qovernmentl regultory genies suh s the ie @invironmentl rotetion egenyA nd yre @yuptionl fety nd relth edministrtionA wish to hold furger wn ountle for onforming to its regultionsF sn short there re severl stkeholder groups surrounding this orportionD eh vying for its prtiulr interestF sn this exeriseD you will ply two rolesF pirst you will e ssigned role s one of furger wn9s stkeholders nd mke presenttion of your group9s interest

UU in mok shreholder meeting tht will e held in lssF hen you will swith to the role of furger wn mngementF rere your ssignment will e to rtiulte the di'erent stkeholder interests nd integrte them into oherent g pln for your ompnyF
Burger Man Customers

furger wn ustomers re the onsumers who go to its resturnt nd enjoy its food serviesF sn prepring your ord meeting presenttion you need to explore furger wn9s soil responsiilities to its ustomersF ere these reduile to providing them n enjoyle produt t resonle priec yr does fw9s soil responsiilities go eyond thisc furger wn hs extensive intertions with its suppliers tht inlude met pking orportions nd griEusiness onernsF row should furger wn hoose its suppliersc row refully should it monitor their tivitiesF o wht extent is furger wn responsile for the untowrd tivities of these groupsc row responsile is furger wn for shping the dietry hits of its ustomersc hoes it er responE siility for the helth prolems tht its puli develops from d dietry prtiesc
Burger Man Shareholders

furger wn shreholders re investors who hve purhsed shres of furger wn9s pulily trded stokF ht re their stkesc ht re their responsiilitiesc por exmpleD how losely should shreholders monitor the tions of their gentsD iFeFD furger wn9s mngersc ere shreholders responsile for holding furger wn to ertin stndrds of orporte soil responsiilityc ht re these stndrds nd how do they stnd in reltion to the di'erent models of soil responsiilityc repre your presenttion round these issuesF eddress shreholder interests @stkesA nd responsiilE itiesF
Burger Man Managers

furger wn mngers re the gents of the shreholdersGowners responsile for overseeing the dyEtoE dy opertions of the orportionF ht re the mnger9s stkesc ht role do they ply in the di'erent models of soil responsiilityc @glssilD stkeholderD nd lline viewscA egeny theory rgues tht the primry orporte governne prolem is overseeing nd ontrolling the tions of mngersF row losely should shreholders nd their ord of diretors oversee orporte mngersc ere mngers selfEinterested gents or stewrds of the orportionc ht re mngeril responsiilities vis vis orporte soil responsiilityc hould they unover illegl tionsc hould they implement n udit proess tht ssess the orportion9s suess in rrying out its soil responsiilitiesc hould these responsiilities go eyond the legl minimumc hould mngers go eyond the legl minimum in monitoring nd rrying out orporte soil reE sponsiilitiesc ere orporte mngers responsile only to shreholders or do their responsiilities extend to other stkeholdersc sf the ltterD how do they lne on)iting stkesc truture your presenttion round outlining mngeril stkes nd rolesF ghoose model of orporte soil responsiility nd rgue for its ppropriteness to furger wnF
Government Regulatory Agencies: OSHA and EPA

yre is in hrge of regulting workple sfetyF ie is in hrge of settingD monitoringD nd enforing stndrds onerning the environmentF @por exmpleD they estlish eptle ir emission nd wter dishrge stndrdsFA ht re the stkes of government regultory geniesc ht is their role in the ontext of the furger wn orportionc

UV

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

rite your position pper outlining your group9s stkes nd roles in the ontext of estlishing furger wn9s orporte soil responsiility proeduresF ht would you reommendc row should you k up or enfore these reommendtionsc
Animal Rights Activists

furger wn serves hmurgersD hiken sndwihesD nd diry produtsF hese involve nimlsF es niml rights tivistsD you re onerned with steering furger wn nd its suppliers towrd morlly eptle tretment of nimlsF ht re your group9s stkes in this ord meetingc ht kind of role should you plyc tte your poliy on niml tretmentc ss it position of niml welfre sed on utilitrin onsiderE tionsc @eter inger provides suh positionFA ss it deontologil position sed on the ssertion of niml rights tht impose orreltive duties on humnsc @om egn tkes this positionFA yr should you se your rguments on nthropoentri issues suh s humn helthc rite position pper tht responds to these questions for presenttion in the furger wn ord meetingF
Town X Committee for Economic Development

our townD own D hs three furger wn frnhisesF epresenttives from the town ounil re prtiipting in the ord meeting in order to ensure tht furger wn9s poliies on orporte soil responsiility enhne the town9s eonomi welfre nd developmentF ht re your stkesc ht re your roles nd responsiilitiesc ht kind of servies nd produts do you provide for furger wnc ht ene(ts do your ommunity drw from furger wnc row n furger wn tivities nd poliies promote or demote your town9s interests nd stkesc hevelop position pper for the ord meeting tht ddresses these issuesc y speil ttention to the goods nd risks tht your town exhnges with furger wnF
snsert prgrph text hereF
Exercises in CSR

rtiipte in the furger wn tkeholder weeting ke your ssigned stkeholder group nd prepre short presenttion@(ve minutes mximumA on your stkeholder9s interestsD rightsD needsD nd vulnerilitiesF visten to the stkeholder presenttions from the other groupsF ry to void ompetitive stneF snstedD look for ommonlities nd shred interestsF ou my wnt to form olitions with one or more of the other groupsF with from the stkeholder role to tht of furger wn mngementF ou re responsile for developing omprehensive orporte soil responsiility progrm for furger wnF ou jo is to integrte the onerns expressed y the stkeholders in their presenttion nd form your pln round this integrtionF ry to resolve on)itsF sf you nnot nd re fored to prioritizeD then you still must (nd wy of reognizing nd responding to eh legitimte stkeholder stkeF ou my wnt to refer to the 4ithis of em ork4 module @mIQUTHA to look for timeEtested methods for deling with di0ult to reonile stkeF hese inlude setting quotsD negotiting interestsD expnding the pieD nonspei( ompenstionD logrollingD ostEutting nd ridgingF ou should e le to estlish eyond shdow of dout tht you hve mde every ttempt to reognize nd integrte every legitimte stkeholder stkeF

3.3.6 What did you learn?


his module nd two others @e hort ristory of the gorportion nd gorporte qovernneA re designed to help you understnd the orporte ontext of usinessF sn this setionD you should re)et on three questionsX @IA ht hve you lerned out the soil responsiilities of orportionsc @PA ht still perplexes you

UW out the soil responsiilities of orportionsF @QA ho you (nd one model of g etter thn the othersc @RA gn these models of g e omined in ny wyc

3.3.7 Appendix
Rubric for Partial Exam on CSR

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `iurigvpHVFdoxb


Figure 3.4: This le contains the rubric to be used on the partial exam for Corporate Leadership and Social Responsibility, ADMI 3405, Fall 2008"

Corporate Social Responsibility Frameworks: Seminal Papers

IF priedmnD wF @IWUHA 4he oil esponsiility of fusiness ss to snrese sts ro(tsD4 in New York Times MagazineD eptemer IQD IWUHF PF ivnD FwF nd preemnD iF @IWVVA tkeholder heory of the wodern gorportionX untin gpitlism4 in feuhmp nd fowie IWVVF QF priedmn IWUH nd ivn nd preemn IWVV n e found inX feuhmpD FvF nd fowieD xFiFD editorsF @IWVVA Ethical Theory and Business, 3rd Edition. xew terseyX rentie rllX VUEWI nd WUEIHTF RF ee erhne PHHU nd PHHV elow
References

IF gollinsD tFgFD orrsD tF sF @IWWRA Built To Last: Successful Habits of Visionary CompaniesF xew orkX rrper gollins ulishersF PF toneD gF hF @IWUSA here the vw indsX he oil gontrol of gorporte fehviorF rospetr reightsD svX velnd ressD sxgX IEQHF QF hes trdinsD tFF @IWWQA invironmentl ithisX en sntrodution to invironmentl hilosophyF felE montD geX dsworth ulishing gompnyX QUF RF glrkeD F @PHHRA 4sntrodutionX heories of qovernne!eoneptulizing gorporte qovernne heory efter the inron ixperieneD4 in heories of gorporte qovernneX he hilosophil pounE dtions of gorporte qovernneD edF homs glrkeF xew orkX outledgeX IEQHF SF honldsonD F @IWWQA The Ethics of International BusinessF xew orkX yxford niversity ressF TF prenhD FeF @IWVRA golletive nd gorporte esponsiilityF xew orkX golumi niversity ressF UF prenhD FeF @IWWUA 4gorporte worl egeny4 in erhneD FrFD nd preemnD FiF flkwell inyE lopedi hitionry of fusiness ithisF yxfordD uX flkwellX IRVEISIF VF wyD vF @IWVUA he worlity of qroupsX golletive esponsiilityD qroupEfsed rrmD nd gorporte ightsF xotre hmeD sxX niversity of xotre hme ressF WF erhneD F rF @PHHVA 4wentl wodelsX worl smgintion nd ystem hinking in the ege of qloE liztionD4 in tournl of fusiness ithisD UVX RTQ!RURF IHF erhneD F @PHHUA 4gorporte oil esponsiilityGgorporte worl esponsiilityX ss here hi'erene nd the hi'erene st wkesD4 in edsFD wyD FD gheneyD qFD nd operD tFD he hete over gorporte oil esponsiilityF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX RSWERURF IIF pisseD fF nd prenhD FeFD edsF @IWVSA gorrigile gorportions nd nruly vwF n entonioD X rinity niversity ressF IPF xderD F nd qreenD wFtFD edsF @IWUQA gorporte ower in emeriF xew orkX qrossmnF

VH

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

IQF xder F qreenD wF nd eligmnD tF @IWUTA ming the qint gorportionF xew orkX xortonF IRF hvisD wF @IWWVA hinking vike n ingineerX tudies in the ithis of rofessionF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IIWEISTF tkllD F @IWVVA worl wzesX he orld of gorporte wngersF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF ISF grolD eF fFD 4oil esponsiilityD4 in erhneD FD nd preemnD F iFD edsF @IWWUD IWWVA flkwell inylopedi hitionry of fusiness ithisF yxfordD uX flkwell ulishersD sxgX SWQESWSF ITF hyrudD wFeF @PHHUA 4ithisD qmingD nd sndustril riningD4 in siii ehnology nd oiety wgzineF inter PHHUX QTERRF IUF itzD henF @PHHUA 4gn gorporte ersonhood fe oilly esponsilec4 in edsF wyD FD gheneyD qFD nd operD tFD gorporte qovernneF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IWREIWSF

3.3.8 EAC ToolKit Project


3.3.8.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense6 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF
3.3.8.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

3.4 Theory Building Activities: "Responsibility and Incident at Morales"


7

3.4.1 Module Introduction


3.4.1.1 Getting Started...

wnuelD plnt mnger t the hust hemil plnt in worlesD wexioD hs just diedF hile he ws ysitting the proess of mnufturing hust9s new pint remover @monitoring on site temperture nd pressure onditionsA n explosion ourred tht killed him instntlyF he wexin government hs formed n independent ommission to investigte this industril identF his ommission @heded y your instrutorA hs ordered key prtiipnts to testify on their role in the ident in puli heringF our jo is to present efore this ommission from stkeholder point of viewF ou will e divided into groups to role ply the following stkeholder perspetivesX

predD the hief engineer involved in designing the plntD plnt workersD o0ils from wexin government regultory geniesD hust mngementD representtives from the prent prenh ompnyD o0ils presiding over n engineering professionl soietyF

ou will e ssigned roles nd given lss time to prepre presenttions for the ommissionF hen the lss will ent the puli hering y hving eh group give presenttion from the perspetive of its ssigned roleF pollowing these presenttionsD groups will nswer questions from the investigting ommissionF pinllyD you will work through derie(ng tivities to help solidify your prtil understnding of the module9s hief oneptsF fkground mterils designed to help you with your presenttions inlude skethes of morl
6 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 7 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m15627/1.7/>.

VI responsiilityD links to the 4snident t worles4 gseD tsks to help struture your roleEplyingD nd tivities to derief on this exeriseF his module is designed to help you lern out morl responsiility y using responsiility frmeworks to mke dyEtoEdy deisions in relistiD dynmiD usiness ontextF
3.4.1.1.1 Before You Come to Class...

IF isit the link to the xtionl snstitute for ingineering ithisF vook t the study guide nd downlod the sript for the videoD 4snident t worlesF4 ou wnt to hve some ide of wht hppens in the video efore you wth itF PF ed the moduleF y speil ttention to the setion on 4ht you need to knowF4 rere you will red summries of three senses of morl responsiilityX lme responsiilityD shring responsiilityD nd responsiility s virtueF our gol here is not to understnd everything you red ut to hve generl sense of the nture of morl responsiilityD the struture of the responsiility frmeworks you will e using in this moduleD nd the di'erene etween morl nd legl responsiilityF rving this kground will get you redy to lern out morl responsiility y tully prtiing itF QF gome to lss redy to wth the video nd strt prepring for your prt in the puli heringF st is essentil tht you ttend ll four of these lssesF wissing out on lss will rete signi(nt gp in your knowledge out nd understnding of morl responsiilityF

3.4.2 What you need to know...


4esponsiility4 is used in severl distint wys tht fll under two rod tegoriesD the retive nd the protiveF etive uses of responsiility refer k to the pst nd respond to wht hs lredy ourredF @ho n e prised or lmed for wht hs ourredcA rotive uses emerge through the e'ort to extend ontrol over wht hppens in the futureF en importnt prt of extending ontrolD knowledgeD nd power over the future is lerning from the pstD espeilly from pst mistkesF fut protive responsiility lso moves eyond prevention to ringing out the exemplryF row do ouptionl nd professionl speilists unover nd exploit opportunities to relize vlue in their workc rotive responsiility @responsiility s virtueA explores the skillsD sensitivitiesD motivesD nd ttitudes tht ome together to ring out exelleneF
3.4.2.1 Dierent meanings of Responsibility Reactive Senses

IF Causal Responsibility refers to prior events @lled usesA whih produe or prevent susequent events @lled e'etsAF ghepD inurte sensors @useA required tht wnul e present on the sene @e'etA to monitor the high tempertures nd pressures required to orretly prepre hust9s pint stripperF PF Role Responsibility delinetes the oligtions individuls rete when they ommit to soil or professionl roleF hen pred eme n engineer he ommitted to holding prmount the helthD sfety nd welfre of the puliF @ee xi ode of ethisA QF Capacity Responsibility sets forth those onditions under whih someone n e prised or lmed for their tionsF rise nd lme ssoite n gent with n tionF ixuses re sed on mens for seprting or disssoiting n gent from their tionsF gpity responsiility helps us determine whether there re ny legitimte exuses ville for those who would disssoite themselves from untowrdD hrmEusing tionsF RF Blame Responsibility determines when we n legitimtely prise or lme individuls for their tionsF
Proactive Senses

VP

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

IF Sharing Responsibility extends the sphere of responsiility to inlude those to whom one stnds in internl reltions or reltions of solidrityF hred responsiility inludes nswering for the tions of others within one9s groupF st lso inludes oming to the morl id of those within one9s group who hve gone morlly stryY this involves ringing to their ttention morlly risky tions nd stnding with them when they re pressured for trying to uphold group vluesF hile shring responsiility entils nswering for wht memers of one9s group hve doneD it does not extend to tking the lme for the untowrd tions of olleguesF hring responsiility does not ommit wht rFhF vewis lls the 4rrism of olletive responsiility4 whih onsists of lming nd punishing innoent persons for the guilty tions of those with whom they re ssoitedF PF Preventive ResponsibilityX fy using knowledge of the pstD one n void errors or repet suesses in the futureF eter prenh lls this the 4riniple of esponsive edjustmentF4 @yne djusts future tions in response to wht one hs lerned from the pstFA eording to prenhD responsive djustment is morl impertiveF sf one fils to responsively djust to void the repetition of pst untowrd resultsD this loops k into the pst nd uses revlution of the initil unintentionl tionF he ene(t of the dout is withdrwn nd the individul who fils to responsively djust is now held responsile for the originl pst tionF his is euse the filure to djust inserts the initil tion into lrger ontext of negligeneD d intentionsD reklessnessD nd relessnessF pilure to responsively djust triggers retrotive ttriution of lmeF QF Responsibility as a VirtueX rere one develops skillsD quires professionl knowledgeD ultivittes sensitivies nd emotionsD nd develops hits of exeution tht onsistently ring out vlue relizE tion nd exelleneF yne wy of getting t responsiility s n exellene it to reinterpret the onditions of imputility of lme responsiilityF en gent espes lme y restriting the sope of role responE siilityD liming ignorneD nd iting lk of power nd ontrolF sn responsiility s virtueD one goes eyond lme y extending the rnge of role responsiilitiesD seeking situtionErelevnt knowledgeD nd working to skillfully extending power nd ontrolF
3.4.2.2 Blame Responsibility To hold Fred responsible for the accident at Morales, we need to...

IF peify his role responsiilities nd determine whether he rried them out PF sdentify situtionEsed ftors tht limited his ility to exeute his role responsiilities @hese re ftors tht compel our tions or ontriute to our ignorance of ruil fetures of the situtionFA QF hetermine if there is ny morl fult present in the situtionF por exmpleD did pred t on the sis of wrongful intention @hid he intend to hrm wnuel y sotging the plntcAD fil to exerise due careD exhiit negligence or recklessnessc RF sf pred @A filed to rry out ny of his role responsiilitiesD @A this filure ontriuted to the identD nd @A pred n o'er no morlly legitimte exuse to get himself o' the hookD then pred is lmeworthyF predD nd other snident t worles stkeholdersD n espe or minimize lme y estlishing morlly legitimte exusesF he following tle ssoites ommon exuses with the forml onditions of imputility of lme responsiilityF @gonditions of imputility re those onditions tht llow us to ssoite n tion with n gent for purposes of morl evlutionFA
Excuse Table

VQ
Excuse Source (Capacity Responsibility) Excuse Statement

gon)its within role responsibility nd eE tween di'erent role responsiilities


Hostile Organizational Environment whih routinely suordintes ethil to (nnil onsidE ertionsF

s nnotD t the sme timeD rry out ll my onE )iting role responsiilities he environment in whih s work mkes it imposE sile to t responsilyF wy supervisor routinely overrules my professionl judgmentD nd s n do nothing out itF s lk the time nd money to rry out my responE siilityF grrying out my responsiility goes eyond tehniE l or mnufturing limitsF ersonlD soilD legl or politil ostles prevent me from rrying out my responsiilitiesF gruil fts out the sitution were kept from me or ould not e unovered given even resonle e'ortF

yverly determining situtionl onstrintsX (nnE il nd time yverly determining situtionl onstrintsX tehniE l nd mnufturing yverly determining situtionl onstrintsX perE sonlD soilD leglD nd politilF unowledge vimittions

Table 3.6

3.4.2.3 Proactive Responsibility Preventive Responsibility: Responsive Adjustment

esponsiility to djust future tions in response to wht hs een lerned from the pst Scenario OneX st tions tht hve led to untowrd resultsF pilure here to djust future tions to void repetition of untowrd results leds to ressessing the originl tion nd retrospetively lming the gentF Scenario TwoX st tions hve unintentionlly nd identlly led to positiveD vlueErelizing resultsF rere the gent responsively djusts y eing prepred to tke dvntge of eing lukyF he gent djusts future tions to repet pst suessesF sn this wyD the gent ptures pst tions @pst lukA nd inserts them into the sope of priseF Nota BeneX he priniple of responsile djustment sets the foundtion for responsiility in the sense of prevention of the untowrdF
Responsibility as a Virtue or Excellence

IF irtues re exellenes of the hrter whih re reveled y our tionsD pereptionsD eliefsD nd ttitudesF elong these linesD responsiility s virtue requires tht we reformulte responsiility from its retiveD minimlist sense @where it derives muh of its ontent from legl responsiilityA to responsiility s n exellene of hrterF PF eristotle situtes virtues s mens etween extremes of exess nd defetF gn you think of exmples of too muh responsiilityc @hoes pred try to tke on too muh responsiility in ertin situtionscA gn you think of nyone who exhiits too little responsiilityF @hoes pred tke on too little responsiility or shift responsiility to otherscA por eristotleD we n hve too muh or too little of good thingF prom the 4too muh4 we derive vies of exessF from the4too little4 we derive the vies of defetF QF irtues re more thn just modes of resoning nd thinkingF hey lso onsist of emotions tht lue us into spets of the sitution efore us tht re morlly slient ndD thereforeD worthy of our notie nd responseF wo emotions importnt for responsiility re re nd ompssionF gre lues us into spets of our sitution tht ould hrm those who depend on our tions nd vigilneF ho lly

VR

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

nd pred py su0ient ttention to the erly th lekges in the worles plntc sf notD does this stem from lk of re @4vet opertions hndle it4A nd lk of ompssion @4wnuel n tke re of himself4Ac gre nd ompssion help to sensitize us to wht is morlly slient in the sitution t hndF hey lso motivte us to t responsiility on the sis of this sensitivityF RF esponsiility s virtue mnifests itself in willingness to pik up where others hve left o'F efter the fhopl dissterD worker ws sked whyD when he sw utEo' vlve openD he didn9t immeditely lose it s sfety proedures requiredF ris response ws tht shutting o' the vlue ws not prt of his jo utD instedD the jo of those working the next shiftF his restrition of responsiility to wht is one9s jo retes responsiility gps through whih idents nd other hrms rise to the surfeF he worker9s lk of tion my not onstitute morl fult ut it surely signi(es lk of responsiility s virtue euse it indites de(ieny of re nd ompssionF hose who prtie responsiility s virtue or exellene move quikly to (ll responsiility gps left y others even if these tsks re not prt of their own role responsiilities stritly de(nedF isping lme requires nrrowing the rnge of one9s role responsiilities while prtiing responsiility s virtue often requires e'etively expnding itF SF pinllyD responsiility s n exellene requires extending the rnge of knowledge nd ontrol tht one exerises in situtionF reventing idents requires olleting knowledge out system even fter it hs left the design nd mnufturing stges nd entered its opertionl lifeF esponsiility requires tht we serh out nd orret onditions tht ouldD under the right irumstnesD produe hrmful identsF woreoverD responsiility is funtion of power nd ontrolF ixtending these nd direting them towrd good results re ler signs of responsiility s virtueF
Reponsibility as Virtue

he snident t worles provides us with look into (tionlized dissterF futD if it is exmined more refullyD it lso shows opportunities for the exerise of responsiility s virtueF he following tle will help you to identify these 4responsiility opportunities4 nd llow you to imgine ounterE ftuls where hd individuls ted otherwise the 4inident4 ould hve een voided nd morl vlue ould hve een relizedF hink of virtuous or even heroi interventions tht ould hve prevented the identF hese representsD from the stndpoint of the (lmD lost opportunities for relizing responsiility nd other virtuesF
Responsibility as a Virtue: Recovering Lost Opportunities Characteristic Relevance to Incident at Morales

ghnge gol from voiding lme to pursuing proE fessionl exelleneF hevelop )exile oneption of your role responsiE ilities nd move quikly to extend it to (ll responE siility gps left y othersF

gould this hve led prtiipnts to look for more retive responses to ie environmentl regulE tionsc gould this hve strutured di'erently the reE ltion etween those responsile for plnt deE signGonstrution nd those responsile for its opE ertionc
continued on next page

VS ixtend the sope nd depth of your situtionl knowledgeD espeilly regrding umulting inforE mtion on the opertionl history of newly impleE mented tehnologiesF ixtend ontrol nd powerF his inludes (nding wys of more e'etively ommuniting nd dvoE ting ethil nd professionl stndrds in the onE text of groupEsed deisionEmkingF ould this hve led to further followEup on the erly signs of lekge of the ouplingsc

gould pred hve hndled more protively the lst minute hnge in the hemil formultion of the pint removerc

Table 3.7

Section Conclusion

sntegrte the retrotive nd protive senses of responsiility into your group9s presenttion for the puli heringF hon9t just work on the retive pprohD iFeFD try to void lme nd st it on the other stkeholder groupsF hink protively on how to prevent future prolemsD respond to this identD nd turn the events into positive opportunities to relize vlueF
Questions to Get Started

ss pred @lmeA responsile for the ident nd even wnuel9s dethc @se the onditions of imE putility nd the exuse tle to get strted on this questionFA hid lly nd ghuk evde their responsiility y delegting key prolems nd deisions to thoseD like plnt mnger wnuelD in hrge of opertionsc @trt the nswer to this question y determining the di'erent role responsiilities of the stkeholders in this situtionFA ht kind of responsiility does the prent prenh ompny er for shifting funds wy from hust9s new plnt to (nne further quisitions nd mergersc @vooking t the modules on orporte soil responsiility nd orporte governne will help you to frme this in terms of orporte responsiilityFA ho engineering professionl soieties shre responsiility with predc @he gse nd xi odes of ethis will help hereF ry enhmrking orporte odes of ethis to see if they provide nything relevntF vook t the positiveD protive morl responsiilities of professionl soietiesF ht n they do to provide morl support for engineers fing prolems similr to those pred fesc hink less in terms of lme nd more in terms of prevention nd vlue reliztionF

3.4.3 Presentation on Moral Responsibility


[Media Object]

3.4.4 What you are going to do...


In this module, you will...

IF pply nd integrte the onept of morl repsonsiility @lme responsiilityD shring responsiilityD responsiility s virtueA to situtions tht rise in the videoD 4snident t worlesF4 PF lern the si ftsD hrter pro(lesD nd deisionEsitutions portryed in the videoD 4snident t worlesF4 ou will see the video in lss nd exmine the sript nd tudy quide t the xsii wesiteF QF work in groups to develop nd ply stkeholder role in (tionl puli heringF our group9s spei( tsks re outlined elow in one of the group pro(les providedF sn generlD you will prepre sttement dvning your group9s interests nd points of viewF he responsiility frmeworks will help you ntiipte questionsD prepre responsesD nd defend your role ginst those in other roles who
8 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Moral Responsibility.pptx>

VT

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

my try to shift the lme your wyF fut most importntD this module provides tools to help you go eyond the retiveD lme stndpointF RF prtiipte in mok puli hering y plying out your group9s ssigned roleF SF work with the other groups to derief on this tivityF he puli hering will generte lot of informtionD idesD nd positionsF herie(ng will help you to struture nd summrize this mterilF he ojetive here is to lern y doingF fut to truly lern from wht you hve doneD you need to re)et refullyF
3.4.4.1 Stakeholder Roles Mexican Government Regulatory Agencies

vook t yre regultions on sfetyF ho ny of these pply to the inident t morlesF y prtiulr ttendion to responsiilities for providing sfe working onditions nd to mndted proedures for ident preventionF row s government geny n you enourge ompnies to tke tive nd positive mesures to inrese workple sfety nd prevent identsc vook t ie or tge for ides on environmentl issuesF ht re hust9s responsiilities regrding lol environmentl onditionsc @hould the wexin government require lining wste wter pondscA es n o0il representing wexin government regultory geniesD how do you lne the sfety nd environmentl needs of wexin itizens nd workers with the need to ttrt foreign ompnies nd investors to wexio to promote eonomi developmentF hould sfety nd environmentl vlues ever e trded o' to promote eonomi developmentc
Workers at Morales Plant

wnuelD your plnt mngerD hs just diedF ou nd your oEworkers re onerned out the sfety of this new plntF gn you think of ny other issues tht my e of onern herec hevelop sttement tht summrizes your interestsD onernsD nd rightsF ere these eing ddressed y those t hust nd the prent ompny in prnec he wexin gommission estlished to investigte this 4inident4 will sk you questions to help determine wht use it nd who is to lmeF ht do you think some of these questions will ec row should you respond to themc ho do you think is to lme for the inident nd wht should e done in responsec
Designing Engineer: Fred

ixmine pred9s tions nd prtiiption from the stndpoint of the three responsiilty frmeworks mentioned oveF hevelop two minute position pper summrizing pred9s interestsD onernsD nd rightsF entiipte questions tht the gommission might rise out pred9s position nd develop protive nd e'etive responsesFF fe sure to use the three responsiility frmeworksF ss pred to lme for wht hppenedc sn wht wyc ht n professionl soieties do to provide morl support to memers in di0ult situtionsc row n interested prties provide morl supportc pinllyD wht opportunities rose in the video prtiing morl responsiility s virtuec @hink out wht n exemplry engineer would hve done di'erentlyFA
Phaust Management: Wally and Chuck

ghuk nd lley mde severl deisions reponding to the prent ompny9s udget uts tht pled pred under tight onstrintsF sdentify these deisionsD determine whether there were vile lterntivesD nd deide whether to justifyD exuseDor explin your deisionsF hevelop two minute position pper tht you will present to the ommissionF

VU

entiipte gommission questions into your responsiility nd develop e'etive responses to possile ttempts y other groups to shift the lme your wyF
Corporate Governance: French Parent Company

ou represent the prenh owners who hve reently required hust ghemilF ou hve reently shifted funds from hust opertions to (nne further mergers nd quisitions for your ompnyF ht re your supervisory responsiilities in reltion to hustc hevelop preliminry two minute presenttion summrizing your position nd interestsF entiipte likely ommission questions long with possile ttempts y other groups to shift the lme your wyF
Engineering Professional Society

ou represent the professionl engineering soiety to whih pred elongsF hevelop two minute presenttion tht outlines your group9s interests nd positionF entiipte possile gommission questionsD develop responsesD nd ntiipte ttempts y other groups to shift the lme your wyF espond to whether your professionl soiety should extend morl support to engineers in di0ult positions like pred9sF hould they lrify ode provisionsc rovide legl support nd ounselingc wke ville professionlGethil support hotlinec
Investigative Commission

his role will e plyed y your instrutor nd other 4guests4 to the lssroomF ry to ntiipte the ommissions questionsF hese will e sed on the onditions of lme responsiilityD the priniple of responsive djustmentD nd responsiility s virtueF
3.4.4.2 Module Time Line

wodule reprtion etivitiesX ed module nd visit nieeForg to get generl orienttion to 4snident t worles4 Class OneX th ideoF eeive group roleF fegin prepring your group roleF Class TwoX ork within your group on prepring your group9s sttementD ntiipting questionsD nd developing responsesF Class ThreeX rtiipte in the uli reringF he group representing the wexin gommission will onvene the puli heringD listen to the group9s sttementsD sk questionsD nd prepre rief presenttion on the gommission9s (ndings Class fourX glss will derief on the previous lss9s puli heringF his will egin with the gomE mission9s (ndings

3.4.5 Incident at Morales and Jeopardy


Jeopardy and Incident at Morales 9 [Media Object] Jeopardy on Socio-Technical Systems in Incident at Morales 10 [Media Object]
9 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy_IM.pptx> 10 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy_SOV_IM.pptx>

VV

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

3.4.6 What have you learned?


Listen to the ndings of the Mexican Government Commision. Write a short essay responding to the following questions. Be prepared to read parts of your essay to your professor and to your classmates.

IF ho you gree with the gommissions (ndingsc hy or why notc fe sure to frme your rguments in terms of the responsiility frmeworks provided oveF PF ere there ny opportunities to o'er pred morl support y those who shred responsiility with himc ht were these opportunitiesF rowD in generlD n professionl soieties support their memers when they (nd themselves in ethilly di0ult situtionsc QF ht opportunities rise for exerising resonsiility s n exellenec hih were tken dvntge ofc hih were lostc RF pinllyD quikly list themes nd issues tht were left out of the puli hering tht should hve een inludedc
References

IF PF QF RF SF TF UF VF WF IHF

pF rF frdley @IWTPA ithil tudiesD issy sF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF rerert pingretteF @IWTUA yn esponsiilityF xew orkX fsi fooksD sxgX QEITF vrry wy @IWWPA hring esponsiilityF ghigoX niversity of ghigo ressF vrry wy @IWWTA he oilly esponsive elfX oil heory nd rofessionl ithisF ghigoX niversity of ghigo ressX PVERTF wihel rithrd @PHHTA rofessionl sntegrityX hinking ithillyF vwreneDuX niversity of unss ressF vwrene flum @IWWRA worl ereption nd rtiulrityF gmridgeD uX gmridge niversity ressX QHETI eristotleF xihomhen ithisD fook QD ghpters IEQF idmund vF ino's @IWVTA undries nd irtuesX eginst edutivism in ithisF vwreneD uX niversity of unss ressF FrF lsh @IWUHA 4rideD hme nd esponsiilityD4 he hilosophil urterlyD ol PHD no UVD tnury IWUHX IEIQF elert plores nd heorh qF tohnson @IWVQA 4golletive esponsiility nd rofessionl oles4 in ithis epril IWVQX SQUESRSF
11

3.5 Ethical Issues in Risk Management for Business


note:

hese links will help you to explore di'erent topis relted to this module9s ontentsF

- Epidemological studies are "natural" experiments. But allowing naturally occurring harms to continue without abatement and withholding information from risk bearers creates serious ethical problems. Read the Tuskegee case as presented at the Western Michigan University Ethics Center to learn about a nororious case in which patient rights were egregiously violated for the sake of "continuing the experiment." - Risk has meaning only in relation to the socio-technical system in which it operates. Click on the link above to find out more about STS analysis and how it can be used to anticipate problems.
11 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m19085/1.1/>.

VW

- Informed consent is a fundament right in the responsible management of risk. Click on the link to the Belmont Report to find out more about this right and its historical importance. - The Online Ethics Center's definition of informed consent includes the conditions necessary for fulfilling this right.

Word Version of this Template

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIWHVSGltestG ieg u h iwveiFdo
Figure 3.5:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

3.5.1 Introduction
Tilting at Windmills in Puerto Rico

he ompnyD indmrD hs purhsed lnd djent to the fosque eo de quni in uerto ioF heir pln is to uild smll windmill frm to generte eletriity tht n e sold to the puli utilityD the eutoridd de inergi iletriF indmill tehnology is onsidered desirle euse wind is n undntD lenD nd renewle resoureF fut lol opposition hs stlled this e'ortF gonerned itizens ojetD (rst of llD to eing exluded from the puli herings tht were held to ssess indmr9s windmill projetF ypponents lso lim tht windmill tehnology n kill irds on the endngered speies list nd dmge the frgile eosystems proteted in the foseque eo de quniD n importnt nture preserve in uerto ioF hey lso suspet tht the windmill projet hs the ulterior motive of ttrting industril development into southern uerto ioF ht risks ompny windmill tehnologyD nd how n they e delt with ethillyc
The real price of cell phones

eentlyD series of mirowve ntenns hve een uilt in uerto io in the etly hills etween the western ities of wyguez nd woF hi'erent kinds of ntenns serve di'erent purposesY some provide itizens with ell phone servie while others mke it possile to trk hurrines nd other wether develE opmentsF he prolem is the impt on the people who live in the surrounding resF wny ntenns hve een uilt within (ve hundred yrds of privte residenes with some s lose s one hundred yrdsF vol residents were not onsulted when the deision ws mde to uild themF hey lim tht they hve su'ered disproportionte numer of helth prolems used y the iwps @eletroEmgneti (eldsA generted y the ntennsF gonstrution nd repir tivities our t ll hoursD dy nd nightD disrupting sleep nd other norml tivitiesF row should the ell phone ompniesD government geniesD nd other stkeholders respond to these helth nd sfety onernsc row should the possile risks to helth nd sfety ssoited with ntenns e ssessed nd ommunitedc
No Copper Mines in Puerto Rico

trting in the midEIWSH9sD severl interntionl mining ompnies hve ttempted to reeive permission from the uerto in government to onstrut mines for gold nd opperF yreodies loted in the mountinous

WH

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

entrl region of the islndD hve ttrted severl proposls for mining projets rnging from lrge to smll sleF gonerns out water pollution @produed y tilings or mining wste produtsAD air pollution @ompnying the proposed opper smelting plntsAD nd disruption of the agrarian lifestyle still live in entrl uerto io eme foused into onsiderle politil nd environmentl oppositionF everl mining proposls were defeted s itizens9 interest groups formed nd intensively loied the government not to permit miningF yne mining siteD loted in the gl ejo regionD hs een relssi(ed s nture preserve to lok further ttempts t miningF wining ould ene(t the res round the proposed mining sites y generting muh needed jos nd tx revenueF fut these ene(ts ome ompnied y inresed risks to the environment s well s puli sfety nd helthF row should these risks e ssessedc nder wht onditionsD if nyD ould they e deemed eptlec ht proesses should e set into ple y the government to ensure dequte puli prtiiption in determining whether these risks re eptlec row should risk informtion e ommunited to puli whih is isolted nd still lrgely illitertec
"No" to the Coal Plant

sn the erly to midEIWWH9sD onsortium of FF nd pnish power genertion ompnies proposed n eletriityEgenerting plnt for the wyguez re tht employed oEgenertion tehnology fueled y olF xot only would this privtely owned plnt sell the eletriity it produed to the eutoridd de inergi de iletriY it would lso sell the stem yEprodut to the two lol tun nning plnts tht hd een operting in the re sine the IWTHsF fut lol opposition rose to deril the projetF gol is nonErenewle resoure tht produes noxious yEproduts tht ontriute to id rin nd glol wrmingF qeologists pointed out tht the plnt would e loted dngerously lose to n tive erthquke fultF invironmentl groups rised onerns out wter pollutionD espeilly further deteriortion of the lredy endngered orl reef in the wyguez fy due to the dishrge of the heted wter employed to ool the omponents of the proposed plntF sn televised puli heringsD ompny engineers testi(ed on design modi(tions to keep endngered speies suh s mntee from eing suked into the plnt through wter intke pipesF yn the other side of the deteD the uerto io energy utilityD the euthoridd de inergi iletriD predited energy shortges eginning round the yer PHHHF @hese wrnings hve een vindited y the frequent rownEouts nd lkEouts tht residents urrently su'er throughFA hey lso rgued tht the western prt of the islnd needed its own energyEgenerting filities to hold onto ruil industries like the textile nd tun nning plnts loted in the reF pinllyD they turned to the use of ol to generte eletriity s n e'etive sustitute for petroleum whih is used to generte most of the eletriity used y uerto insF ine the rejetion of the projetD the textile industry hs ll ut disppered nd one of the two tun nning plnts hs reloted to iwnF gn government ply the role of 4honest roker4 etween privte industry nd suspiious pulic hould puli utilities ontrt with privte industry to meet energy nd other infrstruture needsc ht re the environmentl risks of oEgenerting tehnologyc row n these e responsily ommunited to the pulic row should ll stkeholders weigh environmentlD sfetyD nd helth risks ginst infrstruture expnsion nd eonomi developmentc
Ethical Issues in Risk Management for Business

ih of these ses rises risk issues tht nnot e settled y proess lone ut require sustntive dete fousing on the frgile ethil vlues emedded in the surrounding soioEtehnil systemF he stkeholders hve t times worked together ut more often engge in on)it over seemingly inomptile yet essentil interestsF rivte industry hs designed these projets to respond to relD mrketEsed needsF por exmpleD uerto io desprtely needs lenD renewle nd sustinle soures of energy to protet its frgile environment nd redue its dependeny on foreign oilF et other stkeholdersD espeilly puli with omplex nd vitl interestsD hve nded together to oppose these nd other inititivesF vol residents demnd right to livle environmentD rise helth nd sfety onernsD nd ssert ivil rights sed on distriutive justieD free nd informed onsentD nd due proessF st experienes with mitious ut poorly designed nd exeuted usiness nd government projets hve onsumed soil pitl nd undermined puli trustF gontinuing development under these onditions hs proven di0ultF he uerto in government hs onsistently een in the middle ttempting to medite etween these ontending prtiesF gn government ply the role of 4honest roker4 nd help led on)iting stkeholders to politil nd soil onsensusc gn government led the sustntive ethil dete into pplitions of distriutive justieD informed onsentD

WI nd sustinle environmentl vluec yr should it step out of the wy nd let the puli nd privte industry (ght it out on their ownc ht role do free @or semiEontrolledA mrkets hve to ply in mediting this on)itc his module will help you explore these prolems through the prism of riskF ou will study the di'erent spets of risk nd lern out their ethil nd soil implitionsF he (nl ojetive is to help you mnge risk ethilly through responsile ssessmentD pereption nd ommunitionF

3.5.2 What you need to know . . .


orking responsily with risk requires reful integrtion of sustntive ethil issuesD distinguishing di'erent senses of riskD nd mstering the skills required in morlly responsile risk ommunitionF sn other wordsD it is more thn just implementing mehnil proess tht imposes unwnted onsensus on disprte groups nd individulsF @ee ndel for n rgument tht pst ethil ontroversies suh s slvery hd to e settled y mens of sustntive detes rther thn proedurl mneuversFA ithis is importnt to risk euse sienti( risk ssessment is vlueEldenF lues permete deisions suh s hoie of method s well s deisions on how to distriute the urden implied y the unertinty involved in risk ssessment nd mngementF his setion will introdue you to si morl onepts involved in risk nd o'er informtion on how risk is ssessedD mngedD pereivedD nd ommunitedF
Responsible Risk Management: Associated Basic Moral Concepts

IF RightX e pity of tion tht others re oliged to reognize nd respetF e key right in the ontext of risk is free nd informed onsentF @ee elowA PF DutyX he oligtion to reognize nd respet the essentil pities of tions of othersF huties re orreltive to rightsF por exmpleD the duty to void pternlism in the mngement nd ommuniE tion of risk is orreltive to the right of free nd informed onsentF QF VirtueX esponsile risk mngement n lso e formulted s virtueF irtues re trits tht extend 4deep down4 into n individul9s hrterF hey inlude n orienttion towrd exellene in deision nd exeutionD pereptul sensitivities tht help to unover morl relevneD nd emotionsGttitudes tht help motivte deisions nd tions oriented towrd hieving exelleneF por exmpleD responE sile risk ommunitor hs uriosity tht drives understnding nd ppreiting riskD onern for the well eing of the risk ererD nd strong desire to ommunite risk informtion truthfully nd lerlyF RF JusticeX tustie n e generlly de(ned s giving eh his or her dueF histriutive justieD in the ontext of riskD presries fir distriution of the ene(ts nd hrms ssoited with tking ertin riskF sdel pttern pprohes rgue tht distriution should onform to pttern suh s equality @equl shres to everyoneAD need @gretest shre to those with the gretest needsAD nd merit @gretest shre to those who demonstrte superior meritAF Ideal pattern approaches require ontinul redistriution y government through mesures suh s progressive inome txF Historical process approaches prefer mintining urrent ptterns of distriution provided the historil proess leding to them hs een free of fore or frudF tustie in the ontext of risk lies in determining how the ene(ts nd hrms ssoited with risk re distriutedD nd how the unertinty tht permetes the risk ssessment nd mngement proess is distriuted mong those involvedF SF ResponsibilityX rerert pingrette de(nes responsiility @in the ontext of riminl insnityA s @morlA response to @morlA relevneF hi'erent senses of responsiility inlude uslD legl @vsF morlAD roleD pityD nd lmeF esponsiility n e retive when it fouses on the pst nd the ssigning of prise nd lmeY or it n e protive when it turns to preventing hrm @minimizing riskA nd relizing vlueF TF TrustX he expettion of morl ehvior on the prt of othersF rust is uilt out of the soil pitl umulted through suessful intertions with othersF st is onsumed or undermined y those who hoose to free ride on soil oopertionD iFeFD ompete while others re oopertingF he prisoner9s dilemm @see link oveA provides simpli(ed model to show the frgility of trust @mIUQTUAF
Key Terms in Risk Practices

WP

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

IF SafetyX 4e thing is sfe ifD were its risks fully knownD those risks would e judged eptle in light of settled vlue priniplesF4 @sii IHVA PF RiskX 4e risk is the potentil tht something unwnted nd hrmful my ourF4 @sii IHVA QF NIMBYX his ronym stnds for 4xot in my kyrdF4 gitizens often (nd the risks ssoited with projet or produt eptle only if these re loted somewhere elseD iFeFD in nother person9s kyrdF xswf hs mde it next to impossile for the FF hyi @heprtment of inergyA to (nd n eptle permnent storge fility for nuler wsteF RF Free and Informed ConsentX he right to deide if risk is eptle sed on ess to pertinent informtion nd sene of ompulsionF he Belmont Report de(nes informed onsent in the folE lowing wyX 4tht sujetsD to the degree tht they re pleD e given the opportunity to hoose wht shll or shll not hppen to themF his opportunity is provided when dequte stndrds for informed onsent re stis(edF4 he ynline ithis genter spells out onditions neessry for ful(lling informed onsentX @A disclosure @of informtion to the ptientGsujetAY @Acomprehension @y the ptientGsujet of the informtion eing dislosedAY @A voluntariness @of the ptientGsujet in mking hisGher hoieAY @dA competence @of the ptientGsujet to mke deisionAY nd @eA consent @y the ptientGsujetAF SF PaternalismX yften experts re tempted to t s overly onerned prents nd tke over the deisionE mking perogtives of the puli euse they @the expertsA 4know etterF4 ternlismD while well motivtedD is sed on the misoneption tht the puli doesn9t understnd risk euse it often rehes di'erent onlusions on the eptility of given risk thn the expertF fut the puli often ppreites risk from roderD riher stndpointD espeilly if the expert hs properly nd lerly ommunited itF es will e seen elowD the puli pereption of risk is rtionl euse it is preditleF
Dimensions of Risk

Risk AssessmentX he proess of determining the degree of risk ssoited with ertin produt or proess using sienti( methods suh s epidemologil study or niml iossyF hile using sienti( proedures to gin mesure of extnessD risk ssessment still rings with it reminder of unertinty tht nnot e elimintedF e risk ssessment issues into two unertintiesD the unertinty s to whether the hrm will our nd the unertinty s to who @out of the mny exposedA will e hrmedF ithis enters into the piture s stkeholders negotite how to del with nd distriute this unertintyF esponsile risk prtie requires integrting the on)iting vlues nd interests of the involved stkeholders in ssessingD ommunitingD pereivingD nd mnging riskF st lso requires sis of trust tht is di0ult to uild up given the diverse plyers tht mke up the risk tking nd ering situtionF Risk ManagementX he politilGsoilGethil proess of determining if risk of ertin degree is eptle given the settled vlue priniples generlly held in the ommunity of the risk erersF esponsile risk mngement requires @A ssessing hrm through the responsile exerise of sienti( method nd @A ommuniting the ssessed risk to those likely to er itF esponsile risk mngement @iA honors rights suh s free nd informed onsent nd due proessD @iiA voids on)its of interests in determining nd ommuniting riskD @iiiA onsientiously works towrd just distriution of risks nd ene(tsD nd @ivA voids pternlismF Risk PerceptionX row people pereive risk di'ers from the stritD sienti(lly determined degree of riskF por exmpleD risk pereption ftors in voluntrinessD ontrolD expeted ene(tsD lk of knowledgeD nd dred of dverse onsequenes in working towrd judgment on the eptility of given risk y the ommunity of risk erersF feuse the puli pereives risk over this rod kground of sienti(D soilD politilD nd ethil ftorsD it frequently rrives t onlusions t odds with judgments rehed using stritly sienti( methodsF hose tking pternlisti ttitude towrd the puli tke this di'erene s evidene of the irrtionlity of the puli nd the need for the experts to tken things into their own hndsF roweverD the puli ttitude towrd risk is intelligile nd rtionl when this roderD risk pereption perspetive is tken into ountF

WQ

Risk CommunicationX his dimension fouses on how to ommunite risk informtion to risk erers in order to filitte distriutive justieD free nd informed onsentD nd due proessF esponE sile risk ommunition requires trnslting sienti(lly determined informtion into nonEtehnil voulryF enlogies nd omprisons help s does the use of onrete lnguge nd ommonly unE derstood imgesF fut improper use of omprisions nd nlogies onfuses the puli nd undermines trustF PublicX those persons whose lk of informtionD tehnil knowledgeD or time for deliertion renders them more or less vulnerle to the powers n engineer wields on ehlf of his lient or employer hvis
Assessing Risk

Epidemiological StudiesX e re onstntly exposed to di'erent risks tht hve eome inherent in our soioEtehnil irumstnesF hese ongoingD unintentionl experiments re exploited through epidemiologil studies whih re designed to mesure the orreltion etween exposure to risk ftors nd the ourrene of hrmF por exmpleD re those living lose to iwps @eletroEmgneti (elds generted y tehnologies like eletril power linesA suseptile to ertin hrms like leukemic en epidemiologil study would ompre inidents of this disese ourring in popultion exposed to iwps with inidents of this disese ourring in popultionD unexposed to iwsF sf there were signi(nt risk rtio @usully set t three times the inidents of the hrm in the unexposedD ontrol groupA then this provides evidene tht exposure to iwps somehow uses leukemiF @purther study would e required to on(rm this hypothesis nd unover the usl mehnism y whih exposure produes the hrmFA ipidemiologil studies re di0ult to rry out nd re lwys ompnied y unertinty due to the limittions of the methods employedF ypillyD the hrm my tke yers to eome mnifest fter exposureF pinding popultion stle enough to determine the e'ets of long term exposure is di0ult euse individuls frequently move from ple to pleF uh nturl experiments lso ring with them gret del of 4noise4Y ftors other thn iwps ould e using leukemi or iwps ould e interting with other elements in the environment to use the hrmF pinllyD there is the uskegee ftorF sn the notorious uskegee experimentD dotors refused to tret efrin emerins for syphilis in order to study the long term progression of the diseseF ixposing popultion to risk ftor without informing them of the potentil hrm in order to gin sienti( informtion violtes the right of free nd informed onsent nd the duty not to hrmF Animal BioassaysX isk informtion n often e otined y exposing nimls to the risk ftor nd heking for emerging hrmsF hile usefulD niml iossys re sujet to severl prolemsF ixperimenting on nimls rises mny of the sme ethil onerns s experimenting on humnsF tilitrins rgue tht nimls merit morl onsidertion euse they re sentient nd n su'erF eniml experiments re thus sujet to the three sX redueD re(neD nd void replitionF @ee fernrd ollinsA eondD these experiments rete two kinds of unertintyF @A rojetions from niml to humn physiology n led reserhers stry euse of the di'erenes etween the twoY for exmpleD nimls re more sensitive to ertin hrms thn humnsF @A rojeting the results from intensive short term niml exposure into the long term n lso introdue errors nd unertintyF husD s with epidemiologil studiesD there re unertinties inherent in niml iossysF isk ssessmentD while usefulD is urdened with unertinty due to the limits of wht we knowD wht we n knowD nd wht we re le to lern within the ethil prmeters of humn nd niml experimenttionF gruil ethil issues rise s we deide how to distriute this unertintyF ho we ple its urden on the risk tker y ontinuing with projet until it is proven unsfe nd hrmfulc yr do we suspend the tivity until it is proven sfe nd hrmEfreeF he (rst gives priority to dvning risky tivitiesF he seond gives priority to puli sfety nd helthD even to the point of suspending the new tivities under questionF
Risk Perception

he frmework from whih the puli pereives risk is roder nd riher thn tht of risk ssessmentF he following (ve ftors in)uene how the puli judges the eptility of risk ssessed t given mgnitudeF

WR

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

VoluntarinessX e risk tht is voluntrily tken is more eptle thn risk of the sme mgnitude tht tken involuntrilyF husD driving one9s r to puli hering on the risks of proposed nuler power plnt my e riskier thn living next to the plntF fut driving to the puli herings is done voluntrily while living next to the plnt is su'ered involuntrilyF eording to studiesD voluntry risk is s muh s IHHH times more eptle thn n involuntry risk of the sme mgnitudeF ControlX glosely relted to voluntriness is ontrolF e risk under one9s ontrol @or under the ontrol of someone trustedA is more eptle thn risk of the sme mgnitude tht is not under ontrolF ghrles errowD in Normal Accidents rgues ginst nuler energy tehnology euse its design llows for omponents tht re tightly oupled nd intert with nonliner ptterns of uslityF hese two hrteristis mke it possile for smll events to strt hin retions tht issue into lrge sle disstersF feuse these smll events nnot e isolted @they re tightly oupledA nd euse they intert unpreditly @they disply nonliner uslityAD they espe ontrol nd led to uneptle risksF Perceived/Expected BenetsX e risk of given mgnitude is more eptle if it omes ompE nied with sustntil expeted ene(tsF yne tkes the risk of driving to the herings on the proposed nuler plnt euse the ene(ts of getting ruil informtion on this projet outweigh the risks of hving r identF iding motoryle is risky ventureF fut the ene(ts reeived from this tivity in the form of enjoyment mke the risk more eptle thn risk of the sme mgnitude ompnied with less ene(tsF Unknown FactorsX e risk tht is not understood is less eptle thn one tht is well understoodF iding iyle is risky venture utD euse its risks re well knownD it is more eptle thn other tivities ompnied y risks of similr mgnitudesF his ftor is highly pertinent to iwps @eletroEmgneti (eldsAF hile iwps re ssoited with ertin illnesses like leukemiD their e'ets re not well known nd re not understood y the puliF his unknown element mkes living ner iwp produing tehnologies less eptleF Dread FactorsX e risk my e known nd its usl reltion to ertin illnesses well understoodF xevertheless it my e less eptle euse the ondition it uses is one tht is highly drededF iwpsD euse they hve een ssoited with leukemi in hildrenD re muh less eptle euse of this 4dred ftorF4 he uses of rdition sikness re well known s re the stges of the illnessF fut euse this kind of illness is highly drededD ompnying risks re less eptle thn other risks of the sme mgnitude with less of the dred ftorF eginD ompre rshing on iyle with oming down with ner to get n ide of how dred permetes the pereption of riskF Against PaternalismX gonsider the possiility tht preditility is one omponent of rtionlityF hen test this hypothesis in the ses presented t the eginning of this moduleF gn the risks posed y eh projet e exmined in terms voluntrinessD suseptiility to ontrolD expeted ene(tsD unknown ftorsD nd dred ftorsc sf soD then the puli pereption of this risk is rtionl euse it n e predited nd understoodF husD even though memers of the puli might (nd other risks of the sme!or even greter!mgnitude more eptleD these pereptul ftors would render the puli9s judgment intelligile nd preditleF sf ll of this is so @nd you will e testing this hypothesis in the exerises elowA then pternlism on the prt of the expert would not e justi(edF purthermoreD these insights into how risk is pereived y the puli should provide you with vlule insight into how to ommunite risk to the puliF
Responsible Risk Communication

Telling the TruthX gertinlyD responsile risk ommunition should strt with the ommitment to tell the truthF fut the virtue of truthfulness is more omplited thn it might seem t (rst glneF por exmpleD were n expert to tell nonexperts the whole truth this might onfuse themD espeilly if the ount is loded with omplex tehnil explntions nd jrgonF ruthfulness might require some simpli(tion @holding some things k or putting them in di'erent termsAD judicious omprisonsD nd the use of onrete imgesF husD the virtue of truthfulness requires @Aunderstnding the udiene nd @A outlining their pereptionsD onernsD feelingsD nd needsF ith this in mindD here re some

WS ftors tht re useful in ommuniting risk responsily nd truthfullyF Know the audienceX ht is their level of understndingD their needsD nd their pereptionsF por exmpleD do they pereive the risk s voluntryD under ontrolD ompnied with sustntil ene(tsD ompnied y e'ets tht re well knownD nd of low dred ftorc he risk pereption frmework desried ove will help you to ommunite risk in helpful nd responsile mnnerF Take measures to avoid deceiving the audienceX he gp etween the expert @those in the knowA nd the puli is sometimes quite lrgeF his retes the tempttion to (ll tht gp with less then truthful ontentF evoiding deeption requires more thn just refrining from telling outright liesF st lso requires tking mesures to void sutle mnipultion nd unintentionl deeptionF Guard against unintentional deceptionX @A fe reful when using rhetoril devisesF @A se risk omprisons nd nlogies to provide the puli with enhmrksD not to persude them tht euse they ept risk they should ept risk F @A fe sure to point out the limits of omprisons nd nlogiesF @hriving to the puli hering is risk of greter mgnitude thn living next to nuler plnt ut this does not inlude key ftors suh s voluntrinessD ontrolD nd expeted ene(tsF @dA evoid on)its of interestF sn exerise one elowD you will e looking t n exmple of risk ommunition tken from the movie SilkwoodF hink out whether this ommunition is reponsile nd honestF ho the interests of the risk ommunitors oinide with those of the udienec ho the interests of the ommunitors is the ontent of the ommunition in ny wyc @por exmpleD does the upoming vote to keep the union ply role in this risk ommunition tcA

3.5.3 What you will do ...


sn this setionD you will prtie mnging nd ommuniting risk informtionF sn mnging risk informE tionD you will prtie how to empowerD informD nd involve the riskEering puliF sn ommuniting riskD you will prtie di'erent wys of helping the puli to delierte on the eptility of ertin risksF
Exercise One

visten to the dotors ommuniting the risks ssoited to exposure to plutonium while working in the uerrEwqee plnt in the movieD ilkwoodF row e'etive is this ommunitive tc @ixplin your ssertionFA row truthful is this ommunitive tc @ss truth out risk vlueEfree sienti( informtion or do vlues ply ruil role in our deliertions on riskc ht kind of vlues re t stke herecA visten to ghrlie floom9s presenttion to the wilgro itizens9 meeting on the eonomi nd soil risks ssoited with the hevine eretionl genterF hesrie in detil the udiene9s retionF enlyze oth the ontent nd style of floom9s short speehF hoes he filitte or impede the proess nd sustne of deliertion over riskc ewrite floom9s speeh nd deliver it efore the lss s if they were itizens of wilgroF ul lovi pitures prt of the risk pereption proess in terms of unknown nd dred ftorsF sn generlD the higher the dred nd unknown ftorsD the less eptle the riskF yther ftors tht enter into the puli pereption of risk re voluntrinessD ontrolD expeted ene(tsD nd the firness of the distriution of risks nd ene(tsF qiven this depiting of the puli9s pereption of riskD how do you expet the uerr wqee employees to ret to the risk informtion eing presented y the dotorsc row will the itizens of wilgro ret to the risk informtion they re reeiving on the ethilD soilD nd eonomi impts of the hevine eretionl rojetcF
Exercise Two: Risk Perception

ghoose one of the ses presented ove in the sntrodution to this moduleF hesrie those who fll into the puli stkeholder group in this seF @ee the ove de(nition of 4puli4A sdentify the key risks posed in your seFF

WT

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

hesrie how the puli is likely to pereive this risk in terms of the followingX voluntrinessD pereived ene(tsD ontrolD unknown ftors nd dred ftorsF qiven this pereption of the riskD is the puli likely to (nd it eptlec
Exercise Three: Risk Communication

ou re representtive from one of the privte usiness involved in the ove se our jo is to ommunite to the puli @whose risk pereption you studied in exerise twoA the risk ssessment dt you hve olleted on the projet in question hevelop strtegy of ommunition tht is sed on @A legitimte risk omprisons nd nlogiesD @A tht is nonEpternlistiD @A tht responds to the mnner in whih the puli is likely to pereive the risk@sA in questionD nd @dA is open to ompromise sed on legitimte puli interests nd onernsF
Exercise Four (optional)

grry out exerises two nd three using either the Milagro Beaneld War town meeting or the union meeting from SilkwoodF retend you re ghrlie floom nd re hrged with outlining the vrious risks tht ompny the hevine eretionl pilityF he rest of the lssD your udieneD will ply the role of the di'erE ent stkeholdersF hese ould inlude the @IA townspeople @owners of lol usinesses suh s uy erhulet9s r ody shop nd the generl store ownerD xik elAD @PA frmers @suh s toe wonE drgonAD @QA lol nd stte lw enforement o0ers @suh s ferne wontoy nd uyril wontonAD @RA vdd hevine eretion genter employees @suh s rorsethief horty who leds the onstrution rewAD @SA lol government o0ils @suh s myor mmy gntuA nd stte government o0ils @inluding the governorAD nd vdd hevine himselfF qive short presenttionF hen respond to questions nd ommentries from your lssmtes who re working with the di'erent roles outlined oveF ke vote on whether to go hed with the vdd hevine projetF

3.5.4 What did you learn?


Business and Risk

ou re gorporte ithis gompline y0er developing n ethis progrm for your orgniztionF row should your progrm respond to the ethis of risk issues disussed in this modulec row should your orpoE rtion go out identifying nd ommuniting risk ftors to employeesc row should your orportion go out identifying nd ommuniting risk ftors to other stkeholders suh s ustomersD lol ommunityD nd government geniesc

3.5.5 Appendix
Bibliography

IF govelloD FFD ndmnD FwF nd loviD F @IWWIA 4quidelines for gommuniting snformtion eout ghemil isks i'etively nd esponsilyD4 in Acceptable EvidenceX TTEWPF PF grnorD gFpF @IWWQA Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the LawF yxford niversity ressX vondonF QF pingretteD rF @IWUIA Criminal InsanityF niversity of gliforni ressD ferkeleyD geX IUIF RF wyoD hFqFD rollnderD FhFD iditorsF @IWWIA Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk ManagementF yxford niversity ressX vondonF SF wyoD hFqF @IWWIA 4oiologil ersus wetsienti( iews of isk essessmentD4 in Acceptable EvidenceF yxford niversity ressX vondonX PRWEPVHF TF loviD F @IWWIA 4feyond xumersX e froder erspetive on isk ereption nd isk gommuniE tionD4 in Acceptable EvidenceX RVETSF

WU UF errowD gF @IWVRA Normal Accidents: Living with high-risk technologiesF fsi fooksD xDxF VF esonD tF @IWWHGIWWWA Human Error gmridge niversity ressX vondonF WF go'D wF @IWVSA Risk-Benet Analysis in Decisions Concerning Public Safety and HealthF uendllGruntX huuqueD sowF IHF go'D wF The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the EnvironmentF gmridge niversity ressX vondonF IIF ndelD wFtF @IWVPGIWWVA Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, 2nd EdF gmridge niversity ressD vondonF IPF hrderEprehetteF @IWWIA 4edutionist epprohes to iskD4 in Acceptable RiskF PIVEPRVF IQF hompsonD FfFD @IWWWA 4he ithis of ruthEelling nd the rolem of iskF4 Science and Engineering Ethics S@RAX RVWESIHF IRF 4qlossry4 ynline ithis genter for ingineering IGQIGPHHT TXSUXRT w xtionl edemy of ingiE neering eessedX turdyD heemer PUD PHHV wwwFonlineethisForgGgwGglossryFspx his optionl setion ontins dditionl or supplementry informtion relted to this moduleF st ould inludeX ssessmentD kground suh s supporting ethil theories nd frmeworksD tehnil informtionD disipline spei( informtionD nd referenes or linksF

3.5.6 EAC ToolKit Project


3.5.6.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense12 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF

12 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

WV

CHAPTER 3.

CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY)

3.5.6.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

Chapter 4
CG (Corporate Governance)
4.1 Dierent Approaches to Corporate Governance
1

-The first link refers to a news story on Dunn's resignation from the Hewlett-Packard board. It is taken from PBS's Online NewsHour in a report delivered by Margaret Warner on September 22, 2006. -The second link provides background information on the Hughes Aircraft case profiled just below.
CORPORATE PROFILES:

Arthur Andersen

yne highly respeted ompnyD erthur endersen no longer exists hving gone nkrupt in the wke of the inron dissterF erthur endersen provided inron with onsulting nd ounting serviesF he onsulting division ws more suessful ut the ounting divisionD with its long trdition of outstnding ethil servieD ws the orportion9s koneF erthur endersen signed o' on inron9s use of mrkEtoEmrket ounting whih llowed inron to projet optimisti ernings from their dels nd then report these s tul pro(ts yers efore they would mterilize @if t llAF hey lso signed o' on inron9s deeptive use of speil purpose entities @iA to hide det y shifting it from one (tionl ompny to notherF ith erthur endersen9s lessingD inron reted the illusion of pro(tle ompny to keep stok vlue highF hen investors (nlly sw through the illusionD stok pries plummetedF o hide their ompliityD erthur endersen shredded inriminting doumentsF por federl proseutors this ws the lst strwF he tustie heprtment indited the one proud ounting (rm onvined tht this nd previous ethil lpses @unem nd ste wngementA showed pttern of unted wrongdoingF erthur endersen ws on(ted of ostruting justie on tune ISD PHHP nd losed its doors shortly fterF wven nd ilkind provided kground for this pro(le on erthur endersenF ee elow for omplete refereneF
AA Timeline (Taken from Smartest Guys in the Room)

IWIQ!pounded y erthur endersenX 4think strightD tlk stright4 tood up to ilrod ompny in erly yersF hen sked to hnge ounting stndrdsD endersen sidD 4here is not enough money in the ity of ghigo to mke ee give into lient demnds4 IWRUEIWTQ!veonrd pek eme president of ee sueeding erthur endersenF pek helped motivte the formtion of the pinnil eounting tndrds fordF ee lso served s onsiene of ounting profession ritiizing the profession nd the ig @eurities nd ixhnge gommissionA for 4filing to squre its soElled priniples with its professionl responsiility to the puliF4
1 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17367/1.5/>.

WW

IHH

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

IWTQEIWVW!low erosion of stndrds nd development of ompetition etween ounting nd onsultE ing divisionsF @gonsulting division ws developed to tke dvntge of pro(tle diretion in the (nnil induistryFA IWVW!gonsultnts hieve reltive utonomy s 4seprte usiness unitF4 @wvenX IRRA IWWU!gonsultnts rek from (rmF IWVVEIWWI!erthur endersen reeives SR million in fees from inron PHHH!inron pys ee SP millionF he lion shre of this ws for onsulting feesF tune ISD PHHP!ee found guilty of ostrution of justieF 4ody9s verdit is wrongFFFFhe relity here is tht this verdit represents only tehnil on(tionF4 @wvenX RHTA
Hughes Aircraft

rowrd rughes founded this ompny t the eginning of the twentieth enturyF rughes eme regulr supplier of militry hrdwre to the FF militryF sn the IWVH9s this inluded prts for surfe to ir misiles nd (ghter irrftF yne division speilized in omputer hips designed to onvert nlogue informtion to digitl for use in guidne systems nd deision support systemsF por exmpleD these hips interted with rdr to help pilots of (ghter irrft void enemy missiles nd lso served s n essentil omponent for missile guidne systemsD the soElled smrt omsF rughes hd won the ompetitive ids for these highly pro(tle militry projets ut they hd lso ommitted themselves to tight delivery shedules with in)exile dedlinesF end on top of thisD the FF eirfore demnded tht these omputer hips nd the systems tht integrted them e rigorously tested to show tht they ould withstnd the severe environmentl stresses of ttleF rughes soon fell ehind on the delivery of these omputer hips using hin retion of other delys oth within the ompny nd etween the ompny nd other links in the militry supply hinF he environmentl tests rried out y qulity ontrol under the supervision of prnk i hd worked hrd to omplete the timeEonsuming tests nd still remin on shedule with deliveriesY hot prts @prts in high demndA were pulled to the front of the testing line to keep things running ut soon even this wsn9t enough to prevent delys nd ustomer omplintsF qiving wy to these pressuresD some rughes supervisors pushed employees to pss hips without testing nd even to pss hips tht hd filed testsF wrgret qooderl nd uth srr resigned from the ompny nd lew the whistle on these nd other ethil filings tht hd eome rmpnt in rughesF o the orporte soil responsiility question eomes how to hnge this ulture of dishonesty nd restore orporte integrity to this one innovtive nd leding ompnyF @fkground informtion on rughes n e found t omputingsesForgFA
Patricia Dunn v. Tom Perkins on Corporate Governance

hen trii hunn eme 4nonEexeutive4 hirmn of rewlettEkrd9s ord on perury UD PHHSD she rought with her n outstnding reputtion in orporte governneF rer top priorities were to oversee the eletion of new giy fter the (ring of grly piorin whose mngement of the reent quisition of gompq hd lost her the r ord9s supportF hunn lso ws determined to stop leks to the press from highElevel r o0ilsF he viewed the ltter tsk s fundment omponent of the postEinron orporte governne pproh she felt ws needed s rewlettEkrd moved into the PIst enturyF fut her forml tke on gq ws t odds with powerful ord memer nd suessful venture pitlistD om erkinsF sn his opinionD too strit n pproh to gq stood in the wy of r ulture nd took fous wy from ompeting with hell nd sfw s well s stying on the utting edge in the development of new tehnologyF es the leks ontinuedD hunn9s investigtion into their soure @most likely disontented r ord memerA eme more tive nd rigorousF end the disgreements etween her nd ord memer erkins deepenedY their inomptile views on gq @nd other disgreementsA led to erkins9s resigntion from the r ordF hings eme ritil when erkins reeived letter from eFF nd F informing him tht n ount hd een estlished in his nme @ut without his knowledge or onsentA using the lst R digits of his soil seurity numer nd his privte phone numerF huring the rEled investigtion into the press leksD privte investigtion (rm used n illegl tehnique known s 4pretexting4 to otin on(dentil informtion out r ord memers nd news reporters inluding privte phone nd soil seurity numersF erkins reported this to the igD nd trii hunnD s hirmn nd de fto hed of the lek investigtionD ws indited on four riminl hrges inluding identity theftF

IHI por omplete se study see tewrt @omplete referene elowA nd enne vwrene nd tmes eerD fusiness nd oietyX tkeholdersD ithisD uli oliyD IQth edition @wqrwErillAX SHIESIQF hunn foused on inomptile views of orporte governne s one of the uses of the rift tht hd developed etween her nd erkins9sX "Tom's model of governance may be appropriate in the
world of venture capital, but it is outmoded and inappropriate in the world of public company governance." @tewrtD ITSA he lso mde ler her strong views on ord memers leking on(dentil informtion shred during ord meetings to the pressX "The most fundamental duties of a director the duties of deliberation and candorrely entirely upon the absolute trust that each director must have in one another's condentiality. This is true for trivial as well as inmportant matters, because even trivial information that nds its way from the boardroom to the press corrodes trust among directors. It is even more critical when discussions can aect stock prices....Leaking "good" information is as unacceptable as leaking "bad" informationno one can foretell how such information may advantage or disadvantage one investor relative to another." @tewrtD ISTA Questions

row n suessful orporte governne progrms e integrted into ompnies with freeEwheelingD innoE vtive ultures without dmpening retive nd imgintive inititivesc row does one mke sense of the fundmentl irony of this seD tht onsientious pursuit of orporte governne @ttking violtions of ord on(dentilityA n turn into violtion of orporte governne @violtion of the privy nd persons of innoent ord memersAc
Word Version of this Template

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t ` ieg u h iwveiFdob
Figure 4.1:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

4.1.1 Introduction
tmes fF tewrtD in New Yorker rtile out trii hunn nd rewlettEkrdD desries orporte governne s 4 term tht tehnilly refers to ll spets of running orportion ut in reent yers hs ome to emphsize issues of firnessD trnsprenyD nd ountilityF4 his module looks t orporte governne from the mro perspetiveD @IA exmining the mngement strtegies dopted y (rm to ensure ompline nd pursue exellene nd @PA from the stndpoint of government s it seeks to minimize unethil orporte ehvior nd to mximize the orportion9s ontriution to soil welfreF

4.1.2 What you need to know . . .


4.1.2.1 Prisoner's Dilemma: Cooperation or Competition?

holrly detes on orporte governne hve turned on the dvoy of di'erent pprohesD mny of whih n e modeled mthemtillyF wo pprohes re sed on the onepts of geny nd stewrdshipF @ee hvis etF lF in glrke PHHRA o enter into this deteD you will reent the 4risoner9s hilemmF4 smgine tht two ptrioti spiesD e nd fD hve just een ptured y the enemyF foth re pled in seprte interrogtion ells nd re eing pressured to onfess nd provide detils out their spying tivitiesF e nd

IHP

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

f would like to oordinte their tions ut the enemy hs kept them prt to prevent thisF heir ojetive is to pit e ginst f nother in order to get the desired informtionF o do thisD they hve set forth the following systems of motivtionsD iFeFD punishments nd rewrdsF
Options for the Prisoners

If both A and B confessF e nd f re put in jil for (ve yers ehF he net loss in this senrio is IHF his is the lest desirle lterntive from the olletive stndpointF If one confesses and the other does notF he onfessor is relesed immeditely while the nonE onfessor gets seven yers in prisonF his mximizes the onfessor9s self interest ut severly punishes the ptriotiD nonEonfessorF xet loss is UF If both do not confessF efter six months of hlfEherted interrogtion @most of this time is for proessing the prisoners9 releseAD oth re set free for lk of evideneF hile not mximizing self interest @this lies in onfessing while the other remins silentA this does mximizes overll welfre y produing net loss of only IF
Prisoner Dillema Options Summarized Prisoner A / Prisoner B Confess Not Confess Confess Not Confess

foth go to jil for S yers @xet loss is IHA f goes to jil for U yersF e is relesed @xet loss is UA
Table 4.1

e goes to jil for U yersF f is relesedF @xet loss is UA foth held for six monthsD then reE lesedF @xet los is IFHA

Assumptions in the Prisoner Dilemma

goopertion produes the est olletive option nd the seond est individul optionF hisD in turnD ssumes tht oopertion produes more soil welfre thn ompetitionF pree riding @ompetingA on the oopertion of others produes the most individul gins @for the free riderA ut the seond worst olletive resultsF oiety su'ers loses from the hrm done to the trustingD nonEonfessor nd from the overll loss of trust used y unpunished freeEridingF nlimitedD pure ompetition @oth prisoners onfessA produes the worst olletive results nd the seond worst individul resultsF wultiple itertions of the prisoner9s dilemm eventully led to oopertive ehviorF fut wht uses thisc @IA he trust tht emerges s the prisonersD through repeted itertionsD ome to rely on one notherc yr @PA the fer of 4titEforEtt4 responsesD iFeD tht free riding on the prt of one plyer will e punished y free riding on the prt of the other in future itertionsc hoes the risoner9s hilemm ssume tht eh plyer is rtionlD selfEinterest mximizerc ere the plyers neessrily sel(sh in tht they will seek to mximize self interest even t the expense of the other plyers unless rewrds nd punishments re imposed onto the plying sitution from the outsidec
he risoner9s hilemm is designed to model the relity of orporte governne where the diretorsGowners of orportion delegte responsiility for the orportion9s opertions to mngers who re hrged with pursuingD not their own interestsD ut those of their diretorsF he prolem of orporte governne is how this oopertive rrngement is institutionlizedF gn mngers e left lone nd trusted to pursue the est interests of the orportionc his is implied in stewrdship theoryF yr is it neessry to design system of ontrols to keep the mngers from diverting the opertions of the orportion towrd their exlusiveD selfEinterestsc his is the pproh tken in geny theoryF wodeling this in terms of repeted itertions of the prisoner9s dilemmD does oopertion emerge s the most relile strtegy in the long runc yr does it need to e mnuftured y introduing system of inentives suh s fer of titEforEtt strtegiesc he risoner9s hilemm models the entrl prolems of orporte governne y sking whether oopertion

IHQ nturlly emerges etween mngers nd diretors or whether it needs to e mnuftured through system of punishments nd rewrdsF he risoner9s dilemm is disussed throughout the literture in usiness ethisF por novel nd insightful disussion in the ontext of orporte responsiility see eter eF prenhD IWWS Corporate Ethics from rrourt fre gollege ulishersF
4.1.2.2 A Short Footnote on Human Nature

yne importnt mens for lssifying di'erent pprohes to orporte governne is to re)et on the ssoited ount of humn ntureF his is very omplex issue utD fortuntelyD politil philosophy provides us with some useful insightsF homs roes in the Leviathan presents omprehensive psyhologil nlysis of humn nture sed on seventeenth entury physisF he fol point of this nlysis is the humn individul9s unlimited pursuit of desireF ithout externl heks @primrily the thret of punishment imposed y powerful sovereignA the State of Nature @where humn individuls pursue self interest without externl heksA is identil to State of WarF his wr of ll ginst ll is "solitary, poore, nasty, roes9s view hs een hrterized y gFfF wpherson s 4possessive individulism4 whih porE trys the self s the possessor of its own ttriutes inluding the property quired through its tionsF his leds to view lled tomi individulism whih is sed on the lim tht the self hs its hrteristis nd determinte struture prior to nd independently of ny soil intertionF tenEtques ousseu o'ers rillintly originl ritiism of roes9 oneption of humn nture in his eond hisourseD the Discourse on the Origin of InequalityF eording to himD roes9s hrteriztion of humn nture in the tte of xture is tully desription of the humn orrupted y soiety nd the quisition of propertyF "The rst person who, having enclosed a plot of
land, took it into his head to say this is mine and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder of civil society. What crimes, wars, murders, what miseries and horrors would the human race have been spared, had someone pulled up the stakes or lled in the ditch and cried out to his fellow men: "Do not listen to this imposter."" brutish, and short."

ousseu rgues tht efore the notion of propertyD the humn9s desire to preserve self ws lned y the soil feeling of pity rought forth y the su'ering of othersF ynly the unheked pursuit of property @seen in terms of exlusive possessionA would ring the motive of selfEinterest into on)it with nturl pityF sn opposition to roes9s tomi nd individulisti selfD group of politil philosophersD eginning with eristotleD see the self s primrily soilF eristotle hrterizes the humn s politil niml @ eing who nturlly onstruts soil orgnism lled the 4polus4AF ndel desries 4thik self4 onstruted out of fmililD soil nd politil ontentY this ontent is integrted into the ore of the selfF erhne9s desription of this 4soil niml4 is worth quoting in fullX "In that socialization

hus series of views of humn nture emerge tht re instrumentl in forming di'erent pprohes to orporte governneF roes9s tomisti individulism will fvor the ompline pproh mndted y geny theory s diretors set up externl heks to selfEserving mngersF ousseu9s more nuned view would require strutures to hold the pursuit of selfEinterest in hek while strengthening the eqully nturl impulses towrd soilizility nd oopertionF he soil oneption of the self would tret the orportion s n environment where mngersD s stewrdsD reruit employees who will quikly ommit to the entrl orporte vlues nd then develop supporting strutures nd proedures to help their ollegues (nd meningful work while ful(lling soilD orporte ojetivesF

process, we develop a number of interests, roles, memberships, commitments, and values such that each individual is an historical, cultural, and social product, a pluralistic bundle of overlapping spheres of foci, a thick self or selves....[T]here is no self as precritical, transcendental subject, totally ideal spectator or dispossessed subject.

IHR
4.1.2.3 Approaches to Corporate Governance

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

Summary Table

IHS @IDIA
Description@IDPATheory of Human Nature@IDQA Owner Role@IDRA Manager Role@IDSA Corporate Ethics Focus@IDTA

Agency Theory@PDIA

wngers t s gents of the orporE tion ful(lling the gols esE tlished y the owners G diretors@PDPA

wngers re rtionlD ut selfEinterested eings who must e ontrolled from the outside@PDQA

ywners re priniplsD tht isD they originte the tion nd er primry morl responE siilityF@PDRA

wngers re gentsD tht isD responsile for ting in the interest of the priniE pls who hire themF pithE ful geny implies voidE ing on)its of interests nd minE tining on(E denesF@PDSA wngers re responsile for ensuring tht owners get mximum return on inE vestmentF@QDSA

gompline fous uses @IA ruleEsed odesD @PA systems of monitoringD nd @QA punE ishments nd rewrds to motivte omE pline from outsideF@PDTA

Stockholder Approach@QDIA

gorportion is property of stokholders who dispose of it s they see (tF@QDPA

tokholders pursue self interestF hey re rtionl @instrumenE tlAD eonomi selfEinterest mximizE ersF@QDQA qroups hve speil inE terests ut reognize the need to inteE grte theseF rumns posE sess pity for proedurl resoningF@RDQA

ywners invest in orportion nd seek return @pro(tA on their investE mentF@QDRA

tokholders diret ompliE ne towrd mnger ontrol nd externl onE formity to lwsF@QDTA @RDTA

Stakeholder Approach@RDIA

ywners drop out of enter fousF gorpoE rtion is run for the ske of its stkeholdE ersF@RDPA

ywners drop to one of group of equl stkeholdersF till dvote their (nnE il interests ut not to exlusion of other stkeE holdersF@RDRA

wngers re metE stkeholdersF hey tret stkeholders nd stkes eqully nd integrte these to the fullest extent possileF@RDSA

continued on next page

IHT
Stewardship Model@SDIA

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

wngers t s stewrds for sentee ownE ersY oversee the opertions of orportion nd exerise re over themF imotion @reA plys n equl role with inE strumentl rE tionlityF@SDPA

hesire nd self interest re lned out y soil motives suh s ousseu9s pity nd eristotle9s virtuesF@SDQA

ywners still set rdinl ojetives ut they lso re responsile for providing mngers with meningful work environE mentF@SDRA

wngers re stewrds exerE ising re over the property of the owners in their seneF tewrdship is sed on internlly genE erted nd selfEimposed motives towrd reF@SDSA

lueEsedX @IA identify nd formuE lte ommon stndrds of exelleneD @PA develop trining proE grms to foster pursuit of these exelE lenesD nd @QA develop support struE tures to help redue vlue 4gpsF4@SDTA

Table 4.2

X his tle summrizes mterils from sntrodutionX heories of qovernne @glrkeD I through QHA nd provides txonomy of severl di'erent pprohes to orporte governneF

Agency Theory

IF sn geny theoryD the ownersGdiretors set the entrl ojetives of the orportionF wngersD in turnD re responsile for exeuting these ojetives in the orportion9s dyEtoEdy opertionsF gorporte governne onsists of designing strutures nd proedures to ontrol mngementD iFeFD to keep their tions in line with diretorEestlished ojetivesF PF wngers nnot e trusted to remin fithful gentsD iFeFD to sty fithful to the interests nd gols of the ownersGdiretorsF his presupposes prtiulr view of humn ntureF rumns re rtionlD egoistsF hey hve desires nd use reson to devise mens to relize themF ine one desire n e heked only y nother desireD this egoism is potentilly without limitF egeny theory ssumes tht mngers will divert orporte resoures to pursue their own sel(sh ends unless heked y some system of externl ontrolsF husD nother key element of orporte governne under geny theory is to (nd the most e0ient systems of ontrols to keep mnger egoism in hekF QF he ownersGdiretors ply the role of prinipl in geny theoryF he prinipl origintes the tion nd ers primry morl nd legl responsiility for itF wost of the time the prinipl of n tion is lso its exeutorF fut there re times when the prinipl lks the knowledge nd skill neessry for exeuting the ojetives he or she origintesF sn this seD the prinipl ontrts with n gentF he prinipl uthorizes the gent to t on his or her ehlfF his requires tht the gent remin fithful to the gols nd interests of the priniplF ee roes9s LeviathanD ghpter IT for n importnt historil ount of the gentEprinipl reltionF RF wngers re gentsF heir primry responsiility is to serve s fithful exeutors of the gols nd interests of the priniplsF his requiresD (rstD thtD mngers re responsile for exerising their proE fessionl judgment in ompetent wyF wngers re lso responsile for remining fithful to the interests of their priniplsF o do this they must void on)its of interests nd mintin on(denE tilities @iFeFD keep seretsAF egent n lso rnge from eing free @unguided y priniplsA to ound @tightly monitored nd ontrolled y priniplsAF SF row does ethis enter into orporte governne under geny theoryc rimry emphsis is pled on omplineD iFeFD enfored onformity to rules tht onstitute minimum thresholds of eptle ehviorF gompline pprohes develop @IA rule sed odesD @PA systems of monitoring to detet violtionsD nd @QA punishments nd rewrds to deter nonEompline nd rewrd omplineF revino nd ever provide n empiril nlysis to the gols hieved through ompline ethisX 4R the

IHU pereption tht etter deisions re mde euse of the ethis progrm S ethil dvie seekingD T deresed unethil ehvior in the orgniztionFFFU ethil wrenessF4 @ever nd revinoD IWWWX QQQFA
Stockholder Theory

IF he stokholder pproh is quite similr to tht set forth in geny theoryF he di'erene is tht it views the orportion s the property of its owners @stokholdersA who my dispose of it s they see (tF wost of the time this involves using it to reeive mximum return on investmentF PF tokholders re oriented towrd selfEinterestD so stokholder theoryD long with geny theoryD tkes n egoistiGroesin view of humn ntureF rumns re rtionlD selfEinterest mximizersF ywners should expet this from the orportion9s mngers nd employeesF hey should integrte proedures nd ontrols tht hnnel the orportion nd its memers in the diretion of their @ownersA selfE interestF QF he owners invest in the orportion nd seek return @pro(tA on this investmentF fut this nrrow role hs een expnded into overseeing the opertions of the orportions nd its mngers to ensure tht the orportion is in ompline with ethil nd legl stndrds set y the governmentF tust s the msterD under tort lwD ws responsile for injury rought out y the negligene of servntD so lso re diretors responsile for hrm rought out y their propertyD the orportionF RF wngers re roleEresponsile for ensuring tht investors get mximum return on their investmentF his inludes exerising good usiness judgment nd voiding on)its of interests nd violtions of on(denesF SF vike orportions operting within geny theoryD stokholder orportions fous on ompline strteE gies to monitor mngers nd mke sure they remin fithful gentsF roweverD diretors under the stokholder pproh lso tke seriously oversight responsiility whih inlude ensuring orporte omE pline with lws suh s rnesEyxley nd the pederl entening quidelinesF
Stakeholder Theory

IF ywners drop out of the enter of ttention in this pproh to eome one of severlD equl stkeholdersF e stkeholder is ny group or individul tht hs vitl interestD rightD goodD or vlue in ply or t riskF @e gmler9s stke is the money on the tle in ply s the roulette wheel turnsF hepending on the outome of the situtionD the gmler either keeps or loses the stkeFA ixmples of orporte stkeholders inlude stokholdersD employeesD ustomersD suppliersD lol ommunityD nd governmentF he orportion on this view exists for the ske of its stkeholdersD not stokholdersF PF he stkeholder view n e losely tied to egoism if it is ssumed tht the di'erent stkeholder groups exist to mximize their sel(sh interestsF fut the stkeholder pproh to orporte governne goes eyond the egoisti ount of humn ntureF he orportion @nd its mngersA eome responsile for mediting etween these di'erentD often on)itingD stkeholder interestsD lwys keeping in mind tht ll stkeholders deserve equl respetF sf stkeholders hve ny solidrity with one notherD it is euse the interest set of eh inludes the interests of the othersF @his is how peinerg de(nes solidrityFA he ility to envision the interests of eh stkeholder nd to work towrd integrting these must e uilt on view of humn nture tht is s ltruisti s egoistiF hile not emring the soil view of humn nture outlined oveD the stkeholder view ssumes tht stkeholders re ple nd willing to negotite nd rgin with one notherF st eginsD in other wordsD with enlightened nd long term self interestF QF he (rst feture of the owner role is the redution in entrlity mentioned just oveF hey dvote their interests in the sme ren s the other stkeholdersD ut they lso must work to mke their interests omptile with the other stkeholdersF his requires integrting interests when possile nd drwing integrityEpreserving ompromises when neessryF @ee fenjmin IWWHAF RF wngers ply n importnt metErole hereF hey re fithful gents ut of ll stkeholdersD not just stokholdersF husD they eomes referees or @to swith metphorsA rokers etween stkeholdersF hey

IHV

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

oversee the genertion of expnsive orporte vlues ple of soring nd integrting nrrower stkeholder interestsF SF tkeholder pprohes omine ompline nd vlueEsed pprohesF sn omplineD orporte o0ers de(ne morl nd legl minimumY this onsists of the minimum set of rules neessry for stkeholder oexisteneF feyond thisD vlueEsed pprohes seek to rete ommonD roder ojeE tivesD spirtions tht n unite the di'erent stkeholders in the pursuit of exelleneF tkeholder pprohes need othY the ompline pproh gets things strted nd the vluesEsed pproh sets them on the pth to exelleneF
Stewardship Theory

wngers nd employees n e trusted to t s stewrds or gurdins of the orportionF his mens tht while they do not own the orportion9s resouresD they will sfegurd these for the ownersF e stewrd is retker who looks fter the owner9s property nd interests when the owner is sent his pproh de(nitely mkes use of the soil pproh to humn ntureF rumnsD nturlly nd spontneouslyD relize their innermost ntures y forming soil unionsF he orportionD under this viewD is suh n orgniztionF hile tking on the hrteristis of soil ontrt with the other pprohesD espeilly geny theoryD the orportion under the stewrdship view is more of ooperE tiveD ollortive enterpriseF rumns n t nd (nd mening in interests nd onerns well eyond the on(nes of the egoF sn ftD to orgnize the orportion round egoisti ssumptions does hrm to those ple of tion on ltruisti motivesF he emphsis here is on uilding trust nd soil pitl to strengthen the soil potentilities of humn ntureF ywners still estlish the rdinl ojetives for the ske of whih the orportion existsF fut they re lso responsile for providing mngers with n environment suitle developing humn potentilities of forming soieties to ollorte in meningful workF wngers t s stewrds or retkersY they t s if they were owners in terms of the re nd onern expressed for work rther thn merely exeutors of the interests of othersF sn other wordsD the liention implied in geny theory @ting not out of self ut for notherAD disppers s the mngers nd employees of the orportion resor the gent funtionF tewrdship pprohes re primrily vlueEsedF hey @IA identify nd formulte ommon spirE tions or vlues s stndrds of exelleneD @PA develop trining progrms onduive to the pursuit of exelleneD nd @QA respond to vlues 4gps4 y providing morl supportF
4.1.2.4 External Controls: Fining, Stock Dilution, Changing Internal Governance, Court Ordered Adverse Publicity, and Community Service Classications of Corporate Punishments from French and Fisse DescriptionExample Target of Punishment Deterrence NonTrap nancial Avoided? Values Addressed? Responsive Interference Adjustwith ment Corporate Black Box

continued on next page

IHW
Monetary Exaction

pines

entgon roureE ment ndls

rrms inE noent

pils to ispe

pew or xone rgeted pew xone or

xone

xo interE ferene

Stock Dilution

hilute tok nd wrd to vitim gourt orders internl hnges @speil ord ppointE mentsA gourt orders orporE tion to puliize rime ig olE untry hislosure rogrm

tokholders @xot neE essrily guiltyA

ispes y ttkE ing future ernings

vimited

xo interE ferene

Probation

gorportion ispes nd its sine it wemers mndtes orgniE ztionl hnges

pouses on mngeE ment nd sugroup vlues

ssive djustE ment sine imposed from outside

ustntil entry into nd inE terferene with orE porte lk ox xo diret interE ferene @orpoE rtion motived to restore itselfA xone

Court Ordered Adverse Publicity

inglish fred ets @resE ter rynne shme in


Scarlet LetterA

rgets orporte imge

ispes @lthough dverse puliity indiretly ttks (nnil vluesA

voss of prestige G gorporte shme G voss of peGronor

etive dE justment triggered y shme

Communitygorportion Service performs Orders servies

mndted y ourt

ellied hemil @tmes iver ollutionA

epresenttive ispes groupsGindividuls sine from orE trgets portion nonE (nnil vlues

edds vlue to ommuE nity

ssive or no dE justmentX sometimes puli does reE ognize tht s is punishE ment

X his tle summrizes mteril from frent pisseD 4ntions eginst gorportionsX he vimittions of (nes nd the enterprise of greting elterntivesF4 his rtile is found in the ookD Corrigible Corporations and Unruly Law nd provides txonomy of di'erent forms of punishment for orportionsF st helps rte orporte punishment in terms of whether it trgets the guiltyD produes positive hnge within the orportionD voids go'ee9s deterrene trpD nd minimizes interferene in wht tone terms the orporte lk oxF por full referene to ook see iliogrphy elowF
Table 4.3

Requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (From Dyrud: 37)

rovide inresed protetion for whistleElowers edhere to n estlished ode of ethis or explin resons for nonEompline ingge in 4fullD firD timely nd understndle dislosure4 wintin4honest nd ethil4 ehviorF eport ethis violtions promptly gomply with 4pplile governmentl lwsD rulesD nd regultions4

IIH

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

hyurd itesX ivD Ethics and Code of ConductD nFdFY httpXGGwwwFeltEinFomGsolutionGethis ndodeofonduttriningoligtionsFhtml
Ammended Federal Sentencing Guidelines (Dyrud 37)

istlishing stndrds nd proedures to prevent nd detet riminl ondut romoting responsiility t ll levels of the progrmD together with dequte progrm resoures nd uthority for its mngers ixerising due diligene in hiring nd ssigning personnel to positions with sustntil uthority gommuniting stndrds nd proeduresD inluding spei( requirement for trining t ll levels wonitoringD uditingD nd nonEinternl guidneGreporting systems romiting nd enforing of ompline nd ethil ondut king resonle steps to respond ppropritely nd prevent further misondut in deteting vioE ltion

4.1.3 What you will do ...


Module Activities

tudy the risoner9s hilemm to help you formulte the entrl hllenges of orporte governneF tudy four di'erent pprohes to orporte governneD @IA geny theoryD @PA the stokholder pE prohD @QA the stkeholder pprohD nd @RA stewrdship theoryF ixmine orporte governne from the mro level y @IA looking t the struturl hnges ompny n mke to omply with legl nd ethil stndrds nd @PA exmining the lnes tht government must mke to ontrol orporte ehvior nd yet preserve eonomi freedomF hesign orporte governne progrm for n tul ompny tht you nd your group hooseF st should e ompny to whih you hve open essF ou will lso e required to tke steps to gin the onsent of this ompny for your studyF e)et on how to integrte this module9s mro desription of orporte governne with the miro perspetive presented in the module on morl eologies nd orporte governneF
Corporate Governance Plans

e orporte ode of ethis tht responds to the spei( ethil prolems unovered y your pro(le of the orportion you re studyingF e orporte ethis trining progrm designed to quint employeesD ownersD nd mngers with the ompny9s vlue spirtions nd ompline ojetivesF e gorporte ithis eudit designed to identify nd minimize ethil risksF e omprehensive ethis ompline progrm tht responds to the requirements set forth in rnes nd yxley s well s the pederl entening quidelinesF e progrm in orporte exellene designed to rtiulte nd relize the ore vlues tht de(ne your ompny9s identity nd integrityF

4.1.4 What did you learn?


his mteril will e dded lterF tudents will e given n opportunity to ssess di'erent stges of this module s well s the module s wholeF

III

4.1.5 Appendix
Bibliography

IF fenjminD wF @IWWHA Splitting the dierence: Compromise and Integrity in Ethics and PoliticsF vwreneD uX niversity of unss ressF PF grolD eF fFD 4oil esponsiilityD4 in erhneD FD nd preemnD F iFD edsF @IWWUD IWWVA Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business EthicsF yxfordD uX flkwell ulishersD sxgX SWQESWSF QF glrkeD F @PHHRA 4sntrodutionX heories of qovernne!eoneptulizing gorporte qovernne heory efter the inron ixperieneD4 in Theories of Corporate Governance: The Philosophical Foundations of Corporate GovernanceD edF homs glrkeF xew orkX outledgeX IEQHF RF hvisD tFrFD hoormnD hFD nd honldsonD vF 4owrd tewrdship heory of wngementD4in SF TF UF
Theories of Corporate Governance: The Philosophical Foundations of Corporate GovernanceD edF homs glrkeF @PHHRA xew orkX outledgeX IEQHF hyrudD wFeF @PHHUA 4ithisD qmingD nd sndustril riningD4 in IEEE Technology and Society MagazineF inter PHHUX QTERRF peinergD tF @IWUHA 4golletive esponsiility4 in Doing and Deserving: Essays in the Theory of ResponsibilityF rinetonD xtX rineton niversity ressX PQRF pisseD fF nd prenhD FeFD edsF @IWVSA Corrigible Corporations and Unruly LawF n entonioD

X rinity niversity ressF VF prenhD FeF @IWVRA Collective and Corporate ResponsibilityF xew orkX golumi niversity ressFF WF roesD F @ITSID IWTVA LeviathanF widdlesexD inglndX enguin fooksX IVTF IHF wphersonD gFfF @IWTPA The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to LockeF vondonD uX yxford niversity ressX QF IIF wyD vF @IWVUA The Morality of Groups: Collective Responsibility, Group-Based Harm, and Corporate RightsF xotre hmeD sxX niversity of xotre hme ressF IPF wvenD fFD nd ilkindD F @PHHQA The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of EnronF xew orkX ortfolioX IRIEIRWF IQF ineD vFF @IWWRA 4wnging for yrgniztionl sntegrityD4 in Harvard Business ReviewD wrhGepril IWWRF IRF ousseuD tFtF @IWVUA Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings rnslted y honld eF gressF sndinpolisD sxX rkett ulishing gompnyX THF ISF ndelD wF @IWVPD IWWVAF Liberalism and the Limits of JusticeF gmridgeX gmridge niversity ress ITF tewrtD tFfF @PHHUA 4he uon pilesX row n osession with leks rought sndl to rewlettE krdD4 in The New YorkerD perury IW nd PTD PHHUX ISPEITUF IUF toneD gF hF @IWUSA Where the Law Ends: The Social Control of Corporate BehaviorF rospetr reightsD svX velnd ressD sxgX IEQHF IVF wrtzD wFD tkinsD F @PHHQA Power Failure: The Inside Story of the collapse of EnronF xew orkX houledyX QSTF IWF everD qFF nd revinoD vFuF @IWWWA 4sntegrted nd deoupled soil performneX wngement ommitmentsD externl pressuresD nd orporte ethis prtiesF4 The academy of Management JournalD RPX SQWESSPF PHF erhneD FrF @IWWWA Moral Imagination and Management Decision MakingF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX QWF PIF erhneD F rF @PHHVA 4wentl wodelsX worl smgintion nd ystem hinking in the ege of qloE liztionD4 in Journal of Business EthicsD UVX RTQ!RURF PPF erhneD F @PHHUA 4gorporte oil esponsiilityGgorporte worl esponsiilityX ss here hi'erene nd the hi'erene st wkesD4 in edsFD wyD FD gheneyD qFD nd operD tFD The Debate over Corporate Social ResponsibilityF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX RSWERURF

IIP

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

Corporate Governance and Hewlett-Packard Case 2 [Media Object]

4.1.6 EAC ToolKit Project


4.1.6.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense3 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF
4.1.6.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

4.2 Developing Ethics Codes and Statements of Values


4.2.1 Module Introduction

godes of ethis evoke opposite retions from people who tehD do reserh inD or re prtitioners of ouptionl nd professionl ethisF ome hold tht tehing odes of ethis is essentil to prepring students for their future reersF gorportionsD for exmpleD hve ome to view odes s the ornerstone of suessful ompline progrmF rofessionl soietiesD suh s the Puerto Rico State Society of Professional Engineers and Land SurveyorsD lso mke the drftingD revisingD nd disseminting professionl odes of ethis entrl prt of prtiing professionl engineering ethisF fut mny strongly opppose odes euse they promote the wrong sorts of ttitudes in those who would e in)uened y themF es you will see elowD philosophil ethiists rise ojetions to odes euse they undermine morl utonomyD led to unritil eptne of uthorityD nd reple morl motives with fer of punishmentF hese polr stnes re grounded in the very di'erent perspetives from whih di'erent groups pproh odesF fut they re lso grounded in the ft tht odes tke mny di'erent forms nd serve distint funtionsF por exmpleD onsider the introdutory onsidertions presented in the followingX
4.2.1.1 Dierent Uses for Codes Kinds of Codes

Professional Codes of EthicsF rofessions suh s engineering nd ounting hve developed odes of ethisF hese set forth the idels of the profession s well s more mundne hllenges fed y memersF ingineering odesD for exmpleD set forth servie to humnity s n idel of the professionF fut they lso provide detiled provisions to help memers reognize on)its of interestD issues of ollegilityD nd on(dentility responsiilitiesF Corporate Codes of EthicsF gorporte odes re dopted y mny ompnies to respond etter to the pederl entening quidelinesF hese odes provide guidelines on prtiulrly stiky issues @hen does gift eome riecA hey lso set forth provisions tht express the ore vlues of the orportionF hese lengthy odes with detiled provisions support ompline pproh to orgniztionl disiplineF Corporate CredosF ome ompnies hve shortened their lengthy odes into few generl provisions tht form reedF tohnson nd tohnson9s gredo is fmous in this respet nd n e found y liking on the fusiness ithis virry link provided oveF
2 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <CorpGov_HP_Case.pptx> 3 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 4 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14319/1.9/>.

IIQ

Statements of ValuesF pinllyD more mture ompnies (nd it useful to express nd disseminte their ore vlue ommitments in ttements of luesF hese form the sis of vluesEsed deisionE mkingF hile odes of ethis lerly estlish minimum stndrds of eptle ondutD ttements of lues outline the spirtions tht n drive ompnies towrd ontinuous improvementF
Functions or Purposes Served by Codes

DisciplineF his funtion gets ll the ttentionF wost odes re set forth to estlish lerly nd forefully n orgniztion9s stndrdsD espeilly its minimum stndrds of eptle ondutF rving estlished the limitsD orgniztions n then punish those who exeed themF EducateF his n rnge from disseminting stndrds to enlightening memersF gompny e9s employees lerned tht nything over 6IHH ws rie nd should not e eptedF fut engineers lern tht their fundmentl responsiility is to hold prmount puli sfetyD helthD nd welfreF godes ertinly teh minimum stndrds of ondutD ut they n help ommunity to rtiulte nd understnd their highest shred vlues nd spirtionsF InspireF godes n set forth idels in wy tht inspires ommunity9s memers to strive for exelleneF hey n e written to set forth the spirtions nd vlue ommitments tht express ommunity9s idelsF hey n point ommunity towrd morl exelleneF Stimulate DialogueF ingineering professionl odes of ethis hve hnged gretly over the lst ISH yersF his hs een rought out y vigorous internl dete stimulted y these very odesF wemers dete ontroversil lims nd work to re(ne more si sttementsF tohnson nd tohnson redits their redo for their protive nd suessful response to the ylenol risisF egulrlyD employees 4hllenge the redo4 y ringing up di0ult ses nd testing how e'etively the redo guides deisionEmking nd prolemEsolvingF he gse9s hisiplinry riunl ses hve served s fous for disussions on how to interpret key provisions of the orgniztion9s ode of ethisF he xi ford of ithil eview deisions hve lso provided n exellent forum for lrifying ethil onepts @puli sfetyD on)it of interestA in the ontext of ses rought to the ord y xi memersF he fi disusses ses in terms of relevnt provisions of the xi odeF yver the yersD the xi fi hs estlished (rm foundtion for the resolution of di0ult ethil ses y developing nlogies with ses it hs lredy disussed nd lri(edF Empower and ProtectF godes empower nd protet those who re ommitted to doing the right thingF sf n employer orders n employee to do something tht violtes tht employee9s ethil or professionl stndrdsD the ode provides sis for syingD 4No!4F ingineers hve refused to rry out diretives tht ple in jeoprdy the helth nd sfety of the puli sed on sttements like non I of the gse odeF @he xi ode hs similr provisionsFA feuse odes estlish nd disseminte morl stndrdsD they n provide the struture to onvert personl opinion into resoned professionl judgmentF o reiterteD they provide support to those who would do the right thingD even under when there is onsiderle pressure to do the oppositeF Codes capture or express a community's identityF hey provide the osion to identifyD foster ommitmentD nd disseminte the vlues with whih n orgniztion wnts to e identi(ed pulilyF hese vlues enter into n orgniztion9s ore eliefs nd ommitments forming n identifyEonferring systemF fy studying the vlues emedded in ompny9s ode of ethisD oserving the vlues tully displyed in the ompny9s ondutD nd looking for inonsisteniesD the oserver n gin insight into the ore ommitments of tht ompnyF godes express vlues thtD in turnD revel ompny9s ore ommitmentsD or @in the se of hyporitil orgniztionA those vlues tht hve fllen to the wyside s the ompny hs turned to other vlue pursuitsF
Diculties with Codes

he following ojetions led philosophers to rgue tht presenting odes of ethis in ethis lsses undermines severl key morl ttitudes nd prtiesF godes n undermine morl utonomy y hituting us to t from motives like deferene to externl uthority nd fer of punishmentF e get out of the hit of mking deisions for ourselves nd fll into the hit of deferring to outside uthorityF

IIR

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

godes often fil to guide us through omplex situtionsF snevitlyD gps rise etween generl rules nd the spei( situtions to whih they re ppliedY onrete situtions often present new nd unexpeted hllenges tht rulesD euse of their generlityD nnot ntiipteF erguing tht odes should provide tion reipes for ll situtions neglets the ft tht e'etive morl tion requires more thn just lind oediene to rulesF godes of ethis n enourge leglisti ttitude tht turns us wy from the pursuit of morl exelE lene nd towrd just getting y or stying out of trouleF por exmpleD ompline odes hitute us to striving only to mintin minimum stndrds of ondutF hey fil to motivte nd diret tion towrd spirtionsF elying exlusively on ompline odes onveys the ide tht morlity is nothing ut stying ove the morl minimumF
his module is designed to steer you through these omplex issues y hving you drft Statement of for students t your universityF es you work through your ttement of luesD you will lern tht odes hve strengths nd weknessesD serve di'erent funtionsD nd emody vluesF o get you strted in this proessD you will study defetive odeD the irte gredoF e quik glne is ll tht is needed to see tht odes re 4ll too humn4 nd need to e pprohed ritillyF sn seond tivity you will identify the vlues emedded in professionlD orporteD nd demi odesF orking with these vluesD you will develop list upon whih your group will uild its own ttement of lues in third tivityF pinllyD you will onstrut vlue pro(les tht inlude generl desriptionD smple provisionsD vlueEsed hllengesD nd vlue priniplesF hese will ll ontriute to motivting those in your ommunity to ommit to nd work in onert to relize these vluesF
Values

4.2.2 How an academic community developed a Statement of Values


A False Start

he fulty of the erts nd ienes gollege of niversity deided to form ommittee to write ode of ethisF his ommittee met severl times during the ourse of n demi semester to prepre the (rst drftF hen they (nishedD they irulted opies throughout the ollegeF hen they held series of pui herings where interested memers of the gollege ould ritiize the ode drftF hese were lightly ttended nd those ttending hd only few suggestions for minor hngesF roweverD when the ode ws pled efore the fulty for pprovlD onsiderle opposition emergedF por exmpleD provision disourging fulty from gossiping ws hrteized y opponents s n ttempt y hostile gollege dministrtionD working through the ommitteeD to eliminte fulty free speehF everl opponents expressed opposition to the very ide of ode of ethisF 4hoes the dministrtion think tht our fulty is so orruptD4 they kedD 4tht the only hope for improvement is to impose upon them set of rules to e mindlessly followed nd ruthlessly enforedc4 et the end of this deteD the fulty overwhelmingly rejeted the odeF
Reections on "A False Start"

hould odes of ethis e demortilly developed from the 4ottom up4 or should they e uthoritE tively imposed from the 4top downc4 yr does this depend on ertin hrteristis of the ommunityc wye orporte mngers should hve lwyers drft their odes to meet the pederl entening quideE linesY these ompleted odes should then e implemented throughout the ompny t ll levelsF wye demi ommunities should demortilly determine their own odesD nd if they re unle to do soD then so muh the worse for the 4very ide4 of ode of ethisF he Ethics of Team Work module presents three wys tht led groups to go o' the trksX qroup olriztionD qroupthinkD nd 4qoing to eileneF4 ho you think tht ny of these would explin flse strts in developing ode of ethisc row n these group pitflls e overomec qroups re often polrized round di'erent nd on)iting ideologies or prdigmsF homs uuhn disusses prdigms in the ontext of sienti( detesF hen these detes re fueled y on)iting nd inomptile prdigmsD they n turn rimonious nd prove extrordinrily di0ult to resolveF por uuhnD prdigms rtiulte nd enpsulte di'erent world viewsY the menings nd experienes shred y one group operting under one prdigm re often not shred y those operting under

IIS di'erent prdigmsF wemers of the erts nd ienes fulty of niversity my hve disgreed out the provisions prosriing gossiping euse they were operting under di'erent oneptul systems rought out y inommensurle prdigmsF sf fulty memers ssumed di'erent menings for 9gossiping9D 9ode9D nd 9disipline9D then this would fuel the polriztion of nonEgreement like tht whih ourred t niversity F gss unstein proposes tht ommunities work round ideologil or prdigmEdriven disputes y deE velopingD in speil irumstnesD 4inompletely theorized greementsF4 hese greements re rought out y rketing ommitments to given ideology or prdigmF his llows one side to work on understnding the other insted of mrshling rguments to defend the set of views entiled y its prdigmF o unstein9s reommendtion to the gollege of erts nd ienes of niversity would e to suspend ommitment to defending the ore eliefs of the on)iting ideologies nd try to hold disussions t more onreteD inompletely theorized levelF his mkes (nding ommon ground esE ierF hen shred understndings re forgedD then they n serve s ridges to more omplexD more ompletely theorized positionsF vooking t this prolem from ompletely di'erent ngleD do odes of ethis require kground of trustc sf soD how n trust e uilt up from within highly diverse nd highly polrized ommunities or groupsc pinllyD n odes of ethis e used y more ruthless groups nd individulsc por exmpleD s those in the gollege of erts nd ienes limedD n odes of ethis e used y those in positions of power to strengthen tht power nd extend ontrol over othersc
A Success Story

hree yers lter t the sme universityD nother fulty group set out to onstrut ode of ethis in order to respond to redittion requirementsF hey egn with the ide of onstruting stkeholder odeF pirstD they identi(ed the stkeholders of the ollege9s tivitiesD tht isD groups or individuls who hd vitl interest in tht ommunity9s tionsD deisions nd poliiesF eondD they identi(ed the goods held y eh of these stkeholders whih ould e vitlly impted y the tions of the ollegeF por exmpleD edution represented the key good held y students tht ould e vitlly impted y the tivities nd deisions of the gollegeF orking from eh stkeholder reltion nd the good tht hrterized tht reltionD memers of the ollege egn rfting ode provisionsF ome set forth fulty duties suh s keeping regulr o0e hoursD grding firlyD nd keeping up to dte in tehing nd reserhF ythers emphsized student duties suh s working responsily nd e'etively in work temsD dhering to stndrds of demi honestyD nd ttending lsses regulrlyF
feuse stkeholder odes emody ommunity9s vluesD the individuls in hrge of drfting the ode deided tht more diret pproh would e to identify the emodied vlues nd re(ne them into ttement of luesF his forml sttement ould lter e developed in di'erent diretions inluding more detiled ompline odeF urning their e'orts towrd prepring ttement of lue roessD the fusiness edministrtion omE munity went through the following stepsX IF hey disussed )wed doumentD the irte gredoF his rought out three positive resultsX prtiipnts me to see how odes emody vluesD tht odes serve di'erent funtionsD nd tht odes lrify reltions etween the insiders nd outsiders of ommunityF PF rtiipnts exmined 4on (de4 odes of ethis suh s demi odesD odes of honorD orporte odesD nd professionl odesF ine odes emody vluesD they developed lists of the vlues these odes emodiedF QF he smple provisions rfted in the erlier stkeholder ode e'ort were presented so tht prtiipnts ould identify the vlues these emodiedF revious e'orts in developing stkeholder ode ould e enhmrked ginst the odes studied in the previous stepF gonvergenes nd divergenes were noted

IIT

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

RF SF TF

UF

VF WF

nd used to further hrterize the ollege9s ommunity in terms of its similrities nd di'erenes with other ommunitiesF sn this stepD fulty memers were sked to redue the vlues list to mngele numer of (ve to sevenF his led to the most ontentious prt of the proessF rtiipnts disgreed on the oneption of vlueD the mening of prtiulr vlues like justieD nd on whether rights ould e treted s vluesF o resolve this disgreementD disussion leders proposed using llots to llow prtiipnts to vote on vluesF his proess ws more thn simple up or down voteF rtiipnts lso rnked the vlues under onsidertionF efter the top (ve vlues were identi(edD e'orts were mdeD in desriing eh of the remining vluesD to (nd ples to inlude t lest omponents of the vlues left outF por exmpleD while on(dentility ws not inluded in the (nl vlue listD it ws reintegrted s omponent of the more generl vlue of respetF husD the (nl vlues list ould e mde more omprehensive nd more eptle to the fulty ommunity y reintegrting some vlues s prts of otherD more generl vluesF enother wy of piking up vlues left ehind in the voting proess ws to omine vlues tht shred signi(nt ontentF lues tht did not mke it into the (nl list were still noted with the provision tht they ould e integrted into susequent drfts of the ttement of luesF e ommittee ws formed to tke eh vlue through vlue templteF efter desriing the vlueD they formulted priniple summrizing the ethil oligtions it entiledD rfted smple provisions pplying the vlueD nd posed di'erent hllenges the vlue presented to help guide proess of ontinuous improvementF he ommittee presented its results to the fulty who pproved this (rst drft ttement of lues he fulty then developed shedule wherey the ttement of lues would e revisitedD expndedD revisedD nd improvedF

4.2.3 Textbox 1: Responding to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines


eent e'orts to develop ethis odes in the demi ontext for oth students nd fulty myD in prtD stem from the suess of ethis ompline progrms developed in usiness nd industry in response to the pederl entening quidelinesF yrgniztionl odes of ethis hve een integrted longside other ompline struture nd tivities to prevent riminl ehviorD to detet riminl ehviorD nd to ensure prompt nd e'etive orgniztionl response one suh ehvior hs een detetedF
The following section contains short exerpts from the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. For more details consult the materials referenced in note 5 below.

4he hllmrk of n e'etive progrm to prevent nd detet violtions of lw is tht the orgniztion exerised due diligene in seeking to prevent nd detet riminl ondut y its employees nd other gentsF hue giligene requires t minimum tht the orgniztion must hve tken the following types of stepsX he orgniztion must hve estlished ompline stndrds nd proedures to e followed y ite employees nd other gents tht re resonly ple of reduing the prospet of riminl ondutF pei( individul@sA within high levelpersonnel of the orgniztion must hve een ssigned overll responsiility to oversee ompline with suh stndrds nd proeduresF he orgniztion must hve used due re not to delegte sustntil disretionry uthority to indiE viduls whom the orgniztion knewD or should hve known through the exerise of due diligeneD hd propensity to engge in illegl tivitiesF he orgniztion must hve tken steps to ommunite e'etively its stndrds nd proedures to ll employees nd other gentsD eFgFD y requiring prtiiption in trining progrms or y disseminting pulitions tht explin in prtil mnner wht is requiredF he orgniztion must hve tken resonle steps to hieve ompline with its stndrdsD eFgFD y utilizing monitoring nd uditing systems resonly designed to detet riminl ondut y its

IIU empoyees nd other gents nd y hving in ple nd puliizing reporting system wherey emE ployees nd other gents ould report riminl ondut y others within the orgniztion without fer of retriutionF
Recommendations by the Federal Sentencing Guidelines for an Eective Compliance Program

eppointing individuls to serve s ethis or ompline o0ers heveloping orporte redos nd odes of ethis tht e'etively ommunite n orgniztion9s ethil stndrds nd expettions to employeesF hesigning ethis trining progrms for ll employees hesigning nd implementing monitoring nd uditing systems hesigning nd implementing n e'etive system of punishments nd sntionsF hese must e omE pnied y investigtive proedures tht respet employee due proess rightsF

4.2.4 Textbox 2: Compliance Oriented Codes and Programs Versus Values Oriented Codes and Programs
Compliance Strategy

IF he initil nd still proly the most prevlent method for responding to the pederl entening quidelines is the ompline strtegyF his strtegy is sed on three interrelted omponentsX PF RulesX gompline strtegies re entered round strit odes of ethis omposed of rules tht set forth minimum thresholds of eptle ehviorF he use of rules to struture employee tion does run into prolems due to the gp etween rule nd pplitionD the pperne of novel situtionsD nd the impression tht it gives to employees tht oediene is sed on onformity to uthorityF QF MonitoringX he seond omponent onsists of monitoring tivities designed to ensure tht emE ployees re onforming to rules nd to identify instnes of nonEomplineF wonitoring is ertinly e'etive ut it requires tht the orgniztion expend timeD moneyD nd energyF wonitoring lso ples stress upon employees in tht they re wre of onstntly eing wthedF hose under oservtion tend either to reel or to utomtilly dopt ehviors they elieve those doing the monitoring wntF his onsiderly dmpens retivityD legitimte ritiismD nd innovtionF RF Disciplining MisconductX he lst key omponent to ompline strtegy is punishmentF unE ishment n e e'etive espeilly when estlishing nd enforing ondut tht remins ove the riminl levelF fut reline on punishment for ontrol tends to impose solidrity on n orgniztion rther thn eliit itF imployees onform euse they fer sntionF yrgniztions sed on this fer re never relly free to pursue exelleneF
Values Orientation

IF o filitte omprisonD three orreltive ut di'erent elements to luesEfsed or spirtionnl pprohes will e identi(edF PF Development of Shared ValuesX sing proess similr to the one desried oveD ompny develops ttement of hred luesF hese provide guidelines tht reple the hrd nd fst rules of ompline odeF ttements in vluesEoriented odes ply di'erent logil funtion thn sttements in ompline odesF 4riniples of rofessionlGyrgniztionl gondut4 in ompline odes speify irumstnes of omplineX timeD gentD pleD purposeD mnnerD etF hese provide su0ient ontent to set forth priniples of professionl ondut s rules tht n e violtedF hisD in turnD llows them to e ked y punishment for violtionF 4sdels of the rofession @or orgniztionA set forth ommunity9s shred spirtionsF hese re pithed t level well ove nd eyond the minimumF gommunities n nd should de(ne themselves s muh y their spirtions s y their threshold stndrdsF

IIV

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

QF Support for EmployeesX ine ttements of lues set forth exellenes or spirtionsD the role of the orgniztion hnges from monitoring nd then punishing misehvior to (nding wys of opening venues for employees to relize key vlues in their dy to dy tivityF ixellene is not something to e rehed overnightF st requires rethinking si motivtionsD ttitudesD eliefsD nd golsF gompnies need to identify ostles to hieving idels nd then develop support strutures to help those who seek to relize idelsF luesEsed pprohes hnge from punishing ondut tht flls elow the minimum to providing olletive support to those who strive for the exellentF RF Locking in on Continual ImprovementX he philosopherD tohn heweyD hrterizes morl reE sponsiility s the drive to etter ourselvesF he prtiulr twist in hewey9s pproh is to (nd wys of folding wht hs een lerned from the pst into meeting new hllenges tht rise in the futureF his involves hnging hits ndD ultimtelyD hnging hrterF gontinul improvement is the ultimte gol of orportions oriented towrd exelleneF he vlues these morl eologies identify struture nd hnnel this endevorF ht is needed t this stge is to develop onrete progrms nd strtegies for identifying ostles to exelleneD removing themD nd remining on trk for exelleneF SF o summrizeD some ompnies identify ompline strtegy where they set forth rules tht estE lish minimum levels of eptle ondutD monitor omplineD nd punish nonEomplineF ythE ersD vlueEoriented or spirtionEoriented ompniesD identify ore vlues or spirtions @y re)eting on ommunity vlues nd (nding them emedded in extnt odes of ethisAD develop progrms nd strutures to support those who strive for these vluesD nd work to lok in progrm of ontinul improvement or ettermentF TF Something to think aboutF gompline pprohes work est in wht of ompnyD orgniztion or morl eologyF @hink out this in terms of the entrl or ore ommitments suh s those in (nneED ustomerED nd qulityEdriven ompniesFA luesEsed pprohes work est in wht kind of ompnyD orgniztion or morl eologyc row does one trnsition from ompline to vluesEsed pprohesc row does one integrte the twoc

4.2.5 Exercise 1: Evaluating the Pirate Credo


Read the Pirate Credo. Then answer the following questions individually

ht is good out the irte gredoc ht is d out the irte gredoc ht is the purpose served y the irte gredoc por the irte gommunityc por nonEmemersc

4.2.6 Exercise 2: Developing Corporate Codes of Ethics


IF ithis fowl gorportionsF ou hve een ssigned orportions orresponding to two of the six ethis owl sesF por your presenting orportionD you will e developing prtil ode of ethisF por the ommenting orportionD you need to fmilirize yourself with the morl eology of the orportionD its needsD nd e redy to omment on the ode o'ered y nother groupF PF ht kind of morl eology is predominte in your orportionc ss it (nnilED ustomerED or qulityE drivenF vook t how the type of morl eology strutures other orgniztionl tivitiesX llotion of prise nd lmeD exhnge of informtionD tretment of dissenting opinionsD nd entrl of morl onernsF ell of these issues need to e ddressed diretly or indiretly in your odeF QF ht is the ethil hllenge tht is highlighted in the ethis owl senrio sed on your seF por this informtion go to the 4ithis fowl in the invironment of the yrgniztion4 moduleF mPIIWIF RF ht funtions re you ddressing in your ode outlinec vooking oveD these would inlude eduteD inspireD rete dilogueD disiplineD empowerD seure nd express identityF SF hevelop within the time ville sketh of odeF his ould e setion of ompline odeD orporte redoD or sttement of vluesF sn hoosing your formD think refully out the funtion@sA of your odeF rve something tht you n presentD informllyD for round Q to S minutesF

IIW

4.2.7 Exercise 3: Evaluating Bona Fide Codes of Ethics


Form small work teams of four to ve individuals. Carry out the following fours steps and report your results to the rest of the group.

IF PF QF RF

Review few smple odes per temF List the vlues you identify in the odesF Identify ny reurring vluesF Record nd post the list of vluesF

ixpress eh vlue s word or in s few words s possileF

4.2.8 Exercise 4: Do a Statement of Values for Students at Your University


In this third exercise, work with your group to develop a rened list of ve to seven values. You can rene your list by integrating or synthesizing values, grouping specic values under more general ones, and integrating values into others as parts. Do your best to make your list comprehensive and representative.

IF BrainstormX list the vlues for your groupF ueep in mind tht vlues re multiEdimensionlF por exmpleD in the demi ontextD the vlues will rek down into dimensions orresponding to stkeE holderX fultyD studentsD dministrtionD nd other demi stkeholdersF PF ReneX redue your list to mngele size @SEUAF ho this y rewordingD synthesizingD ominingD nd elimintingF QF PostX shre your list with the entire groupF RF ReviseX mke ny lst minute hngesF SF CombineX modertor will orgnize the lists into llot TF VoteX ih person rnks the top (ve vlues

4.2.9 Exercise 5Conveying Our Values: Crafting a Values-Based Code


Each value in your Statement of Values needs to be accompanied by a Value Prole. Give a description of the value in everyday, non-technical terms. Think concretely. For example, those who exemplify your value behave in a certain fashion, exhibit certain commitments, pursue certain projects, and show certain attitudes and emotions. Try to think of general guidelines to keep in mind when working to realize your value. Finally, values challenge us because portray our aspirations. Think of specic ways values challenge us. For example, students may set for themselves the challenge of working responsibly in teams. They can further spell out what kinds of actions and attitudes this might require. Faculty members might set for themselves the challenge of grading more fairly. This could require actions like developing rubrics and rening exams to make them clearer. The purpose of this fourth exercise is to provide content to your statement of values and begin its implementation in your community. The following steps ennumerated below will help.

IF PF QF RF

ValueX esponsiility DescriptionX responsile person is person whoFFF PrincipleX he fultyD studentsD nd st' of the ollege CommitmentsX ueep o0e hoursD do your fir shre

oordinted tsksD teF

of usiness edministrtion willFFF in work temsD divide work into ler nd

IPH

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

4.2.10 Exercise 6: Creating Awareness of the UPRM College of Business Administration Statement of Values
his exerise provides you n opportunity to study nd disuss the w gollege of fusiness edministrtion ttement of lues @ville vi the iissi vsxuAF our tsk onsists of the following tsksX

ed the entire w gfe ttement of lues @individullyA hisuss the prtiulr setionGvlue ssigned to your group nd rie)y desrie wht ommitments or hllenges does this vlue present for the studentsD fulty ndGor st' of the gfe vist the most importnt ommitments or hllenges s preise nd onise priniples

4.2.11 Exercise 7: Assessing the UPRM College of Business Administration Statement of Values
his exerise o'ers four senrios in demi integrityF our jo is to disuss eh senrio in terms of the vlues listed in the w gollege of fusiness edministrtion ttement of lues @ville vi the iissi vsxuAF
Marta Acevedo, a business administration student, has a report due tomorrow. She has been overwhelmed for the last few weeks with assignments from other classes and doesn't really have time to complete this exercise. She discovers that her roommate took this same class the previous semester and has a complete report on disk. She considers using her roommate's report. Should she? What would you do if you were her?

ss wrt thretening ny of the vlues listed in the ehiw yc hih onesc ht n e done prevent this kind of prolem from rising in the (rst plec hould wrt hve plnned her ourse lod etter when registeringc gn tehers oordinte to prevent overloding students with the sme dedlinesc hose fult is thisc he studentsc he tehersc he systemc gn this prolem e posed s on)it etween ehiw vlues nd other vlues held y students nd tehersc sf soD wht re vlues tht re in on)itc row n these on)its e ddressedc ho you think the ehiw y dequtely ddresses this prolemc sf notD how n it e improvedc
You are head of your department. A recent study has revealed that plagiarism, which is a university-wide problem, is especially bad in your department. Imagine your relief when a member of your faculty brings you his latest software project, a super-eective and comprehensive anti-plagiarism software program. This program does everything. It detects subtle changes in style in student papers. Its new search engine quickly connects to existing online paper data bases, greatly expanding the ability of a professor to detect the sources from which their students have copied. Furthermore, it allows professors to upload papers and projects from past semesters and provides fast and exible indexing to help them identify recycled student work. Professors can zero in on students using recycled papers, and the former students who have become their suppliers. Following the recent lead of Ohio State University, you can now revoke the degrees of past students who participate in this version of academic dishonesty. In short, this new and exciting software package allows you to monitor the work of present and past students to a degree thought impossible even in the recent past. Plagiarism, your colleague tells you, will now become a thing of the past.

hoes this ntiEplgirism progrm threten ny of the vlues in the ehiw yc sf soD whih vluesc ss the deprtment hirperson treting students disrespetfully y dopting nd implementing the ntiE plgirism softwrec gn fulty tret students disrespetfully s 4justi(le4 retlition for student heting nd plgiringc ho two wrongs mke rightc

IPI

ht is the use of plgirismc ho students do it out of ignorne of stndrds nd prties of doumenttion nd hnowledgmentc ho they do it euse they prorstinte until they do not hve time to do the ssignment properlyc ho students resort to plgirism euse they hve too mny on)iting oligtions suh s fmilyD joD lrge ourse lodsD etFc
You teach an advanced course in Engineering Economics that has both graduate and undergraduate students. At the end of the semester the students turn in a group project that comprises 40% of their grade. One of the groups complains to you that only 4 out of the 5 members have done any work. The fth student, the one who allegedly has done no work, is an undergraduate. The others are graduate students. You talk with the undergraduate who claimed that she tried to involve herself in the group activities but was excluded because she was an undergraduate. What should you do?

ehiw fulty hve identi(ed students not working together e'etively in groups s mjor onernF ho you (nd this prolemc ht do you think re the uses of students not prtiipting e'etively in work groupsc essume tht the teher in this se is ommitted to implementing the ehiw yF hih vlues re t ply in this sec hesign n tion for the teher tht relizes these vluesc essume you re memer of this student work groupF ht n groups do to ensure tht every memer is le to prtiipte fullyc ht do group memers do to exlude individuls from prtiiptingc
You are studying frantically for your exam in a computer engineering course. It will be very dicult. But your roommate, who is also taking the course and has the exam tomorrow, seems unconcerned. When you ask why, he tells you that he has a copy of the exam. Apparently, a group of students in the class found out how to hack into the professor's computer and download the exam. (They installed a Trojan horse called Sub-Seven into the professor's computer which allows unauthorized access; then they searched through the professor's les, found the exam and downloaded it.) Your roommate has the exam in his hand and asks you if you would like to look at it. What should you do?

e group of students in omputer ethis lss reted survey tht sked students if they would vil themselves of exms otined through mens suh s tht desried in the senrio oveF ixty perent of the respondents sid tht they wouldF gompre this to the vlue ommitments expressed in the ehiw yc ss there gp etween spirtion nd ehviorc ht n e done to redue this gpc uppose you took the exmF ould this hve ny long term e'ets on your hrterc ould ting dishonestly this time mke it esier to do so in the futurec uppose you wish to uphold stndrds of demi integrity in this se nd not tke the exmF hould you turn your roommte in to the teherc ould keeping this exm theft seret undermine ny of the w ehiw vluesc sf soD whih onesc
ou hve now disussed some or ll of the ove ses in terms of the ehiw ttement of luesF ht do you think re the strengths of this doumentc ht re its weknessesc ho you reommend ny hngesc ht re thesec
Sources for Cases

gse I hs een developed y illim preyD ghuk ru'D nd tos gruz for their ookD qood gomE putingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithisF his ook is urrently in drft stge nd is under ontrt with tones nd frtlett ulishing gompnyF gses P nd Q were developed y w fulty tems from the gollege of ingineering during workE shops held for the efi PHHI teering gommittee nd the heprtment of sndustril ingineeringF hese workshops took ple epril TD PHHI nd wy IRD PHHIF

IPP

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

gse R hs een modi(ed from he lgirism hetetor written y woshe umF st n e found t the eginning of the ethis hpter in rtil ingineering hesignD edited y wj fystrom nd frue iisensteinF woshe umF he lgirism hetetorD in rtil ingineering hesignD edited y wj fystrom nd frue iisensteinF fo tonD pveX gpg ressD PHHSX PUEPVF

4.2.12 Assessment Tools


Ethics Across the Curriculum Matrix

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `iegwtrixemplteehiwpeIUFdob


Figure 4.2:

This table will help you document your class discussion of the ADEM Statement of Values.

Muddy Point Exercise

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `wFdob

Clicking on this media le will open a word format for the Muddiest Point Exercise. Students are invited to discuss the strongest and weakest facets of the ADEM Statement of Values.
Figure 4.3:

Module Assessment Form

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `weFdob

Clicking on this media le will open a general module assessment form taken from Michael Davis' IIT EAC workshop. This form will help you assess the SOV activity as well as other EAC modules.
Figure 4.4:

4.2.13 Bibliography
IF vynn hrp ine @IWWRA 4wnging for yrgniztionl sntegrityD4 in rrvrd usiness reviewD wrhE eprilX IHTEIIU PF qry F ever nd vind ulee revino @IWWWA 4gompline nd lues yriented ithis rogrmsX sn)uenes on imployees9 ettitudes nd fehviorD4 in fusiness ithis ithis urterly W@PAX QISEQQS QF turt gF qilmn @PHHQA 4qovernment ithisX sf ynly engels ere to qovernD4 in rofessioinl ithisD edited y xeil F vueke in h upp hi porumD pring PHHQX PWEQQF

IPQ RF tephen rF nger @IWWRA gontrolling ehnologyX ithis nd the esponsile ingineerD Pnd iditionF xew orkX tohn iley nd onsX IHTEIQSF SF 4pederl entening quidelines!entening of yrgniztionsD4 in ithil heory nd fusinessD Sth iditionD edited y om v feuhmp nd xormn iF fowieD xew terseyX rentie rllX IVPEIVUF his rtile ws reprinted with permission from he nited ttes vw eekD olF SH ppF RPPTEPW @wrh PTD IWWIA @fureu of xtionl efirsD snF

4.3 Pirate Code for Engineering Ethics


4.3.1 Statements of Value/Codes of Ethics
illim tF prey genter for ithis in the rofessions niversity of uerto io t wyguez

4.3.2 Module Introduction


sn this moduleD you will lern out professionl nd ouptionl odes of ethis y looking t d odeD writing your own odeD nd then ritilly exmine professionl ode of ethisD the engineering ode for the golegio de sngenieros y egrimensores de uerto ioF hree exerises will tke you through the proess of exmining the irte greedD writing your own odeD nd exmining the golegio9s odeF ext oxes will provide helpful kground informtion on purposes served y professionl odesD philosophil ojetionsD nd frmework for working your wy through stkeholderEsed ode like tht of the gse or the xtionl oiety of rofessionl ingineersF his module provides pnish trnsltion of the irte greed prepred y hrF hn vivingston gollins of the heprtment of rumnities in the niversity of uerto io t wygu ezF gonluding this module re two word douments uploded s medi (lesF yne provides the exerises tht re presented in this module in wv formtF he other provides the kground informtion tht hs een presented in this module s extoxesF

4.3.3 Module Activities


IF ou will nlyze the irte greed in terms of @A its di'erent funtionsD @A the ommunity vlues it emodiesD nd @A how it stnds towrd nonmemers of the pirte ommunity s well s memersF PF ou will write ode of ethis for n ouptionl or professionl re suh s usiness or engineeringF QF ou will derief the rest of the lss on your group9s odeD lrify its funtions nd vluesD nd defend it if neessryF RF his module will onlude with look t the ode of ethis of the uerto io tte oiety of rofessionl ingineers nd vnd surveyors or Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto RicoF

4.3.4 Pirates Creed of Ethics (translated into Spanish by Dana Collins)


IF il pitn tendr omndo totl durnte un tll y tendr l utoridd pr dirigir el roF il que no sigu l pitn podr ser stigdo se l tripulin no vot en ontr del stigoF PF i el ro nufrgD l tripulin permneer unidos hst el pitn onsigue otr nveF i l nve es propiedd omn de l tripulinD l primer nve pturd perteneer l pitn on un @IA prte de otnF
5 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13849/1.10/>.

IPR

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

QF il irujno del ro reiir dosients @PHHA orons pr el mntenimiento de su equipo mdio y reiir un @IA prte del otnF RF vos otros o(iles reiirn un @IA prte d unoD y si se distinguenD l tripulin determinr unto reiirn omo reompensF SF il otn de un nve pturd ser distriuido en prtes igulesF TF il primero que sele l priin de un ro que se pturdo reiir ien @IHHA oronsF UF il que pierd un ojoD un mnoD o un piern mientrs est en serviioD reiir hst seis eslvos o seisients @THHA oronsF VF vos suministros y riones sern omprtidos por igulF WF v penlidd por trer un mujer disfrzd ordo es l muerteF IHF i un hermno ro de otroD perder su nriz u orejsF e pe de nuevoD se le drn un mosqueteD muniionesD plomo y un otell de gu y ser ndondo en un islF IIF i hy dud en un disput entre hermnosD un orte de honor determinr el vereditoF i un hermno es enontrdo ulpleD l primer vez ser perdondoD pero l ofender de nuevoD ser tdo un n y reiir un ltigzo de d miemro de l tripulinF il mismo stigo ser ddo todosD inluyendo o(ilesD quienes se emorrhen l punto de perder sus sentidos mientrs estn en el roF IPF il que se duerm mientrs est trjndo omo entinelD reiirn ltigzos por todos los miemros de l tripulinF e repite el rimenD su ez ser rjdF IQF e todos quienes onspiren pr desertrD o lo que hyn desertdo y sen pturdosD sus ezs sern rjdsF IRF els entre vrios hermnos mientrs estn ordo ser resueltos en tierr on pistols y espdsF il que sque primer sngre ser el venedorF xo pueden golper otro mientrs estn ordo de l nveF

4.3.5 Exercise 1: Pirate Creed



ht is good out the irte greed of ithisc wht is d out the irte greed of ithisc ht is the purpose of the greed for the irte gommunityc ht vlues re emedded in the irte greed row does the irte greed del with nonmemersc

4.3.6 Exercise 2: Writing a Code of Ethics for Engineers


Step One: sdentify the purpose ehind your engineering ode of ethisF por exmpleD is it to punish wrongful ehviorD provide set of guidelinesD edute the ommunityD support ethil ehviorD or rete n ethis diloguec Step Two: sdentify the ontriutions tht engineering mkes to soietyF Step Three: sdentify the stkeholders of the engineering professionF e stkeholder is ny group or individul with vitl or essentil interest tied to wht engineers doF long with these stkeholdersD identify their stkesD tht isD the goodsD rightsD interests or vlues tht re mintinedD promotedD or diminished y wht engineers doc Step Four: inumerte the oligtions or duties tht engineers hve towrd eh of these stkeholdersF sn other wordsD wht n engineers do to mintinD promoteD or diminish the stkes of eh stkeholderc Step Five: sdentify the on)iting oligtions tht rise from the ft tht engineers hve di'erent stkeholders who hold on)iting stkesc ho ny of these stkeholders or stkes hve ovious priority over the othersc Step Six: tep k nd re)et on wht you hve writtenF por exmpleD look for di'erent kinds of provisionsF hoes your ode use ideals of the profession whih set forth the profession9s entrl or

IPS rdinl ojetivesc hoes your ode ontin principles of professional conduct whih set forth miniml levels of ehvior nd prersrie sntions nd punishments for ompline filuresc sn the gse @Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto RicoA ode of ethisD the fundmentl priniples nd si nons set forth the idels of the professionF he priniples of professionl ondut fll in the setion on prtil normsF Step Seven: he pinl euditF umit your ode to n overll udit to see if nything hs een left outF rve you inluded ll the stkeholders nd their stkesc rve you left out ny ethil onsidertions suh s rights nd dutiesc gompre your ode to the lwF ere your ode9s provisions leglc ho they overlp with existing lwc ho they imply ritiisms of existing lwsc sf they imply punishments or sntionsD wht mesures does your ode presrie to dminister justly nd properly these sntionsc pinllyD e sure to gurd ginst the equl ut opposite sins of overEspei(ity nd too muh generlityF yverly spei( odes try to provide rule for every possile situtionF feuse this is impossileD these odes tend towrd rigidityD in)exiilityD nd irrelevneF godes tht re too generl fil euse they n e interpreted to rtionlize ny kind of lim ndD thusD msk immorl tions nd intentionsF

4.3.7 Exercise 3: Studying the code of Ethics of the Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico
sdentify the provisions tht touh upon the reltion of the engineer to the puliF ht goods re t stke in this reltionc ht n engineers do to preserve or promote these goodsc sdentify provisions tht touh upon the reltion of the engineer to the lientF ht goods re t stke in this reltionc ht n engineers do to preserve or promote these goodsc sdentify provisions tht touh upon the reltion of the engineer to the gse @professionl engineering soietyA ht goods re t stke in this reltionc wht n engineers do to preserve or promote these goodscF pinllyD identify provisions tht touh upon the reltion of the engineer to other engineers @peer relE tionsAF ht goods re t stke in this reltionc ht n engineers do to preserve or promote these goodsc

4.3.8 Textbox 1: Code of Ethics of Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico State society of Professional Eng
he gse ode of ethis hs three prtsX rt yneX hree pundmentl riniples whih express rdinl ojetives for engineering prtie in uerto io rt woX en gnons whih set forth generl rules for ethil engineering prtie rt hreeX ih non is repeted followed y severl prtil normsF y setting forth detiled rulesD prtil norms speify nd interpret the si nonsF hey lso set forth spei( nd onrete rules for professionl nd ethil ondut he gse ode of ethis is stkeholder odeF his mens it identi(es engineering stkeholdersD the goods they depend uponD nd the duties engineers hve in proteting or promoting these goodsF
Key Engineer Relations

he reltion etween engineer nd public is founded on the goods of helthD sfety nd welfreF he reltion etween engineer nd client is founded on the good of fithful geny @trustAF he reltion etween the individul engineer nd the profession is founded on the engineer working to mintin the good reputtion nd integrity of the professionF he peer reltion etween prtiing engineers is founded on the good of ollegilityF

IPT
Engineer and Public

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

huties rising in this reltion re tied to mintining or promoting the goods of helthD sfetyD nd welfreF hey inlude minimizing hrmD voiding pternlism @mking deisions for others who hve the right nd ility to mke these for themselvesAD free nd informed onsent @the right of those tking risk to onsent to tht riskAF pIX heern onsiderr su prinipl funin omo profesionles l de servir l humniddF u relin omo professionl y lienteD y omo professionl y ptronoD deer estr sujet su funin fundmentl de promover el ienestr de l humnidd y l de proteger el inters plioF gnon IX elr por sore tod otr onsiderin por l seguriddD el mienteD l slud y el ienestr de l omunidd en l ejeuin de sus responsiliddes profesionlesF rtil xorm IdX gundo tengn onoimiento o su(iente rzn pr reer que otro ingeniero o grimensor viol ls disposiiones de este gdigoD o que un person o (rm pone en peligro l seguriddD el mienteD l slud o el ienestr de l omuniddD presentrn tl informin por esrito ls utoriddes onernids y ooperrn on dihs utoriddes proveyendo quell informin o sisteni que les se requeridF
Engineer to Client

huties stemming from this reltion rise out of fithful genyD tht isD the responsiility of n engineer to remin true to the lient9s interestsF ositively this inludes exerising due re for the lient y rrying out the lient9s interests through the exerise of soundD ompetent engineering professionl judgmentF xegtively this entils voiding on)its of interest nd reveling the lient9s on(dentil informtionF Faithful AgencyX gnon R"etur en suntos profesionles pr d ptrono o liente omo gentes (eles o (duiriosD y evitr on)itos de intereses o l mer prieni de stosD mnteniendo siempre l independeni de riterio omo se del profesionlismoF Conict of InterestX R"ivitrn todo on)ito de intereses onoido o potenil on sus ptronos o lientes e informrn on prontitud sus ptronos o lientes sore ulquier relin de negoiosD intereses o irunstnis que pudiern in)uenir su juiio o l lidd de sus serviiosF CondentialityX Ri"rtrn tod informinD que les llegue en el urso de sus enomiends proE fesionlesD omo on(denil y no usrn tl informin omo medio pr logrr ene(io personl si tl in es dvers los intereses de sus lientesD de sus ptronosD de ls omisiones o junts ls que pudier perteneer o del plioF
Engineer to Profession

his inludes working to promote the profession9s autonomy and independence s well s minE tining its good reputationF woreover it requires tht engineers prtiipte in their professionl soietyD work to dvne engineeringD e ojetive nd imprtil in their workD nd ssoite only with persons of good reputationF Canon 3X imitir delriones plis nimente en un form verz y ojetivF Practical Norm 3aX ern ojetivos y veres en informes profesionlesD delriones o testimoniosF snluirn tod l informin relevnte y pertinente en tles informesD delriones o testimoniosF
Engineer to Engineer

his reltion is sed on the good of CollegialityF st requires tht engineers work to mintin friendly nd ollortive reltions with other engineers y voiding disloyl ompetition nd omprtive dvertising nd y lwys giving peers due redit for their ontriutions to engineering projets nd designsF Practical Norm 4lX entes de relizr trjos pr otrosD en los ules puedn her mejorsD plnosD diseosD inventosD u otros registrosD que puedn justi(r l otenin de derehos de utor o ptentesD llegrn un uerdo en relin on los derehos de ls respetivs prtesF @qive due redit to ollegues for their workAF

IPU

Canon 5X idi(r su reputin profesionl en el mrito de sus serviios y no ompetir deslelmente on otrosF @Avoid disloyal competitionA Practical Norm 6bX enunirn sus serviios profesionles sin utoElnz y sin lenguje enE goso y de un mner en que no se menose l dignidd de sus profesionesF @Non-comparative advertisingA Practical Norm 5hX xo trtrn de suplntrD ni suplntrn otro ingeniero o grimensorD despus de que un gestin profesionl le hy sido ofreid o on(d steD ni tmpoo ompetir injustmente on lF @Avoid disloyal competitionA

4.3.9 Professional Codes as Social Contracts


ht some hve sid out de(ning ethis ould lso e pplied to de(ning professionX it9s it like 4niling jello to treeF4 xeverthelessD we n mke to resonle lims out professionsX tye n e treted s soil ontrtsD nd they hve someting to do with speilized knowledgeF sf these two lims holdD then third lim n e mdeD nmelyD tht professions hve n ineliminle ethil dimensionF e legitimte ontrt etween two prties requires quid pro quo @ mutully ene(il exhngeA nd free consent @onsent tht inludes full informtion nd exludes fore or deeptionAF he soil ontrt etween engineering nd soiety n e pitured int he following wyX
Profession as Social Contract Society grants to Profession Profession grants to Society

eutonomy restige wonopoly

elfEegultion rimy of puli helthD sfetyD nd welfre heveloping nd enforing ethil nd professionl stndrds
Table 4.4

Society grants autonomy, prestige, and monopoly control to the profession of engineering.

IF eutonomy inludes freedom from regultion nd ontrol from the outside through umersome lwsD regultionsD nd sttutesF PF restige inludes high soil sttus nd generous pyF QF wonopoly sttus implies tht the profession of engineering itself determines who n prtie engineerE ing nd how it should e prtiedF RF he profession promises to use its utonomy responsily y regulting itselfF it does this y developing nd enforing professionl nd ethil stndrdsF fy grnting prestige to the professionD soiety hs removed the need for the profession to olletively rgin for its selfEinterestF SF xot hving to worry out its olletive selfEinterestD the profession is now free to hold prmount the helthD sfetyD nd welfre of the puliF TF his ontrt explins why professions develop odes of ethisF godes doument to the puli the profession9s ommitment to rry out its side of the soil ontrtD nmelyD to hold prmount puli welfreF hey n do this euse soiety will honor its side of the ontrtD nmelyD to remove from the profession the need to (ght for its selfEinterest
This social contract is more symbolic and explanatory than real.

godes llow the profession to doument to soiety tht it hs developed proper stndrds nd intends to enfore themF hey express the profession9s trust in soiety to keep its side of the rgin y grnting utonomyD prestigeD nd monopolyF yf ourse this ontrt hs never een expliitly ented

IPV

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

t point in historil timeF fut the notion of soil ontrt with mutully ene(il exhnge @ quid pro quoA provides useful devie for modeling the reltion tht hs tully evolved etween soiety nd its professionsF
Professions and Responsibility

rofessions hve een reted to exerise stewrdship over knowledge nd skill dominsF ixerising stewrdship over generlly mens wthing overD preservingD protetingD nd even imE proving F tewrdship is forwrdElooking kind of responsiility similr to the responsiility tht prent exerises towrd his or her hildrenF he stewrd is trusted servnt or gent of the lndowner who ts in the owner9s ple while the lter is sent or inpittedF 4tewrdshipD4 thusD refers to the profession9s responsiility to sfegurd its spei( domin of knowlE edge nd skillF his domin is essentil to soiety in some wy @it provides soiety with siD ommon goodA nd soiety delegtes responsiility for this domin to its memers who re speilly suited to exerise itF oD generlly spekingD professions n e hrterized in terms of epistemologil nd ethil responE siilitiesF he epistemologil responsiility refers to stewrdship over the knowledge nd skills tht hrterizes the professionF he profession preservesD trnsmitD nd dvnes this domin of knowledge nd skillF @ipistemology a study of knowledgeFA he ethil dimension refers to the responsiility of the profession to sfegurd knowledge nd skill for the good of soietyF oiety trusts the profession to do this for the ske of the omnmon goodF oiety lso trusts the profession to regulte its own tivities y developing nd enforing ethil nd professionl stndrdsF

4.3.10 Objections to and Mischievous Side Eects of Codes of Ethics


These objections are taken from John Ladd, "The Quest for a Code of Professional Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion." This article can be found in Deborah G. Johnson, editor, (1991) Ethical Issues in Engineering, New Jersey: Prentice Hall: 130-136. The author of this module has taken some liberties in this presentation.

Codes "confuse ethics with law-making" @vddD IQHAF ithis is deliertive nd rgumenttive while lwEmking fouses on tivities suh s mking nd enforing rules nd poliiesF A code of ethics is an oxymoron. ithis requires utonomy of the individul while ode ssumes the legitimy of n externl uthority imposing rule nd order on tht individulF Obedience to moral law for autonomous individuals is motivated by respect for the moral
husD vdd informs us tht when one tthes 4disipinry proeduresD methods of djudition nd sntionsD forml nd informlD to the priniples tht one lls 9ethil9 one utomtilly onverts them into legl rules or some other kind of uthorittive rules of ondutFFFF4@vdd IQIA eompnying ode provisions with punishments reples oediene sed on respet for the @morlA lw with onformity sed on fer of punishmentF Codes lead to the dangerous tendency to reduce the ethical to the legal. ithil priniples n e used to judge or evlute disiplinry or legl odeF fut the reverse is not trueY existing lws nnot trump ethil priniples in detes over ethil issues nd ethil deisionsF es vdd puts itD 4ht is not to sy tht ethis hs no relevne for projets involving the retionD erti(tion nd enforement of rules of ondut for memers of ertin groupsFFFFsts ethis9s role in onnetion with these projets is to ppriseD ritiize nd perhps even defend @or ondemnA the projets themselvesD the rulesD regultions nd proedures they presrieD nd the soil nd politil gols nd institutions they representF4 @vdd IQHA
law. On the other hand, obedience to civil law is motivated by fear of punishment.

IPW

Codes have been used to justify immoral actionsF rofessionl odes hve een misued y individuls to justify tions tht go ginst ommon morlityF por exmpleD lwyers my use the ft tht the lw is n dversril system to justify lyingF vdd responds in the following wy to this dodgeX 4{}here is no speil ethis elonging to professionlsF rofessionls re notD simply euse they re professionlsD exempt from the ommon oligtionsD duties nd responsiilities tht re inding on ordinry peopleF hey do not hve speil morl sttus tht llows them to do things tht no one else nF4 @vdd IQIA
Mischievous Side-Eects of Codes (from John Ladd)

Codes make professionals complacentF @vdd IQSA pirstD they redue the ethil to the minimlly eptleF eondD they over up wrongful tions or poliies y lling them!within the ontext of the ode!4ethil4F por exmpleD the xi ode of ethis used to prohiit ompetitive iddingF inshrining it in their ode of ethis gve it the pperne of eing ethil when in ft it ws motivted primrily y self interestF his provision ws removed when it ws delred unonstitutionl y the FF upreme gourt for violting the entiErust lwF feuse odes fous on miroEethil prolemsD "they tend to divert attention from macroethical problems of a profession." @vdd IQSA por exmpleD in uerto ioD the tions of the hisiplinry riunl of the golegio de sngenieros y egrimensores de uerto io tend to fous on individul engineers who violte ode provisions onerned with individul ts of orruptionY these inlude on)its of interestD filing to serve s fithful gents or trusteesD nd prtiipting in orrupt tions suh s tking or giving riesF yn the other hndD the gse does not ple equl ttention on mroEethil prolems suh s 4the soil responsiilities of professionls s group4 @vdd IQPAD the role of the profession nd its memers in soiety @vdd IQSAD nd the 4role professions ply in determining the use of tehnologyD its development nd expnsionD nd the distriution of the ostsF4 @vdd IQSA

4.3.11 Exercise: Questions for Reection


IF hih of vdd9s ritiisms pply to the irte greedc PF row does your group9s ode of ethis stnd in reltion to vdd9s ritiismsc QF ho vdd9s ojetions pply t the efiD xiD or gse odesc

WORD FILE

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVRWGltestGgodeifxIFdo


Figure 4.5:

Module Exercises.

IQH

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)
6

4.4 Corporate Ethics Compliance Ocer Report


note:

his module hs een designed to ring together the following modules responding to the eegf four ethis themesD orporte ledershipD ethil deisionEmkingD orporte soil responsiilityD nd orporte governneF he links in this module tie it diretly to ieg oolkit modules tht will help in preprtion of the gigy reportF he inlude the followingX

- Type or paste the content directly into the appropriate section - Socio-Technical Systems in Professional Decision Making (m14025) - Developing a Statement of Values (m14319) - Pirate Code for Engineering Ethics (m13849) - Moral Ecologies in Corporate Governance (m17353) - Three Views of Corporate Social Responsibility (m17318) - Different Approaches to Corporate Governance (m17367) These modules have links of their own that will prove invaluable for this activity. An example is the Leeds School of Business at the University of Colorado; this link connects to a search engine for finding codes of ethics and corporate social responsibility programs. The media file below provides a generic poster presentation template geared toward this assignment.

Template for CECO Poster Presentation

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIVTRTGltestGgorporte qovernne resenttionFpptx

This media le provides a template of the poster presentation required for ADME 3405, the course "Corporate Leadership and Social Responsibility." The dierent sections can be lled in by preparing PowerPoint slides, pressing control + Print Screen when in presentation viewing mode, and copy-pasting into appropriate part of poster template slide.
Figure 4.6:

4.4.1 Introduction
ou re the gigy of your ompnyF feing fmilir with the requirements of rnesEyxley nd the pederl entening quidelinesD you hve een hrged with developing omprehensive ethis progrm tht inludes @IA soioEtehnil system studyD @PA orporte ode of ethisD @QA n ethis trining progrm for new nd
6 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m18646/1.1/>.

IQI ongoing employeesD @RA n ethis hotline or some other reporting mehnismD @SA g @orporte soil responsiilityA hllengeD nd @TA reruitment nd ledership strtegies for implementing ethisF our report will egin with n exeutive summry nd end with onluding setion tht disusses implementtion issues nd needsF

4.4.2 What you need to know . . .


Sections of CECO Corporate Ethics Report

IF ixeutive ummry @I pgeA PF oioEehnil ystem le plus written explntionF @QES pgesA QF gorporte gode of ithis tht provides ore vluesD desription of eh vlueD nd how you pln to disseminte nd implement your odeF @QESA RF g @gorporte oil esponsiilityA ghllenge SF hesription of ithis rining rogrm inluding tivities nd required resoures @QES pgesA TF eruitment nd vedership trtegies for smplementing ithis into your orgniztion @QES pgesA UF e gonlusion tht inludes summry of the reportD time frme for implementing your ethis progrmD nd n inventory of progrm needs nd resoures @I pgeA

4.4.3 What you will do ...


Executive Summary

he exeutive summry should e no more thn one pgeF ixpet to write this severl times euse it needs to e the lerest nd est written setionF ritten for your giyD it should provide quik two minute summry of your ethis plnF rite it in tive voieD use ordinry lngugeD nd mke referenes throughout the summry to the setions of the report tht provide more inEdepth nlysis of the issue t hndF sn this setion you will tell your reder wht you re going to sy in the reportF
Socio-Technical System

his setion will provide oth tle nd written desription to help your reder understnd the soioE tehnil system in whih your ompny works nd whih provides the ethil nd soil hllenges to whih your progrm will respondF por informtion on how to ompose tle nd the di'erent frmes overed refer to module mIRHPSD oioEehnil ystems in rofessionl heisionEwkingF he tle for furger wn provides frmes tht will e most relevnt to this module ut there re lso other tles dopted for use in power engineering nd engineering prtie in uerto ioF our written nlysis should summrize nd explore in more detil the issues tht you re dE dressing in your orporte ethis plnF hese would inlude ompline issues s well s (elds in whih your orportion9s spirtions ould e relizedF
Corporate Code of Ethics

our jo here is to write ode of ethis for your orportion emphsizing the key vlue spirtions nd g hllenges tht your re trgeting in your ethis progrmF our ode should inludeFFF he vlues tht form your orportion9s highest nd entrl ommitmentsF e desription or pro(le of eh vlueF ee the heveloping ttement of lues module for more on thisF row your vlues pply to oth the orportion9s stkeholders nd to its key g hllengesF ou should e ler out the funtion your ode is plying oth within your ethis pln nd within the orporte orgniztionF ix key funtions re @IA to eduteD @PA to foster n ethil dilogueD @QA to disipline employeesD @RA to support employees in their e'orts to relize the orportion9s ore ommitE mentsGvluesD @SA to ommunite these ommitmentsGvlues to employees nd other stkeholdersD nd

IQP

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

@TA to serve s puli testment of the key ethil nd vlue ommitments tht de(ne the integrity of your orgniztionF
Ethics Training Program

his setion detils how you edute employees on the key omponents of your ethis progrm inluding the ore ethil nd vlue ommitmentsF st should lso provide mens for getting employee uyEin for the ethis progrm s well s omponents tht help employees with speil ethil hllengesF st should inlude the followingX row you pln to edute employees on the ompny9s ode of ethisF row the ompny9s ore ethil vlues nd priniples should e integrted in the ompny9s key opertions inluding setting poliyD strtegi plnning nd deisionEmkingF row your ethis progrm ddresses your ompny9s morl eologyF @ss it (nneED ustomerED or qulity drivenc row do employees develop suessful morl reers nd modes of ethil dvoy within eh of these ompniesc row does your ethis trining progrm support this proesscA
CSR Challenges

everl ompnies hve speil hllenges in gF por exmpleD go gol when operting in sndi (nds itself shring sre wter resoures with lolD susistene frmersF ht re their responsiilities in this ontextc elte your g hllenge to the desription in the seond setionF hevelop response to this g hllengeF row does this relize your ompny9s key morl vluesc gontextulize your ompny9s g response within generl g perspetiveX shreholderD stkeE holderD llineF
Recruitment and Leadership Strategies for Implementing Ethics

sn this setion you will desrie how you will relize your ore ojetives in reruiting new employees nd in developing ledership styleF gonsiderD for exmpleD how you will integrte vlues into the di'erent omponents of your orportion9s reruiting mehnismF tustie in the jo desriptionF gommuniting to new employees their jo nd morl responsiilitiesF eruiting employees who will e le to develop suessful morl reers in the morl eology of your ompnyF eognizing nd responding to ethil risks suh s mintining privy nd propertyF
Conclusion

sn the exeutive summryD you hve told your reder wht you re going to sy in this reportF he min ody of the report ontins wht you need to syF his (nl setion tells the reder wht you hve sid y repitulting nd summrizing the report9s high pointsF snlude time frme for implementing your ethis progrm s well s desription of the progrm9s needsF

4.4.4 What did you learn?


Check List

ih group will turn in this heklistD fully (lled out nd signedF gheking signi(es tht your group hs ompleted nd turned in the item hekedF pilure to sumit this form will ost your group PH points ixeutive ummry oioEehnil ystem le nd ritten ixplntion gode of ithis ithis rining rogrm gorporte oil esponsiility ghllenge nd esponse eruitment nd vedership trtegies for smplementing ithis

IQQ

gonlusion
Group Self Evaluation Requirements

qroup elfEivlution porm inludingFFF list of the gols your group set for itself refully prepredD justi(edD nd doumented ssessment of your group9s suess in rehing these gols reful ssessment of wht you did nd did not lern in this tivity disussion of ostles you enountered nd the mesures your group took to overome these disussion of memer prtiiption nd ontriution inluding the memer ontriution forms generl disussion of wht worked nd wht did not work for you nd your group in this tivity ih memer will turn in (lled out em wemer ivlution pormF his form n e essed through the medi (le listed oveF st is suggested tht you do this nonomously y turning in your em wemer ivlution porm in seled envelop with the rest of these mterilsF ou re to evlute yourself long with your temmtes on the riteri mentioned in the formF se the sle suggested in the formFour (rst item here
Team Member Evaluation Form

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIVTRTGltestGiew wiwfi esxq riiFdox

This Team Member Evaluation Form must be lled out by each team member. Evaluate yourself and each member in terms of the criteria. It is preferable if you do this anonymously.
Figure 4.7:

Group Pledge

s ertify tht these mterils hve een prepred y those who hve signed elowD nd no one elseF s ertify tht the ove items hve een heked nd tht those items with hek mrks indite mterils tht we hve turned inF s lso ertify tht we hve not plgirized ny mteril ut hve given due knowledgment to ll soures usedF ell who sign elow nd whose nmes re inluded on the title pge of this report hve prtiipted fully in the preprtion of this projet nd re eqully nd fully responsile for its resultsF wemer signture here wemer signture here wemer signture here wemer signture here wemer signture here wemer signture here

IQR

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

4.4.5 Appendix 4.4.6 EAC ToolKit Project


4.4.6.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense7 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF

7 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

IQS
4.4.6.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

4.5 Being an Ethical Job Candidate


4.5.1 Module Introduction

ghnes re tht you re either tively involved in n e'ort to (nd work or soon will eF fsed on stories tht ome from the joEhunting experienes of w students in rtil nd rofessionl ethis lssesD this module presents the employment guidelines put out y the siiiD hllenges these guidelines with relisti ses nd senriosD nd provides you with deisionEmking tools to tkle these ethil omplexitiesF his module ws developed for nd reently presented in wehnil ingineering gpstone hesign oursesF st forms prt of the ieg oolkit funded y the xtionl iene poundtionD i HSSIUUWF he detils of the siii rofessionl imployment quidelines for ingineers nd ientists hve een reprinted y tephen nger in his ookD gontrolling ehnologyX ithis nd the esponsile ingineerD Pnd idF xD xX tohn iley nd onsD snFX QISEQPWF e ondense these guidelines to few oneptsF ih onept will e presented nd followed y one or more ses designed to test the onept in its pplitionF

4.5.2 Sincere Interest


to ndidtes re oliged to pply only for those positions in whih they re sinerely nd seriously interestedF 4inere interest4 hs severl menings ut two stnd out hereF pirstD they should not gree to n interview fter hving epted jo o'er from nother ompnyF eondD they should e quli(ed ording to the requirements listed in the jo pplitionF he following senrios test this onept in di'erent wysF 4fring our priends4 rises the issue of whether not eing seriously interested in jo is ok if the interviewer knows this nd initites the interview for other resonsF 4orking for weg epons4 sks whether morl or onsieneEsed on)its nel out 4sinere interestF4
1. Bring Your Friends:

wriD tlented student in mehnil engineering hs epted n o'er to work for prestigious (rmF hen she reeives ll for n interview with (rm F he tells them tht she hs lredy epted n o'er from D ut the ller sys tht doesn9t mtterF e wnt to interview you nywy so tht we n doument 0rmtive tion omplineF sn ftD if you hve ny friends who re similrly situted iFeFD women who ome from minority groups plese give us their nmesF e will )y ll of you to our entrl hedqurters for interviews t our expenseF st will e good vtionF
What would you do if you were in Maria's place?

eept the interview o'er ut not try to reruit ny of your friendsF eept the interview o'er nd try to reruit some of your friends to go longF efuse to ept the interview on morl groundsF efuse to ept the interview euse it would interfere with the lss in rtil nd rofessionl ithis tht you re urrently tkingF eport this ompny to the pproprite governmentl geny sine they re lerly distinguishing ginst ndidtes from soElled minority groups our solutionFFFF

2. Working for Mega Weapons

torge is n unemployed omputing professionlF re is lso pi(stF entonioD friendD hs jo prospetF weg epons is looking for someone with torge9s expertiseF esD he will e spending time developing the
8 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14468/1.9/>.

IQT

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

guidne systems for smrt omsF fut the urteD smrt oms will e less likely to go stry nd kill innoent ivilinsF torgeD howeverD remins unimpressed y thisF hey9re still omsD he sysD nd their primry purpose is to kill humn eingsF fesidesD s would ompromise myself y even epting n interviewF ht if they sk me out my views on wrc s would hve to tell them the truth nd then they would dismiss me s ndidteF torge tells his wife out the jo prospetF hile she supports his pi(smD she tells him tht she n9t ontinue inde(nitely s witressY her jo is preventing her from ompleting her ollege degree nd keeps her wy from the hildrenF he sks torge if there is ny wy he n reonile this jo with his pi(smF ht should torge doc
What should Jorge do is he receives a request to interview with Mega Weapons?

torge should not go to the interview euse he is not 4sinerely interested4 in this positionF ris pi(sm nels out ny possiility of 4sinere interest4F torge should ept this interview request euse his oligtions to his fmily outweigh mtters of personl morlity nd personl onsiene suh s his pi(smF torge should ept this interview nd jo o'erD if one followsD preisely euse of his pi(smF sf he refuses then weg epons will (nd wr monger who will do ll kinds of hrmF fy tking the jo nd using his skills to minimize hrm in wepons development torge is doing his est to relize the pi(st gendF torge should set side his pi(sm nd use his engineering skills to rry out politilly sntioned wepons projets just s dotor should set side personl likes or dislikes of ptient nd exerise his or her skills dispssiontely nd professionllyF our solutionFFF

4.5.3 Full and Honest Disclosure


he jo ndidte is required to provide full informtion reltive to the jo desription s dvertisedF his would inlude elements suh sX idutionl ixperiene rior work experiene yther jo relevnt skills nd knowledge ho religionD sexul prefereneD mritl sttusD politil viewpointsD nd reretionl prties onstitute jo relevnt mttersc sn other wordsD re these mtters privte to the jo ndidte or re there osions when the prospetive employer hs right to ess this informtionc histinguish etween informtion to whih n interviewer hs right nd the mens the interviewer hs the right to use to unover this informtionF ho interviewers hve the right to require tht jo ndidtes @IA tke polygrph exmintionsD @PA undergo drug testsD @QA tke psyhologil pro(ling exmsD @RA e sujeted to 4stged rises4 to (nd out how ndidte would hndle suh n eventc hese my onstitute informtion res to whih the prospetive employer hs rightD ut does the interviewer lso hve right to use these mens to otin this informtionc
The following scenario examines whether full disclosure requires that one make known one's personal moral convictions. 3. Are You a Bleeding-Heart Pacist?

torge is pi(stF re is lso n unemployed omputing professionlF eginst his etter judgmentD his wife nd friendD entonioD hve tlked him into interviewing with weg epons for new opening working on the guidne systems of nonEnuler missilesF huring the interviewD the employer remrks tht weg epons hs hd troule in the pst with employees who hve morl qulms out working on wepons projetsF re then turns to torge nd sksD ou9re not one of those leedingEhert pi(sts re youc row should torge nswer this questionc

torge should not revel his pi(smF st is ovious tht this would prejudie weg epons ginst hiring himF re must try to get the jo t ll ostsF

IQU

torge should tke the time to explin his pi(smD nd how he sees himself (tting into di'erent militry projetsF por exmpleD he ould emphsize his onern nd expertise in mking wepons guidne systems s urte s possile to minimize 4olltorl4 dmge during useF re ould use this interview to negotite guidelines for projets tht he would (nd omptile with his onvitionsF torge should immeditely exit the interviewF st is ovious tht weg epons would exhiit no sympthy or support for his pi(smF our solutionF

4.5.4 Moral Conicts and Full and Honest Disclosure


Consider this Analogy

ou re physiin on ll for turdy night in remote ountry hospitlF ou reeive n emergeny ll to ome immeditely nd performD lifeEsving surgery on ptient in ritil onditionF he surgery is routine for someone of your skills ut the sitution for the ptient is ritilF ou n sve his life if you t quiklyF ou speed to the hospitlD sruD suit up nd wlk into the operting roomF here lying unonsious on the operting tle is your worst enemyF his is person whose entire life hs een devoted to mking you miserleF ou hve no dout tht if you sve his life he will ontinue to in)it even more su'ering on youF ou hesitteF ou ould oth the opertion nd proly get wy with itF fut no one else n perform the surgeryF ou suessfully exeute the opertion nd sve the ptient9s lifeF efter llD s physiin you hve the oligtion to set side personl issues nd feelings nd do your duty s professionl to the est of your ilitiesF he generl onsensus is tht the dotor is morllyD professionllyD nd even leglly oligted to perform the opertionF rofessionlismD most rgueD requires tht we set side personl issues nd personl morlity nd do our duties s professionlsF muel plormn rgues tht engineers s professionls hve the sme duty y nlogyF sf soiety sks n engineer to rry out tsk tht is soilly sntioned nd politilly vlidtedD then the engineer hs the duty to set side whtever morl or onsieneEsed ojetions he or she my hve nd rry out the engineering tivityF o even those who re pi(sts nd ojet to wepons projets my hveD under the right onditionsD the oligtion or duty to set side personl morlity nd work on the projetF ho you think plormn9s nlogy holdsc ut yourself into the position of torgec hoes he hve the oligtion to set side his pi(sm s merely personl elief nd rry out his orders s n engineerc
Here is the central part of Florman's argument from analogy quoted from his article, "Moral Blueprints" (Harper's, October 1978, pp. 0-33):

sf eh person is entitled to medil re nd legl representtionD is it not eqully importnt tht eh legitimte usiness entityD government genyD nd itizens9 group should hve ess to expert engineering dviec sf soD then it follows tht engineers @within the limits of onsieneA will sometimes lor on ehlf of uses in whih they do not elieveF uh tolernt view lso mkes it esier for engineers to mke livingF
What do you think Florman means by "within the limits of conscience"?

xthniel forenstein widely respeted expert on intelligent systems found himself under just this kind of situtionF e ommitted pi(stD he ssiduously voided getting involved in militry projetsD even when sked repetedly y representives of the militryF fut something sid to him y one of these militry representtives led him to ressess his positionF forenstein ws sked to develop trining simultion to teh individuls how to work with the nuler missile lunhing systemF hen he found tht it involved 4emedded trining4 he eme very onernedF o ppreite the full extent of his onern nd the resons tht persuded him to get involved in this projetD it is est to turn to his own wordsX
Borenstein on Embedded Training

imedded triningD in prtiulrD struk me s very poor ideF rining y omputer simultion hs een round for long timeF imedded trining tkes this one step furtherX it does the simultion nd trining on the tul ommnd nd ontrol omputerF o exggerte slightlyD whether or not nyone tully dies

IQV

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

when you press the 4lunh missiles4 utton depends on whether or not there is little line t the top of the sreen tht sys 4swvesyxF4
Borenstein continues

uh system seems lmost designed to promote n identl nuler wrD nd this thought ws wht persuded me to ttend the workshop in the (rst pleF yne n ll too esily imgine humn error!4s ould hve sworn it ws in the 9simultion9 mode!s well s frightening tehnil possiilitiesF erhpsD due to some minor progrmming ugD the word 4swvesyx4 might fil to dispper when it ws supposed toF omeone pprohing the omputer would get the wrong ide of wht it ws sfe to typeF
These quotes are taken from: Nathaniel S. Borenstein, "My life as a NATO collaborator" in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, April 1989: 13-20. A Thought Exercise

hink of forenstein9s onerns nd eventul tions in light of plormn9s nlogyF hoes forenstein hve the oligtion to set side his pi(sm to work on orreting this trining prolemc hoes plormn9s nlogy provide the justi(tion for thisc yr is forenstein ting on the sis of very di'erent set of rgumentsc essume tht you re ommitted pi(stF s forenstein right to set side his eliefs to work on this projetc hid he relly set side his eliefsc

4.5.5 Honoring Condentiality Agreements and Waiving Employment Rights


wore nd moreD prospetive jo ndidtes re eing required to sign 4nonEdislosure greements4 s prt of their employment ontrtF hese greements ommit engineers nd professionlsD not only to nonEdislosure of ompny seretsD ut to not seeking employment with ompetitors for three to (ve yers fter leving the ompnyF xonEdislosure greements re designed to lne n employer9s onern for proteting on(dentil informtion with n employee9s right to jo moility sed on freedom of ssoitionF fut new nd vitl onern to engineers nd professionls on the point of employment is just wht they re ommiting themselves to when they gree to suh ontrtul provisionsF he prospetive employee9s responsiility to honor on(dentility greements is grounded in the emE ployer9s oligtion to full dislosure of the terms of employmentF flning these is di0ult in the interviewing nd hiring proesses s the following ses demonstrteF xew employees re lso eing sked to sign greements wiving their right to sue the ompny should they e (redF sn lieu of the right to sue for wrongful dismisslD ompnies sk tht employees gree to inding ritrtion rried out y n outside ritrtorF finding ritrtion isFFFindingD tht isD it oligtes oth of the disputing prties to deision deided upon y n outsiderF end the ompny reserves the right to nme the ritrtorF gompnies hve done this to protet themselves ginst the erosion of the dotrine of 4employment t will4 towrd the notion of 4just useF4 fut the senrios elow invites you to think out how muh jo ndidtes re eing sked to give up when they wive their right to sue for wrongful dismisslF
4. We Protect Our Property

edro hs jo o'er from EgorpD mnufturer of omputer hipsF Egorp hs reently hd prolems with its ompetitors who hve tried to hire wy its employees to get informtion out their hip prodution proessF sn responseD Egorp now inludes luse @nonEdislosure greementA in its employment ontrt tht prohiits employees from working with ompetitors for up to (ve yersF hould edro e onerned out thisc ht should he doc
What should Pedro do?

re should refuse to sign suh n greement even if it osts him the joF

IQW

re should sign the greement without omplintF st9s nsty world out thereD nd he is luky to hve this joF edro should sk the ompny to e more expliit out the on(dentility onerns they re trying to protetF re should lso sk whether it is neessry to restrit his future employment options to suh n extentF our solutionFFFF
5. You Can't Sue Us

wrtD student t n rispni university hs just epted jo with mjor FF orportionF he jo seems idelF roweverD she noties tht her employment ontrt inludes luse to the e'et tht she nnot sue the orportion for wrongful dismissl should she e (red or lid o'F snstedD the dispute would e resolved y n outside ritrtorF he ritrtor9s deision would e inding on oth prtiesF woreoverD the ritrtor would e hosen y the ompnyF wrt suspets tht this greement represents hrd line stne tht the ompny hs tken on wrongful dismissl suitsF ht should she doc
What should Marta do?

he should refuse to gree to wiving ny of her legl rightsF xot to do so would leve her vulnerle to eing (red y the ompny for ny reson whtsoeverD even morlly questionle resonsF he should sk for more time to study the employment ontrt efore signingF hen she should exmE ine very refully the ompny9s pst employment issuesF wye the ompny9s reord is questionle nd this hs led them to tke suh stne towrd wrongful dismissl suitsF wrt should sk for more time to think out the employment o'er nd the ontrtul termsF hen she should try to (nd nother position nd only if she fils in this e'ort should she ept the o'er s the est thing she n doF our solutionFFFF
6. Can I use what I have already learned?

weg eponsD snF @wA hs een wrded lurtive ontrt with the FF militry to develop guidedD nonEnuler missilesF his ontrt is sed on w9s onsiderle suess in developing highly urte omputer guidne systemsF hile working with wD you hve hd ess to the detils of these guidne systemsD inluding informtion owned y w nd proteted y the lwF eentlyD you hve reeived jo o'er from emo ermsD snF @eeAF his o'er me out through n unsoliited reommendtion y former lssmte of yoursY he now works for emoD is fmilir with your experiene nd expertiseD nd suggested to his supervisors t emo tht they try to hire you wy from weg eponsF ou will e helping them develop guidne systems for missiles nd will e doing work similr to the work you re doing with weg eponsF ee ompetes diretly with wi for militry wepons ontrtsF st is more thn likely tht proteted informtion you hve hd ess to while working with weg epons would e useful for wht you would e doing with emoF
What would you do if you were in this position>

ou should ept the new joF efter llD your lssmte hs done you fvorF st9s lot more moneyD nd you re ertinly in position to help eeF ou should not ept this jo o'er sine it is ler tht your former lssmte nd ee re only interested in the proprietry nd on(dentil informtion you hve out wF ou should ept the jo ut only fter you hve done two thingsF pirstD you need to onsult with w to de(ne preisely the oundries of your on(dentility oligtionsF hen you should mke these oundries ler to ee nd only if they ept these oundries should you gree to work for themF our solutionFFFF
7. You Can't Take It With You

ou re leving gomputing ystemsD snF to work for gompwreD snDF ompetitorF fefore you leve gomputing ystemsD you re deriefed y the ersonnel y0e nd ompny lwyer on the proprietry

IRH

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

informtion you hve hd ess to while working with gomputing ystemsF hey hve itemized the inforE mtion tht you nnot divulge to or use in your work with gompwreF st is your professionl judgment tht they re inluding informtion tht is generl knowledge nd should not e onsidered on(dentil or proprietryF st is lso informtion tht would e useful"even essentil"for wht you will e doing in your new joF ou feel tht this on(dentility greement is overly restritive nd would hndip you in your new joF ht should you doc
How should you respond to CSI's restrictions on what you can and cannot disclose in your new work with Compware?

IF ou should ssert your rights to mke use of ll the informtion tht your trining hs provided youF his inludes espeilly the innovtions you introdued to gsF feuse this is the result of your hrd work you should e le to tke it with you to your new joF PF iven though gs9s on(dentility oundries reD in your opinionD restritiveD you hve no hoie ut to ept themF wke these oundries ler to gompwre nd hope tht they still wnt your serviesF QF ou need to onsult lwyer hereF glerly gs is trmpling on your legl rights ut you will need expert help to ssert themF RF our solutionFFFF

4.5.6 More on Full and Honest Disclosure: Terms of Interview


Full Disclosure also pertains to providing full disclosure of the terms of the interview as well as full disclosure of the terms of employment should the search reach this point.

pull dislosure would inlude providing the jo ndidte with detiled itinerry of the interview proessF es we will see in the se elowD some interviewers deliertely leve o' ertin items to rete surprisesF pull dislosure of the nture of the jo should inlude detiled desription of routine tivities s well s nonEroutine possiilitiesF en exmple of signi(nt nonEroutine tsk would e tht osions my rise where n employee my t some point e lled upon to work on wepons projetF sn shortD the jo ndidte should e givenD during the interviewD n orienttion on work responsiilitiesD ples in whih the work will e rried outD nd the ollegues with whom he or she will e workingF
8. Oh, by the way...

edroD who will grdute t the end of the urrent semesterD is student t well known rispni serving universityF re nd two of his lssmtes re )own y gompEyrg for n interview t ompny hedqurtersF huring phone onverstion with the ompny representtive setting up the interviewD he sks if there is nything he should do to prepre for the interviewF he ompny representtive nswersD 4xoF4 edro reeives fxed itinerry of the interview!it looks routineF o edro nd his lssmtes ord the plne nd rrive t their destintionD the ompny hedqurtersF he ompny o0il who meets them t the irport tells them tht the (rst item on the interview gend is drug testF hen edro ojets!4hy weren9t we told out this efore we greed to the interviewc4!he is told tht if this is uneptle to himD he n get right k on the plne euse the interview is over for himF
What should Pedro do?

re should get on the plneF his t on the prt of the interviewer violtes his right of prior dislosure of the terms of the interviewF re should sumit to the drug testF efter llD he should hve resonly expeted tht the ompny would do something like thisF ine whether or not he hs drug hit is highly jo relevntD the ompny hs right to this informtionF re should (le grievne ginst the ompny for disriminting ginst rispnisF our solutionFFFF

IRI
Employers should also treat information about job candidates and employees as condential

sn the following seD exmine whether informtion out why former employee with your ompny hd een (red is or is not on(dentil nd should or should not e inluded in ny reommendtion you write for tht employeeF
9. The Recommendation

e worker under your supervision hs reently een (red for inompetene nd repeted violtions of onE (dentilityF everl weeks lterD the worker returns to sk you for letter of reommendtionF re sys you owe it to himY you (red him nd he hs not een le to (nd ny work nd hs fmily to supportF
What should you do?

IF rite the letter nd withhold informtion out the employee eing (redF hile he my e slkerD you should help him s mens of helping his fmilyF PF rite the letter ut inlude the informtion out the employee eing (redF sf you frme it properlyD mye he will get jo nd e le to support his fmilyF QF efuse to write letterF sf you leve out wht the prospetive employer onsiders ruil informtion you my e lile for ny hrm this slker usesF end you wouldn9t e doing the former employee ny fvor in writing the letter euse you would e wrong to onel informtion out his eing (redF RF our solutionFFFF
Finally, interviewers and employers have the obligation to treat job candidates and employees with dignity. This includes respecting privacy and refraining from harassment. The following case raises interesting questions about just what constitutes harassment during an interview.

e reent grdute from niversity D wrt hs strong nd suessful interview with representtive from lolD respeted ompnyF he disussed her skillsD experieneD nd sked severl pereptive questions out working onditionsD jo responsiilitiesD nd ene(tsF he interviewerD oviously impressedD sked wrt k for seond interview with his supervisorF he seond interview followed di'erent ourseF he interviewerD n older mnD did not sk her out her skills or experieneF snsted he reminised out his dys s ollege studentF re tlked out his hildren!wht they were studying nd their reer plnsF re mentioned his wife in pssingF hen he told wrt tht the people who do well in his ompny re hrd workersF 4he strongest personD4 he sidD 4will do whtever is neessry to survive in hrshD ompetitive environmentF4 hen he looked t her hnds nd sked if she ws single nd if she still lived with her prentsF row should wrt nswer these questionsc ho these questions invde wrt9s privyc ho the interviewer9s questionsD ommentsD nd gestures onstitute sexul hrssmentc

4.5.7 Decision Making Exercise and Ethics Tests


Your Task

ou will e divided into groups nd ssigned senrioF ih senrio involves di0ulty with interpreting nd pplying n employee guideline oneptF snterpret nd pply the onept s est you nF hevelop vlue integrtive solution tht resolves the deision point of your senrioF

Values

ValueX e vlue 4refers to lim out wht is worthwhileD wht is goodF e vlue is single word or phrse tht identi(es something s eing desirle for humn eingsF4 frint nd ikeD worlity nd the rofessionl vifeX lues t ork

IRP

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

JusticeX tustie s firness fouses on giving eh individul wht is his or her dueF hree senses of jusE tie re @IA the properD firD nd proportionte use of sntionsD punishments nd disiplinry mesures to enfore ethil stndrds @retriutive justieAD @PA the ojetiveD dispssionteD nd imprtil distriE ution of the ene(ts nd urdens ssoited with system of soil oopertion @distriutive justieAD @QA n ojetively determined nd firly dministered ompenstion for hrms nd injusties su'ered y individuls @ompenstory justieAD nd @RA fir nd imprtil formultion nd dministrtion of rules within given groupF RespectX eognizing nd working not to irumvent the utonomy in others nd ourselvesF @euE tonomy is the pity to mke nd exeute deisions s well s to set forth ends nd golsD integrte them into life plnsD nd use these to onstitute tive identitiesFA espet involves reognizing nd respeting rights suh s privyD propertyD free speehD due proessD nd free @nd informedA onsentF hisrespet undermines utonomy through deeptionD foreD or mnipultionF ResponsibilityX he ility to develop morl responses pproprite to the morl issues nd prolems tht rise in one9s dyEtoEdy experieneF esponsiility inludes severl sensesX @IA individuls re @pityA responsile when they n e lled upon to nswer for wht they doY @PA individuls hve @roleA responsiilities when they ommit to rry out tsks tht rise from soil nd professionl rolesY @QA responsiility lso refers to the wy in whih one rries out one9s oligtionsF st n rnge from indi'erene nd negligene to re nd diligeneF esponsiility in this sense turns into virtue tht formultes diligene nd re s exellenes worth striving forF Honesty ! ss honesty telling the truthD the whole truthD nd nothing ut the truthc yr is it virtue tht involves more delite lne etween extremes of exess nd defetc oo muh honesty results in hrmful luntness nd ttlessnessF @our hild is hopeless sloF ou should disown himF he former my e true ut there re gentler nd ultimtely more produtive wys to ommunite this informtion to the onerned prentFA e re ll fmilir with too little honestyD the dishonesty tht results from lyingD deeivingD mnipultingD exggertingD distortingD etF Reasonableness E hefusing disgreement nd resolving on)its through integrtionF ghrteristis inlude seeking relevnt informtionD listening nd responding thoughtfully to othersD eing open to new idesD giving resons for views heldD nd knowledging mistkes nd misunderstndingsF husD resonleness s virtue inludes muh more thn rtionlityF @prom wihel rithrdD esonle ghildrenA
In making your decision...

IF ry to design solution tht relizes s mny vlues s possileF PF ikeX elthough vlues n ompeteD they don9t on)itF ry to solve the vlue ompetitions in your senrio y integrting the ompeting vlues in solutionF QF ikeX xo vlue neessrily overrides ny otherF RF ikeX eim to relize ll vluesD ut where tht is impossileD ent the most importnt vlues ndGor the gretest numer of vluesF
Having Trouble? Try this...

IF Nolo ContendereF ke the pth of lest resistneF @tust go long with wht the dominnt person in the sitution sysFA PF NegotiateF ry to persude those in the sitution to ept vlueEintegrtive solutionD ompromiseD or trde o'F QF OpposeF omeone is trying to fore you to so something wrongF qet some ourgeF yppose the wrongdoerF RF ExitF ou n9t win in this sitution so (nd wy of getting outF vet someone else del with itF SF hese options n e evluted nd rnked in terms of the vlues they relize @or don9t relizeA nd how fesile they re in the given situtionF
Try these ethics tests

IRQ IF PF QF RF
REVERSIBILITY X ould s think this good hoie if s were mong those 'eted y itc PUBLICITY X ould s wnt this tion pulished in the newspperc HARMX hoes this tion do less hrm thn ny ville lterntivec FEASIBILITY X gn this solution e implemented given timeD tehnilD eonomiD leglD nd politil

onstrintsc

4.5.8 References
IF itori F ikeD rofessionl ingineering ithil fehviorX e luesEsed epprohF ProceedPF
ings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, ession PRTIF wihel F rithrd @IWWTA Reasonable Children: Moral Education and Moral LearningF

vwreneD uX niversity of unss ressX IIF QF tephen rF nger @IWWRA Controlling Technology: Ethics and the Responsible EngineerF xew orkX tohn iley nd onsX QISEQPS @eprinted with permission of siiiA RF oert gF olomon @IWWWA A Better Way to Think About Business: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate SuccessF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX UIEIIRF SF ee ynlineethisD wwwFonlineethisForgD for se on whih yhD fy the y is sedF

4.5.9 Conclusion
What have you achieved?

IF PF QF RF

ou ou ou ou

hve hve hve hve

eome wre of how ethil issues n rise in the jo ndidy proessF etter of your oligtions nd rights in the jo ndiy proessF prtied deision mking y evluting nd rnking solutions to ethis sesF worked with integrting importnt ethil vlues into solutions to ethil prolemsF

4.5.10 Presentation of Module before Mechanical Engineering Class


Presentation: Being an Ethical Job Candidate

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `feittoPFpptb

This gure contains a powerpoint presentation of this module used in a Mechanical Engineering Capstone Design course during Spring and Fall semesters, 2007.
Figure 4.8:

IRR

CHAPTER 4.

CG (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE)

Gray Matters in Job Searches

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `qry wtters in to erhesFdob
Figure 4.9: This word le presents four of the above scenarios in Gray Matters form. It provides a useful handout as well as an abbreviated version of this activity.

Presentation: Nov 2010 9 [Media Object] Presentation February 2012 10 [Media Object] Workshop Exercises 11 [Media Object]

9 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Be_Et_Job_V3-1.pptx> 10 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Be_Et_Job_V4.pptx> 11 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Et_Job_ Cand_V2.docx>

Chapter 5
Business Ethics Case Studies
5.1 Biomatrix Case Exercises - Student Module
HOW TO EDIT:

rite your module for student udieneF o omplete or edit the setions elow erse the provided textul ommentries then dd your own ontent using one or more of the following strtegiesX Guide to Links

- Electronic Privacy Information Center provides updated information on online privacy issues - The linked Amicus Curiae provides insight into how John Doe Lawsuits can be used to suppress legitimate speech - Computing cases link provides supporting information on socio-technical systems - David van Mill's article, "Freedom of Speech" in the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy nicely summarizes J.S. Mill's defense of free speech and Feinberg's "Offense Principle."

Word Version of this Template

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t ` ieg u h iwveiFdob
Figure 5.1:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

5.1.1 Introduction
sn this module you will study rel world ethil prolemD the fiomtrix seD nd employ frmeworks sed on the softwre development yle to @IA speify ethil nd soil prolemsD @PA generte solutions tht integrte ethil vlueD @QA test these solutionsD nd @RA implement them over situtionEsed onstrintsF
1 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m15187/1.14/>.

IRS

IRT

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

his module will provide you with n opportunity to prtie integrting ethil onsidertions into rel world deisionEmking nd prolemEsolving in usiness nd omputingF his whole pproh is sed on n nlogy etween ethis nd design @hitekAF vrge rel world ses like fiomtrix pivot round ruil deision pointsF ou will tke on the role of one of the prtiipnts nd prolemEsolve in tems from three suh pointsF rolemEsolving in the rel world requires perseverneD morl retivityD morl imgintionD nd resonlenessF hese skills re developed through prtieF hesigning nd implementing solutions requires identifying on)iting vlues nd interestsD lning them in retive nd dynmi solutionsD overoming tehnil limitsD nd responding retively to rel world onstrintsF ih deision point requires tht you tke up the position of prtiipnt nd work with the frmeworks from this stndpointF ou my e tempted to k out nd dopt n evlutive posture from whih to judge the prtiipntsF esist this tempttionF his module is spei(lly designed to give you prtie in mking rel world deisionsF hese skills emerge when you roleEply from stndpoint within within the seF ou will lern tht deisionEmking requires understnding your sitution nd tking responsiility for itF gses suh s fiomtrix re hllenging euse of the lrge mount of informtion gthering nd sorting they requireF worl imgintion responds to this hllenge y providing di'erent frmings tht help to (lter out irrelevnt dt nd struture wht reminsF prming plys entrl role in prolem spei(tionF por exmpleD fiomtrix ould e frmed s the need to develop quik nd deisive responses to yerEsmerF yr it ould e frmed leglly s employing legl tools @tohn hoe suits to piere nonymityA tht set dngerous preedent ginst free speehF et ginD it ould e frmed s utionry tle on the dngers of thinking tht you re nonymous when you spek onlineF ht is importnt t this stge is tht you nd your group experiment with multiple frmings of the seF his will open up new horizons of solution possiilities not ville under just one frmingF kling lrge ses in smll tems lso helps develop the ommunition nd ollortion skills tht re required for group workF ke time to develop strtegies for dividing the work lod mong your tem memersF he trik is to distriute eqully utD t the sme timeD to ssign tsks ording the di'erent ilities of your tem memersF ome individuls re etter t reserh while others exel in interviewing or writingF elsoD mke sure to set side time when you (nish for integrting your work with tht of your temmtesF trt y quikly reviewing the informtion ville on the seF his is lled soping the seF hen formulte spei( questions to fous further reserh on informtion relevnt to your prolem solving e'ortsF his inludes informtion pertinent to onstruting soioEtehnil nlysisD identifying key emedded ethil issuesD nd unovering existing est nd worst prtiesF e se nrrtiveD @soioEtehnil systemA desriptionD nd two ethil re)etions hve een pulished t httpXGGomputingsesForgF his module lso links to wesites on free speeh nd privy lwD dvie to orporte o0ils on how to respond to yerEsmerD nd informtion useful in understnding the produts mnuftured y fiomtrixF

5.1.2 Case Narrative and Supporting Documents


Biomatrix Abstract

fiomtrix mnuftures medil produt lled ynvisD lurint injeted into the knee to tke the ple of nturl lurints tht dispper with geF ynvis ws developed in the lte IWWHs to help ptients su'ering osteorthritisD ondition tht leds to immoility in the knee used y the dispperne of nturl luriting )uids nd the deteriortion of the rtilge tht ushions the knee9s movementF es individuls ge the nturl hemil lurints in the knee lose their elstiityF ynvis is designed to slow this proessF wnuftured from the om of roostersD it mimis the hemil struture nd properties of the knee9s nturl lurintsF snjeted into the knee in tretment lled viso supplementtionD it provides ptients with immedite though temporry relief from osteorthritisF sn mny ses it hs helped postpone di0ult nd pinful knee surgeryF
Cybersmear

IRU

prom epril IWWW to eugust PHHHD three individuls posted over ITDHHH messges ritil of fiomE trix in (nnil disussion forum provided y hooF sing PQ pseudonymsD they mde severl unsustntited limsX tht ynvis produes hrmful side e'ets tht fiomtrix overed up negtive (nnil nd produt informtion tht fiomtrix nd its orporte o0ils hd onnetions to the w( tht the pulily nnouned friendly merger etween fiomtrix nd qenzyme ws ruse nd would never tke ple tht the giy of fiomtrix ws under investigtion y fmous xzi hunterD imon iesenthlD for rimes ommitted in qermny during the seond world wr tht top level fiiomtrix orporte o0er routinely sexully hrssed employees
The Outcome

ell of these lims were suessfully refuted during legl proeedings initited y fiomtrixF et this flse informtion my hve hd negtive impt on the (nnil well eing of the ompnyF huring the period in whih the messges ppered in hooD fiomtrix stok dropped from QS to PI dollrs per shreF yther ftors my hve ontriuted to this lossF @fiomtrix mentions di0ulties with phe regultions nd proteting its ptents in its report to the eurity ixhnge gommissionFA fut fiomtrix took diret legl tion to stop the )ow of negtive informtionD (nd those responsileD nd seek ompenstory nd punitive dmgesF hey initited tohn hoe lwsuit tht sked the ourt to supoen hoo to identify the uthors of the defmtory messgesF hoo omplied reveling two former fiomtrix employeesD ymond gostnzo nd iphrim worrisF e third prtiipntD ihrd gostnzo who ws ymond9s twin rotherD ws lso identi(edF hese threeD who lled themselves the fw olieD filed to sustntite the lims they mde in their ITDHHH messgesF fiomtrix legl ounsel petitioned the ourt for summry judgmentF yn eugust PD PHHHD the ourt found gostnzoD gostnzoD nd worris guilty of defmtionF

5.1.3 Biomatrix Chronology


Biomatrix Chronology Date Event Actors

epril IWWW through eugust PHHH epril IWWW to tuly PHHH wrh PHHH

osting of ntiEfiomtrix mesE sges fiomtrix hres drop from QS to PI ennounement of qenzyme9s inE tention to uy fiomtrix for 6PRSDHHHDHHH snitition of tohn hoe vwsuit gourt supoens hoo for idenE tities of messge posters @fw olieA

ihrd gostnzoD ymond gostnzoD iphrim worris gused y fw oliec fiomtrix nd qenzyme op wngement linti'sX fiomtrixD flzsD nd henlinger linti'sX fiomtrixD flzsD nd henlinger
continued on next page

tuneGtuly PHHH tuly PHHH

IRV eugust QD PHHH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

ummry tudgment ginst ymond gostnzoD ihrd gostnzoD nd iphrim worris ig pprovl of qenzyme pln to purhse fiomtrix fiomtrix stok rises from 6IW to 6IWFWR hoo lters ulletin ord poliE ies
Table 5.1

linti'sX fiomtrixD flzsD nd henlinger qenzyme nd fiomtrix op wngement plus ig

xovemer UD PHHH xovemer UD PHHH tnury QD PHHI

X gse events from epril IWWW to tnury PHHI

Materials used in compilation of case summary and chronology

IF 4uperior gourt of xt ewrds fiomtrix ummry tudgment eginst vielous osters on snternet wessge fordsF ress elese from fiomtrix issued eugust PD PHHHF httpXGGizFynooFomGprnewsGoooVHQGnjiomtrFhtmFF eessed eugust IID PHHHF PF feth relyD qloe t'F @VGPPGPHHHAF 4hree pe tok m gomplint plse xet ostings ellegedly rgeted qenzyme e0litesX tte (les gomplint eginst Q in qenzyme gse4 The Boston GlobeF QF redlineX 4hree ghrged with ynline tok wnipultion of xFtF gompny wssF y0ils sy negtive messges dmged fiomtrix stokF4 emerin vwyeer xewsppers qroupF snFD xew tersey vw tournlD VGPVGHHF eess through vexisExexis edemi niverse WGPIGHHF RF uli gitizenF 4frief of emii gurie uli gitizen nd the emerin givil vierties nion of xew tersey4 hendrite snterntionlD sxgFD vF tohn does xosF I through R nd hoes S through IRD inlusiveF uperior gourt of xew tersey pppelte hivision hoket xoF eEUUREHHF httpXFFwwwFitixzenForgGlitigtionGriefsGdefendwemiusFhtm eessed TGQHGHH SF fiomtrixDsxgFD tnet vF henlinger nd endre eF flzs vsF tohn hoes sEsss inlusiveF tohn hoe proeedings ginst fiomtrix defmers to persude ourt to supoen hooF TF fiomtrixD sxgF tnet vF henlinger nd indre eF flzsD linti'sD vsF ymond F gonstnzoD ihrd gonstnzoD iphrim worrisD hefndntsF 4frief in support of motion for prtil summry judgment s to defmtion ginst defendntsF rovides legl rguments of defmtory mterilsD evidene of hrms doneD nd responses of fw olie under questionF
Short Selling

yne of the motives ehind the defmtory posting my hve een short sellingF he following is n explntion of how it works from lotnik vF ie gommunitionsD VT pFPnd VIVEVPH @Qrd girF IWVVAX here the trditionl investor seeks to pro(t y trding stok the vlue of whih he expets to riseD the short seller seeks to pro(t y trding stoks whih he expets to deline in vlue. . .Fhort selling is omplished y selling stok whih the investor does not yet ownY normlly this is done y orrowing shres from roker t n greed upon fee or rte of interestF et this pointD the investor9s ommitment to the uyer of the stok is ompleteY the uyer hs his shres nd the short seller his purhse prieF he short seller is oligtedD howeverD to uy n equivlent numer of shres in order to return the orrowed shresF sn theoryD the short seller mkes this overing purhse using the funds he reeived from selling the orrowed stokF rerein lies the short seller9s potentil for pro(tX if the prie of the stok delines fter the short sleD he does not need ll the funds to mke his overing purhseY the short seller then pokets the di'ereneF yn the other hndD there is no limit to the short seller9s potentil lossX if the prie of the stok risesD so too does the short seller9s lossD nd sine there is no p to the stok9s prieD there is no limittion on the short seller9s riskF here is no time limit on this oligtion to overF
Short Selling: Step by Step

IRW

gonsider how investor n pro(t from IHH shres of stok tht he orrows from roker eX IF orrows IHH shres of from e t ertin timeD I @sy wondyD ytoer IID PHHRAF is worth 6IH shre t this time so IHH shres of re worth 6IHHHF PF immeditely sells these IHH orrowed shres of t its mrket vlue of 6IH per shre or 6IHHHF his still ours within time frmeD IF QF opens n ount with hoo nd strts spreding flse rumors out the (nnil helth of on hoo9s (nnil ulletin ordF re uses severl usernmesD opies the sme messge over nd overD nd retes the illusion tht is going down the tuesX By c_smear/c1_smear/c_smearrr/etc. All people who run corporation X are lying
RF hrough yer smerD lowers the prie of to 6W shreF SF then uys k IHH shres of t P t its new vlue of 6W shre for totl of 6WHHF TF gives k the IHH shres of tht he orrowed to deler eF UF pokets the di'erene etween the vlue of IHH shres of t I @6IHHHA nd its redued vlue t P @6WHHAF re hs just mde 6IHH y short selling stokF VF fut there re two smll prolemsF pirstD the s @hooA used y is required to revel his s ddress if it reeives supoen from the ourtF eondD defmtionD spei(lly lielD is illeglF
thieves OUT TO STEAL YOUR MONEY. They also DRESS FUNNY too. So SHUN THEM LIKE THE PLAGUE! SELL YOUR STOCK, even if you have to take a lossF

5.1.4 Slander = Whistle Blowing by Meddra 2k


he following is fw posting on hoo9s pinne fulletin fordF st ws posted RGIIGHH nd essed VGIHGPHHHF

fw olie s histleEflowersF he fiomtrix olie presented themselves s soil rusders out to prevent fiomtrix from hrming innoent investorsF hey limed tht fiomtrix would try to undermine their lims y using them of slnder wheres in truth they @the fw olieA were ltruistilly motivted individuls lowing the whistle on internl orporte wrongdoingF sn the followingD meddrPk rgues tht wht fiomtrix o0ils ll slnder is relly whistleElowingD iFeFD the puli reveltion of true informtion designed to void puli hrmX vexhi a rsvi fvysxq fy meddrPk st ll depends whih side of the fene you9re onF he pusher sees the negtive informtionD ftul s it my eD s slnder euse they feel tht nything tht might mke stok go down is inherently wrongF husD they ll it slnderF he fw olie know tht the rD s unplesnt s it my eD is xii wrongF sndeedD it is our gssg h to expose the r out fiomtrixD its produtsD nd its stokF husD we ll it whistle lowingF he reders of this ord re free to evlute oth sidesD nd their motives for postingD nd deide wht they wish to doF ome will lern tht this is gew ompny peddling gew produt nd run for the doorF ythers my not mind tht it9s gew ompny peddling gew produt s long s the stok prie goes upF gertinlyD there re enough unethil people out there tht won9t mind investing in gew tht hurts people s long s they pro(t from itF his messge ord is psvvih with suh peopleF portuntelyD it lso hs few doEgooders tht help lne the isv tht men doF

5.1.5 What you need to know . . .


5.1.5.1 What you need to know about socio-technical systems 1. STS have seven broad components: hardware, software, physical surroundings, people/groups/roles, procedures, laws, and data/data structures.

ISH
2. Socio-technical systems embody values

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

hese inlude morl vlues like sfetyD privyD propertyD free speehD equity nd essD nd seurityF xonEmorl vlues n lso e relized in nd through oio ehnil ystems suh s e0ienyD ostE e'etivenessD ontrolD sustinilityD reliilityD nd stilityF worl vlues present in oio ehnil ystems n on)it with other emedded morl vluesY for exmpleD privy often on)its with free speehF xonEmorl vlues n on)it with morl vluesY developing sfe system requires time nd moneyF endD nonEmorl vlues n on)itY reliility undermines e0ieny nd ost e'etivenessF his leds to three prolems tht ome from di'erent vlue on)its within oio ehnil ystems nd etween these systems nd the tehnologies tht re eing integrted into themF wismthes often rise etween the vlues emedded in tehnologies nd the oio ehnil ysE tems into whih they re eing integrtedF es xs ws integrted into the niversity of gliforni edemi gomputing @see whdo se t gomputing gsesAD the vlues of openness nd trnsE preny designed into xs lshed with the needs of students in the edemi gomputing t gs for privyF ehnologies eing integrted into oio ehnil ystems n mgnifyD exggerteD or exerte existing vlue mismthes in the F he use of P softwre omined with the ese of digitl opying hs mgni(ed existing on)its onerning musi nd piture opyrightsF sntegrting tehnologies into s produes oth immedite nd remote onsequenes nd imptsF
3. Socio-technical systems change

hese hnges re ought outD in prtD y the vlue mismthes desried oveF et other timesD they result from ompeting needs nd interests rought forth y di'erent stkeholdersF por exmpleD iyle designsD the on(gurtion of typewriter keysD nd the design nd uses of ellulr phones hve hnged s di'erent users hve dpted these tehnologies to their speil requirementsF hese hnges lso exhiit wht soiologists ll trjetoryD tht isD pth of developmentF rE jetories themselves re sujet to normtive nlysisF por exmpleD some s nd the tehnologies integrted into them disply line of development where the nd the integrted tehnology re hnged nd redesigned to support ertin soil interestsF he informting pities of omputing systemsD for exmpleD provide informtion whih n e used to improve mnufturing proesses n or to monitor workers for enhning mngement powerF @ee hoshnn uo'D The Age of rjetoriesD thusD outline the development of s nd tehnologies s these re in)uened y internl nd externl soil foresF
sn this setionD you will lern out this module9s exerisesF he required links ove provide informtion on the frmeworks used in eh setionF por exmpleD the oioEehnil ystem module provides kground informtion on soioEtehnil nlysisF he 4hree prmeworks4 module provides further desription of the ethis testsD their pitfllsD nd the fesiility testF hese exerises will provide step y step instrutions on how to work through the deision points presented oveF
For more information see Hu and Jawer below. Decision Point One: the Smart Machine

ou re the puliist for the ompny fiomtrixD mnufturer of iotehnology produts inluding ynvisD promising tretment for osteorthritisF he giyD indre flzsD nd ie residentD tnet henlingerD ome to youF st seems tht they re quite upsetF fiomtrix nd its top level employees hve eome the vitims of yerEsmerF hozens of messges hve ppered in the highly visile hoo pinnil fulletin ford tht mke the following unsustntited ustionsX

ynvis @ produt mnuftured y fiomtrixA produes seriously hrmful side e'ets fiomtrix hs deeived its stokholders y suppressing negtive (nnil nd produt informtion fiomtrix nd its employees hve onnetions to the m(

ISI

gompny puli releses tht the merger etween fiomtrix nd qenzyme is friendly re flseF sn ftD the messges llege tht the merger will never tke ple euse of fiomtrix9s terrile (nnil pro(le fiomtrix giy is under investigtion y fmous xzi hunterD imon iesenthlD for rimes he llegedly ommitted in qermny during the eond orld r fiomtrix ie resident requires sexul fvors from employees under her supervision s ondition for promotion
xone of these hrges is trueF fut flzs nd henlinger re devstted y the personl ttks mde upon themF fiomtrix lso stnds to lose gret del from the negtive puliityF ellegtions of side e'ets from using ynvisD promising new produe ptented y the ompnyD threten to drive the produt out of the mrketF he reently nnouned friendly merger etween fiomtrix nd qenzyme hs produed modest gins in stok pries ut the yer slnderers seem determined to drive fiomtrix stok vlue downF
You have been charged by Balazs and Denlinger, as publicist, with designing a rapid and eective campaign against this cyber-smear. Several issues have arisen that demand your immediate attention:

IF he identity of the yerEslnderers is unknownF ht n you doD if nythingD to (nd out who these individuls rec PF yne of the slnderers lims to hve worked for fiomtrix in the pstF reGshe uses this to lend redene to the ttks mde on the ompny nd its mngersF sf trueD is there nything tht n e done to prevent future employees from resorting to slnder s wy of retliting ginst the ompnyc QF sf the rel identities of the individuls posting the hoo messges re reveledD should they e suedc ht re the dvntges of defmtion lwsuits if those sued do not hve the (nnil resoures to ompenste the vitim for dmges su'eredc RF hould the yerEslnderers e ttkedc sf soD howc rowD in generlD should orportions nd their mngers respond to yerEslnderc fy pulily refuting the messgesc fy ignoring these ttksc fy ignoring them until they produe ler dmgec yr y responding quikly nd protively efore they produe dmgec
Decision Point Two: Defending Against Defamation:

he t is out of the gF he fw olieD those selfEstyled whistleElowers ginst the orporte greed of fiomtrixD hve een reveled s ihrd nd ymond gostnzo nd iphrim worrisF @ihrd gostnzo nd iphrim worris were former fiomtrix employeesFA hese re the rel world nmes ehind the PQ pseudonyms under whih ITDHHH ntiEfiomtrix emils were posted on the pinnil fulletin ford of hoo etween epril IWWW nd eugust PHHHF hese messges used fiomtrix mngers of sexul hrssment nd xzi wr rimes nd fiomtrix of orporte greedF
Biomatrix managers feel that the company has a problem if its former employees nd the motivation to behave in this manner. You are a human resource ocial in the Biomatrix and it has fallen on you to design a strategy and program to prevent a reoccurrence of this cyber-smear disaster. What should you do?

fring defmtory lwsuit ginst the threec ould this help to reoup dmgesc ht other ene(ts ould suessful defmtion lwsuit ringc ht would e the downside of suh n tionc elter the wy in whih employees re let goF @sn other words develop proedures for (ring or lying o' employees tht would defuse the desire to get evenFA ht ould e done to sever reltion with n employee in s good fshion s possilec ht steps ould e tken to redue the possiility of former employee tking short selling strtegyc por exmpleD ould steps e tken to restrit the wys in whih former employees use the on(dentil informtion they hve out the ompnyc gould risk identi(tion mesures e tken to unover those who ould or re ene(ting from short selling ompny9s stokc

ISP

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

gould rumn esoures develop n e'etive progrm to ounter yer smer y e'etive ommuniE tion of true nd urte informtionc row n good reputtion e estlished tht ould serve s sis for ounterEting defmtionc sn shortD design strtegy for fiomtrix tht ould minimize the risk of future yerEsmer ttks ndGor minimize the impt of these ttksF hefend your strtegy in the ithis fowl deteF
Decision Point Three: How far does free speech go?

ou work with puli servie orgniztion devoted to the defense of free speehD oth o' nd onlineF por this reson you immeditely notied newspper story tht three individulsD ihrd gostnzoD ymond gostnzoD nd iphrim worrisD were found guilty in summry judgment of defmtionF st seems they pulishedD under PQ psuedonymsD some ITDHHH messges tht mde negtive lims ginst fiomtrix nd its mngers tht they were unle to sustntiteF
The claims made by these individuals in their emails were pretty strong:

fiomtrix9s most populr produtD ynvisD hs produed signi(nt hrmful side e'ets nd the omE pny hs tken wrongful mesures to suppress this informtionF ynvis is mnuftured sustne tht resemles the nturl )uids tht lurite knee movementsF hese )uids dispper with ge proE duing ondition lled osteorthritisF ynvis hs een presented s highly promising tretment for this prolemF hey lso use fiomtrix of overing up tht ft tht they re trgets of potentilly dmging lwsuitsF hese three individulsD who style themselves the fw olieD lso use the ompny of overing up negtiveD hrmful informtion out their upoming merger with qenzymeF he messges lim tht inside informtion revels tht the merger will never tke pleF he fw polie lso use fiomtrix top mngement of hving ommitted wr rimes nd ts of sexul hrssmentF
huring preEtril depositionsD the used were unle to sustntite ny of these limsF hile the motives for posting these messges hve never een mde ler three stnd outX revengeD short sellingD nd the pereption tht rules of defmtion did not pply in yer speF ou hve een sked y your orgniztion to ontt the fw olie nd propose tht they ppel this deisionF ou nd your orgniztion think tht there re strong legl nd ethil rgumentsD sed on the right to free speehD tht need to e put forth in this seF our jo in this deision point is to set forth these legl nd morl rgumentsF sn other wordsD onstrut omprehensive defense for the fw olieF
Important Considerations

isg @iletri rivy snformtion genterA nd the egv @emerin givil vierties nionA present n mii urie @friend of the ourt riefA outlining their onerns out the use of tohn hoe lwsuits to piere online nonymityF his rief is summrized in the fiomtrix se mterilsF erhps the strongest se for pree peeh is mde y tohn turt will in yn viertyF gonsult this ook nd (nd his rgument in the (rst hpterF he summry of this rgument in the fiomtrix se mterils will helpF ho defmtion lwsuits suppress free speehF hy does will think tht it is wrong to suppress even ompletely flse speehc hid fiomtrix nd its mngement tem su'er dmges s result of the hoo messgesc ht is this dmgec ht evidene proves tht the dmge ws used y the negtive speeh nd not something elsec ho ore the urden of proof in the summry judgment ginst the fw oliec ht is the strongest rgument tht fiomtrix mde ginst the speeh of the fw threec row n you nd orgniztion ounter this rgumentc he strongest rgument the fw olie o'er for their tions is tht they re not ound y rules of verity nd defmtion while operting pseudonymously onlineF hould we e held responsile for wht we sy onlinec sn the sme wy tht we re held responsile o' linec hoesn9t hoo9s dislimer to reders tht they should not ssume tht wht they red is true su0e to exulpte those who post flse speehc

ISQ

st hs een suggested tht the fw olie were motivted y greedF heir speeh ws designed to lower the prie of fiomtrix stok so they ould pro(t from short selling itF hoes this hnge you defensec here is lso inonlusive evidene tht they were not ting lonec hoes this hnge your defensec

5.1.6 What you will do ...


sn this setionD you will lern out this module9s exerisesF he required links ove provide informtion on the frmeworks used in eh setionF por exmpleD the oioEehnil ystem module provides kground informtion on soioEtehnil nlysisF he 4hree prmeworks4 module provides further desription of the ethis testsD their pitfllsD nd the fesiility testF hese exerises will provide step y step instrutions on how to work through the deision points presented oveF

5.1.7 Exercise One: Problem Specication


sn this exeriseD you will speify the prolem using soioEtehnil nlysisF he setion of the fiomtrix gse nrrtive @found t gomputing gsesA provides good strting pointF sn the (rst tleD enter the informtion from the fiomtrix se mterils pertinent to the generl omponents of D its hrdwreD softwreD physil surroundingsD peopleGgroupsGrolesD proeduresD lwsD dtF ome exmples tken from the desription t gomputing gses re provided to get you strtedF henD using the seond tleD identify the vlues tht re emedded in the di'erent omponents of the F por exmpleD sg @pltforms for internet ontent seletionA emody the vlues of seurity nd privyF pinllyD using the dt from your soioEtehnil nlysisD formulte onise prolem sttementF
Exercise 1a:

ed the soioEtehnil system nlysis of the fiomtrix se t httpXGGomputingsesForgF pill in the tle elow with elements from this nlysis tht pertin to your deision pointF
Socio-Technical System Table

rrdwre

oftwre

hysil urroundE ings yer vs rel spe

eopleGqroupsGoles roedures

vwsD godesD egultions tohn hoe vwsuits

ht nd ht truE tures y user inE formtion

lnt mnE ufturing ynvis

hoo softE wre

fiomtrixD qenzymeD hoo


Table 5.2

qetting hoo ount

Instructions for Table 1:

IF qo to httpXGGomputingsesForg nd review the desription provided for the fiomtrix seF PF ull out the elements of the desription tht re relevnt to your deision pointF vist them under the pproprite omponent in the ove tleF QF hink out possile wys in whih these omponents of the fiomtrix intertF por exmpleD wht kinds of legl restritions govern the wy dt is olletedD storedD nd dissemintedc RF hevelop your tle with n eye to doumenting possile ethil on)its tht n rise nd re relevnt to your deision pointF
Exercise 1b

ixmine the vlues emedded in the surrounding this deision pointF vote your vlues under the pproprite omponent in the fiomtrix F por exmpleD ording to the desription for fiomtrix found t gomputing gsesD the hoo softwre tht strutures the rhiteture of the ulletin ords emody ertin vlues like free speehF hould this e hnged given the thret of defmtionc ht re hoo responsiilities in the ontext of defmtionc

ISR

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Value Table

ISS rrdwre oftwre hysil urroundE ings eopleGqroupsGoles roedures vwsGgodesGegultions htGht trutures

eurity rivy roperty tustie @iqE uityGeessA pree peey


Table 5.3

Instructions for Table 2:

IF his module links to nother gonnexions moduleD oioEehnil ystems in rofessionl heisionE wkingF here you will (nd short pro(les of the vlues listed in the ove tleX seurityD privyD propertyD justieD nd free speehF hese pro(les will help you to hrterize the vlues listed in the ove tleF PF vook for vlue on)its or mismthesF por exmpleD free speeh in the hoo disussion spe ould on)it with lws tht protet ginst defmtionF row re these lws trnsferred onlinec QF sdentify those omponents of the fiomtrix tht emody or emed vlueF por exmpleD list the vlues relized nd frustrted y the softwre omponents disussed in the fiomtrix se in the desriptionF RF vook for wys in whih di'erent elements of the tht emed vlue n intert nd produe vlue on)itsF hese on)its re likely soures for prolems tht you should disuss in your prolem sttement nd ddress in your solutionF
Exercise 1c:

rite out the requirements @ethil nd prtilA for good solutionF sdentify the prts of the tht need hngingF henD develop onise summry sttement of the entrl prolem your deision point risesF es you design solutions to this prolemD you my wnt to revise this prolem sttementF fe sure to experiment with di'erent wys of frming this prolemF
Harris, Pritchard, and Rabins provide a useful approach to problem specication. See references below.

5.1.8 Exercise Two: Solution Generation


Generate solutions to the problem(s) you have specied in Exercise 1. This requires that...

eh memer of your group develop list of solutionsD the group omines these individul lists into group listD ndFFF the group redues this preliminry list to mngele numer of re(ned nd lri(ed solutions for testing in the next stgeF
Helpful Hints for Solution Generation 1. Solution generation requires prociency in the skills of moral imagination and moral creativity.

worl imgintion is the ility to open up venues of solution y frming prolem in di'erent wysF oysmrt ould e frmed s tehnil prolem requiring prolemEsolving skills tht integrte ethil

IST

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

onsidertions into innovtive designsF worl retivity is the ility to formulte nonEovious solutions tht integrte ethil onsidertions over vrious situtionl onstrintsF
2. Problems can be formulated as interest conicts. In this case dierent solution options are available.

Gather Information. wny disgreements n e resolved y gthering more informtionF feuse this is the esiest nd lest pinful wy of rehing onsensusD it is lmost lwys est to strt hereF qthering informtion my not e possile euse of di'erent onstrintsX there my not e enough timeD the fts my e too expensive to gtherD or the informtion required goes eyond sienti( or tehnil knowledgeF ometimes gthering more informtion does not solve the prolem ut llows for newD more fruitful formultion of the prolemF rrrisD rithrdD nd ins in ingineering ithisX gonepts nd gses show how solving ftul disgreement llows more profound oneptul disgreement to emergeF Nolo Contendere. xolo gontendere is ltin for not opposing or ontendingF our interests my on)it with your supervisor ut he or she my e too powerful to reson with or opposeF o your only hoie here is to give in to his or her interestsF he prolem with nolo ontendere is tht nonEopposition is often tken s greementF ou my need to doument @eFgFD through memosA tht you disgree with ourse of tion nd tht your hoosing not to oppose does not indite greementF Negotiate. qood ommunition nd diplomti skills my mke it possile to negotite solution tht respets the di'erent interestsF lue integrtive solutions re designed to integrte on)iting vluesF gompromises llow for prtil reliztion of the on)iting interestsF @ee the moduleD The Ethics of Team WorkD for ompromise strtegies suh s logrolling or ridgingFA ometimes it my e neessry to set side one9s interests for the present with the understnding tht these will e tken re of t lter timeF his requires trustF Oppose. sf nolo ontendere nd negotition re not possileD then opposition my e neessryF ypposition requires mrshlling evidene to doument one9s position persusively nd imprtillyF st mkes use of strtegies suh s leding n 4orgniztionl hrge4 or 4lowing the whistleF4 por more on whistleElowing onsult the disussion of whistle lowing in the rughes se tht n e found t omputing sesF Exit. ypposition my not e possile if one lks orgniztionl power or doumented evideneF xolo ontendere will not su0e if nonEopposition implites one in wrongdoingF xegotition will not sueed without neessry sis of trust or serious vlue integrtive solutionF As a last resort, one my hve to exit from the sitution y sking for ressignment or resigningF
3. Solutions can be generated by readjusting dierent components of the STS.

Technical Puzzle. sf the prolem is frmed s tehnil puzzleD then solutions would revolve round developing designs tht optimize oth ethil nd tehnil spei(tionsD tht isD resolve the tehnil issues nd relize ethil vlueF sn this instneD the prolemEsolver must onentrte on the hrdwre nd softwre omponents of the F Social Problem. sf the prolem is frmed s soil prolemD then solutions would revolve round hnging lws or ringing out systemi reform through politil tionF his would led one to fous on the peopleGgroupsGroles omponent @working to soil prtiesA or the legl omponentF Stakeholder Conict. sf the prolem is frmed s on)it etween di'erent stkeholder interestsD then the solution would onentrte on getting stkeholders @oth individuls nd groupsA to gree on integrtive or interest ompromising solutionsF his requires onentrting on the peopleGgroupGrole omponent of the F @xoteX e stkeholder is ny group or individul with vitl interest t ply in the situtionFA Management Problem. pinllyD if the prolem is frmed s mngement prolemD then the solution would revolve round hnging n orgniztion9s proeduresF elong these linesD it would ddress the @IA fundmentl golsD @PA deision reognition proeduresD @QA orgniztionl rolesD or @RA deisionEmking hierrhy of the orgniztionF hese re the four omponents of the gsh @orporte internl deisionA struture desried in the ithil e)etions setion of the oysmrt seF

ISU

Nota Bene: pinnil issues re overed y the fesiility test in the solution implementtion stgeF es suhD they pose side issues or onstrints tht do not enter into the solution genertion phse ut the solution implementtion phseF
4. Brainstorming. Moral creativity, which involves designing non-obvious solutions, forms an essential part of solution generation. Here are some guidelines to get you started.

sndividully mke out list of solutions efore the group meetingF ork quikly to relize preE estlished quot of (ve to ten solutionsF efter omposing quik (rst drftD revise the list for lrity onlyY mke no sustntil hngesF trt the group rinstorming proess y hving the group review nd ssemle ll the individul solutionsF ho this quikly nd without ritiismF feginning ritiism t this stge will kill the retivity neessry for rinstorming nd shut down the more timid @ut retiveA memers of the groupF eview the list nd identify solutions tht re identil or overlpF fegin the re(ning proess y omining these solutionsF rving reviewed ll the rinstormed solutionsD it is now time to ring in ritiismF fegin y eliminting solutions with mjor ethil prolems suh s those tht violte rightsD produe injustiesD or use extensive hrmF sdentify ut do not eliminte solutions tht re ethil ut rise serious prtil prolemsF ho not initilly eliminte n ethil solution euse there re ostles stnding in the wy of its impleE menttionF fe desriptiveF sdentify nd imprtilly desrie the ostlesF vterD in the solution implementtion stgeD you my e le to design retive responses to these ostlesF sdentify solutions tht do not 4(t4 your prolem sttementF hese require deisionF ou n throw out the solution euse it does not solve the prolem or you n hnge the prolemF sf solution does not (t the prolem utD intuitivelyD seems goodD this is sign tht you need to tke nother look t your prolem sttementF hon9t utomtilly rejet prtil solutionsF por exmpleD sending memos through emil rther thn printing them out nd wsting pper my not solve the entire reyling prolem for your ompnyF fut it represents goodD prtil solution tht n e omined with other prtil solutions to ddress the igger prolemF hrough these di'erent mesuresD you will grdully integrte ritiism into your rinstorming proE essF his will filitte working towrd mngeleD re(ned list of solutions for testing in the next stgeF
Exercise 3: Develop a Solution List

rve eh memer of your tem prepre solution list nd ring it to the next group meetingF et quot for this individul listD syD S to IH solutionsF repre group list out of the lists of the individul memersF ork to omine similr solutionsF fe sure to set side ritiism until the preliminry group list is ompleteF wke use of the following tleF e(ne the group list into mngele numer of solutions for testing in the next stgeF gomine overlpping solutionsF iliminte solutions tht do not respond to the requirements nd the prolem sttement tht you prepred in the previous exeriseF iliminte solutions tht violte importnt ethil onsidertionsD iFeFD solutions tht violte rightsD produe hrmsD etF ghek your re(ned solution list with your prolem sttementF sf they do not mthD eliminte the solution or rede(ne the prolem

ISV

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Rened Brainstorm List

olution nking fest olution eond fest olution hird fest olution pourth fest olution pifth fest olution

hesription of olution

tusti(tion @(ts requirementsD (ts prolemA

Table 5.4

Anthony Weston provides an illuminating and useful discussion of creative problem solving in the reference provided below.

5.1.9 Exercise Three: Solution Testing


sn this setionD you will test the solutions on the re(ned list your group produed in the previous exeriseF hree ethis testsD desried elowD will help you to integrte ethil onsidertions in the prolemEsolving proessF e glol fesiility test will help to identify solutions with serious prtil prolemsF pinllyD olution ivlution wtrix summrizes the results for lss derie(ngsF
Setting up for the test.

sdentify the gent perspetive from whih the deision will e mde hesrie the tion s onisely nd lerly s possileF sdentify the stkeholders surrounding the deisionD iFeFD those who will su'er strong impts @positively or negtivelyA from the implementtion of your deisionF tkeholders hve vitl or essentil interest @rightD goodD moneyD etA in ply with this deisionF sn the hrmGene(ene testD identify the likely results of the tion nd sort these into hrms nd ene(tsF por the reversiility testD identify the stkeholders with whom you will reverse positionsF por the puli identi(tion testD identify the vluesD virtuesD or vies your tion emodiesF essoite these with the hrter of the gentF
Harm/Benecence Test

IF What are the harms your solution is likely to produce? What are its benets? Does this PF
solution produce the least harms and the most benets when compared to the available alternatives? PitfallToo much. sn this 4rlysis of enlysis4 one ftor in too mny onsequenesF o void

the flly restrit the nlysis to the most likely onsequenes with the gretest mgnitude @wgnitude indites the rnge nd severity of imptAF QF PitfallToo Little. e ised or inomplete nlysis results when signi(nt impts re overlookedF ke time to unover ll the signi(nt imptsD oth in terms of likelihood nd in terms of mgnitudeF RF PitfallDistribution of Impacts. gonsiderD not only the overll lne of hrms nd ene(ts ut lso how hrms nd ene(ts re distriuted mong the stkeholdersF sf they re eqully or firly distriutedD then this ounts in the solution9s fvorF sf they re uneqully or unfirly distriutedD then this ounts ginst the solutionF fe redy to redesign the solution to distriute etter @amore equitly or firlyA the hrmful nd ene(il resultsF
Reversibility Test

ISW IF Would this solution alternative be acceptable to those who stand to be most aected by PF
it? To answer this question, change places with those who are targeted by the action and ask if from this new perspective whether the action is still acceptable? PitfallToo much. hen reversing with ritlerD morl tion ppers immorl nd n immorl

QF RF

SF

TF

tion ppers morlF he prolem here is tht the gent who projets into the immorl stndpoint loses his or her morl eringsF he reversiility test requires viewing the tion from the stndpoint of its di'erent trgetsF fut understnding the tion from di'erent stkeholder views does not require tht one ndon himself or herself to these viewsF PitfallToo little. sn this pitfllD morl imgintion flls shortD nd the gent fils to view the tion from nother stkeholder stndpointF he key in the reversiility test is to (nd the middle ground etween too muh immersion in the viewpoint of nother nd too littleF PitfallReducing Reversibility to Harm/Benecence. he reversiility test requires tht one ssess the impts of the tion under onsidertion on othersF fut it is more thn simple listing of the onsequenes of the tionF hese re viewed from the stndpoint of di'erent stkeholdersF he reversiility test lso goes eyond onsidering impts to onsidering whether the tion trets di'erent stkeholders respetfullyF his espeilly holds when the gent disgrees with stkeholderF sn these disgreementsD it is importnt to work out wht it mens to disgree with nother respetfullyF PitfallIncomplete survey of stakeholders. veving out signi(nt stkeholder perspetives skews the results of the reversiility testF fuilding n exellent deth hmer works when one onsiders the tion from the stndpoint of ritlerY fter llD it9s wht he wntsF fut treting n individul with respet does not require pitulting to his or her desiresD espeilly when these re immorlF end onsidering the tion from the stndpoint of other stkeholders @sy the possile vitims of newerD more e0ient gs hmersA rings out new nd rdilly di'erent informtionF PitfallNot Weighing and Balancing Stakeholder Positions. his pitfll is ontinuous with the previous oneF hi'erent stkeholders hve di'erent interests nd view events from unique perspetivesF he reversiility test requires reviewing these interests nd perspetivesD weighing them ginst one notherD nd lning out their di'erenes nd on)its in n overllD glol ssessmentF

Publicity (or Public Identication) Test

IF Would you want to be publicly associated or identied with this action? In other words,
assume that you will be judged as a person by others in terms of the moral values expressed in the action under consideration. Does this accord with how you would want to or aspire to be judged? PitfallFailure to association action with character of agent. sn the puliity testD the

PF

spotlight of nlysis moves from the tion to the gentF uessfully rrying out this test requires identifying the gentD desriing the tionD nd ssoiting the gent with the tionF he morl qulities exhiited in the tion re seen s expressing the morl hrter of the gentF he puliity testD thusD rests on the ide tht n gent9s responsile tions rise from nd express his or her hrterF QF PitfallFailure to appreciate the moral color of the action. he puliity test ssumes tht tions re olored y the ends or goods they pursueF his mens tht tions re morlly oloredF hey n express responsiility or irresponsiilityD ourge or owrdieD resonleness or unresonlenessD honesty or dishonestyD integrity or orrputionD loylty or etrylD nd so forthF en nlysis n go stry y filing to ring out the morl qulity @or qulitiesA tht n tion expressesF RF PitfallReducing Publicity to Harm/Benecence Test. snsted of sking wht the tion sys out the gentD mny redue this test to onsidering the onsequenes of puliizing the tionF o one might rgue tht n tion is wrong euse it dmges the reputtion of the gent or some other stkeholderF fut this doesn9t go deep enoughF he puliity test requiresD not tht one lulte the onsequenes of wideEspred knowledge of the tion under onsidertionD ut tht one drws from the tion the informtion it revels out the hrter of the gentF he onsequenes of d puliity re overed y the hrmGene(ene test nd do not need to e repeted in the puli identi(tion

ITH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

testF he puliity test provides new informtion y turning from the tion to the gentF st fouses on wht the tion @its morl qulities nd the goods it seeksA sys out the gentF
Comparing the Test Results: Meta-Tests

IF he ethis tests will not lwys onverge on the sme solution euse eh test @nd the ethil theories it enpsultesA overs di'erent dimension of the tionX @IA hrmGene(ene looks t the outomes or onsequenes of the tionD @PA reversiility fouses on the forml hrteristis of the tionD nd @QA puliity zeros in on the morl hrter of the gentF PF he metEtests turn this surfe disgreement into n dvntgeF he onvergene or divergene etween the ethis tests eome inditors of solution strength nd weknessF QF Convergence. hen the ethis tests onverge on given solutionD this indites solution strength nd roustnessF RF Divergence. hen tests diverge on solution" solution does well under one test ut poorly under nother"this signi(es tht it needs further development nd revisionF est divergene is not sign tht one test is relevnt while the others re notF hivergene indites solution wekness nd is ll to modify the solution to mke it strongerF
Exercise 3: Summarize your results in a Solution Evaluation Matrix

IF le test results in the pproprite ellF PF edd verl explntion to the iw tleF QF gonlude with glol fesiility test tht sksD simplyD whether or not there exist signi(nt ostles to the implementtion of the solution in the rel worldF RF pinish y looking t how the tests onverge on given solutionF gonvergene indites solution strengthY divergene signls solution weknessF
Solution Evaluation Matrix

olutionGest pirst olution eond olution hird olution pourth olution pifth olution

rrmGfene(ene

eversiility

uliity @puli identi(tionA

pesiility

Table 5.5

The ethics tests are discussed in Cruz and Davis. See references below. Wike and Brincat also discuss value based approaches in the two references below.

5.1.10 Exercise Four: Solution Implementation


sn this setionD you will trouleEshoot the solution implementtion proess y unovering nd defusing potentil ostlesF hese n e identi(ed y looking t the onstrints tht order the tionF elthough onstrints speify limits to wht n e relized in given situtionD they re more )exile thn generlly thoughtF romptly identifying these onstrints llows for protive plnning tht n push k ostles to solution implementtion nd llow for reliztion of t lest some of the vlue emodied in the solutionF e Feasibility Test fouses on these situtionl onstrints nd poses useful questions erly on in the implementtion proessF ht onditions ould rise tht would hinder the implementtion of solutionc

ITI hould the solution e modi(ed to ese implementtion under these onstrintsc gn the onstrints e removed or modi(ed through tivities suh s negotitionD ompromiseD or edutionc gn solution impleE menttion e filitted y modifying oth the solution nd the onstrintsc
Feasibility Constraints Category Sub-Category

esoure snterest ehnil

woneyGgost

imeGhedlines @lwsD regulE

wterils olitilGoil ehnology needs modiE (tion

yrgniztionl@upervisorAvegl tionsA ehnology does not exE ist

ehnology ptented

Table 5.6

Resource Constraints:

Does the situation pose limits on resources that could limit the realization of the solution Time. ss there dedline within whih the solution hs to e entedc ss this dedline (xed or negotilec Financial. ere there ost onstrints on implementing the ethil solutionc gn these e extended y rising more fundsc gn they e extended y utting existing ostsc gn gents negotite for more money for implementtionc Resource. ere neessry resoures villec ss it neessry to pln hed to identify nd proure resouresc sf key resoures re not villeD is it possile to sustitute otherD more ville resouresc ould ny signi(nt morl or nonEmorl vlue e lost in this sustitutionc
Interest Constraints under consideration?

Does the solution threaten stakeholder interests? Could it be perceived as so threatening Individual Interests. hoes the solution threten the interests of supervisorsc ould they tke mesures to lok its reliztionc por exmpleD supervisor might pereive the solution s undermining his or her uthorityF yrD on)iting suEgroup interests ould generte opposition to the implementtion of the solution even though it would promote roder orgniztionl ojetivesF Organizational Interests. hoes the solution go ginst n orgniztion9s ys @stndrd operting proeduresAD forml ojetivesD or informl ojetivesc gould ting on this solution disrupt orgniE ztion power struturesc @erhps it is neessry to enlist the support of n individul higher up in the orgniztionl hierrhy in order to relize solution tht thretens supervisor or powerful suEgroupFA Legal Interests. ere there lwsD sttutesD regultionsD or ommon lw trditions tht oppose the implementtion of the solutionc ss it neessry to write n impt sttementD develop legl ompline plnD or reeive regultory pprovl in order to implement the solutionc Political/Social/Historical Constraints. ould the solution threten or pper to threten the sttus of politil prtyc gould it generte soil opposition y thretening or ppering to threten the interests of puli tion group suh s n environmentl groupc ere there historil trditions tht on)it with the vlues emedded in the solutionc
Technical Constraints to a stakeholder's interests that the stakeholder would oppose its implementation?

ITP

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Technology does not yet exist. ould the implementtion of the solution require reking new tehnologil groundc Technology Protected by Patent. he tehnology exists ut is inessile euse it is still under ptent held y ompetitorF Technology Requires Modication. he tehnology required to implement solution exists ut needs to e modi(ed to (t the ontext of the solutionF smportnt onsidertions to ftor in would e the extent of the modi(tionD its ostD nd how long it would tke to ring out the modi(tionF

5.1.11 Ethical Perspective: Free Speech


fy this timeD you hve lredy worked through the vrious rights relevnt to usiness nd omputingF he rights justi(tion frmework we hve een using is sed on the followingX IF e right is capacity of action essential to autonomy tht others re oliged to reognize nd respetF PF e duty is priniple tht obliges us to recognize and respect the legitimte rights lims of othersF QF Rights and duties are correlative. por every right there is series of orreltive duties nd dutyEholdersF RF por right lim to e legitimteD the right must e essential to utonomyD vulnerable to stnE drd thretD nd imply orreltive duties tht do not deprive the dutyEholders of nything essentil @feasibleAF SF gorreltive duties generlly fll into three tegoriesF pirstD re the most fundmentl duties not to deprive right holders of their rightF eond re the duties to prevent others from depriving rightE holders of their rights whenever possileF pinllyD in ses where rightEholders hve een deprived of their rightD there re orreltive duties to aid those deprived. he min lim of freedom of speeh onsists of the right to express our opinionsD even if!nd espeilly when!these re o'ensive to othersF ss this legitimte or vlid limc sf soD it must e essentilD vulnerleD nd fesileF hy would freedom of speeh e essentil to utonomyc @ould you gree tht expressing one9s ides nd reeiving feedk from others is neessry prt of developing these thoughtsc hen how would developing thoughts ontriute to utonomycA ss the stndrd thret tht our thoughts my e o'ensive to others who would then try to ensor themc hoes this onstitute vulnerility nd the need to protet speeh s the pity to express nd develop thoughtc pinllyD does reognizing nd respeting free speeh in others deprive us of something essentilc @ss the legl punishment for defmtion violtion of the right of free speehc hoes reognizing nd respeting the right of free speeh of others deprive us of the ility to defend ourselves ginst defmtioncA tohn turt will limits freedom of speeh y his 4hrm prinipleF4 sf the speeh thretens to hrm someone @the speker not inludedA then soiety n suppress or ensor tht speeh in its own defenseF his is rod sttement of the rightF por exmpleD free speeh need not e responsile speehF st need not even e true speeh for will @see elowA disusses the d onsequenes of ensoring flse speehF sn ft only speeh tht diretly uses hrm flls under this prinipleX yelling 4(re4 in rowded theterD initing n ngry mo to riotD nd motivting others to in)it hrmF o will pushes k the limits to free speeh ut not entirelyF iven for its most eloquent dvoteD free speeh hs its limitsF till free speeh is lloted generous territory y willF re ses his rgument ginst ensorship on the content of opinionsF re shows how ensorship is founded on the untenle position of inflliilityF sf one ensors opinion ontrry to reeived opinionD then one insultes reeived opinion from every venue of ritiism nd improvement!this ssumes inflliilityF @eeived opinion is tht whih everyody tkes for true without question or exmintionF lvery ws reeived opinion in the southern sttes of the FF in the IVth nd IWth enturiesFA woreoverD this ssumesD without proofD the verity of wht soiety urrently epts s truthF wills9 rgument for free speeh nd ginst ensorship looks t three possiilitiesX IF The content of the speech to be censored is true. sn this seD ensorship is wrong euse it denies soiety of the ene(t of the truthF his is the most ovious se of the wrongness of ensorshipF

ITQ PF The content of the speech turns out to be (only) partially trueF sn this seD ensorship is still wrong euse it suppresses prt of the truth ndD thusD deprives soiety of its ene(tsF QF The content of the speech is entirely falseF his is the test seF sf ensorship is wrong even when the view suppressed is entirely flseD then this is tellingF por willD ensorship is wrong even if the suppressed speeh turns out to e entirely flseD euse suppressing the flse deprives the truth of lrityD whih is hieved y ontrst with the flseD nd vigorD whih is purhsed y defending the true ginst the hllenges rought to it y the flseF here is nother rgument for ensorship sedD this timeD on the spekerF gorportions re onsidered legl persons nd hve een endowed with legl rights inluding free speehF ntil IWUV this inluded ommeril free speeh rights ut not politil free speeh rightsY orportions ould dvertise their produts @within regulted prmeters of truthA ut they ould not dvote politil ndidteF fut First National Bank of Boston v Belotti hnged ll thtF o deny orportionsD s legl personsD the right to politil speeh is to trget the spekerD not the speehF his opens the wy for the suppression of speeh sed on genderD reD politil persusionD or religion euse with eh of these we hve turned from the speeh itself to the hrteristis of the spekerF o the upreme gourt of the nited ttesD using this rgumentD extended orporte free speeh rights to inlude politil speehF he minority opinion issued y the upreme gourt in this se lso found dngerous preedentF gorpoE rte speeh ked y the huge (nnil resoures of these ommeril entities n esily silene the speeh of humn individuls y drowning it outF gorportions hve the money to uy ess to the mss medi to disseminte their speehF rumn individuls nnot do this so esilyF fut onsider speeh in yerspeF yutside yerspeD udienes re est rehed through the expensive mss medi giving the dvntge to the orportion with its huge (nnil resouresF sn yerspeD the networking pities of the snternet put the speker in diret ontt with the udiene ndD thusD irumE sries the need for purhsing ess to udienes through the expensive mss mediF he importne of the speker diminishes nd the spotlight fousesD ginD on the ontent of the speehF xotie how in fiomE trixD three individuls were le to lnket the snternet with defmtory speeh ginst fiomtrixF ith this new found equlity in yerspeD how n orporte orgniztions like fiomtrix protet themselves ginst yerslndersc yne possiilityX hold online servie provides or ys responsile for the defmtory ontent pulished within their portlsF his issue is ddressed in the next ethis perspetive pieeF

5.1.12 Ethical Perspective: OSP Responsibility


Legal Responsibility: Criminal

vegl responsiility is highly strutured prtieF here re two si kindsD riminl nd ivilF griminl responsiility requires estlishing three thingsX IF ht the gent under investigtion hd mens reaD guilty stte of mind or n intention to do wrongF upposeD for exmpleD tht the fw olie intended to defme fiomtrix nd its top o0ils in order to drive down the vlue of its stok nd to mke money y short selling itF yr suppose tht the two former fiomtrix employees deided to get even with their former employersF his stte of mind or intention would e termed mens reF PF ht the gent under investigtion tully ommitted the actus reusD the wrongful tionF eginD the fw polie posted thousnds of messges in hoo tht were flse nd defmtoryF his tion onstitutes the tus reusF QF ht the mens re shped nd guided the tus reusF he messges of the fw olie must e defmtory nd they must e so intentionllyF sn other wordsD the fw olie nnot e punished if they unintentionlly pulished defmtory messges even if they hd formed n intention to get k t fiomtrixF heir guilty mind must hve informed the guilt tD guiding it nd shping it in its plnning nd exeutionF husD the riminl responsiility frmework presupposes this onnetion etween mens re nd tus reus in order to justify punishmentF e n9t punish n individul for hving guilty intentionY he or she must t on itF end we n9t punish those who do wrong identllyD lthough

ITR

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

we my e le to estlish negligene under ivil lw @tortAF he intention to do wrong must issue forth into n tul wrongful tion in order for punishment to kik inF RF his disussion of riminl responsiility is tken lrgely from wnuel elzquez who rgues tht orportions re not morlly responsile euse they lk oth mens re nd tus reusF
Legal Responsibility: Civil

esponsiility under ivil lw requires estlishing fult suh s negligeneD relessnessD or reklessnessF @he lter two fults when egregious tully provide n opportunity for riminl responsiility to spill into ivil responsiilityF sf negligene expnds into reklessnessD then it seems to e in soiety9s interest to punish nd deter itFA hoo my not hve intended to hrm fiomtrix nd its top o0ils ut they my not hve tken resonle preutions from preventing others from using their ulletin ord to use this hrmF sf the hrm @tortA ours euse of some fult on the prt of hooD then those who su'er this hrm hve the right to reeive ompenstion to mke them wholeD iFeFD to restore them to the ondition they were in prior to the hrmF enlogilly extending defmtion lw s it pplies o1ine requires onsidering three possile wys tht hoo my hve een negligentF he lw needs to settle on whih role to srie to the yX pulisherD distriutorD nd ommon rrierF their responsiility for displying defmtory ontent depends on whih role the lw settles in onF sn ll three sesD responsiility follows from power nd ontrolY we re responsile for those things tht fll within the sope of our power nd ontrolF @IA sf ys re onsidered pulishersD then they re responsile for the defmtory mteril tht ppers within their vrious forumsF his is euse pulishers exerise editoril ontrol over wht they pulishF he nture of the speehD its ontentD is within the sope of their power nd ontrolF hey reD thereforeD responsileF ys will dispute thisF por exmpleD the stlin ourt reently found qoogle exeutives guilty in stenti for video displyed in ouue tht showed hild with hown syndrome eing used y his lssmtesF he prents suessfully sued qoogle for violting privy y llowing the pulishing of the videoF qoogle removed it immeditely upon noti(tionF fut they hve een dmonished y the ourt for llowing the video to e pulished in the (rst pleF qoogle lims tht tht they do not exerise editoril ontrol over wht n e pulished nd re only responsile for timely removl of ojetionle ontentF @PA sf ys re onsidered distriutorsD then they re responsile only for removing ojetionle ontent promptly on noti(tionF hey do not exerise editoril ontrol over the ontent distriuted through their portlsF hereforeD they musht is within the power of the y is to remove ontent quikly upon noti(tion y usersF @QA ys n lso e treted s ommon rriers like telephone ompniesF sn this seD they would e responsile for (ltering ojetionle ontent s it mkes its wy into their forumsF o ertin extentD this tehnology exists sine (ltering progrms re used to detet nd eliminte spmF @he uthor lso found in hoo userEtivted (lters tht would remove o'ensive lngugeFA fut (lters ring their own prolems s vwrene vessig points out in CodeF hey n never e lirted sensitively enough to prevent them from (ltering out legitimte ontentF eginD in referene to the stly trilD qoogle exeutives rgued tht holding them responsile s ommon rriers imposes on them the impossile tsk of reviewing ll ontent efore it is pulishedF hey lso rgue tht this would hve hilling e'et on the retivity nd innovtion engendered on the snternetF he lw in the FF hs generlly settled on treting ys s distriutorsF o ssume tht hoo is responsile s distriutor in the fiomtrix seF @A ere they responsile for the defmtory ontent displyed in the (nnil ulletin ordc @A sf soD re they required to ompenste fiomtrix for the deline in fiomtrix stok tht ourred during the time these messges pperedc @A hid fiomtrix notify hoo promptly of the presene of defmtory mterilc yrD ws it tht fiomtrix did not quikly disover the defmtory messgesc @dA s it hoo9s nonEresponsivenessD iFeFD tht they filed to remove the defmtory messges promptly fter noti(tion tht led to the hrmc @eA qiven the long period over whih fiomtrix stok delinedD n it e proven tht the defmtory messges were the usec iven ssuming hoo responsiility s distriutor hereD there re still mny

ITS ftul issues tht must e settled efore proving tht hoo owes dmges to fiomtrixF his disussion of s responsiility hs een tken from pinello @see elowAF hile his disussion is somewht dted given the reent dvnes in ontent id softwreD it still shows how responsiility online hs een strutured lrgely on the sis of nlogies with o1ine experienesF
Moral Responsibility

Moral responsibility is more nuned oneptF hile legl responsiility onentrtes on estE lishing minimum stndrds of eptle ondutD morl responsiility n move from the minimum ll the wy to the exemplryF hile legl responsiility looks to where individuls n e punished for untowrd tionsD morl responsiility onsiders soietl responses tht rnge from soil ostrism to reognition nd prise for ondut tht is outstndingF oughly spekingD morl responsiility is muh more )exile nd wide rnging onept nd prtieF worl responsiility egins with uslityY some thing @n gentD thingD or eventA use some other thing to ourF Causal responsibility is essentil for estlishing riminl responsiilityY one nnot lme n punish n individul for something tht tht individul did not useF st is lso importnt for estlishing morl responsiility rnging ll the wy from lme to priseF Vicarious responsibility deprts somewht from usl responsiilityF e prent might e responsile for pying for the window roken y his or her hildF sn other forms of virious responsiilityD one person @ prinipleA uthorizes nother @ designted gentA to t on his or her ehlfF e privte individul my hire n engineer to design nd supervise the uilding of houseF he privte individul is the priniple who origintes the tY it expresses his or her interest or intentionF he gent is responsile for the exeution of the tion originted y the prinipleY he or she exeutes the designs of the prinipleF e speil prolem n rise hereF row n the priniple ensure tht the gent remins fithful to his or her interestsc yften gents re devited y on)iting interestsD tht isD interests tht ome in from the outside nd dversely e'et the ility of the gent to skillfully nd professionlly rry out the interests of the prinipleF Capacity responsibility sets forth the onditions under whih n tion n e imputed or ttriuted to n gent for the purpose ssigning morl prise nd lmeF he ethiistsD pFrF frdleyD rgues tht there re threeX selfsmenessD morl senseD nd ownershipF wore on these elowF gusl nd pity responsiility re foused on the pstF Role Responsibility looks to the future nd outlines those tions or tsks one is oliged to perform s prt of his or her soilD ouptionlD or professionl roleF rents re @roleA responsile for looking fter their hildrens9 helthF ingineer9s re @roleA responsile for holding prmount the helthD sfetyD nd welfre of the puliF sndividuls re nswerle when they fil to rry out their role responsiilitiesF pinllyD there is wht qoodpster nd elzquez desrie s the aretaic sense of responsibility or responsiility s virtue or exelleneF @erete in qreek signi(es exelleneFA glling n individul responsile in this sense is to ll him or her trustworthy or relile in n exemplry senseF his pplies to those who rry out their responsiilities in n exemplry mnner @n outstnding prentA nd go eyond the morl minimum in doing soF
Capacity Responsibility: Conditions of Imputability

Self-SamenessX e nnot punish one individul for the tion of notherF @hoes this men we nnot punish hoo for messges displyed y the fw oliecA sn more forml termsD we nnot punish one individul for the tions ommitted y notherF e n punish one person only if he or she is the 4selfsme4 person s the one who ommitted the untowrd @wrongfulA tion in the pstF his ondition sys tht you hve to hve the right personD the one whoD in ftD did the wrongful tion in questionF sn the fiomtrix seD the tohn hoe lwsuit serves to estlish selfsmeness in this se y identifying the rel identities of the uthors of the defmtory messgesF Moral SenseX sn generlD to e responsile is to e le to ppreite the morl qulities of one9s ts nd to shpe one9s responses in ordne with this ppreitionF ghildren do not hve this pity yetF hose @esides hildrenA who lk this pity re generlly termed insneF @rerert pingrette

ITT

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

disusses this in some detil in his ook Criminal InsanityFA st is pretty ler tht gostnzoD gostnzoD nd worris hd morl senseD tht isD tht they hd the ility to ppreite tht their messges were defmtory nd tht they were wrongF heir lim tht suh their tions were exusle euse they were online is di0ult to eptF fut does operting nonymously online undermine morl sensec ho di'erent onventions @like )mingA use us to suspend norml expettions regrding defmtionc ru'D tohnsonD nd willer hve interesting things to sy out this in their essy on irtul rrmF OwnershipX his ondition is sitution spei( s opposed to morl sense whih is more generlF sndividuls re responsile only for those tions performed knowingly nd voluntrilyF ut negtivelyD we re not responsile for tions performed under ignorne or ompulsionF ou etry your friend9s seret without knowing tht it ws seretF hoes this men you re not responsilec ou sid some terrile things out your friend ut you were drunk t the timeF row ould you help itc fut weren9t you responsile for getting yourself into this stte in the (rst plec he fw olie knew wht they were doingF pei(llyD they knew tht the informtion they were spreding out fiomtrix ws flseF endD noody ws holding gun to their heds foring them to send their messgesF heir tionsD thenD were performed without ignorne nd ompulsionF his sene of ignorne nd ompulsion estlishes pity in terms of ownershipF

5.1.13 What did you learn?


his setion provides losure to the module for studentsF st my onsist of forml onlusion tht sumE mrizes the module nd outlines its lerning ojetivesF st ould provide questions to help students derief nd re)et on wht they hve lernedF essessment forms @eFgFD the wuddiest oint pormA ould e used to evlute the qulity of the lerning experieneF sn shortD this setion spei(es the strtegy for ringing the module to loseF
In this module, you have. . .

studied rel world se tht rised serious prolems with intelletul propertyD privyD seurityD nd free speehF orking with these prolems hs helped you to develop etter working understnding of these key oneptsD studied nd prtied using four deisionEmking frmeworksX @IA using soioEtehnil nlysis to speify the prolem in omplexD rel world seD @PA prtied rinstorming tehniques to develop nd re(ne solutions tht respond to your prolemD @QA employed three ethis tests to integrte ethil onsidertions into your solutions nd to test these solutions in terms of their ethisD nd @RA pplied fesiility nlysis to your solutions to identify nd trouleEshoot ostles to the implementtion of your ethil solutionD explored the nlogy etween solving ethil nd design prolemsD prtied the skills of morl imgintionD morl retivityD resonlenessD nd perseverneD nd. . . experienedD through key prtiipnt perspetivesD the hllenges of ethis dvoy under the gunF
Debrief on your group work before the rest of the class

IF rovide onise sttement nd justi(tion of the prolem your group spei(ed PF resent the re(ned solution genertion list your group developed in exerise PF QF resent nd provide quik summry explntion of the results of your group9s solution evlution mtrixF RF how your group9s fesiility mtrix nd summrize your ssessment of the fesiility of implementing the solution lterntives you tested in exerise threeF
Group Debrieng

IF ere there ny prolem you group hd working together to rry out this se nlysisc ht were the prolems nd how did you go out solving themc

ITU PF ht prolems did you hve with understnding nd prtiing the four frmeworks for solving proE lemsc row did you go out solving these prolemsc hoes your group hve ny outstnding questions or doutsc QF xow tht you hve herd the other groups present their resultsD wht di'erenes emerged etween your group9s nlysis nd those of the other groupsc rve you modi(ed your nlysis in light of the nlyses of the other groupsc sf so howc ho the other groups need to tke into ount ny spets of your group9s derie(ngc

5.1.14 Biomatrix Presentation


[Media Object]

2 3

[Media Object]

Shortened Responsibility Presentation 4 [Media Object] Biomatrix Decision Points for Fall 2011 5 [Media Object]

5.1.15 Appendix
his optionl setion ontins dditionl or supplementry informtion relted to this moduleF st ould inludeX ssessmentD kground suh s supporting ethil theories nd frmeworksD tehnil informtionD disipline spei( informtionD nd referenes or linksF
References on Biomatrix

IF fiomtrix hrft ig eport @for (sl yer ending on he QID IWWWAF eessed on epril PD PHHIF httpXGGwwwFseFgovGerhivesGedgrGdtGURUWSPGHHHHWIPHSUHHHRTHSTGHHHHWIPHSUE HHEHRTHSTFtxtF eport ddresses risk fts with fiomtrix inluding proteting intelletul property nd deling with government regultionsF yutlines (nnil wek spots with fiomtrix inluding ptent protetion nd onforming to government regultionsF PF fussD hF 4ender tointsF4 sn Wall Street Journal xovemer TD PHHHF resents pros nd ons of viso supplementiton using fiomtrix produtD ynvisF QF quernseyD vF 4hoo to ry rrder to id ostings of rteful wteril4 sn The New York Times tnury QD PHHIF yutlines hoo response to fiomtrix nd other inidents of yerslnderF RF rinesD tFsF nd grmerD wFrF @wyEtune PHHQAF 4roteting our yrgniztion9s eputtion eginst gyersmerF4 sn Legal ReportX IEVF rovides suggestions on how to respond to yerslnderF SF henD tFF @eugust PHHQAF 4hefmtion smmunity yn he snternetF4 sn Modern PracticeF eessed online httpXGGprtieF(ndlwFomGfetureEHVHQEhtml onUGSGHRF hen explins nlogy of online serE vie provider responsiility with pulishersD distriutorsD nd ommon rriersF TF izziD FtF nd frnesD tFvF @@PHHIAF 4 row to espond to gyersmer4 gonnell poleyD vvF eessed on WGPVGIH t httpXGGwwwFonnellfoleyFomGseminrGemploysmerFhtmlF UF wrgret wnnixD oni voyD uim glrkD enne utes mithD toellen erryD prnk wgoyD tonnie pisherD te' qlsser nd hvid iF uplnF 4he e9s hrk ideX sn the shdows of yerspeD n ordinry week is frightening timeF4 sn U.S. New and World ReportF VGPHGHHF eessed online httpXGGwwwFusnewsFomGusnewsGiztehGrtilesGHHHVPVGrhiveHIQPVPRFhtm on WGPVGIHF
2 This media object is a downloadable le. <Biomatrix_Oct_10.pptx> 3 This media object is a downloadable le. <Biomatrix_Resp_V1.pptx> 4 This media object is a downloadable le. <Biomatrix_Resp_V2.pptx> 5 This media object is a downloadable le. <Biomatrix decision points.docx>

Please view or download it at Please view or download it at Please view or download it at Please view or download it at

ITV

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

References on Associated Ethical and Philosophical Concepts

IF frdleyD pFrF @IWPUGIWTQAF Ethical Studies: Essay IF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressD QERF PF frintD gynthi eF nd ikeD itori F @PHHHA worlity nd the rofessionl vifeX lues t orkF pper ddle iverD xtX rentie rllF QF gruzD tF eFD preyD F tF @PHHQA en i'etive trtegy for sntegrtion ithis eross the gurriulum in ingineeringX en efi PHHH ghllengeD Science and Engineering EthicsD W@RAX SRQESTVF RF hvisD wFD Ethics and the UniversityD outledgeD vondon nd xew orkD IWWWX ITTEITUF SF ihrd F he qeorgeD 4ithil esponsiilities of ingineers in vrge yrgniztionsX he into gseD4 in ithil sssues in ingineeringD edF heorh qF tohnson @IWWIA xew terseyX rentieErllX IUSEIVTF TF ghrles rrrisD wihel rithrd nd wihel ins @PHHSA Engineering Ethics: Concepts and CasesD Qrd idF felmontD geX homsonGdsworthX PHQEPHTF UF ru'D ghuk nd twerD frueD 4owrd hesign ithis for gomputing rofessionls in oil sssues in Computing: Putting Computing in its PlaceD ru'D ghuk nd pinholtD homs idsF @IWWRA xew orkX wqrwErillD snF VF willD tFF @IWUVAF On Liberty: Chapter 1F sndinpolisD sxX rkett ulishing gompnyF WF olomonD oert gF @IWWWA A Better Way to Think About Business: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate SuccessF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF IHF pinelloD FeF @PHHIAF 4snternet ervie roviders nd hefmtionX xew tndrds of viilityF4 sn Readings in CyberethicsF uduryD weX tones nd frtlett ulishersD IWVEPHWF IIF vniD rFF @PHHRAF Ethics and Technology: Ethical Issues in an Age of Information and Communication TechnologyF hnversD weX tohn iley nd onsD PSIEPSSF IPF elsquezD wF 4hy gorportions ere xot worlly esponsile for enything hey hoF4 Business and Professional Ethics JournalF P@PAX IEIVF IQF enthony estonF @PHHIA A Practical Companion to EthicsD Pnd edF eX yxford niversity ressD PHHID ghpter QF IRF grolyn hitek @IWWVA Ethics in Engineering Practice and ResearchF FuF gmridge niE versity ressX SSEUP nd IUTEIVIF ISF ikeD itori F @PHHIA 4rofessionl ingineering ithis fhviorX e luesEsed epprohD4 Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, Session 2461F

5.1.16 EAC ToolKit Project


5.1.16.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense6 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF
5.1.16.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

5.2 Gray Matters for the Hughes Aircraft Case


5.2.1 Introduction
I. Introduction

he rughes eirrft gse involves group of employees in hrge of testing hips for wepons systemsF feuse of the lengthy testing proedure required y the FF hefense heprtmentD rughes soon fell ehind
6 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 7 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14036/1.14/>.

ITW shedule in delivering hips to ustomersF o get hips out fsterD some rughes middle level mngers egn to put pressure on employees to pss hips tht hd filed tests or to pss them without testingF he senrios elow onsist of nrrtives tht stop t the point of deisionF our jo is to omplete the nrrtive y mking deisionF elterntives re provided to get the proess strtedD ut you my (nd it neessry to design your own solutionF ithis nd fesiility tests help you to evlute these lterntives nd even design new ones more to your likingF his formt super(illy resemles the qry wtters exerise used t foeing gorportionF @wore informtion on the history of qry wtters n e found y onsulting grolyn hitekD ithis in ingineering rtieD IWWVD IUTEIVPFA his version di'ers in eing more openE ended nd more oriented towrd giving you the opportunity to prtie using ethil theory @whih hs een enpsulted into ethis testsAF

5.2.2 Directions
II. Directions

ed the following senrios nd the ompnying solutions ivlute the lterntives in terms of the tests desried elowF ghoose the one you think est or design your own solution if you elieve you n do etterF ummrize your results y (lling in the solution evlution mtrix tht ppers on the pge following the senrioF xotie tht the (rst olumn repets the solution lterntivesF fe prepred to present your mtrix to the lssF ou will lso provide the other groups in the lss with opy of your mtrix for their ethis portfolios

Bibliographical Note

he six senrios elow were developed y ghuk ru' s rtiipnt erspetivesF hey were (rst pulished online through the gomputing gses wesiteF @gomputing gses ws developed through two xtionl iene poundtion grntsD hiEWWUPPVH nd hiEWWVHUTVFA e revised version of these prtiipnt perspetives hs een pulished in the nthologyD Whistleblowing: Perspectives and ExperiencesD edited y een j nd pulished in PHHV y the sfi niversity ressD xgrjun rillsD unjguttD ryderdD sndiF hese mterils n e found on pges USEVHF
Scenario One: Responding to Organizational Pressure

prnk i hs worked t rughes eirrft for long timeF xow he is fed with the most di0ult deisions of his reerF re hs een hving prolems in the environmentl testing phse of his mirohip mnufturing plntY the detiled nture of these tests hs used rughes to e onsistently lte in delivering the hips to ustomersF feuse of the time pressure to deliver hipsD i hs een working to mke the prodution of hips more e0ient without losing the qulity of the produtF ghips re mnuftured nd then testedD nd this provides two ples where the proess n ottle upF iven though you might hve perfetly (ne hip on the )oor of the plntD it nnot e shipped without testingF endD sine there re severl thousnd other hips witing to e testedD it n sit in line for long timeF i hs devised method tht llows testers to put the importnt hipsD the hot prtsD hed of the others without disrupting the )ow nd without losing the hips in the shu1eF re hs lso dded gross lek test tht quikly tells if hip in seled ontiner is tully seled or notF edding this test erly in the testing sequene llows environmentl testing to void wsting time y quikly eliminting hips tht would fil more (neEgrined lek test lter in the sequeneF feuse environmentl testing is still flling ehindD i9s supervisors nd rughes ustomers re getting ngry nd hve egun to pply pressureF url eismuellerD the diretor of the hivision of wiroeletronis t rughesD hs given i9s telephone numer to severl ustomersD whose own prodution lines were shut down witing the prts tht i hs hd troule deliveringF ris ustomers re now lling him diretly to sy we9re dying out here for need of prtsF prnk i hs disovered tht n employee under his supervisionD honld vueD hs een skipping tests on the omputer hipsF ine vue egn this prtieD they hve ertinly een more on time in their shipmentsF fesidesD oth vue nd i know tht mny of the hot prts re tully for systems in the testing phseD rther thn for ones tht will e put into tive useF o testing the hips for longEterm durility tht go into these systems seems unneessryF tillD vue ws

IUH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

ught y ulity gontrol skipping testD nd now i needs to mke deisionF pper mngement hs provided no guidneY they simply told him to hndle it nd to keep the prts on timeF re n9t let vue ontinue skipping testsD or t lest he shouldn9t let this skipping go unsupervisedF vue is good employeeD ut he doesn9t hve the siene kground to know whih tests would do the lest dmge if they were skippedF re ould work with vue nd help him (gure out the est tests to skip so the lest hrm is doneF fut getting diretly involved in skipping the tests would men violting ompny poliy nd federl lwF
Alternatives

IF ho nothingF vue hs strted skipping tests on his own inititiveF sf ny prolems riseD then vue will hve to tke responsiilityD not iD euse vue ws ting independently of nd even ginst i9s ordersF PF gll vue in nd tell him to stop skipping tests immeditelyF hen ll the ustomers nd explin tht the prts nnot e shipped until the tests re rried outF QF gonsult with vue nd identify non essentil hips or hips tht will not e used in systems ritil to sfetyF kipping tests on these hips will do the lest dmgeF RF our solution. . .F
Scenario Two: Responding to Wrongdoing

wrgret qooderl works in supervisory position in the environmentl testing group t rughes eirrftF rer supervisorD honld vueD is lso the urrent supervisor for environmentl testingF he group tht vue nd qooderl together oversee test the hips tht rughes mkes in order to determine tht they would survive under the drsti environmentl onditions they will likely feF igorous testing of the hips is the idelD ut some hips @the hot hipsA get in line hed of othersF qooderl hs found out tht over the lst severl monthsD mny of these tests re eing skippedF he resonX rughes hs fllen ehind in the prodution shedule nd rughes upper mngement nd rughes ustomers hve een pplying pressure to get hip prodution nd testing k on sheduleF woreoverD vue nd others feel tht skipping ertin tests doesn9t mtterD sine mny of these hips re eing used in systems tht re in the testing phseD rther thn ones tht will e put into tive useF e few months fter wrgret qooderl strted her new positionD she ws presented with di0ult prolemF yne of the girls @the women nd men in invironmentl esting t rughesAD vis vightnerD me to her desk ryingF he ws in ters nd tremling euse honld vue hd forefully insisted tht she pss hip tht she ws sure hd filed the test she ws runningF vightner rn the hermetiity test on the hipsF he hips re enlosed in metl ontinerD nd one of the questions is whether the sel to tht ontiner leksF prom her testD she is sure tht the hip is leker"the sel is not irtight so tht wter nd orrosion will seep in over time nd dmge the hipF he hs ome to qooderl for dvieF hould she do wht vue wnts nd pss hip she knows is lekerc
Alternatives

IF qooderl should dvise vightner to go long with vueF re is her supervisorF sf he orders to pss the hipD then she should do soF PF qooderl should go to rumn esoures with vightner nd (le hrssment omplint ginst vueF kipping tests is lerly illegl nd ordering n employee to ommit n illegl t is hrssmentF QF qooderl nd vightner should low the whistleF hey should go to the FF defense deprtment nd inform them of the ft tht rughes eirrft is delivering hips tht hve either filed tests or hve not een testedF RF our solution. . .F
Scenario 3: Goodearl, Ibarra, and the AMRAAM Incident

xow tht qooderl hd few sympthizers mong upper mngementD she inresingly turned to uth srr in ulity ssurne for support in her onerns out test skipping nd the flsi(tion of pperworkF yne dyD qooderl notied tht some eweew hips with lek stikers were left on her projet desk in the environmentl testing reF he lek stikers ment tht the sel on the hips9 supposedly irtight enlosure hd filed test to see if they lekedF eweew ment tht the hips were destined to e prt of n edvned wedium nge eirEtoEeir wissileF qooderl knew tht these prts ould not e retested nd

IUI needed to e simply thrown wyF o why ws someone keeping themc he lso knew tht these were o0illy 4hot prts4 nd tht the ompny ws ehind shedule in shipping these prtsF efter onsulting with uth srrD the two of them deided to do some sleuthingF hey took the hips nd their lot trvelers to photoopy mhine nd mde opies of the trvelers with 4filed4 noted on the lek testF hey then repled the hips nd their trvelers on the deskF vter tht dyD s hon vue pssed the deskD qooderl sked hon vue if he knew nything out the hipsF 4xone of your usinessD4 he repliedF he hips dispperedD nd lter the trvelers showed up in ompny (les with the 4filed4 ltered to 4pssedF4 oD qooderl nd srr hd ler evidene @in their photoopy of the 4filed4 on the trvelerA tht someone ws pssing o' filed hips to their ustomersF end these were importnt hipsD prt of the guidne system of n irEtoEir missileF
Alternatives: Since they have clear evidence, Gooderal and Ibarra should blow the whistle. Evaluate each of the following ways in which they could blow the whistle

IF flow the whistle to rughes9 ford of hiretorsF sn this wy they n stop the test skipping ut will lso e le to keep the whole 'ir in houseF PF flow the whistle to the lol news mediF sn this wy they will shme rughes into ompline with the testing requirementsF QF ke the evidene to the FF heprtment of hefenseD sine they re the lient nd re eing negtively impted y rughes9 illegl tionsF RF ome other mode of lowing the whistle. . .F
Solution Evaluation Matrix Alternatives/TestsReversibility/Rights Harm/Benets Test Test Virtue/Value Test (Also Publicity) Global Feasibility Test (Implementation Obstacles)

Alternative One (Worst Alternative) Alternative Two (Best among those given) Alternative Three

ivlute elt I using reversiilE ityGrights test eigh ginst for lt P hrms ene(ts ht vlE uesGdisvlues re relized in lt Qc ht ostles ould hinder imE plementtion of solutionc
Table 5.7

Your Solution

5.2.3 Ethics Tests: Set Up and Pitfalls


III. Solution Evaluation Tests

iisfsvsX ould s think this is good hoie if s were mong those 'eted y itc fsvsgsX ould s wnt to e pulily ssoited with this tion throughD syD its pulition in the newspperc

IUP

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

rewGfixipsgixgiX hoes this tion do less hrm thn ny of the ville lterntivesc piesfsvsX gn this solution e implemented given timeD tehnilD eonomiD leglD nd politil onstrintsc
Harm Test Set-Up

sdentify the gent @athe person who will perform the tionAF hesrie the tion @awht the gent is out to doAF sdentify the stkeholders @individuls who hve vitl interest t riskA nd their stkesF sdentifyD sort outD nd weight the expeted results or onsequenesF
Harm Test Pitfalls

rlysis of etion!onsidering too mny onsequenesF snomplete nlysis!onsidering too few resultsF pilure to weigh hrms ginst ene(tsF pilure to ompre di'erent lterntivesF tustie filures!ignoring the firness of the distriution of hrms nd ene(tsF

Reversibility Test Set-Up

sdentify the gent hesrie the tion sdentify the stkeholders nd their stkes se the stkeholder nlysis to selet the reltions to e reversedF everse roles etween the gent @youA nd eh stkeholderX put them in your ple @s the gentA nd yourself in their ple @s the trget of the tion sf you were in their pleD would you still (nd the tion eptlec

Reversibility Pitfalls

veving out key stkeholder reltionF piling to reognize nd ddress on)its etween stkeholders nd their on)iting stkesF gonfusing treting others with respet with pitulting to their demnds @eversing with ritlerAF piling to reh losureD iFeFD n overll glol reversl ssessment tht tkes into ount ll the stkeholders the gent hs reversed withF

Public Identication Set-Up

et up the nlysis y identifying the gentD desriing the tion under onsidertionD nd listing the key vlues or virtues t ply in the situtionF essoite the tion with the gentF sdentify wht the tion sys out the gent s personF hoes it revel him or her s someone ssoited with virtueGvlue or viec
Public Identication Pitfalls

IF etion is not ssoited with the gentF he most ommon pitfll is filure to ssoite the gent nd the tionF he tion my hve d onsequenes nd it my tret individuls with disrespet ut these points re not s importnt in the ontext of this test s wht they imply out the gent s person who deliertely performs suh n tionF PF pilure to speify the morl qulityD virtueD or vlue of the tion tht is imputed to the gent in the testF o syD for exmpleD tht willfully hrming the puli is d fils to zero in on preisely wht morl qulity this ttriutes to the gentF hoes it render him or her unjustD irresponsileD orruptD dishonestD or unresonlec

IUQ

Gray Matters in Hughes Exercises

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `qwrughesPFdob


Figure 5.2:

These exercises present three decision points from Hughes, solution alternatives, summaries of ethics and feasibility tests, and a solution evaluation matrix. Carry out the exercise by lling in the solution evaluation matrix.

his timeline is tken from the gomputing gses wesite developed nd mintined y hrF ghrles ru' t tF ylf gollegeF gomputing gses is funded y the xtionl iene poundtionD xp hiEWWUPPVH nd hi WWVHUTVF

5.2.4
Time Line

IWUW

uth srr eginsworking for rughes eirE rft ompny9s wiroeletroni giruit hivision @rughes wghA in xewport fehD ge wrgret qooderl egins working for rughes wgh s supervisor for ssemly on the hyrid prodution )oor nd s supervisor in the hyrid engineering l srr eomes supervisor for hyrid qulity ssurE ne qooderl sks srr to look t errors in pperE workD srr rings errors to the ttention of her supervisors nd ws told to keep quietF his egins time period where qooderlGsrr eome wre of prolems in hyrid hip testing nd pperworkF qooderl eomes supervisor for sels proessing in the environmentl testing reF pise glims et @QI FF g QUPWEQUQQA eomes plse glims eform et of IWVT mking it stronger nd esier to pplyF
continued on next page

IWVI

IWVR IWVS

IWVT IWVT

IUR ytF IWVT

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

qooderlGsrr report prolems ot rughes mnE gementD ndD fter the prolems were not (xedD qooderlGsrr reported the llegtions of fulty testing to the nited ttes heprtment of hefenseF irliest dte tht rughes my hve stopped neE gleting environmentl sreening testsF srr leves rughes feeling tht her jo hd een stripped of ll rel responsiilityF qooderl is lid o' from rughesF qooderl nd her husnd re divoredF
Table 5.8

tn WD IWVU IWVV wrh IWVW IWWS

Civil Suit Timeline

IWWHEIWWT

nited ttes of emeriD ex relF xpyers eginst prudD uth eldred @ws srrAD nd wrE gret qooderl vF rughes eirrft gompnyD snF qooderl (les wrongful dishrge suit ginst rughes nd numer of individul mngersD whih ws eventully dropped in fvor of the ivil suitF hinking the government investigtion ws tkE ing too muh timeD qooderlGeldred (le ivil suit ginst rughes under plse glims eform et of IWVT with the help of xpyers eginst prud nd shington lw (rm hillips nd gohenF nder provisions of the pgeD the FF heprtment of tustie givil hivision tkes over the ivil seF rughes found guilty in ivil trilF ys FF qovE ernment RDHSHDHH dollrs nd eh reltor VWIDHHH dollrs plus seprte pyment of RSHDHHH dollrs to over ttorney9s feesD ostsD nd expensesF
Table 5.9

IWWH

wy PWD IWWH

heemer IWWP epF IHD IWWT

Criminal Suit Timeline

IWWIEIWWQ heemer IQD IWWI

nited ttes of emeri vF rughes eirrft goFD nd honld vue efter lengthy investigtionD the FF heprtment of hefense hrges rughes nd honld eF vue with SIEount inditment using it of flsifying tests of miroeletroni iruits @riminl suitAF
continued on next page

IUS tune ISD IWWP rughes found guilty of onspiring to defrud the FF qovernment in rminl seD oEdefendent vi quitted following REweek trilF qoodE erlGeldred lled s witnesses in trilF rughes pE pelsF rughes (ned QFS million in riminl tril deisionF eppellte ourt upholds IWWP riminl onvition nd senteneF rughes ppelsF
Table 5.10

ytF PWD IWWP heemer PD IWWQ

5.2.5 Hughes Case Socio Technical System


Hughes Socio Technical System

rrdwreGoftwre hysil urroundE ings hesription ryrid ghips @iruitry hermetilly seled in metl or ermi pkges in inert gs tmosphere fttle onE ditions under whih hips might e used

eopleD olesD trutures rughes wiroeleE tri giruit hivision

roedures

vws nd egultions veglly wndted ests

ht nd ht truE tures vot rvE elors to doument hips

ghip estE ingX emE perture gyleD gonE stnt eE elertionD wehniE l hokD rermetiity @pine nd qross vekAD FsFxFhF

continued on next page

IUT enlogue to higitl gonversion ghips iEIHHH rughes @glen oomA t

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

heprtment of hefense @y0e of snspetor qenerlA rughes ulity gontrol

rughes rumn esoures roedures for gomE plints hissenting rofessionl ypinions

histle flower rotetion vegisltion

dr nd wissile quidne ystems

ui m vwsuitD givil uitD griminl uit

sndividulsX eismuellerD empleD iD vueD qooderlD srrGeldren


Table 5.11

5.2.6 Blowing the Whistle


Ethical Dissent

IF istlish ler tehnil foundtionF PF ueep your rguments on high professionl plneD s impersonl nd ojetive s possileD voiding extrneous issues nd emotionl outurstsF QF ry to th prolems erlyD nd keep the rgument t the lowest mngeril level possileF RF fefore going out on limD mke sure tht the issue is su0iently importntF SF se @nd help estishA orgniztionl dispute resolution mehnismsF TF ueep reords nd ollet pperF UF hese items re tken from the siii wesiteD link oveF
Before Going Public

IF PF QF RF SF TF UF

wke sure of your motivtionF gount your ostsF ytin ll the neessry kground mterils nd evideneF yrgnize to protet your own interestsF ghoose the right venue for your dislosureF wke your dislosure in the right spiritF hese items ome from the siii @see onlineethis linkA nd from the mnusript of Good Computing y ghuk ru'D illim preyD nd tose gruzF

Places to Go

IF PF QF RF

qovernment egenies tudiil ystems vegisltors edvoy qroups

IUU SF xews wedi TF sn uerto ioD lws IR nd RPT hve een pssed to protet those who would low the whistle on government orruptionF he y(in de iti quernmentl de uerto io hs whistle lower9s hotlineF ee link oveF
When to Blow the Whistle.

IF PF QF RF SF

erious nd gonsiderle rrm xoti(tion of immedite supervisorF ixhustion of internl hnnels of ommunitionGppelF houmented ivideneF vikelihood of suessful resolutionF

References

IF ihrd F he qeorgeD 4ithil esponsiilities of ingineers in vrge yrgniztionsX he into gseD4 in Ethical Issues in EngineeringD edF heorh qF tohnson @IWWIA xew terseyX rentieErllX IUSE IVTF PF grolyn hitek @IWWVA ithis in ingineering rtie nd eserhF FuF gmridge niversity ressX SSEUP nd IUTEIVIF QF ghrles rrrisD wihel rithrd nd wihel ins @PHHSA ingineering ithisX gonepts nd gsesD Qrd idF felmontD geX homsonGdsworthX PHQEPHTF

5.2.7 Hughes Dramatic Rehearsals


A note on dramatic rehearsals

he notion of drmti rehersl omes from tohn hewey9s Human Nature and Moral ConductF en gent works through solution lterntive in the imgintion efore exeuting it in the rel worldF he drmti rehersl tests the ide in mentl lortory reted y the morl imgintionF teven pesmire in his ookD John Dewey and Moral Imagination: Pragmatism in Ethics @sndin niversity ressD PHHQAD provides omprehensive interprettion of hewey9s suggestive ideF
5.2.7.1 Decision Point One Decision Point One

prnk i hs worked t rughes eirrft for long timeF xow he is fed with the most di0ult deisions of his reerF re hs een hving prolems in the environmentl testing phse of his mirohip mnufturing plntY the detiled nture of these tests hs used rughes to e onsistently lte in delivering the hips to ustomersF feuse of the time pressure to deliver hipsD i hs een working to mke the prodution of hips more e0ient without losing the qulity of the produtF ghips re mnuftured nd then testedD nd this provides two ples where the proess n ottle upF iven though you might hve perfetly (ne hip on the )oor of the plntD it nnot e shipped without testingF endD sine there re severl thousnd other hips witing to e testedD it n sit in line for long timeF i hs devised method tht llows testers to put the importnt hipsD the hot prtsD hed of the others without disrupting the )ow nd without losing the hips in the shu1eF re hs lso dded gross lek test tht quikly tells if hip in seled ontiner is tully seled or notF edding this test erly in the testing sequene llows environmentl testing to void wsting time y quikly eliminting hips tht would fil more (neEgrined lek test lter in the sequeneF

IUV

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

feuse environmentl testing is still flling ehindD i9s supervisors nd rughes ustomers re getting ngry nd hve egun to pply pressureF url eismuellerD the diretor of the hivision of wiroeletronis t rughesD hs given i9s telephone numer to severl ustomersD whose own proE dution lines were shut down witing the prts tht i hs hd troule deliveringF ris ustomers re now lling him diretly to sy we9re dying out here for need of prtsF
Dialogue for Decision Point One

gonstrut dilogue in whih i responds to the pressure from his supervisorD url eismueller fe sure to ddress the ustomer omplints
Debrieng Assignment for Decision Point One

ih drm point revolves round one or more on)itsF ht is the on)it in your drm pointF row did you ply this on)it out through your drmtiztionc our drm tkes ple over soioEtehnil systemF vook t the ove tleF ht re the key vlues t ply in the rughes c row did these vlues enter into your drmtiztionc por exmpleD did vlue on)it drive nd onfronttion etween hrters in your drmtiztionc hinkD in this setionD out how the nd its vlues enter into your drmti portryl of the events in this seF ht kind of nrrtive form did your drm tke onc s it trgedyc e omedyc e story with hppy endingc omething elsec ht is it out the se tht led you to pik the nrrtive form tht you didc pinllyD did you lern nything out the se y onstruting nd ting out your drmc ht ws itc ht is di'erent out these drmti rehersls in omprison with other lerning tivities you hve undergone this semesterc
5.2.7.2 Decision Point Two Decision Point Two

prnk i hs disovered tht n employee under his supervisionD honld vueD hs een skipping tests on the omputer hipsF ine vue egn this prtieD they hve ertinly een more on time in their shipmentsF fesidesD oth vue nd i know tht mny of the hot prts re tully for systems in the testing phseD rther thn for ones tht will e put into tive useF o testing the hips for longEterm durility tht go into these systems seems unneessryF tillD vue ws ught y ulity gontrol skipping testD nd now i needs to mke deisionF pper mngement hs provided no guidneY they simply told him to hndle it nd to keep the prts on timeF re n9t let vue ontinue skipping testsD or t lest he shouldn9t let this skipping go unsupervisedF vue is good employeeD ut he doesn9t hve the siene kground to know whih tests would do the lest dmge if they were skippedF re ould work with vue nd help him (gure out the est tests to skip so the lest hrm is doneF fut getting diretly involved in skipping the tests would men violting ompny poliy nd federl lwF
Dialogue

gonstrut dilogue in whih i onfronts vue out skipping the tests eddress the following issuesX hould i work with vue to identify tests tht re not neessry nd then hve vue skip thesec row should i nd vue del with the onerns tht ulity gontrol hs expressed out skipping the testsc our (rst item here

Debrieng Assignment for Decision Point Two

IUW

ih drm point revolves round one or more on)itsF ht is the on)it in your drm pointF row did you ply this on)it out through your drmtiztionc our drm tkes ple over soioEtehnil systemF vook t the ove tleF ht re the key vlues t ply in the rughes c row did these vlues enter into your drmtiztionc por exmpleD did vlue on)it drive nd onfronttion etween hrters in your drmtiztionc hinkD in this setionD out how the nd its vlues enter into your drmti portryl of the events in this seF ht kind of nrrtive form did your drm tke onc s it trgedyc e omedyc e story with hppy endingc omething elsec ht is it out the se tht led you to pik the nrrtive form tht you didc pinllyD did you lern nything out the se y onstruting nd ting out your drmc ht ws itc ht is di'erent out these drmti rehersls in omprison with other lerning tivities you hve undergone this semesterc
5.2.7.3 Decision Point Three Decision Point Three

wrgret qooderl works in supervisory position in the environmentl testing group t rughes eirrftF rer supervisorD honld vueD is lso the urrent supervisor for environmentl testingF he group tht vue nd qooderl together oversee test the hips tht rughes mkes in order to determine tht they would survive under the drsti environmentl onditions they will likely feF igorous testing of the hips is the idelD ut some hips @the hot hipsA get in line hed of othersF qooderl hs found out tht over the lst severl monthsD mny of these tests re eing skippedF he resonX rughes hs fllen ehind in the prodution shedule nd rughes upper mngement nd rughes ustomers hve een pplying pressure to get hip prodution nd testing k on sheduleF woreoverD vue nd others feel tht skipping ertin tests doesn9t mtterD sine mny of these hips re eing used in systems tht re in the testing phseD rther thn ones tht will e put into tive useF
Dialogue

gonstrut dilogue tht ts out qooderl9s response to her knowledge tht vue is regulrly skipping tests eddress these two issues in your dilogueX hould qooderl (rst tlk diretly to vuec ht if he responds defensivelyc hould qooderl go over vue9s hed nd disuss his skipping the tests with one of his supervisorsc o whom should she goc row ould she prepre for possile retlition y vuec ht should she know efore doing thisc
Debrieng for Decision Point Three

ih drm point revolves round one or more on)itsF ht is the on)it in your drm pointF row did you ply this on)it out through your drmtiztionc our drm tkes ple over soioEtehnil systemF vook t the ove tleF ht re the key vlues t ply in the rughes c row did these vlues enter into your drmtiztionc por exmpleD did vlue on)it drive nd onfronttion etween hrters in your drmtiztionc hinkD in this setionD out how the nd its vlues enter into your drmti portryl of the events in this seF ht kind of nrrtive form did your drm tke onc s it trgedyc e omedyc e story with hppy endingc omething elsec ht is it out the se tht led you to pik the nrrtive form tht you didc pinllyD did you lern nything out the se y onstruting nd ting out your drmc ht ws itc ht is di'erent out these drmti rehersls in omprison with other lerning tivities you hve undergone this semesterc

IVH
5.2.7.4 Decision Point Four Decision Point Four

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

e few months fter wrgret qooderl strted her new positionD she ws presented with di0ult prolemF yne of the girls @the women nd men in invironmentl esting t rughesAD vis vightnerD me to her desk ryingF he ws in ters nd tremling euse honld vue hd forefully insisted tht she pss hip tht she ws sure hd filed the test she ws runningF vightner rn the hermetiity test on the hipsF he hips re enlosed in metl ontinerD nd one of the questions is whether the sel to tht ontiner leksF prom her testD she is sure tht the hip is leker"the sel is not irtight so tht wter nd orrosion will seep in over time nd dmge the hipF he hs ome to qooderl for dvieF hould she do wht vue wnts nd pss hip she knows is lekerc
Dialogue

gonstrut dilogue in whih qooderl dvises vightner on wht to do gonsider these issues in onstruting your dilogueX hould qooderl nd vightner go over vue9s hed on this issuec sf notD how should they onfront vuec

Debrieng for Decision Point Four

ih drm point revolves round one or more on)itsF ht is the on)it in your drm pointF row did you ply this on)it out through your drmtiztionc our drm tkes ple over soioEtehnil systemF vook t the ove tleF ht re the key vlues t ply in the rughes c row did these vlues enter into your drmtiztionc por exmpleD did vlue on)it drive nd onfronttion etween hrters in your drmtiztionc hinkD in this setionD out how the nd its vlues enter into your drmti portryl of the events in this seF ht kind of nrrtive form did your drm tke onc s it trgedyc e omedyc e story with hppy endingc omething elsec ht is it out the se tht led you to pik the nrrtive form tht you didc pinllyD did you lern nything out the se y onstruting nd ting out your drmc ht ws itc ht is di'erent out these drmti rehersls in omprison with other lerning tivities you hve undergone this semesterc
5.2.7.5 Decision Point Five Decision Point Five

uth srr @from ulity essurneA hs seen hirley eddik reseling hips without the uthoE riztion stmpF srr hs sked qooderl to (nd out wht9s going onF hen qooderl sks vueD he repliesD xone of your dmn usinessF hortly fter thisD qooderl reeives phone ll from tim empleD one of her superiorsD telling her to ome to his o0eF emple informs qooderl in no unertin terms tht she needs to k downF ou re doing it ginF ou re not prt of the temD running to ulity with every little prolemF hen qooderl insisted she did not run to ulity ut ulity me to herD emple repliesD hpe up nd e prt of the tem if you wnt your joF
Dialogue

gonstrut dilogue in whih qooderl rets to emple gonsider the following issues in onstruting your dilogueX ss emple hrssing qooderlc @row do we de(ne hrssing in this ontextcA hould qooderl prepre for the possiility of eing (redc row should she do thisc ht re her legl options t this pointc

IVI
Debrieng for Decision Point Five

ih drm point revolves round one or more on)itsF ht is the on)it in your drm pointF row did you ply this on)it out through your drmtiztionc our drm tkes ple over soioEtehnil systemF vook t the ove tleF ht re the key vlues t ply in the rughes c row did these vlues enter into your drmtiztionc por exmpleD did vlue on)it drive nd onfronttion etween hrters in your drmtiztionc hinkD in this setionD out how the nd its vlues enter into your drmti portryl of the events in this seF ht kind of nrrtive form did your drm tke onc s it trgedyc e omedyc e story with hppy endingc omething elsec ht is it out the se tht led you to pik the nrrtive form tht you didc pinllyD did you lern nything out the se y onstruting nd ting out your drmc ht ws itc ht is di'erent out these drmti rehersls in omprison with other lerning tivities you hve undergone this semesterc
5.2.7.6 Decision Point Six Decision Point Six

wrgret qooderl nd uth srr hve mde severl ttempts to get their supervisors to respond to the prolem of skipping the environmentl testsF he generl response hs een to shoot the messenger rther thn respond to the messgeF foth qooderl nd srr hve een rnded troule mkers nd told to mind their own usinessF hey hve een thretened with dismissl if they persistF o they hve deided to low the whistleD hving exhusted ll the other optionsF hey initited ontt with o0ils in the FF government9s y0e of the snspetor qenerlF hese o0ils re interested ut hve told qooderl nd srr tht they need to doument their seF yne dy they (nd two hyrids @hips tht omine two di'erent kinds of semiondutor devies on ommon sustrteA on vue9s deskF hese hips whih re destined for n irEtoEir missile hve filed the lek testF st is ovious tht vue plns on pssing them without further testing during the evening shift fter qooderl hs gone homeF qooderl nd srr disuss whether this presents good opportunity to doument their se for the y0e of the snspetor qenerlF
Dialogue

gonstrut n imginry onverstion etween qooderl nd srr where they disuss di'erent strteE gies for doumenting their onerns to the y0e of the snspetor qenerlc rve them onsider the followingX fy looking for doumented evidene ginst their employerD hve qooderl nd srr violted their duties of trust nd on(dentilityc ome rgue tht efore lowing the whistleD n employee should exhust internl hnnelsF rve qooderl nd srr disuss whether they n do nything more inside rughes efore tking evidene outside
Debrieng for Decision Point Six

ih drm point revolves round one or more on)itsF ht is the on)it in your drm pointF row did you ply this on)it out through your drmtiztionc our drm tkes ple over soioEtehnil systemF vook t the ove tleF ht re the key vlues t ply in the rughes c row did these vlues enter into your drmtiztionc por exmpleD did vlue on)it drive nd onfronttion etween hrters in your drmtiztionc hinkD in this setionD out how the nd its vlues enter into your drmti portryl of the events in this seF ht kind of nrrtive form did your drm tke onc s it trgedyc e omedyc e story with hppy endingc omething elsec ht is it out the se tht led you to pik the nrrtive form tht you didc

IVP

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

pinllyD did you lern nything out the se y onstruting nd ting out your drmc ht ws itc ht is di'erent out these drmti rehersls in omprison with other lerning tivities you hve undergone this semesterc
5.2.7.7 Hughes Case Media Files Hughes Case and Dialogue Points 8 [Media Object] F 9 [Media Object] What If Dramatic Rehearsals 10 [Media Object] Debating Topics for ADMI 4016, Spring 2011 11 [Media Object]

5.3 Case Analysis Module: Therac-25

12

gomputer ithis gse wodule emplte fy illim tF prey wodule sntrodutionX he herEPS se is wht ru' nd prey ll thikD historilD evlutiveD ig news nd d news seF kling ses of this omplexity requires oth reful thought nd onsiderle skillF ispeilly importnt is the ility to sift through the se detilsD doumentsD nd on)iting nrrtivesF he purpose of this module is to provide students with struture to tkle igD longD nd omplited sesF tudents will reeive frmeworks to help them struture the se9s ethil nd soil prolemsF hey will lso e provided with deision points tht will help them to enter into the se nd tke up the stndpoint of prtiipntF he module presented elow n e linked to mterils tht n e found t wwwFomputingsesForgF xny vevesonD in fewreXystem fety nd gomputer @SISESSQAD lso provides n exellent nd omprehensive ountF ixellent dvie on how to teh the seD updted informtionD nd ler explntions of the progrmming errors re provided y ghuk ru' nd ihrd frown in 4sntegrting ithis into gomputing gurriulumX e gse tudy of the herEPSF4 he mterils posted t gomputing gses were ll developed through xp projets hiEWWUPPVH nd hi WWVHUTVFA he module presents the se strt nd timelineF st then refers students to omputingsesForg where they will (nd the se nrrtiveD historyD nd supporting douments tht provide kground informtion neessry for nlysisF he se strt nd timeline introdue students to the si outlines of the seF he ompnying deision point tken from the se provides students with the neessry fous to rry out n inEdepth nlysisF tudents respond to the deisionEpoint y working through the four stgesX prolem spei(tionD solution genertionD solution testingD nd solution implementtionF wodule etivitiesX IF snstrutor introdues the se sed on the strt nd timeline found t wwwFomputingsesForg13 PF tudents red se strtD timelineD se deision pointD nd se nlysis exerisesF
8 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Hughes_V2a.pptx> 9 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Responsible Dissent.pptx> 10 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Hughes_Drama_V2.pptx> 11 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Reections on debate.pptx> 12 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13765/1.8/>. 13 http://www.computingcases.org/

IVQ QF tudents do further reserh into the se y onsulting gomputinggses mterils whih inlude nrrtivesD historiesD supporting doumentsD nd ethil nlysesF RF tudents rry out the tivities outlined in the ompnying se exerises y @A speifying the prolem rised in the deision pointD @A generting solutionsD @A testing solutions using ethis testsD nd @dA developing plns for implementing the solution over situtionl onstrintsF SF tudents prepre their se nlyses working in smll groupsF TF hese groups present their ompleted nlysis to the lss in seEderie(ng sessionF UF he instrutor onludes y disussing the prolemEsolving issues nd intermedite morl onepts rised y the seF

5.3.1 Therac-25 Abstract


herEPS14 ws new genertion medil liner elertor15 for treting nerF st inorported the most reent omputer ontrol equipmentF herEPS9s omputeriztion mde the lorious proess of mhine setup muh esier for opertorsD nd thus llowed them to spend miniml time in setting up the equipmentF sn ddition to mking setup esierD the omputer lso monitored the mhine for sfetyF ith the dvent of omputer ontrolD hrdwre sed sfety mehnisms were trnsferred to the softwreF rospitls were told tht the herEPS medil liner elertor hd 4so mny sfety mehnisms4 tht it ws 4virtully impossile4 to overdose ptientF xormllyD when ptient is sheduled to hve rdition therpy for nerD he or she is sheduled for severl sessions over few weeks nd told to expet some minor skin disomfort from the tretmentF he disomfort is desried s eing like mild sunurn over the treted reF fut in this se on sfety ritil softwreD you will (nd tht some ptients reeived muh more rdition thn presried
Therac - 25 Timeline

his time line is lrgely dopted from the gomputing gses wesiteF he wesite developerD ghrles ru'D hs provided this module9s uthor with more detiled unpulished version @tht provides the rel nmes of the ptients left out in gomputing gsesA tht the uthor hs dopted hereF eders should note tht this time line lso overlps with tht provided y veveson nd urnerF @ee elow for two referenes where the urner nd veveson time line n e foundFA
14 http://www.computingcases.org/case_materials/therac/teaching/therac/supporting_docs/Therac%20Glossary.html#tr25 15 http://www.computingcases.org/case_materials/therac/teaching/therac/supporting_docs/Therac%20Glossary.html#tr13

IVR

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Therac-25 Chronology

irlyIWUH9s

eigv nd prenh gompny @gqA ollorte to uild wedil viner eelertors @linsAF hey develop herETD nd herEPHF @eigv nd gq end their working reltionship in IWVIFA eigv developes the revolutionry 4doule pss4 elertor whih leds to the development of herEPSF eigv performs sfety nlysis of herEPS whih pprently exludes n nlysis of softwreF sn xewswire the gndin gonsulte qenerl nnounes the introdution of the new 4her PS4 whine mnuftured y eigv wedilD diviE sion of etomi inergy of gnd vimitedF wriett qeorgiD uennestone egionl ynology genter implements the new herEPS mhineF wriett qeorgiD uennestone egionl ynology genterutherine @utyA rroughD TIEyerEold womn is overdosed during followEup rdition tretment fter removl of mlignnt rest tuE morF im tillD uennestone hysiist lls eigv sking if overdose is possileY three dys lter he is informed it is notF rmiltonD yntrioD gndF prnes rillD RHE yerEold ptient is overdosed during tretment for ervil rinomF eigv is informed of the injury nd sends servie engineer to investigteF rmilton yntrio ptient dies of nerD ut it is noted on her utopsy tht hd she not diedD full hip replement would hve een neessry s reE sult of the rdition overdoseF vetter from gf to eigv requesting dditionl hrdwre interloks nd hnges in softwreF vetter lso requested tretment terminted in the event of mlfuntion with no option to proeed with single keyEstrokeF @under gnd9s dition imitting hevies etFA uty rrough (les suit ginst eigv nd uennestone egionl ynology genterF eigv inE formed o0illy of vwsuitF kim lley wemoril rospitlD kim shE ingtonF e womn eing treted with herEPS deE velops erythem on her hip fter one of the tretE mentsF t' t kim sends letter to eigv nd spek on the phone with eigv tehnil support supervisorF eigv tehnil support supervisor sends written response to kim liming tht herEPS ould not hve een responsile for the injuries to the

IWUT

wrhD IWVQ tuly PWDIWVQ

F heF IWVR tune QD IWVS

tuly PTD IWVS

xovemer QD IWVS

xovemer VD IWVS

xovemer IVD IWVS

heemer IWVS

tnury QID IWVT perury PRD IWVT

IVS

Table 5.12

X ghronology losely prphrses hronology in gomputing gsesF he mjor di'erene is tht it reples (tionl nmes with rel nmes of prtiipnts sine these were eventully puliizedF wost of these events were originlly unovered y vevesonF @ee ittions elowA

enrioX ou re n engineer working for eigv sent to investigte n lleged overdosing inident t the yntrio gner poundtion in rmiltonF yntrioF he following is the desription provided to you of wht hppenedX yn tuly PTD IWVSD fortyEyer old ptient me to the lini for her twentyEfourth herEPS tretment for rinom of the ervixF he opertor tivted the mhineD ut the her shut down fter (ve seonds with n rsv error messgeF he herEPS9s onsole disply red xy hyi nd indited iewix ei ine the mhine did not suspend nd the ontrol disply indited no dose ws delivered to the ptientD the opertor went hed with seond ttempt t tretment y pressing the roeed gommnd ueyD expeting the mhine to deliver the proper dose this timeF his ws stndrd operting proedureD nd herEPS opertors hd eome ustomed to frequent mlfuntions tht hd no untowrd d onseE quenes for the ptientF egin the mhine shut down in the sme mnnerF he opertor repeted this proess four times fter the originl ttempt"the disply showing xy hyi delivered to the ptient eh timeF efter the (fth puseD the mhine went into tretment suspendD nd hospitl servie tehniin ws lledF he tehniin found nothing wrong with the mhineF eording to herEPS opertorD this senrio lso ws not unusulF efter tretmentD the ptient omplined of urning senstionD desried s n eletri tingling shok to the tretment re in her hip. . .Fhe me k for further tretment on tuly PW nd omplined of urningD hip pinD nd exessive swelling in the region of tretmentF he ptient ws hospitlized for the ondition on tuly QHD nd the mhine ws tken out of servieF @hesription tken from xny vevesonD fewreD pp SPQERA ou give the unit thorough exmintion nd re le to (nd nothing wrongF orking with the opertorD you try to duplite the tretment proedure of tuly PTF xothing out of the ordinry hppensF our responsiility is to mke reommendtion to eigv nd to the yntrio gner poundtionF ht will it ec IF sdentify key omponents of the rtGvevel of enlyE sis rrdwre oftwre hysil urroundE ings eopleD qroupsD 8 oles roedures vws 8 egulE tions ht 8 ht trutures

Table 5.13

PF peify the prolemX PF ss the prolem disgreement on ftsc ht re the ftsc ht re ost nd time onstrints on unovering nd ommuniting these ftsc PF ss the prolem disgreement on ritil oneptc ht is the oneptc gn greement e rehed y onsulting legl or regultory informtion on the oneptc @por exmpleD if the onept in question is sfetyD n disputnts onsult engineering odesD legl preedentsD or ethil literture tht helps provide onsensusc gn disputnts gree on positive nd negtive prdigm ses so the onept disgreement n e resolved through lineEdrwing methodsc

IVT

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

PF se the tle to identify nd lote vlue on)its within the F gn the prolem e spei(ed s mismth etween tehnology nd the existing D mismth within the exerted y the introdution of the tehnologyD or y overlooked resultsc Glue fety dom hrmA @freeE from tustie @iquity 8 eessA rivy roperty pree peeh

rrdwreGsoftwre hysil urE roundings eopleD qroupsD oles roedures vws ht 8 ht trutures
Table 5.14

QF hevelop generl solution strtegy nd then rinstorm spei( solutionsX rolem G oE lution trtegy hisgreement ptul goneptul lue gon)it sntegrtec rdeo'c itutionl gonstrints esourecehnilcsnterest

Table 5.15

QF ss prolem one of integrting vluesD resolving disgreementsD or responding to situtionl onstrintsc QF sf the on)it omes from vlue mismthD then n it e solved y modifying one or more of the omponents of the c hih onec RF est solutionsX elterntive G est e 5I e 5P e 5Q
Table 5.16

eversiility

lueX tusE tie

lueX eE sponsiility

lueX spet

eE

rrm

gode

SF smplement solution over fesiility onstrints

IVU elterntive esoure gonE strint ime gost snterest ehnil

sndividul

yrgniztion veglG oE il

eville ehnoE logy

wnufturility

5I 5P 5Q
Table 5.17

5.3.2 Appendix
Therac Decision Point Presentation 16 [Media Object] 17 [Media Object] Therac-25 Decision Point 18 [Media Object] Therac-25 Case Summary 19 [Media Object] Free and Informed Consent, Safety, and Dimensions of Risk 20 [Media Object]

5.3.3 References

xny qF vevesonF Safeware: System Safety and ComputersF xew orkX eddisonEesley ulishing gompnyD SISESSQF xny qF veveson nd glrk F urnerF en snvestigtion of the herEPS eidentsF Computers, Ethics, and Social ValuesD tohnsonD hFqF nd xissenumD rFD edsFX RUVF xny qF veveson nd glrk F urnerF en snvestigtion of the herEPS eidentsF IEEE ComputerF PT@UAX IVERID tuly IWWQF gomputing gses wesiteF ee ove linkF wterils on se inluding interviews nd supporting doumentsF r fseF A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in ComputingF pper ddle iverD xtX rentieErllD IPSEIPWF ghuk ru'F Good Computing: A Virtue Approach to Computer EthicsF hrft for ourse gEPTQF tune PHHSF ghuk ru' nd ihrd frownF sntegrting ithis into gomputing gurriulumX e gse tudy of the herEPSF eville t gomputing gses wesiteF ee ove linkF por time line seeX httpXGGomputingsesForgGsemterilsGtherGsupportingdosGtherresouresGimelineFhtml
media object is a downloadable le. <Therac-25 Case_V3.pptx> 17 This media object is a downloadable le. <Therac-25 Case_V4.pptx> 18 This media object is a downloadable le. <Therac-25_DP.pptx> 19 This media object is a downloadable le. <Therac-25 Case_V6.pptx> 20 This media object is a downloadable le. <Therac-25 Case_V7.pptx>
16 This

Please view or download it at Please view or download it at Please view or download it at Please view or download it at Please view or download it at

IVV

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

veveson in fewre provides n exellene summry of the literture on system sfetyF por two further exellent resoures onsult the next two referenesF errowD gF @IWVRA xorml eidentsX viving with highErisk tehnologiesF fsi fooksD xDxF esonD tF @IWWHGIWWWA rumn irror gmridge niversity ressX vondonF

5.4 Toysmart Case Exercises - Student Module


HOW TO EDIT:

21

rite your module for student udieneF o omplete or edit the setions elow erse the provided textul ommentries then dd your own ontent using one or more of the following strtegiesX

- Type or paste the content directly into the appropriate section - Link to a published CNX module or an external online resource using the ``Links'' tabs (see example on the right) - Link to a document or multimedia file within the content after uploading the file using the ``Files'' tab (see example below) - Cite content not available online

Word Version of this Template

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t ` ieg u h iwveiFdob
Figure 5.3:

This is an example of an embedded link. (Go to "Files" tab to delete this le and replace it with your own les.)

5.4.1 Introduction
sn this module you will study rel world ethil prolemD the oysmrt seD nd employ frmeworks sed on the softwre development yle to @IA speify ethil nd tehnil prolemsD @PA generte solutions tht integrte ethil vlueD @QA test these solutionsD nd @RA implement them over situtionEsed onstrintsF his module will provide you with n opportunity to prtie integrting ethil onsidertions into rel world deisionEmking nd prolemEsolving in usiness nd omputingF his whole pproh is sed on n nlogy etween ethis nd design @hitekAF vrge rel world ses like oysmrt pivot round ruil deision pointsF ou will tke on the role of one of the prtiipnts in the oysmrt se nd prolemEsolve in tems from one of three deision pointsF rolemEsolving in the rel world requires perseverneD morl retivityD morl imgintionD nd resonE lenessY one pproprites these skills through prtie in di'erent ontextsF hesigning nd implementing solutions requires identifying on)iting vlues nd interestsD lning them in retive nd dynmi soluE tionsD overoming tehnil limitsD nd responding retively to rel world onstrintsF
21 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14789/1.8/>.

IVW ih deision point requires tht you tke up the position of prtiipnt in the se nd work through deisionEmking frmeworks from his or her perspetiveF ou my e tempted to k out nd dopt n evlutive posture from whih to judge the prtiipntsF esist this tempttionF his module is spei(lly designed to give you prtie in mking rel world deisionsF hese skills emerge when you role ply from one of the stndpoints within the seF ou will lern tht deisionEmking requires tking stok of one9s sitution from within lerly de(ned stndpoint nd then epting responsiility for wht rises from within tht stndpointF gses suh s oysmrt re hllenging euse of the lrge mount of informtion gthering nd sorting they requireF worl imgintion responds to this hllenge y providing di'erent frmings tht help to (lter out irrelevnt dt nd struture wht reminsF prming plys entrl role in prolem spei(tionF por exmpleD oysmrt ould e frmed s the need to develop more e'etive softwre to help negotite the exhnge of informtion onlineF sn this seD softwre progrmming expert would e rought in to improve Q progrmsF yr it ould e frmed s legl prolem tht requires mmending the fnkrupty godeF ht is importnt t this stge is tht you nd your group experiment with multiple frmings of the se round your deision pointF his mkes it possile to open up venues of solution tht would not e possile under one frmingF kling lrge ses in smll tems lso helps develop the ommunition nd ollortion skills tht re required for group workF ke time to develop strtegies for dividing the work lod mong your tem memersF he trik is to distriute eqully utD t the sme timeD to ssign tsks ording the di'erent ilities of your tem memersF ome individuls re etter t reserh while others exell in interviewing or writingF elsoD mke sure to set side time when you (nish for integrting your work with tht of your temmtesF trt y quikly reviewing the informtion ville on the seF his is lled soping the seF hen formulte spei( questions to fous further reserh on informtion relevnt to your prolem solving e'ortsF his inludes informtion pertinent to onstruting soioEtehnil nlysisD identifying key emedded ethil issuesD nd unovering existing est nd worst prtiesF e se nrrtiveD @soioEtehnil systemA desriptionD nd two ethil re)etions hve een pulished t httpXGGomputingsesForgF his module lso links to wesites on nkrupty nd privy lwD the wodel fusiness gorportion etD onsumer privy informtionD nd the e wesiteF
5.4.1.1 Toysmart Narrative

oysmrt ws hisneyEsupported ompny tht sold edutionl toys online from heemer IWWV to wy PHHHF efter disppointing ghristms sles in IWWWD hisney withdrew its (nnil supportF he gretly wekened dotEom ompny lsted less thn yer fter thisF yn wy PPD PHHHD oysmrt nnouned tht it ws losing down nd rought in onsulting (rmD he eovery qroupD to evlute its ssetsD inluding ustomer dt se of PTHDHHH pro(lesD eh worth up to 6SHHF piere opposition emerged when oysmrt pled ds in the Wall Street Journal nd the Boston Globe to sell this dt seF gustomer interest groups pointed out tht oysmrt hd promised not to shre ustomer informtion with third prtiesF oysmrt lso prominently displyed the e sel whih testi(ed further to the ompny9s oligtions to respet ustomer privy nd seurityF elling this dt to third prties would rek oysmrt promisesD violte e poliiesD nd undermine onsumer on(dene in the seurity nd privy of online trnstionsF oysmrt9s oligtions to its ustomers me into diret on)it with its (nnil oligtions to its investors nd reditorsF e reported oysmrt9s intention to sell its dt se to the pg @pederl rde gommissionA who on tuly IHD PHHH (led omplint 4seeking injuntive nd delrtory relief to prevent the sle of on(dentilD personl ustomer informtion4 @pg rtileA oysmrt9s promise never to shre ustomer ss with third prties provided the legl foundtion for this omplintF eording to the pgD oysmrt 4violted etion S of the pg et y misrepresenting to ustomers tht personl informtion would never e shred with third prtiesD then dislosingD sellingD or o'ering tht informtion for sleF4 pinllyD euse it olleted dt from hildren under IQ who entered vrious ontests o'ered on its wesiteD oysmrt ws lso ited for violting the ghildren9s ynline rivy rotetion et or gyeF

IWH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

he pg rehed settlement with oysmrtF he nkrupt dotEom must 4(le n order in the nkrupty ourt prohiiting the sle of its ustomer dt s 9stndElone sset9F sn other wordsD the rights undled in the liquidtion nd sle of oysmrt did not inlude the lierty of uyers to dispose of the sset in whtever wy they sw (tF eording to the negotited settlementD uyers were ound y the ommitments nd promises of the originl ownersF oysmrt reditors 4n sell eletroni ssets only if the purhsing ompny ided y the sme privy poliyF4 sn esseneD the pg sked oysmrt reditors to honor the spiritD if not the letterD of oysmrt9s originl promise to its ustomers not to sell their ss to third prtiesF greditors now hd to gurntee tht @IA the uyer hd the sme si vlues s oysmrt @for exmpleD ommitment to selling qulityD edutionl toysAD @PA the uyer use the dt in the sme wy tht oysmrt hd promised to use it when olleting itD nd @QA the uyer would not trnsfer the informtion to third prties without ustomer onsentF sn this wyD the settlement proposed to protet oysmrt ustomer privy interests while llowing reditors to reover their losses through the sle of the nkrupt ompny9s 4rown jewel4D its ustomer dt seF yn eugust IUD PHHHD the pederl fnkrupty gourt delined to ept the oysmrtEpg settlementF snstedD they rgued tht oysmrt nd the pg should wit to see if ny prties willing to uy the dt se would ome forwrdF he fnkrupty gourt felt tht potentil uyers would e sred o' y the pg suit nd the preEexisting oligtions reted y oysmrt promises nd e stndrdsF hould uyer ome forthD then they would evlute the uyer9s o'er in terms of the pgEoysmrt settlement designed to honor the privy nd seurity ommitments mde to oysmrt ustomersF e (nl settlement ws rehed on tnury IHD PHHIF hen uyer did not ome forwrdD fuen ist oy gompnyD hisney snternet susidiry who ws lso mjor oysmrt reditorD greed to uy the dt se for 6SHDHHH with the understnding tht it would e immeditely destroyedF he dt se ws then deleted nd 0dvits were provided to this e'etF
5.4.1.2 Toysmart Chronology Time Line

IWWU heemer IWWV

hvid vordD former ollege footll plyerD ome to work for rolt idution yutlet in lthmD wssF vord nd tn pung @ero tge gpitlA uy rolt idution yutlet nd renme it 4oysmrtF4 @vorekA oysmrt fouses on providing ustomers with ess to USDHHH toys through online tlogueF @xshelskyAF oysmrt turns down PS million o'er from n investment (rmF eepts hisney o'er of PH million in sh nd PS million in dvertisingD oysmrt post privy poliy whih promises not to relese informtion olleted on ustomers to third prtiesF et out this timeD oysmrt reeives perE mission from e to disply its sel ertifying thtoysmrt hs dopted e proedures for proteting privy nd mintining informtion seE urityF
continued on next page

eugust IWWW

eptemer IWWW

IWI ghristms IWWW epril PHHH efter disppointing ghristms toy slesD hisney withdrws its support from oysmrtF gye goes into e'etF @ghildhood ynline riE vy rotetion etA rohiits soliiting informE tion from hildren under IQ without prentl onE sentF oysmrt erses ISHH to PHHH ustomer pro(les from dt se to omply with gye @informE tion olleted fter lw went into e'etA oysmrt nnounes tht it is losing its opertions nd selling its ssetsF sts initil intention is to reorE gnize nd strt overF oysmrt reditors (le n involuntry nkrupty petition rejeting oysmrt proposl to reorgnizeF hey petition the FF rustee to form greditors gommittee to oversee the liquidtion of oysmrt ssetsF oysmrt onsents to involuntry nkrupty petiE tionF piles ghpter II nkruptyF st rejets reorE gniztion nd works with lwyers nd the eovE ery qroup to liquidte its ssetsF eovery qroup nlyzes oysmrt ssets nd idenE ti(es its ustomer informtion dt se s one of its most vlule ssets @ 4rown jewel4A hisney susidiryD ting s oysmrt reditorD ples ds in Wall Street Journal nd Boston Globe o'er oysmrt ustomer dt se for sleF e disovers oysmrt dF snforms pg @pederl rde gommissionA tht selling of usE tomer dt se to third prties violtes e guidelines nd violtes oysmrt9s promises to usE tomers@IQDPA pg (les omplint ginst oysmrt 4seeking inE juntive nd delrtory relief to prevent the sle of on(dentilD personl ustomer informtionF4 hisE trit ttorneys of RI sttes lso prtiipte in omE plint ginst oysmrtF
continued on next page

tune PHHH @pproximtelyA

wy PPD PHHH

tune WD PHHH

tune PQD PHHH

tune PHHH

tune WD PHHH

efter tune WD PHHH

tuly IHD PHHH

IWP tuly PUD PHHH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

rering y FF fnkrupty gourt on oysmrt seF snludes oysmrt proposl to sell ustomer dt seF pg nd oysmrt reh settlementF oysmrt n only sell ustomer informtion to third prt who shres oysmrt vlues nd grees to rry out sme privy poliy s oysmrtF pederl nkrupty ourt rejets pg nd oysE mrt settlementF uggests witing to see if uyer omes forthF lt hisney snternet susidiry @fuen ist oy gompnycA pys oysmrt 6SHDHHH for its dt seF oysmrt then destroys the dt se nd provides on(rming 0dvitF@IVDPA
Table 5.18

vte tuly PHHH

vte tuly PHHH

tnury IHD PHHI

X ghronology of oysmrt gse

snsert prgrph text hereF


5.4.1.3 Supporting Documents and Tables Toysmart Creditors Creditor Zero Stage Capital Citibank Arnold Communications Children's Television Workshop Data Connections Description Debt Impact

enture gpitl pirm

R million R million PFS million IFQ million

et up high speed E le nd (er optis for oysmrt et up pkging nd hndling system for oysmrt oftwre usiness

VSDHHH

ht gonnetions took out lon to keep solvent equires dotEoms to py up front fter oysE mrt experiene 4st puts us in jeoprdy s well4
continued on next page

Integrated Handling Concepts Blackstone

RHDHHH

RSDHHH

IWQ
PAN tions Communica-

4uli reltions geny speilizing in eEusiness4

IUIDQWH

urns down dels with dotEom ompnies nd requires upEfront pyE ments

Table 5.19

X oure vorek

snsert prgrph text hereF


5.4.1.4 Intermediate Moral Concept: Informed Consent Concept and Denition

Informed ConsentX he risk erer onsents to tking on the risk on the sis of omplete underE stnding of its nture nd redthF Belmont ReportX 4sujetsD to the degree tht they re pleD e given the opportunity to hoose wht shll or shll not hppen to themF4 4his opportunity is provided when dequte stndrds for informed onsent re stis(edF4 uotes tke from felmont eport
Arguments for Free and Informed Consent as a Moral Right

pree nd informed onsent is essential for the exerise of morl utonomyF esene implies foreD frudD or mnipultion ll of whih lok the exerise of morl utonomyF he standard threat ours when ruil risk informtion is not ommunited to risk tkerF his ould e euse the risk tker nnot ppreite the riskD euse the mode of ommunition is indequteD or euse the informtion hs een overed upF qiven this stndrd thretD free nd informed onsent is vulnerableY it must e protetedF snformed onsent must e shped round its fesiilityD tht isD the ility of the duty holder to reognize nd respet this right in othersF sf privte individuls exerise their right s vetoD then they n lok soilly ene(il projetsF here re lso serious prolems onerning hildrenD mentlly hllenged dultsD nd future genertionsF pinllyD it my not e possile or fesile to know ll risks in dvneF
Conditions for Recognizing and Respecting Right

prom Belmont Report InformationX reserh proedureD their purposesD risks nd ntiipted ene(tsD lterntive proedures @where therpy is involvedAD nd sttement o'ering the sujet the opportunity to sk questions nd to withdrw t ny time from the reserhF ComprehensionX mnner nd ontext in whih informtion is onveyed is s importnt s the inforE mtion itselfF VoluntarinessX n greement to prtiipte in reserh onstitutes vlid onsent only if voluntrily givenF his element of informed onsent requires onditions free of oerion nd undue in)ueneF
Other Legal and Moral Frameworks

snstitutionl eserh fords or sfs now require doumenttion of informed onsent on reserh projets rried out under the university9s uspiiesF his is in response to requirements y grnting genies suh s the xtionl snstitute for relth nd the xtionl iene poundtionF Consenting to the transfer of PII (personal identifying information) onlineXoptEin nd optE outF Opt-inX snformtion is trnsferred only upon otining express onsentF hefult is not trnsferring informtionF

IWR

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Opt-inX snformtion trnsfer is hlted only when person to whom informtion pplies does something positiveD iFeFD refuses to onsent to trnsferF hefult is on trnsferring the informtionF Liability Rules and Property RulesX hese lso hve to do with onsentF go' mkes this distintion with referene to tivities tht hve n impt on the environmentF n injuntion referring to liility rules stops the tivity to protet the individul who proves imptF roperty rules require only tht the produer of the environmentl impt ompenste the one who su'ers the imptF
Cases Employing Informed Consent

Therac-25X tients reeiving rdition therpy should e mde wre of the risks involved with tretment y the mhineF pree nd informed onsent is involved when shutting down the mhines to investigte ident reports or ontinuing operting the mhines while investigting ident reportsF sn oth sesD it is neessryD under this rightD to let ptients know wht is going on nd their risksF Toysmart CaseX oysmrt reditors re out to violte oysmrt9s promise not to trnsfer ustomer informtion pro(les to third prtiesF his trnsfer n ourD morllyD ut only with the express onsent of the ustomers who hve provided the informtionF he devil is in the detilsF ho optEin or optEout proedures est reognize nd respet free nd informed onsent in this sec Hughes CaseX rughes ustomers wnt their hips right wy nd re pressuring i nd rowd to deliver themF ould they onsent to renegotiting the onditions under whih environmentl tests n e skippedc

5.4.2 What you need to know . . .


5.4.2.1 What you need to know about socio-technical systems 1. STS have seven broad components: hardware, software, physical surroundings, people/groups/roles, procedures, laws, and data/data structures. 2. Socio-technical systems embody values

hese inlude morl vlues like sfetyD privyD propertyD free speehD equity nd essD nd seurityF xonEmorl vlues n lso e relized in nd through oio ehnil ystems suh s e0ienyD ostE e'etivenessD ontrolD sustinilityD reliilityD nd stilityF worl vlues present in oio ehnil ystems n on)it with other emedded morl vluesY for exmpleD privy often on)its with free speehF xonEmorl vlues n on)it with morl vluesY developing sfe system requires time nd moneyF endD nonEmorl vlues n on)itY reliility undermines e0ieny nd ost e'etivenessF his leds to three prolems tht ome from di'erent vlue on)its within oio ehnil ystems nd etween these systems nd the tehnologies tht re eing integrted into themF wismthes often rise etween the vlues emedded in tehnologies nd the oio ehnil ysE tems into whih they re eing integrtedF es xs ws integrted into the niversity of gliforni edemi gomputing @see whdo se t gomputing gsesAD the vlues of openness nd trnsE preny designed into xs lshed with the needs of students in the edemi gomputing t gs for privyF ehnologies eing integrted into oio ehnil ystems n mgnifyD exggerteD or exerte existing vlue mismthes in the F he use of P softwre omined with the ese of digitl opying hs mgni(ed existing on)its onerning musi nd piture opyrightsF sntegrting tehnologies into s produes oth immedite nd remote onsequenes nd imptsF
3. Socio-technical systems change

hese hnges re ought outD in prtD y the vlue mismthes desried oveF et other timesD they result from ompeting needs nd interests rought forth y di'erent stkeholdersF por exmpleD iyle designsD the on(gurtion of typewriter keysD nd the design nd uses of ellulr phones hve hnged s di'erent users hve dpted these tehnologies to their speil requirementsF

IWS

hese hnges lso exhiit wht soiologists ll trjetoryD tht isD pth of developmentF rE jetories themselves re sujet to normtive nlysisF por exmpleD some s nd the tehnologies integrted into them disply line of development where the nd the integrted tehnology re hnged nd redesigned to support ertin soil interestsF he informting pities of omputing systemsD for exmpleD provide informtion whih n e used to improve mnufturing proesses n or to monitor workers for enhning mngement powerF @ee hoshnn uo'D The Age of rjetoriesD thusD outline the development of s nd tehnologies s these re in)uened y internl nd externl soil foresF
sn this setionD you will lern out this module9s exerisesF he required links ove provide informtion on the frmeworks used in eh setionF por exmpleD the oioEehnil ystem module provides kground informtion on soioEtehnil nlysisF he 4hree prmeworks4 module provides further desription of the ethis testsD their pitfllsD nd the fesiility testF hese exerises will provide step y step instrutions on how to work through the deision points presented oveF
For more information see Hu and Jawer below. Decision Point One: the Smart Machine

ou re hvid vordD former employee of rolt idutionl yutletD mnufturer of edutionl toys loted in lthmD wssF eentlyD you hve joined with tn pung of ero tge gpitlD venture pitl (rm to uy out rolt idutionl yutlineF efter hnging its nme to oysmrtD you nd pung pln to trnsform this rik nd mortr mnufturer of edutionl toys into n online (rm tht will link ustomers to vst tlogue of edutionlD high qulity toysF hesigning wesite to drw in toy ustomersD linking to informtion on ville toysD setting up toy distriution nd shipping systemD nd implementing fetures tht llow for sfe nd seure online toy purhses will require onsiderle (nningF futD riding the rest of the dotEom oomD you hve two promising optionsF pirstD venture pitl (rm hs o'ered you 6PHDHHHDHHH for wesite developmentD puliityD nd other serviesF eondD hisney hs o'ered the sme mount for (nningD ut hs dded to it n dditionl 6PSDHHHDHHH in dvertising supportF hisney hs formidle reputtion in this mrketD reputtion whih you n use to trmpoline oysmrt into prominene in the growing mrket in edutionl toysF roweverD hisney lso hs reputtion of miroEmnging its prtnersF hevelop pln for (nning your new dotEomF
Things to consider in your decision-making:

IF ht re oysmrt vluesc ht re hisney vluesc ould hisney respet oysmrt9s vluesc PF ht synergies ould result from working with hisneyc por exmpleD ould you shre informtion on ustomersc ou ould feed your ustomer pro(les to hisney in exhnge for their ustomer pro(lesF ht kind of dt mnging tehnology would e required for thisc ht ethil prolems ould rise from trnsferring ustomer identifying informtion to third prtiesc QF ht kind of ommitment would you e willing to mke to hisney in terms of produt nd slesc row should hisney reiprotec por exmpleD how long should they stik with you through sles tht fll short of projetionsc
Decision Point Two:

ou work for flkstoneD 4n IVEperson softwre usinessF4 ou hve een sked y oysmrt to provide softwre the following funtionsX @IA designing wepge tht would ttrt ustomers nd ommunite oysmrt luesD @PA dvise oysmrt on its privy nd dt seurity poliy inluding whether to register with n online trustD seurity mesures to protet ustomer dt during online trnstionsD nd mesures to prevent unuthorized ess to ustomer dt while storedD nd @QA omprehensive online tlogue tht would provide ustomers with ess to edutionl toys from vriety of smll usines mnufturersF en exmple of smll toy mnufturers to whih oysmrt should e linked is frio gorportion whih mnuftures wooden toys suh s loksD trinsD nd truksF hevelop generl reommendtions for oysmrt round these three resF snformtion for this senrio omes from vur vorekD 4hen oysmrt frokeD4 httpXGGwwwFzdnetFomGeweekGstoriesGgenerlGHDIIHIDPTIPWTPDHHFhtmlF eessed tuly ITD PHHIF

IWT
Things to consider in your decision-making

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

oysmrt is firly new dotEomF hile it is supported y hisneyD it is still risky ventureF hould you sk them for dvne pyment for whtever servies you renderc ht kind of poliies does your ompny hve for identifying nd ssessing (nnil riskc ht kind of privy nd dt seurity poliy should you reommend to oysmrtc ht kind of vlues ome into on)it when ompny like oysmrt develops nd implements privy nd dt seurity mesuresc @se your desription to nswer this questionFA hould oysmrt eome nkruptD their dt se would turn into vlule ssetF ht reomE mendtions should you mke to help oysmrt pln round this possiilityc ht vlues ome into on)it when plnning to dispose of ssets during nkrupty proeedingsc ht kind of oligtions does ompny tke on during its opertion tht ontinue even fter it hs eome nkruptc sing the link provided with this moduleD visit the e wesite nd (nd its white pper on developing privy poliyF ivlute this privy poliy for oysmrtF ht ene(ts n strong privy poliy ring to dotEomc hould oysmrt work to qulify to disply the e sel on its wesitec ixmine e proedures for trnsferring on(dentil ustomer ss to third prtiesc ht oligtions will this retec ould this overEonstrin oysmrtc
Decision Point Three:

ou work for ex gommunitions nd hve een providing dvertising servies for oysmrtF xow you (nd out tht oysmrt hs (led ghpter II nkruptyD nd it hs n outstnding det to your ompny for 6IUIDQWHF es prt of this (ling proedureD oysmrt hs reported its ssets t 6IHDSHHDHHH with dets of 6PWDHHHDHHHF oysmrt reditorsD inluding ex gommunitionsD hve petitioned the y0e of the nited ttes rustee for 4greditors9 gommittee oliittion pormF4 his will llow for the formtion of ommittee omposed of oysmrt reditors who deide on how the ssets of the nkrupt (rm will e distriutedF ouD euse of your knowledge of nkrupty nd ounting proeduresD hve een sked to represent your ompny on this ommitteeF his lek sitution is somewht remedied y the ustomer dt se tht oysmrt ompiled during its opertionF st ontins pro(les of the ss @personl identifying informtionA of PTHDHHH individulsF feuse selling edutionl toys is pro(tleD there is good hne tht this dt se ould e sold for up to 6SHH pro(le to third prtyF hould you reommend selling this dt sec hould oysmrt ustomers e noti(ed of the pending trnsfer of their ss ndD if soD how should they e noti(edc
Here are some constraints that outline your decision

es memer of the greditors9 gommitteeD you hve (duiry duty to oysmrt reditors in workE ing to distriute firly the remining oysmrt ssetsF his wouldD ll things eing equlD led to reommending selling the oysmrt ustomer dt se here re some provisions in the nkrupty ode tht my require or llow overriding (duiry duties given prior legl ommitments mde y oysmrtF hese ommitmentsD in the form of strong privy gurntees mde to ustomers y oysmrt on its wepgeD my onstitute n 4exeutory ontrtF4 ee the vegl ril tle in the oysmrt se nrrtive nd lso vrren wF xshelskyD 4ynEvine rivy gollides ith fnkrupty greditorsD4 xew ork vw tournlD xew ork vw ulishing gompnyD eugust PVD PHHHF pinllyD xshelsky mkes n interesting rgumentF hile deontologil onsidertions would require setting side reditor interests nd honoring oysmrt privy promisesD justieEsed rgument would reommend ompromiseF fnkrupty proeedings strt from the ft tht hrm @(nnilA hs een doneF gonsequentlyD the importnt justie onsidertion is to distriute firly the hrms involved mong the hrmed prtiesF rrm distriutions re orrelted with ene(t distriutionsF feuse oysmrt ustomers ene(ted from oysmrt o'eringsD they should lso er shre of the hrms produed when the ompny goes nkruptF his requires tht they llow the distriution of their ss under ertin onditionsF
Things to consider in your decision-making

IWU

row do you lne your oligtions to ex with those to other oysmrt reditors s memer of the greditors9 gommitteec row should you pproh the on)it etween honoring oysmrt promises nd rrying out greditor gommittee (duiry dutiesc ho you gree with xshelsky9s rgument hrterized ovec hould the fnkrupty gode e hnged to re)et issues suh s thesec hould privy promises e onsidered n exeutory ontrt tht overrides the duty to firly nd exhustively distriute ompny9s ssetsc pinllyD wht do you think out the pg9s reommendtionc he fnkrupty gourt9s responsec he (nl ommodtion etween oysmrt nd fuen ist oy gompnyc

5.4.3 What you will do ...


sn this setionD you will lern out this module9s exerisesF he required links ove provide informtion on the frmeworks used in eh setionF por exmpleD the oioEehnil ystem module provides kground informtion on soioEtehnil nlysisF he 4hree prmeworks4 module provides further desription of the ethis testsD their pitfllsD nd the fesiility testF hese exerises will provide step y step instrutions on how to work through the deision points presented oveF

5.4.4 Exercise One: Problem Specication


sn this exeriseD you will speify the prolem using soioEtehnil nlysisF he setion of the oysmrt gse nrrtive @found t gomputing gsesA provides good strting pointF sn the (rst tleD enter the informtion from the oysmrt se mterils pertinent to the generl omponents of D its hrdwreD softwreD physil surroundingsD peopleGgroupsGrolesD proeduresD lwsD dtF ome exmples tken from the desription t gomputing gses re provided to get you strtedF henD using the seond tleD identify the vlues tht re emedded in the di'erent omponents of the F por exmpleD sg @pltforms for internet ontent seletionA emody the vlues of seurity nd privyF pinllyD using the dt from your soioEtehnil nlysisD formulte onise prolem sttementF
Exercise 1a:

ed the soioEtehnil system nlysis of the oysmrt se t httpXGGomputingsesForgF pill in the tle elow with elements from this nlysis tht pertin to your deision pointF
Socio-Technical System Table

rrdwre

oftwre

hysil urroundE ings gyer pe

eopleGqroupsGoles roedures

vwsD godesD egultions gye

ht nd ht truE tures oysmrt gustomer ht fse

rolt iduE tion yutlet

ltforms for snternet gontent eletion

oysmrt the orporE tion

fuying oys ynline

Table 5.20

Instructions for Table 1:

IF qo to httpXGGomputingsesForg nd review the desription provided for the oysmrt seF PF ull out the elements of the desription tht re relevnt to your deision pointF vist them under the pproprite omponent in the ove tleF QF hink out possile wys in whih these omponents of the oysmrt intertF por exmpleD wht kinds of legl restritions govern the wy dt is olletedD storedD nd dissemintedc

IWV

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

RF hevelop your tle with n eye to doumenting possile ethil on)its tht n rise nd re relevnt to your deision pointF
Values Embedded by Relevant Software

IWW
Software / Embedded Value PICS (Platforms for Internet Content Selection) (Platforms for Privacy Preferences) SSLs (Secured Socket Layers) that encrypt pages asking for SS numbers

Security

imodies privy nd seurity y (ltering oE jetionle dtF eE urity seleted over free speehF imodies privy nd seurity y (ltering oE jetionle dtF eE urity seleted over free speehF

sntegrtes property with seurity nd privy y onverting informtion into propertyF sntegrtes property nd seurity y (ltering oE jetionle dtF eE urity seleted over free speehF sntegrtes property with seurity nd privy y onverting informtion into property

elizes G supports seE urity y seling o' doE mins of informtionF

Privacy

elizes nd supports privy y seling o' domins of informtionF

Property

elizes nd supports property y restriting ess @intelletul property proteted y exluding nonE uthorized essF estrits essF

Free Speech

snterferes with free speeh y (ltering onE tentF gontent n e (ltered with reipient9s wrenessF gould e used to restrit ess to ides y (lterE ing idesF hus it ould ut o' )ow of informE tion into the intelletul ommonsF

pilittes y perE mitting informtion exhnge on model of property exhngeF fut this limits exhnge y ssigning it prieF pilittes y perE mitting informtion exhnge on model of property exhngeF fut this limits exhnge y ssigning it prieF

Justice (Equity and Access)

feuse it restrits E ess to dominD it n e used to redue or ut o' )ow of informE tion into the intelletul ommonsF

Table 5.21

X lues emedded in key softwre omponents in the oysmrt seF imphsis on mhineGsoftwre negotition for privy preferenes in snternet trnstionsF

Exercise 1b

ixmine the vlues emedded in the surrounding this deision pointF vote your vlues under the pproprite omponent in the oysmrt F por exmpleD ording to the desription for oysmrt found t gomputing gsesD the softwre progrms prominent in this se emody ertin vluesY vs emody seurity nd privyD Q propertyD nd sg privyF xextD look for res where key vlues n ome into on)itF
Value Table

PHH rrdwre oftwre hysil urroundE ings

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

eopleGqroupsGoles roedures

vwsGgodesGegultions htGht trutures

eurity rivy roperty tustie @iqE uityGeessA pree peey


Table 5.22

Instructions for Table 2:

IF his module links to nother gonnexions moduleD oioEehnil ystems in rofessionl heisionE wkingF here you will (nd short pro(les of the vlues listed in the ove tleX seurityD privyD propertyD justieD nd free speehF hese pro(les will help you to hrterize the vlues listed in the ove tleF PF he seond ethil re)etion in the oysmrt se nrrtive @t gomputing gsesA lso ontins disussion of how property omes into on)it with privyF QF sdentify those omponents of the oysmrt tht emody or emed vlueF por exmpleD list the vlues relized nd frustrted y the softwre omponents disussed in the oysmrt se in the desriptionF RF vook for wys in whih di'erent elements of the tht emed vlue n intert nd produe vlue on)itsF hese on)its re likely soures for prolems tht you should disuss in your prolem sttement nd ddress in your solutionF
Exercise 1c:

rite out the requirements @ethil nd prtilA for good solutionF sdentify the prts of the tht need hngingF henD develop onise summry sttement of the entrl prolem your deision point risesF es you design solutions to this prolemD you my wnt to revise this prolem sttementF fe sure to experiment with di'erent wys of frming this prolemF
Harris, Pritchard, and Rabins provide a useful approach to problem specication. See references below.

5.4.5 Exercise Two: Solution Generation


Generate solutions to the problem(s) you have specied in Exercise 1. This requires that...

eh memer of your group develop list of solutionsD the group omines these individul lists into group listD ndFFF the group redues this preliminry list to mngele numer of re(ned nd lri(ed solutions for testing in the next stgeF
Helpful Hints for Solution Generation 1. Solution generation requires prociency in the skills of moral imagination and moral creativity.

worl imgintion is the ility to open up venues of solution y frming prolem in di'erent wysF oysmrt ould e frmed s tehnil prolem requiring prolemEsolving skills tht integrte ethil

PHI onsidertions into innovtive designsF worl retivity is the ility to formulte nonEovious solutions tht integrte ethil onsidertions over vrious situtionl onstrintsF
2. Problems can be formulated as interest conicts. In this case dierent solution options are available.

Gather Information. wny disgreements n e resolved y gthering more informtionF feuse this is the esiest nd lest pinful wy of rehing onsensusD it is lmost lwys est to strt hereF qthering informtion my not e possile euse of di'erent onstrintsX there my not e enough timeD the fts my e too expensive to gtherD or the informtion required goes eyond sienti( or tehnil knowledgeF ometimes gthering more informtion does not solve the prolem ut llows for newD more fruitful formultion of the prolemF rrrisD rithrdD nd ins in ingineering ithisX gonepts nd gses show how solving ftul disgreement llows more profound oneptul disgreement to emergeF Nolo Contendere. xolo gontendere is ltin for not opposing or ontendingF our interests my on)it with your supervisor ut he or she my e too powerful to reson with or opposeF o your only hoie here is to give in to his or her interestsF he prolem with nolo ontendere is tht nonEopposition is often tken s greementF ou my need to doument @eFgFD through memosA tht you disgree with ourse of tion nd tht your hoosing not to oppose does not indite greementF Negotiate. qood ommunition nd diplomti skills my mke it possile to negotite solution tht respets the di'erent interestsF lue integrtive solutions re designed to integrte on)iting vluesF gompromises llow for prtil reliztion of the on)iting interestsF @ee the moduleD The Ethics of Team WorkD for ompromise strtegies suh s logrolling or ridgingFA ometimes it my e neessry to set side one9s interests for the present with the understnding tht these will e tken re of t lter timeF his requires trustF Oppose. sf nolo ontendere nd negotition re not possileD then opposition my e neessryF ypposition requires mrshlling evidene to doument one9s position persusively nd imprtillyF st mkes use of strtegies suh s leding n 4orgniztionl hrge4 or 4lowing the whistleF4 por more on whistleElowing onsult the disussion of whistle lowing in the rughes se tht n e found t omputing sesF Exit. ypposition my not e possile if one lks orgniztionl power or doumented evideneF xolo ontendere will not su0e if nonEopposition implites one in wrongdoingF xegotition will not sueed without neessry sis of trust or serious vlue integrtive solutionF As a last resort, one my hve to exit from the sitution y sking for ressignment or resigningF
3. Solutions can be generated by readjusting dierent components of the STS.

Technical Puzzle. sf the prolem is frmed s tehnil puzzleD then solutions would revolve round developing designs tht optimize oth ethil nd tehnil spei(tionsD tht isD resolve the tehnil issues nd relize ethil vlueF sn this instneD the prolemEsolver must onentrte on the hrdwre nd softwre omponents of the F Social Problem. sf the prolem is frmed s soil prolemD then solutions would revolve round hnging lws or ringing out systemi reform through politil tionF his would led one to fous on the peopleGgroupsGroles omponent @working to soil prtiesA or the legl omponentF Stakeholder Conict. sf the prolem is frmed s on)it etween di'erent stkeholder interestsD then the solution would onentrte on getting stkeholders @oth individuls nd groupsA to gree on integrtive or interest ompromising solutionsF his requires onentrting on the peopleGgroupGrole omponent of the F @xoteX e stkeholder is ny group or individul with vitl interest t ply in the situtionFA Management Problem. pinllyD if the prolem is frmed s mngement prolemD then the solution would revolve round hnging n orgniztion9s proeduresF elong these linesD it would ddress the @IA fundmentl golsD @PA deision reognition proeduresD @QA orgniztionl rolesD or @RA deisionEmking hierrhy of the orgniztionF hese re the four omponents of the gsh @orporte internl deisionA struture desried in the ithil e)etions setion of the oysmrt seF

PHP

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Nota Bene: pinnil issues re overed y the fesiility test in the solution implementtion stgeF es suhD they pose side issues or onstrints tht do not enter into the solution genertion phse ut the solution implementtion phseF
4. Brainstorming. Moral creativity, which involves designing non-obvious solutions, forms an essential part of solution generation. Here are some guidelines to get you started.

sndividully mke out list of solutions efore the group meetingF ork quikly to relize preE estlished quot of (ve to ten solutionsF efter omposing quik (rst drftD revise the list for lrity onlyY mke no sustntil hngesF trt the group rinstorming proess y hving the group review nd ssemle ll the individul solutionsF ho this quikly nd without ritiismF feginning ritiism t this stge will kill the retivity neessry for rinstorming nd shut down the more timid @ut retiveA memers of the groupF eview the list nd identify solutions tht re identil or overlpF fegin the re(ning proess y omining these solutionsF rving reviewed ll the rinstormed solutionsD it is now time to ring in ritiismF fegin y eliminting solutions with mjor ethil prolems suh s those tht violte rightsD produe injustiesD or use extensive hrmF sdentify ut do not eliminte solutions tht re ethil ut rise serious prtil prolemsF ho not initilly eliminte n ethil solution euse there re ostles stnding in the wy of its impleE menttionF fe desriptiveF sdentify nd imprtilly desrie the ostlesF vterD in the solution implementtion stgeD you my e le to design retive responses to these ostlesF sdentify solutions tht do not 4(t4 your prolem sttementF hese require deisionF ou n throw out the solution euse it does not solve the prolem or you n hnge the prolemF sf solution does not (t the prolem utD intuitivelyD seems goodD this is sign tht you need to tke nother look t your prolem sttementF hon9t utomtilly rejet prtil solutionsF por exmpleD sending memos through emil rther thn printing them out nd wsting pper my not solve the entire reyling prolem for your ompnyF fut it represents goodD prtil solution tht n e omined with other prtil solutions to ddress the igger prolemF hrough these di'erent mesuresD you will grdully integrte ritiism into your rinstorming proE essF his will filitte working towrd mngeleD re(ned list of solutions for testing in the next stgeF
Exercise 3: Develop a Solution List

rve eh memer of your tem prepre solution list nd ring it to the next group meetingF et quot for this individul listD syD S to IH solutionsF repre group list out of the lists of the individul memersF ork to omine similr solutionsF fe sure to set side ritiism until the preliminry group list is ompleteF wke use of the following tleF e(ne the group list into mngele numer of solutions for testing in the next stgeF gomine overlpping solutionsF iliminte solutions tht do not respond to the requirements nd the prolem sttement tht you prepred in the previous exeriseF iliminte solutions tht violte importnt ethil onsidertionsD iFeFD solutions tht violte rightsD produe hrmsD etF ghek your re(ned solution list with your prolem sttementF sf they do not mthD eliminte the solution or rede(ne the prolem

PHQ
Rened Brainstorm List

olution nking fest olution eond fest olution hird fest olution pourth fest olution pifth fest olution

hesription of olution

tusti(tion @(ts requirementsD (ts prolemA

Table 5.23

Anthony Weston provides an illuminating and useful discussion of creative problem solving in the reference provided below.

5.4.6 Exercise Three: Solution Testing


sn this setionD you will test the solutions on the re(ned list your group produed in the previous exeriseF hree ethis testsD desried elowD will help you to integrte ethil onsidertions in the prolemEsolving proessF e glol fesiility test will help to identify solutions with serious prtil prolemsF pinllyD olution ivlution wtrix summrizes the results for lss derie(ngsF
Setting up for the test.

sdentify the gent perspetive from whih the deision will e mde hesrie the tion s onisely nd lerly s possileF sdentify the stkeholders surrounding the deisionD iFeFD those who will su'er strong impts @positively or negtivelyA from the implementtion of your deisionF tkeholders hve vitl or essentil interest @rightD goodD moneyD etA in ply with this deisionF sn the hrmGene(ene testD identify the likely results of the tion nd sort these into hrms nd ene(tsF por the reversiility testD identify the stkeholders with whom you will reverse positionsF por the puli identi(tion testD identify the vluesD virtuesD or vies your tion emodiesF essoite these with the hrter of the gentF
Harm/Benecence Test

IF What are the harms your solution is likely to produce? What are its benets? Does this PF
solution produce the least harms and the most benets when compared to the available alternatives? PitfallToo much. sn this 4rlysis of enlysis4 one ftor in too mny onsequenesF o void

the flly restrit the nlysis to the most likely onsequenes with the gretest mgnitude @wgnitude indites the rnge nd severity of imptAF QF PitfallToo Little. e ised or inomplete nlysis results when signi(nt impts re overlookedF ke time to unover ll the signi(nt imptsD oth in terms of likelihood nd in terms of mgnitudeF RF PitfallDistribution of Impacts. gonsiderD not only the overll lne of hrms nd ene(ts ut lso how hrms nd ene(ts re distriuted mong the stkeholdersF sf they re eqully or firly distriutedD then this ounts in the solution9s fvorF sf they re uneqully or unfirly distriutedD then this ounts ginst the solutionF fe redy to redesign the solution to distriute etter @amore equitly or firlyA the hrmful nd ene(il resultsF
Reversibility Test

PHR

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

IF Would this solution alternative be acceptable to those who stand to be most aected by PF
it? To answer this question, change places with those who are targeted by the action and ask if from this new perspective whether the action is still acceptable? PitfallToo much. hen reversing with ritlerD morl tion ppers immorl nd n immorl

QF RF

SF

TF

tion ppers morlF he prolem here is tht the gent who projets into the immorl stndpoint loses his or her morl eringsF he reversiility test requires viewing the tion from the stndpoint of its di'erent trgetsF fut understnding the tion from di'erent stkeholder views does not require tht one ndon himself or herself to these viewsF PitfallToo little. sn this pitfllD morl imgintion flls shortD nd the gent fils to view the tion from nother stkeholder stndpointF he key in the reversiility test is to (nd the middle ground etween too muh immersion in the viewpoint of nother nd too littleF PitfallReducing Reversibility to Harm/Benecence. he reversiility test requires tht one ssess the impts of the tion under onsidertion on othersF fut it is more thn simple listing of the onsequenes of the tionF hese re viewed from the stndpoint of di'erent stkeholdersF he reversiility test lso goes eyond onsidering impts to onsidering whether the tion trets di'erent stkeholders respetfullyF his espeilly holds when the gent disgrees with stkeholderF sn these disgreementsD it is importnt to work out wht it mens to disgree with nother respetfullyF PitfallIncomplete survey of stakeholders. veving out signi(nt stkeholder perspetives skews the results of the reversiility testF fuilding n exellent deth hmer works when one onsiders the tion from the stndpoint of ritlerY fter llD it9s wht he wntsF fut treting n individul with respet does not require pitulting to his or her desiresD espeilly when these re immorlF end onsidering the tion from the stndpoint of other stkeholders @sy the possile vitims of newerD more e0ient gs hmersA rings out new nd rdilly di'erent informtionF PitfallNot Weighing and Balancing Stakeholder Positions. his pitfll is ontinuous with the previous oneF hi'erent stkeholders hve di'erent interests nd view events from unique perspetivesF he reversiility test requires reviewing these interests nd perspetivesD weighing them ginst one notherD nd lning out their di'erenes nd on)its in n overllD glol ssessmentF

Publicity (or Public Identication) Test

IF Would you want to be publicly associated or identied with this action? In other words,
assume that you will be judged as a person by others in terms of the moral values expressed in the action under consideration. Does this accord with how you would want to or aspire to be judged? PitfallFailure to association action with character of agent. sn the puliity testD the

PF

spotlight of nlysis moves from the tion to the gentF uessfully rrying out this test requires identifying the gentD desriing the tionD nd ssoiting the gent with the tionF he morl qulities exhiited in the tion re seen s expressing the morl hrter of the gentF he puliity testD thusD rests on the ide tht n gent9s responsile tions rise from nd express his or her hrterF QF PitfallFailure to appreciate the moral color of the action. he puliity test ssumes tht tions re olored y the ends or goods they pursueF his mens tht tions re morlly oloredF hey n express responsiility or irresponsiilityD ourge or owrdieD resonleness or unresonlenessD honesty or dishonestyD integrity or orrputionD loylty or etrylD nd so forthF en nlysis n go stry y filing to ring out the morl qulity @or qulitiesA tht n tion expressesF RF PitfallReducing Publicity to Harm/Benecence Test. snsted of sking wht the tion sys out the gentD mny redue this test to onsidering the onsequenes of puliizing the tionF o one might rgue tht n tion is wrong euse it dmges the reputtion of the gent or some other stkeholderF fut this doesn9t go deep enoughF he puliity test requiresD not tht one lulte the onsequenes of wideEspred knowledge of the tion under onsidertionD ut tht one drws from the tion the informtion it revels out the hrter of the gentF he onsequenes of d puliity re overed y the hrmGene(ene test nd do not need to e repeted in the puli identi(tion

PHS testF he puliity test provides new informtion y turning from the tion to the gentF st fouses on wht the tion @its morl qulities nd the goods it seeksA sys out the gentF
Comparing the Test Results: Meta-Tests

IF he ethis tests will not lwys onverge on the sme solution euse eh test @nd the ethil theories it enpsultesA overs di'erent dimension of the tionX @IA hrmGene(ene looks t the outomes or onsequenes of the tionD @PA reversiility fouses on the forml hrteristis of the tionD nd @QA puliity zeros in on the morl hrter of the gentF PF he metEtests turn this surfe disgreement into n dvntgeF he onvergene or divergene etween the ethis tests eome inditors of solution strength nd weknessF QF Convergence. hen the ethis tests onverge on given solutionD this indites solution strength nd roustnessF RF Divergence. hen tests diverge on solution" solution does well under one test ut poorly under nother"this signi(es tht it needs further development nd revisionF est divergene is not sign tht one test is relevnt while the others re notF hivergene indites solution wekness nd is ll to modify the solution to mke it strongerF
Exercise 3: Summarize your results in a Solution Evaluation Matrix

IF le test results in the pproprite ellF PF edd verl explntion to the iw tleF QF gonlude with glol fesiility test tht sksD simplyD whether or not there exist signi(nt ostles to the implementtion of the solution in the rel worldF RF pinish y looking t how the tests onverge on given solutionF gonvergene indites solution strengthY divergene signls solution weknessF
Solution Evaluation Matrix

olutionGest pirst olution eond olution hird olution pourth olution pifth olution

rrmGfene(ene

eversiility

uliity @puli identi(tionA

pesiility

Table 5.24

The ethics tests are discussed in Cruz and Davis. See references below. Wike and Brincat also discuss value based approaches in the two references below.

5.4.7 Exercise Four: Solution Implementation


sn this setionD you will trouleEshoot the solution implementtion proess y unovering nd defusing potentil ostlesF hese n e identi(ed y looking t the onstrints tht order the tionF elthough onstrints speify limits to wht n e relized in given situtionD they re more )exile thn generlly thoughtF romptly identifying these onstrints llows for protive plnning tht n push k ostles to solution implementtion nd llow for reliztion of t lest some of the vlue emodied in the solutionF e Feasibility Test fouses on these situtionl onstrints nd poses useful questions erly on in the implementtion proessF ht onditions ould rise tht would hinder the implementtion of solutionc

PHT

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

hould the solution e modi(ed to ese implementtion under these onstrintsc gn the onstrints e removed or modi(ed through tivities suh s negotitionD ompromiseD or edutionc gn solution impleE menttion e filitted y modifying oth the solution nd the onstrintsc
Feasibility Constraints Category Sub-Category

esoure snterest ehnil

woneyGgost

imeGhedlines @lwsD regulE

wterils olitilGoil ehnology needs modiE (tion

yrgniztionl@upervisorAvegl tionsA ehnology does not exE ist

ehnology ptented

Table 5.25

Resource Constraints:

Does the situation pose limits on resources that could limit the realization of the solution Time. ss there dedline within whih the solution hs to e entedc ss this dedline (xed or negotilec Financial. ere there ost onstrints on implementing the ethil solutionc gn these e extended y rising more fundsc gn they e extended y utting existing ostsc gn gents negotite for more money for implementtionc Resource. ere neessry resoures villec ss it neessry to pln hed to identify nd proure resouresc sf key resoures re not villeD is it possile to sustitute otherD more ville resouresc ould ny signi(nt morl or nonEmorl vlue e lost in this sustitutionc
Interest Constraints under consideration?

Does the solution threaten stakeholder interests? Could it be perceived as so threatening Individual Interests. hoes the solution threten the interests of supervisorsc ould they tke mesures to lok its reliztionc por exmpleD supervisor might pereive the solution s undermining his or her uthorityF yrD on)iting suEgroup interests ould generte opposition to the implementtion of the solution even though it would promote roder orgniztionl ojetivesF Organizational Interests. hoes the solution go ginst n orgniztion9s ys @stndrd operting proeduresAD forml ojetivesD or informl ojetivesc gould ting on this solution disrupt orgniE ztion power struturesc @erhps it is neessry to enlist the support of n individul higher up in the orgniztionl hierrhy in order to relize solution tht thretens supervisor or powerful suEgroupFA Legal Interests. ere there lwsD sttutesD regultionsD or ommon lw trditions tht oppose the implementtion of the solutionc ss it neessry to write n impt sttementD develop legl ompline plnD or reeive regultory pprovl in order to implement the solutionc Political/Social/Historical Constraints. ould the solution threten or pper to threten the sttus of politil prtyc gould it generte soil opposition y thretening or ppering to threten the interests of puli tion group suh s n environmentl groupc ere there historil trditions tht on)it with the vlues emedded in the solutionc
Technical Constraints to a stakeholder's interests that the stakeholder would oppose its implementation?

PHU

Technology does not yet exist. ould the implementtion of the solution require reking new tehnologil groundc Technology Protected by Patent. he tehnology exists ut is inessile euse it is still under ptent held y ompetitorF Technology Requires Modication. he tehnology required to implement solution exists ut needs to e modi(ed to (t the ontext of the solutionF smportnt onsidertions to ftor in would e the extent of the modi(tionD its ostD nd how long it would tke to ring out the modi(tionF

5.4.8 Exercise Five: Ethical Perspective Pieces


Getting Consent to Information Transfer

gustomer gonsent sf you hve followed the se so frD you see tht while the money oysmrt owes to gitink my just e drop in the uketD the welfre nd even survivl of other oysmrt reditors depends on how muh money n e retrieved through the nkrupty proessF he following ithil erspetive rgues tht the right of reditors for their money nnot e trded o' with the right to privy of oysmrt ustomers pro(led in their now vlule dt seF hese two stkeholders nd their stkes"in this se rights"need to e integrted s fully s possileF he key lies in the exeution of the onsumer right to e informed nd to freely onsent to the trnsfer of their dt to third prties his right9s exeution must ddress three importnt spetsF

gustomer onsent must e otined y hving them optEin rther thn optEout of the trnsfer of ssF yptEin represents more tiveD optEout more pssive mode of onsentF fy opting into the dt trnsferD oysmrt ustomers onsent expliitlyD knowinglyD nd freely to the trnsfer of their informtionF yptEout is pssive euse unless ustomers expressly forid itD the trnsfer of their ss to third prty will ourF he hnes re tht mny ustomers will onsent only if ompenstedF end the mehnis of otining positive optEin onsent re omplitedF ss this done y emil or snil milc row n oysmrt ustomers e fully informedc ht kind of timeline is neessry for their full onsentc smplimenttion of optEin onsent is more dequte morlly speking ut muh more di0ultD timeEonsumingD nd ostly in its implementtionF eny exhnge of informtion must e in ord with e stndrds whih oysmrt greed to when they soliited the right to use the e selF e hs its own stndrds @they n e found through the link oveA whih reinfore the ove disussion of informed onsent ut lso ring in other mttersF smportnt here is the utilitrin onern of uilding nd mintining onsumer trust to enourge their using the snternet for eEusinessF e site erti(tion genies like e exist to vlidte tht we site is trustworthyY ut to mintin this vlidtionD ustomers must know tht e will enfore its stndrds when wesites eome relutnt to follow themF e must e ggressive nd strit here in order to mintin the high level of trust they hve generted with eEusiness ustomersF en importnt prt of e stndrds on the trnsfer of ss to third prties is their insistene tht these third prties shre the vlues of those who hve een given the informtionF oysmrt ultivted reputtion s trustworthy ompny devoted to produing sfeD high qulityD edutionl toysF he ustomer dt se should e trnsferred only to onerns tht shre these gols nd the ompnying vluesF @ht re thesecA hid oysmrt ompromise on these gols nd vlues when they greed to ept hisney (nning nd dvertising supportc ht re oysmrt vluesc ht re hisney vluesc
sn onlusionD this perspetive piee is designed to get you to think out the right of informed onsentD whether it n e reoniled with (nnil interests nd rights of oysmrt reditorsD nd how this right n e implemented in the onrete detils of this seF st hs rgued tht ustomer ss n e trnsferred ut only with the onsent of the ustomers themselvesF st hs de(ned this onsent in terms of express optingEinto the trnsfer on the prt of the ustomersF st hs lso rgued tht the third prt must shre the vlues nd gols of oysmrtD espeilly those vlues ompnying oysmrt promises to ustomersF

PHV

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

5.4.9 Group Exercise


Identify the role played and the values held by each of the following participants:

IF PF QF RF SF TF

hvid vord @giy of oysmrtA hisney @s venture pitlistA e @s nonEpro(tA oysmrt greditors @n gommunitionsA pg @government regultory genyA oysmrt gustomers

Toysmart's customer data base

IF hould oysmrt reditors e llowed to sell the ustomer dt se to third prtiesc espond to rguments pro nd on given y prtiipnts in the seF PF essume oysmrt should e llowed to sell the dt se to their third prtyF ht kind of vlues should this third prty hvec QF essume oysmrt hs to get ustomer onsent efore selling the dt seF row should ustomer onsent e otinedc @ht ounts s ustomer onsentcA

5.4.10 What did you learn?


his setion provides losure to the module for studentsF st my onsist of forml onlusion tht sumE mrizes the module nd outlines its lerning ojetivesF st ould provide questions to help students derief nd re)et on wht they hve lernedF essessment forms @eFgFD the wuddiest oint pormA ould e used to evlute the qulity of the lerning experieneF sn shortD this setion spei(es the strtegy for ringing the module to loseF
In this module, you have. . .

studied rel world se tht rised serious prolems with intelletul propertyD privyD seurityD nd free speehF orking with these prolems hs helped you to develop etter working understnding of these key oneptsD studied nd prtied using four deisionEmking frmeworksX @IA using soioEtehnil nlysis to speify the prolem in omplexD rel world seD @PA prtied rinstorming tehniques to develop nd re(ne solutions tht respond to your prolemD @QA employed three ethis tests to integrte ethil onsidertions into your solutions nd to test these solutions in terms of their ethisD nd @RA pplied fesiility nlysis to your solutions to identify nd trouleEshoot ostles to the implementtion of your ethil solutionD explored the nlogy etween solving ethil nd design prolemsD prtied the skills of morl imgintionD morl retivityD resonlenessD nd perseverneD nd. . . experienedD through key prtiipnt perspetivesD the hllenges of ethis dvoy under the gunF
Debrief on your group work before the rest of the class

IF rovide onise sttement nd justi(tion of the prolem your group spei(ed PF resent the re(ned solution genertion list your group developed in exerise PF QF resent nd provide quik summry explntion of the results of your group9s solution evlution mtrixF RF how your group9s fesiility mtrix nd summrize your ssessment of the fesiility of implementing the solution lterntives you tested in exerise threeF
Group Debrieng

PHW IF ere there ny prolem you group hd working together to rry out this se nlysisc ht were the prolems nd how did you go out solving themc PF ht prolems did you hve with understnding nd prtiing the four frmeworks for solving proE lemsc row did you go out solving these prolemsc hoes your group hve ny outstnding questions or doutsc QF xow tht you hve herd the other groups present their resultsD wht di'erenes emerged etween your group9s nlysis nd those of the other groupsc rve you modi(ed your nlysis in light of the nlyses of the other groupsc sf so howc ho the other groups need to tke into ount ny spets of your group9s derie(ngc

5.4.11 Toysmart Presentations


[Media Object]

22 23

[Media Object]

Updated concept presentation for Spring 2011 24 [Media Object] Privacy, Intellectual Property, Free and Informed Consent 25 [Media Object] 26 [Media Object]

5.4.12 Appendix
Toysmart References

IF worehedD xF oysmrtX fnkrupty vitmus estF ired wgzineD UGIPGHHF eessed IHGRGIHF httpXGGwwwFwiredFomGtehizGmediGnewsGPHHHGHUGQUSIU PF oysmrt ettlesX htse uilledF essoited ressF eessed through ired wgzine on IHGRGIH t httpXGGwwwFwiredFomGpolitisGlwGnewsGPHHIGHIGRIIHPere QF uufmnD tF nd rthllD tF 4snternet gustomer ht fses4 xtionl vw tournlD eptemer IVD PHHHF eessed tuly IPD PHHI vexis xexis edemi niversityF RF 4pg ues piled esiteD oysmrtFomD for heeptively y'ering for le ersonl snformtion of esite isitorsF4 tuly IHD PHHHF eessed t wwwFftFgov on IHGRGIHF SF 4pg ennounes ettlement ith fnkrupt esiteD oysmrtFomD egrding elleged rivy olE iy ioltionsF4 tuly PID PHHHF eessed t wwwFftFom on IHGRGIH TF 4QU ettorneys qenerl evolve rotetion of gonsumer rivy4 xtionl essoition of ettorneys qenerlF eq fulletinF heemer PHHHF eessed PGIPGHI through vexis xexis edemi niversityF UF lizrD vF 4he hi0ulties rtitioners gn pe hen heling with hotEgom fnkruptiesF4 xov PHHHF eessed through vexis xexis edemi niversity on UGIPGHIF VF 4pg ues oysmrt yver htse4 eutersF UGIHGHH eessed t httpXGGwwwFwiredFomGpolitisGlwGnewsGPHHHGHUGQURVR on IHGRGIHF WF 4yn hky qround4 urenF eptemer PHHHF emerin vwyer xewsppersF eessed from vexis xexis edemi niversity on tuly IPD PHHHF
22 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Toysmart_2.pptx> 23 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Toysmart_3.pptx> 24 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Review on Privacy and Property.pptx> 25 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <Review on Privacy Property Consent.pptx> 26 This media object is a downloadable le. Please <IMC_V2_97.doc>

view or download it at view or download it at view or download it at view or download it at view or download it at

PIH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

IHF 4pg piles uit eginst piled oy etiler yver rivy romise4 essoited ressF UGIHGHHF eE essed UGIVGHIF e pokespersonX 4fottom line!it9s uneptleD ethilly wrongD nd potenE tilly illegl for ompny to sy one thing nd do something di'erentF4 IIF vorekD vurF 4hen oysmrt froke4 snterdtive weekF eugust PID PHHHF zdnetFomF rovides iogrphil informiton on vord nd rik nd mortr ompny rold idutionl yutletF IPF osenrneD vindF 4pg ettles ith oysmrt4 gomputer orldF tuly PID PHHHF eessed UGITGHIF IQF xsholskyD vrrenF 4 ynline rivy gollides with fnkrupty greditorsX otentil esolutions fo romputing gonernsF xew our vw tournlD VGPVGHHF eessed through vexis xexis edemi nivesity on UGIPGHHF IRF vniD rF @PHHRAF Ethics and Technology: Ethical Issues in an Age of Information and Communication Technology. hnversD weX tohn iley nd onsF his optionl setion ontins dditionl or supplementry informtion relted to this moduleF st ould inludeX ssessmentD kground suh s supporting ethil theories nd frmeworksD tehnil informtionD disipline spei( informtionD nd referenes or linksF
References

IF frintD gynthi eF nd ikeD itori F @PHHHA worlity nd the rofessionl vifeX lues t orkF pper ddle iverD xtX rentie rllF PF gruzD tF eFD preyD F tF @PHHQA en i'etive trtegy for sntegrtion ithis eross the gurriulum in ingineeringX en efi PHHH ghllengeD Science and Engineering EthicsD W@RAX SRQESTVF QF hvisD wFD Ethics and the UniversityD outledgeD vondon nd xew orkD IWWWX ITTEITUF RF ihrd F he qeorgeD 4ithil esponsiilities of ingineers in vrge yrgniztionsX he into gseD4 in ithil sssues in ingineeringD edF heorh qF tohnson @IWWIA xew terseyX rentieErllX IUSEIVTF SF ghrles rrrisD wihel rithrd nd wihel ins @PHHSA Engineering Ethics: Concepts and CasesD Qrd idF felmontD geX homsonGdsworthX PHQEPHTF TF ru'D ghuk nd twerD frueD 4owrd hesign ithis for gomputing rofessionls in oil sssues in Computing: Putting Computing in its PlaceD ru'D ghuk nd pinholtD homs idsF @IWWRA xew orkX wqrwErillD snF UF olomonD oert gF @IWWWA A Better Way to Think About Business: How Personal Intgrity Leads to Corporate SuccessF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF VF enthony estonF @PHHIA A Practical Companion to EthicsD Pnd edF eX yxford niversity ressD PHHID ghpter QF WF grolyn hitek @IWWVA Ethics in Engineering Practice and ResearchF FuF gmridge niE versity ressX SSEUP nd IUTEIVIF IHF ikeD itori F @PHHIA 4rofessionl ingineering ithis fhviorX e luesEsed epprohD4 Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, Session 2461F

5.4.13 EAC ToolKit Project


5.4.13.1 This module is a WORK-IN-PROGRESS; the author(s) may update the content as needed. Others are welcome to use this module or create a new derived module. You can COLLABORATE to improve this module by providing suggestions and/or feedback on your experiences with this module.

lese see the gretive gommons viense27 regrding permission to reuse this mterilF
27 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

PII
5.4.13.2 Funded by the National Science Foundation: "Collaborative Development of Ethics Across the Curriculum Resources and Sharing of Best Practices," NSF-SES-0551779

5.5 Ethics and Laptops: Identifying Social Responsibility Issues in Puerto Rico
28

5.5.1 Introduction
hile soil responsiility hs een reognized s one of the key res of usiness ethisD muh more needs to e done to develop frmeworks nd tools to lrify the onept itself nd to implement it in usiness nd professionl prtie on dyEtoEdy sisF his module will give students the opportunity to prtie using frmeworks nd tehniques tht ddress these two needsF heveloping soioEtehnil system nlyses provides n e'etive mens to highlight issues of soil reE sponsiilityF ine soioEtehnil systems emody vluesD uilding their desriptions llows us to red o' potentil prolems due to hrmful impts nd vlue on)itsF o filitte thisD you will e uilding soioE tehnil system desriptions using grid or mtrix tht provides the omponents of soioEtehnil systemsD levels under whih they n e nlyzedD nd the vlues tht they tend to emodyF fuilding soioEtehnil system desriptions lso requires using methods of prtiiptory oservtionF hese inlude onstruting surE veys nd questionniresD developing interviewsD nd uilding dyEinEtheElife senriosF his module will help you frme nd respond to soil responsiility issues y providing frmework for soioEtehnil nlysis nd set of methodologil tools tken from prtiiptory oservtionF wodule mIRHPS @oilEehnil ystems in rofessionl heision wkingA provides kground inforE mtion on sD their onstrution nd their usesF vinks to this module nd to the wesiteD gomputing gsesD n e found in the upper left hnd orner of this moduleF hey provide useful kground informE tionF his module mkes use of seD exs vptopsD tht ws developed y ghuk ru' nd gF xthn hell for xp projetsD hiEWWUPPVH nd hiEWWVHUTVF

5.5.2 Case Narrative


Texas Laptop Case

IF sn the lte IWWH9sD the exs tte ford of idution proposed the mitious pln of providing eh of the stte9s four million puli shool students with their own lptop omputerF his pln ws devised to solve severl prolems onfronting exs puli edutionF PF vptop omputers ould mke edutionl resoures more essle to students who were fed with speil hllenges like defness or lindnessF gomputers o'er softwre options @suh s udio ooksA tht promise to reh more students thn trditionl printed textooksF QF vptops lso promised to solve the prolem of osolete textooksF exs purhsed textooks for their students t onsiderle ostsF he purhsing yle rn six yersF fy the end of this yleD textooks were out of dteF por exmpleD in the lte IWWH9s when the lptop pln ws proposedD history textooks still referred to the oviet nion nd to the existene of the ferlin llF vptopsD on the other hndD would present textook ontent in digitl form whih would eliminte printing nd shipping osts nd filitte updtes through online downlodsF RF exs usiness leders were onerned out the omputer litery of the upoming genertion of studentsF fy employing lptops in more nd more tehing tivitiesD students would lern how to intert with omputers while tking dvntge of the new nd more e'etive modes of presenttion o'eredF IF roweverD dopting lptops lso presented prolems tht ritis quikly rought forthF
28 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14257/1.7/>.

PIP

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

PF ehers would need to lern how to use lptop omputers nd would hve to hnge their tehing to omodte them in the lssroomF QF epprent ost svings disppered upon furtherD loser exmintionF por exmpleD it eme ler tht textook pulishers would not so esily give up the revenues they hd ome to depend upon tht me from textook purhses for puli shool studentsF pdtes from downlods ould turn out to e more expensive nd edutionl softwre ould e oded to restrit ess nd dissemintionF RF purther studies indited tht tehnil support osts would run two to three times initil outlysF ueeping lptop hrdwre nd softwre up nd running required tehnil support nd ontinued inE vestmentF SF exs found tht while some shool distrits!the riher ones!hd lredy egun projets to integrte omputing tehnologyD the poorer shool distrits would require onsiderle (nnil supportF o del with these prolemsD exs rried out severl pilot projets tht exmined the e'etiveness of lptop integrtion in selet shool distritsF hile severl suesses were reported series of prolems rose tht led exs ford of iduton o0ils to postpone the lptop projetF pirstD pilot projets depended on dontions from privte omputing vendorsF hile some were forthomingD others filed to deliver hrdwre on time nd provided only miniml tehnil supportF eondD tehers resisted lptop integrtion due to the extensive investment of time required to pproprite omputing skills nd the di0ulty of modifying existing urriul nd tehing styles to omodte lptop hrdwre nd softwreF hirdD t tht time the ville edutionl softwreD suh s digitlized textooksD ws expensiveD indequtely developedD nd nrrowly foused on urriulr res suh s writing nd mth prtieF ehers lso egn to develop more omprehensive nd philosophil ritiisms of lptop useF idution speilistD vrry gunD rgued tht while lptops provided good support for votionl edutionD they filed to deliver on other edutionl gols suh s tehing hildren how to intert with their peers nd tehers nd tehing hildren the ivi virtues neessry to eome tive prtiipnts in demorti form of governmentF tudies egn to pper tht rgued tht skills developed through omputer use me t the expense of otherD more soil skillsF he exs vptop pln ws never formlly implemented eyond the pilot projet phseF roweverD severl omputer integrtion projets hve een rried out in other prts of the ountryF por exmpleD vrry gun reports on omputer integrtion projets rried out in ilion lley in gliforniF ws hs developed hep lptop omputer for use in developing ntionsF ou n (nd link to omputer integrtion projets tht hve een implemented in hildelphi puli shools through the support of the wirosoft poundtionF tudents in omputer ethis lsses t the niversity of uerto io t wyguez hve looked into the fesiility of integrting lptops in the puli shool soioEtehnil system in uerto ioF hey egn y looking t the projet to provide puli shool tehers with lptops tht ws rried out in the lte IWWH9s under the edro ossello dministrtionF he student reserh projets me to fous on three prolem resF pirstD they exmined whether there were strutures in lptop design tht mde omputers un(t for use y hildrenF eondD they studied whether soil or ethil prolems would rise from disposl of spent lptopsF hirdD they investigted the impt on opyright lw nd intelletul property prties tht digitlizing printed textooks would hveF

5.5.3 What you are going to do...


5.5.3.1 Decision Point One

You are a computer engineer and have been subcontracted by your local government to
purchase new portable ocmputers for high school teachers. Your job includes...

seleting the kind of omputer to e used identifying vendors who will sell the omputers overseeing the distriution of omputers to high shool tehers developing n implementing trining progrm to help tehers lern to use omputers designing tehnil support hotline to help teher work out ny tehnil prolems tht my rise

PIQ
Distributing computers to high school teachers seems simple enough. You select the computers, buy them, and give them to the teachers. Yet only a slight change in circumstances can bring into the open latent or potential ethical issues:

row should you go out setting up the idding proess to determine the omputers to e usedc ht should you do to determine teher nd student needs nd how omputers n respond to these needsc st mkes very little sense to provide omputers nd then tell tehers nd students to use themF ht re they to do with these omputersc row do they (t them into everydy edutionc his requires seeing the omputer projet from the stndpoints of studentsD their prentsD nd tehersF he reversibility test will help hereF ho stnds to ene(t from your tionsc ho stnds to e hrmed from these tionsc row will ene(ts nd hrms e distriuted through the di'erent stkeholders in this sec Latent ethical problems exist in this socio-technical system that can erupt into full-blown omeone you know well!sy your ousin!sumits idF ht ethil issues does this turn of events give rise toc he ontrt to provide omputers is wrded to you ousinD nd he provides relile omputers t resonle prieF heD few weeks lterD you red the following hedline in the newspperX "More e group of ngry high shool tehers holds press onferene in whih they use the government of foring them to use omputing tehnology in their lssesF hey sy you re violting their demi freedomF row should you respondc omeone in the government suggesting pling progrm in eh omputer tht llows government o0ils to monitor the omputers nd trk user ehviorF row would you feel if your omputer use were eing monitored without your knowledge or onsent> ere their irumstnes under whih monitoring ould ring out ny soil ene(tsc ht re the likely hrmsc ho the ene(ts outweigh the hrmsc uppose you go long with this nd red the following hedline in the morning newspperX "Government Snoops B ug High School computers"F sing the puliity testD wht kind of person would you pper to e in the puli9s eyec row would you view yourself in terms of this tionc
5.5.3.2 Decision Point Two You are Dr. Negroponte from MIT. For several years now, you have been working to design laptop computers that respond to a wide range of needs of children in poor, developing nations. You have set up an incentive for people in developed nations to contribute to children in poor nations. For $300, one can buy two laptops, keep one, and have the other donated to a child in a developing nation. This has generated computers but governments in developing nationsenthusiastic at rsthave recently shown themselves reluctant to carry through on their commitments. Your goal of reducing laptop costs to $100 per computer have also stalled. It has been dicult to generate projected economies of scale. Government CorruptionComputer Czar's Cousin Counts Millions in Cozy Computer Contract" ht do you do nowc problems with small changes in circumstances

he lptops employ simple designF hey use vinux s n operting system sine this shrewre n e freely downlodedF he omputers re lso designed to e used in res where the underlying infrstrutureD espeilly eletriityD is unrelileF hey re ttery driven nd hnd rnk llows for rehrging tteries when eletriity is unvilleF hey employ wireless onnetion to the snternetF en ypen idution esoure movement hs een strted to generte edutionl resoures diretly nd freely ville to hildren using ws lptopsF his movement hs generted onsiderle edutionl ontent of vrying qulitiesF eports ville online provide insights into the pros nd ons of the open

PIR

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

resoure edutionl movementF hether this n @or shouldA reple trditionl textooks @whih n e quite expensive nd di0ult to updteA is still open to deteF here is evidene tht lptops n nd hve ontriuted to n enhned lerning experiene for hildren in developing ntionsF oor ttendneD lrge nd hroni prolemD hs een improved in lptop progrmsF ghildren enjoy their omputers nd seem etter motivted in generl s resultF hey tke their omputers home for homework nd shre them with the rest of their fmilyF wny tehers hve suessfully dpted their tehing styles to this snternetEsupportedD tehnologilly enhned edutionl modeF

fut reentlyD lptops hve ome under inresing ritil srutinyF hey re more expensive thn trditionl edutionl mterils suh s textooks hey ompete for sre (nnil resoures nd my e less ostEe'etive in the long run thn otherD more trditionl edutionl resouresF he ws lptop hs no hrd driveD ft ritilly singled out y wirosoft9s founderD fill qtesF hey hve een designed to use the vinus operting system rther thn wirosoft9s more expensive nd omplited oneF heveloping ntion government9s hve reently shown 4old feet4 to putting tion ehind their verl ommitments to lptop omputersF his myD in prtD e due to onerns expressed y prents nd tehersF hefend the ws vptop rojet in the fe of these nd other ritiismsF hould their design e modi(ed to suit etter hildren9s needs s well s the onerns of tehers nd prentsc ht fetures do ws lptops lredy disply tht respond to studentD prentD nd teher needsc ht re the lterntives to ws vptopsc por exmpleD evlute the proposl mde y group in omputer ethis to invest in nd emphsize instrution in omputer lortories housed in shools themselvesF ht prolems would this new pproh voidc ht re its limittions in omprison to the lptop pprohc
5.5.3.3 Decision Point Three

You live in a developing nation. While you have work, it doesn't pay well and you are our hild me home with n wsEdesigned lptop omputerF he nd her lssmtes hve ene(ted from the omputers donted to their shool y the generosity of developed ntions where onerned itizens n uy two omputers nd hve one donted to needy hildrenF ou (nd this somewht ptronizing nd you see these lptops s mixed lessingF yn the one hndD this lptop hs helped you nd your fmily to enjoy the ene(ts of ess to the snternetD lthoughD euse of poor infrstrutureD this ess is limitedD spordiD nd sujet to frequent rekdownsF yn the other hndD you question whether your hild is mture enough to use nd re for her omputerF sf nything should hppenD you would e required to uy new replement lptopD nd you simply don9t hve the moneyF et should you not reple your dughter9s roken lptopD she would e exluded from the edution her peers enjoy euse she would no longer hve omputerF ou question whether you wnt to run on this 4tredmillF4 purthermoreD you n see tht lptops!even ws lptops!re designed for dultsD not hildrenF hey re mde of hevy metls nd other toxi mterilsF he tteriesD espeillyD re dngerous euse of the mterils they ontinF hey wer out nd repling them n e expensiveF our hild ould lso eome trget for roersF he wlks to nd from shool rrying her omputerD nd you know of other hildren who hve een eten nd roed of their lptopsF
barely able to provide for your family's basic needs. One problem and things will get very dicult for you and your family.

PIS

o you see these lptops s mixed lessing frught with riskF ht should you doc

5.5.4 What you are going to do...


Exercise 1: Prepare a STS Grid

gonstrut soioEtehnil system @A grid for puli shools in uerto io sing the templtes found t mIRHPS @oioEehnil ystems in rofessionl heision wkingA idenE tify the key onstituents suh s hrdwreD softwreD physil surroundingsD etF elet key levels for nlysisF por exmpleD you my wnt to look t the from the stndpoint of individuls @students nd tehersAD smll groups @puli shool systemsAD nd institutions @edution nd usinessAF trting with short list of vluesD identify the vlues emedded in the puli shool ndD if possileD the spei( omponents in whih these vlues re emeddedF e good ple to strt is to see how di'erent physil rrngements of the lssroom emody di'erent pprohes to edutionF
Values in STSs

lues tht n e used for exerise I inlude tustie @equity nd essAD ropertyD rivyD pree peehD esponsiility @fetyAF wore on these vlues n e found y liking on the gomputing gses link provided in this moduleF everl of these vlues re de(ned in the ithis of em ork moduleD mIQUTWF
Exercise 2: Identifying Potential or Latent Problems in STSs

ghoose one of the following three prolem res to help fous your workX @IA vlue prolems tht my rise when lptops with their urrent design re integrted in the Y @PA vlue prolems tht my rise y the digitliztion of textooks nd other edutionl mterilsY @QA vlue prolems nd potentil hrms tht my rise during the disposl of spent lptopsF gompre vlues emodied in urrent lptop design with those emodied in the uerto in puli shool F ere there ny on)itsc ht re thesec vook more losely t the uerto in puli shool F ere there ny on)its tht will e highE lightedD exggertedD or inresed y the integrtion of lptop omputersF pinllyD look for potentil hrms tht ould our in the shortD middleD nd long term futureF
Exercise 3: Develop Counter-Measures to Problems

qenerte S to IH options to respond to the prolems you hve identi(edF wke sure tht you inlude the sttus quo mong your optionsF ghek eh option ginst the prolems you hve identi(edF hoes the option solve the prolems identi(ed in your nlysisc hoes it integrte the on)iting vlues nd void untowrd resultsc hoes it give rise to new prolemsc repre short presenttion for the lss @S to IH minutesA where you outline your prolemD set forth the rnge of solutions you hve identi(edD nd desrie nd justify your solutionF fe sure to ddress issues tht my rise when you turn to implementing your solutionF rovide one or two sentene rgument tht your solution is est for delivering on soil responsiilityF
Exercise 4: Evaluate the Microsoft Philadelphia Public Schools Project

visten toGred the news report on the wirosoft poundtion9s projet to integrte omputing tehnology in hildelphiF @ou n (nd it y liking on the link in this moduleFA ss this n exmple of orportion rrying out its soil responsiility to the surrounding ommunitycF ivlute wirosoft generlly in terms of its soil responsiilityF

PIT

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

5.5.5 Presentations
Social Justice and Responsible Technology 29 [Media Object] Educational Laptops Presentation 30 [Media Object]

5.6 Case Analysis and Presentation: Machado

31

gomputer ithis gse wodule emplteX whdo gse fy illim tF prey wodule estrtX his moduleD designed for the ieg oolkit @xp i HSSIUUWAD will test the oolkit nd gonnexion9s ility to network di'erent online nd o1ine soures for ethis ross the urriulumF st onsists of four omE ponents designed to provide tools for n inEdepth nlysis of the ses found t wwwFomputingsesForg32 Y it lso mkes sustntil referenes to the drft mnusript of textook in omputer ethis entitled qood gomputingX e irtue epproh to gomputer ithis under ontrt with tones nd frtlett uE lishing gompnyF @his ook will onsist of the ses displyed t gomputing gses"herEPSD whdoD nd rughes eirrft"nd U dditionl ses ll developed through xp projets hiEWWUPPVH nd hi WWVHUTVFA wodule sntrodutionX his module s displyed in gonnexions presents the se strt nd timeline oth tken from gomE puting gsesF st then refers to the wesite where the following n e found y rowsingX se nrrtiveD se historyD tehing introdution whih lso provides useful overviewD n ethil nlysis tht n e essed y liking on the pproprite onept in the tle displyed @liking on sfety will open short doument tht disusses the sfety implitions of the seA oioEehnil enlysis whih spells out the di'erent omponents of the ses soioEtehnil sysE tem suh s hrdwreD softwreD physil surroundingsD peopleGgroupsGrolesD proeduresD lwsD nd dtGdt struturesF supporting douments suh s three pgs @equest for gommentsA on the nix (nger ommndD pro(le of students t gsD nd n interview with ellen hino from the niversity of gliforni t srvine9s y0e of edemi gomputingF

hese mterils ll posted t wwwFomputingsesForg33 provide the kground informtion neessry for detiled nd exhustive se nlysisF @e suggestionX sine you will e working in groupsD divide these redings mong your group memers nd tke dvntge of lss time to report to one nother on the ontents of the links you hve individully exploredF fe sure to tringulte y ssigning more thn one memer to eh linkF his will help to identify nd solve prolems in interprettionFA he se strt nd timeline in this module outline the seF he following deision point tken from the whdo se will provide the fous for n inEdepth se nlysisF ou will respond to the deisionEpoint y working through four stge deision mking proedure inspired y the stndrd oftwre hevelopment yleX
29 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Social Justice and Resp Tech.pptx> 30 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Educational Laptops.pptx> 31 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13818/1.2/>. 32 http://www.computingcases.org/ 33 http://www.computingcases.org/

PIU

prolem spei(tionD solution genertionD solution testingD nd. . . solution implementtionF

wodule etivitiesX IF snstrutor introdues the se sed on the strt nd timeline found t wwwFomputingsesForg34 PF tudents red se strtD timelineD se deision pointD nd se nlysis exerisesF QF tudents do further reserh into the se y onsulting gomputinggses mterils whih inlude nrrtivesD historiesD supporting doumentsD nd ethil nlysesF RF tudents rry out the tivities outlined in the ompnying se exerises y @A speifying the prolem rised in the deision pointD @A generting solutionsD @A testing solutions using ethis testsD nd @dA developing plns for implementing the solution over situtionl onstrintsF SF tudents prepre their se nlyses working in smll groupsF TF hese groups present their ompleted nlysis to the lss in seEderie(ng sessionF UF he instrutor onludes y disussing the prolemEsolving issues nd intermedite morl onepts rised y the seF whdo estrtX sn eptemer of IWWTD IW yerEold ihrd whdo sent emil to SW esin students t his puli ollegeD thretening them with phrses like s will personlly mke it my life9s reer to hunt you down nd kill you nd signed y esin rterF everl of these individuls reported this inident to the y0e of edemi omputing @yegAF yne of the reipients ws student employee of the yegF he dministrtors of the yeg were fed with deision out how to respond to hrssing nd thretening emil sent over their system to students of their niversityD using their filitiesF whdo imeline IIGITGWS whdo sends emil thret to xew niversity pE per @gsA vi his roommte9s omputerFhe emil is tred to the roommte9s omputerFoommte lter sid whdo hd ess to the omputerwE hdo identi(ed s senderF rrnt for rrest is (led ginst whdoD issued y srvine olie heprtment"the wrrnt is no il felony wrrntFwhdo onsents to propE erty serhFgse given up shortly fter"whdo9s roommte took the lme so he wouldn9t e othE ered nymoreF
continued on next page

IIGPIGWS

34 http://www.computingcases.org/

PIV @fetween IGIGWT nd WGPHGWTA

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

whdo9s older rother murdered in rmed roE ery prior to following inidentYwhdo is doing poorly in shoolD getting pressure from fmily to uphold high expettionsF whdo sends hte esinsGthret emil to out SW gs studentswhdo sent messge seond time shortly fterD when he did not reeive replies to the (rst emilFsnident rought to the ttention of essoF hiretor of he edemi gomputing genE terD y her employeesFwhdo identi(ed in omE puter l nd ws sked to leve y gore ervies mngerF hiretor of yeg reds whdo9s emil nd deides tht it is polie mtterF he inident is reported to niversity olie heE prtmenten o0er is ssigned to the seF etrievl of surveillne video on(rmed whdo s the senderFsrving gity olie noti(ed nd inE volved in seF egistrr9s o0e helps polie lote whdo9s dE dress nd phone numerF en o0er phones whdo9s residene nd leves messgewhdo lls k nd grees to meet with n o0er tht fternoon t SpmFwo hrges (led fter meetingX whdo @IA knowingly nd without permission uses omputer servies nd @PA mkes telephone lls with intent to nnoyF e stolen vehile report is (led for whdo9s seE ond roommte9s rFwhdo hd told one roomE mte he ws orrowing his other roommte9s rFwhdo did not hve permission to orrow rF pfs ttempts investigtionFen gent goes to whdo9s resideneY whdo is not there nd hsn9t een seen there sine IIGIQFwhdo lE legedly left with oung9s keys on IIGIRFyther susE piionsX 6VH missing from roommte9s oin jrY 6ISR vis hrges to roommte9s rdD 6SR of whih were unuthorizedY lls on IIGIHD IID nd IPF
continued on next page

WGPHGWT@pridyD IHXSR mA

WGPIGWT WGPRGWT@wondyA WGPTGWT

WGPUGWT WGPVGWT

IIGIRGWT

IIGIVGWT

PIW IIGPIGWT pfs gent phones whdo9s roommte for on(rE mtion of stolen rGinfo on whdo9s dispperE neF oommte interviewedF mmy whdo @whdo9s sisterA interviewed nd sid whdo hd disppered on the dy his rother lled him to inquire out whdo9s nme ppering in newspper regrding esin hte milsFwhdo denied the reports in the pper to his rotherY limed it to e someone elseFmmy is informed tht ourt dte is set for IIGPS nd if ihrd doesn9t showD they would issue wrrnt for his rrestF whdo is rrested when ttempting to enter from wexio"ught y smmigrtion snspeE torFwhdo is reported s looking homelessD hvE ing no possessionsD looking for onstrution work in wexioF whdo is hrged with IH ounts of interfering with federlly proteted tivity"in this seD students ttending universityFwhdo is told he will fe up to IH yers if onvitedF ril tkes ple nd on this dte reE ess is grnted when new informtion is unE overedGpresentedFuestionnires were reveled in whih W of the students who got the messges sid they were not overtly othered y whdo9s emilF tury dedloked W to Q in fvor of quittlFgse sid to hve ntionl importne y federl proseE utorsD so seond tril ws set for IGPUGWVF ihrd whdo is found guilty on P ounts of ivil rights violtionsFook only Q weeks of tril to reh verditFpollowing onvitionD whdo is relesed on 6IHDHHH ond from ustody ut is turned over to srvine polie on impending uto theft hrgesFentening is postponed until RGIHGWVFosE sile mximum time whdo ould serve would e I yrFwhdo hs lredy spent I yrF in jil witE ing trilsD teFwhdo is reommended for nger 8 ril tolerne ounselingD not llowed on gs mpusD nd prohiited from hving ny ontt with vitimsF
continued on next page

IIGPPGWT IIGPQGWT

PGTGWU

WGITGWU

IIGIPGWU

IIGIVGWU

PGIQGWV

PPH

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Table 5.26

enrio 5IX ou re systems dministrtor t the y0e of edemi gomputing t the niversity of gliforni t srvine nd hve een sked to modify the nix system to prevent the reourrene of the whdo inident enrio 5PX ou re systems dministrtor t the y0e of edemi gomputing t the niversity of gliforni t srvine nd hve een sked to develop n orienttion progrm for students who will use university omputing lortories nd filitiesF peil emphsis is put on preventing reourrene of the whdo inidentF IF sdentify key omponents of the rtGvevel of enlyE sis rrdwre oftwre hysil urroundE ings eopleD qroupsD 8 oles roedures vws 8 egulE tions ht 8 ht trutures

Table 5.27

PF peify the prolemX PF ss the prolem disgreement on ftsc ht re the ftsc ht re ost nd time onstrints on unovering nd ommuniting these ftsc PF ss the prolem disgreement on ritil oneptc ht is the oneptc gn greement e rehed y onsulting legl or regultory informtion on the oneptc @por exmpleD if the onept in question is sfetyD n disputnts onsult engineering odesD legl preedentsD or ethil literture tht helps provide onsensusc gn disputnts gree on positive nd negtive prdigm ses so the onept disgreement n e resolved through lineEdrwing methodsc PF se the tle to identify nd lote vlue on)its within the F gn the prolem e spei(ed s mismth etween tehnology nd the existing D mismth within the exerted y the introdution of the tehnologyD or y overlooked resultsc Glue fety dom hrmA @freeE from tustie @iquity 8 eessA rivy roperty pree peeh

rrdwreGsoftwre hysil urE roundings


continued on next page

PPI eopleD qroupsD oles roedures vws ht 8 ht trutures


Table 5.28

QF hevelop generl solution strtegy nd then rinstorm spei( solutionsX rolem G oE lution trtegy hisgreement ptul goneptul lue gon)it sntegrtec rdeo'c itutionl gonstrints esourecehnilcsnterest

Table 5.29

QF ss prolem one of integrting vluesD resolving disgreementsD or responding to situtionl onstrintsc QF sf the on)it omes from vlue mismthD then n it e solved y modifying one or more of the omponents of the c hih onec RF est solutionsX elterntive G est e 5I e 5P e 5Q
Table 5.30

eversiility

lueX tusE tie

lueX eE sponsiility

lueX spet

eE

rrm

gode

SF smplement solution over fesiility onstrints elterntive esoure gonE strint ime gost snterest ehnil

sndividul

yrgniztion veglG oE il

eville ehnoE logy

wnufturility

continued on next page

PPP 5I 5P 5Q

CHAPTER 5.

BUSINESS ETHICS CASE STUDIES

Table 5.31

Machado Summary

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVIVGltestGwhdopHTFppt


Figure 5.4:

PowerPoint File.

Chapter 6
Business Ethics Bowl
6.1 Practical and Professional Ethics Bowl Activity: Follow-Up InDepth Case Analysis
1

6.1.1 Module Introduction


his module provides students with struture for prepring n inEdepth se study nlysis sed on feedk they hve reeived through their prtiiption in n Ethics Bowl ompetition s prt of the requirements for ourses in rtil nd rofessionl ithis tught t the niversity of uerto io t wyguezF tudents viewing this module will (nd formts for nlyzing deision mking ses nd position ses suh s the deisions pulished y the xtionl oiety of rofessionl ingineers Board of Ethical ReviewF hey will reeive informtion pertinent to prepring inEdepth se nlysesD short summries of the se pool for the ithis fowl ompetitionD nd summry of proedures for rrying out group selfEevlutionF wore informtion on the ingineering ithis fowl rried out t w n e found in tose e gruzEgruzD illim tF preyD nd rlley hF nhezD 4he ithis fowl in ingineering ithis t the niversity of uerto io E wyguez4 in ehing ithis R@QAX ISEQPF

6.1.2 Choosing Your Case


IF ou must hoose one of the two ses you presented on in the ithis fowlF @his mens the se on whih you gve your initil presenttionF PF ou my hoose either the (rst round deisionEmking se or the xi ford of ithil eview gse row should you hoose your sec IF hih se did you (nd the most interestingD hllengingD or fruitfulc PF yn whih se did you reeive the most interesting feedk from the other tem nd the judgesc QF ho you wnt to mkeD defendD nd implement deision or nlyze fi deisionc yne you hoose your seD you need to nlyze it ording to the following stepsX heisionEwking gses

1 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13759/1.12/>.

PPQ

PPR
Worksheets

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

Decision-Making Case

sdentify nd stte the @ethillyA relevnt fts le @le C erl ixplntionA repre oioEehnil enlysisF pill in the tle @see elowA nd then verlly desrie eh omponentF pill out lue le @see elowA se it to identify the ethil prolem or prolemsF ummrize this y providing onise prolem sttement tht is expliitly tied to the lue leF RF frinstorm solution to the prolem or prolemsF fe sure to disuss how list ws generted nd how it ws re(nedF hesrie vlue integrtion nd interest negotiting strtegies usedF SF gompreD evluteD nd rnk the solutions TF ghoose the est ville solutionF rovide jusE ti(tion summrizing ethil nd fesiility onE sidertions highlighted in olution ivlution wE trixF pesiility wtrix @wtrix C erl ixplntionA UF hevelop pln for implementing your solutionF hisuss nd justify this pln expliitly in terms of the spei( fesiility onsidertions in the pesiE ility wtrixF hevelop nd disuss preventive mesures @if ppliE leA
Table 6.1

lue le @le C ritten rolem ttementA

frinstorm vists @initil nd re(ned listsA

olution ivlution wtrix @wtrix C erl ixE plntion nd tusti(tionA

xiEfi gse orksheets IF sdentify nd stte the @ethillyA relevnt fts tkeholders @wtrix C erl ixplntionA rolem glssi(tion @wtrix C gonise erl rolem ttementA PF sdentify the stkeholders nd their stkesF QF sdentify the ethil prolem or prolems RF tte the fi deision nd summrize their odeEsed justi(tion @ite ode provisionsD sumE mrize priniplesD nd list relevnt preedentsA
continued on next page

PPS olution ivlution @wtrix C detiled verl exE plntion nd justi(tionA SF ivlute the fi deision using the three ethis testsD ode testD nd glol fesiility testF TF gonstrut strong ounterEposition nd ounterE rgument to the fi deision olution ivlution @wtrix C detiled verl exE plntion nd justi(tionA olution smplementtion @pesiility wtrix C erE l ixplntionA UF ivlute ounterEposition nd ounterErgument using the Q ethis testsD fesiility testD nd ode test VF ivlute ounterEposition nd ounterErgument in terms of relevnt fesiility onsidertionsF roE vide mtrixGtle C verl explntionF

Table 6.2

6.1.3 In-Depth Analysis: Step by Step


hesription of snEhepth gse enlysis itle of essignmentX 4snEhepth gse enlysis hue hte for ritten rojetsXyne week fter the lst lss of the semesterF ht is requiredc IF rtiiption in t two ethis owl ompetitionsF PF ih group will hoose from the two ses it deted in the ithis fowl se for more extended nlysis rrying out the sevenEstep deision mking frmeworkF hey will prepre n extended nlysis of this se @IH to PH pgesAF QF ih group will prepre summries of the IS ses ssigned for the ethis owlF hese summries @ minimum of one pge for eh seA will e hnded in with the extended se study nlysisF hese summries should inlude prolem sttementD solution evlution mtrixD nd fesiility mtrixF RF ih (nl sumission will lso inlude group selfEevlutionF his evlution will inludeX list of the gols eh group set for itself refulD justi(ed nd doumented ssessment of your suess in rehing these gols reful ssessment of wht you did nd did not lern in this tivity disussion of ostles you enountered nd mesures your group took to overome theseF disussion of memer prtiiption nd ontriution inluding the memer ontriution forms in generl wht worked nd wht didn9t work for you nd your group in this tivity

SF e group portfolio onsisting of the mterils prepred y your group during the group lss tivitiesX

irtue ghrt @esponsiilityA qry wtters olution ivlution wtrix ights ghrtX pree 8 snformed gonsent qroup gode of ithis

Structure of Written Analysis

IF e rief summry of the se fousing on the ethilly relevnt ftsF PF e oioEehnil ystem le C hort prgrph on eh of the seven tegoriesF QF e lue le C short prgrph on the emedded vlues you hve identi(ed nd where they our in the F hen stte whether you hve found ny vlue mismthesD mgni(ed existing vlue on)itsD nd remoteGhrmful onsequenesF

PPT

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

RF yn the sis of your nlysis nd vlue on)it nlysisD provide shortD onise prolem stteE mentF wke sure your the prolem you hve identi(ed is grounded in your nd vlue nlysisF sf notD one or the other @or othA needs to e hngedF SF e rinstorm list in whih you reord the solutions your group hs designed to solve the prolem stted oveF he rough unre(ned list should inlude round IH solutionsF hen re(ne this list into threeF pend time detiling how you rehed your re(ned listF hid you synthesize rough solutionsc yn wht sis did you leve solution out ll togetherc hid you (nd other wys of relting or omining solutionsc pend time doumenting your rinstorming nd re(ning proessF how in detil how you me up with the re(ned listF TF ho omprtive evlution of three of the re(ned solutions you developed in the previous stepF pirstD prepre solution evlution mtrix tht summrizes your omprtive evlutionF se the tle provided elowF eondD provide verl ount of the solution evlution nd omprison proess you present in the solution evlution mtrixF UF eh (nl deisionF hefend your deision using the ethis nd fesiility testsF sf the deision sitution in whih you re working is dynmi oneD then proppose series of solutions tht you will pursue simultneouslyD inluding how you would respond to ontingenies tht might riseF @ou ould express this in the form of deision treeFA VF pill out pesiility wtrixF ee mtrix elow WF resent n implementtion pln sed on your pesiility wtrixF his pln should list the ostles tht might rise nd how you pln to overome themF @por exmpleD don9t just syD 4flow the whistleF4 hisuss whenD howD whereD to whomD nd in wht mnnerF row would you del with reprislsc ould your tion seriously disrupt internl reltions of trust nd loyltyc row would you del with thiscA ork out detiled pln to implement your deision using the fesiility onstrints to 4suggest4 ostles nd impedementsF IHF pinllyD disuss preventive mesures you n tke to prevent this type of prolem from rising gin in the futureF
Socio-Technical System Table

rrdwre

oftwre

hysil urroundE ings

eopleD qroupsD oles

roedures

vwsD ttutesD egultions

ht nd ht truE tures

Table 6.3

STS Value Table

rrdwre

oftwre

hysil urroundE ings

eopleD qroupsD oles

roedures

vws

ht nd ht trutures

continued on next page

PPU sntegrity tustie espet esponsiility for fety pree peeh rivy roperty
Table 6.4

Solution Evaluation Matrix

olutionGest eversiility or ights hesription ss the solution reversile with stkeE holdersc hoes it honor si rightsc

rrmsGfene(ene irtue or xet tilE ity hoes the solution produe the est enE e(tGhrm rtioc hoes the solution mximize utilityc hoes the solution express nd integrte key virtuesc

lue

gode

qlol peE siility ht re the resoureD tehnilD nd interest onstrints tht ould impede implementE tionc

worl vlE ues relizedc worl vlues frustrtedc lue onE )its reE solved or exerE tedc

hoes the solution violte ny ode provisionsc

fest tion

soluE

fest lE ternte solution orst soluE tion


Table 6.5

pesiility wtrix esoure gonstrints ehnil strints gonE snterest gonstrints


continued on next page

PPV ime gost eville mteE rilsD lorD et

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

epplile wnufturE erEsonE tehnolE ility lities ogy

yrgnizE vegl tionl

oilD olitilD gulturl

Table 6.6

6.1.4 Format
IF qroupD temEwritten projets re to e IHEPH pges in lengthD doule spedD with stndrd IEinh mrginsD nd typewrittenF his does not inlude doumenttionD ppendiesD nd other notesF PF st is essentil tht you refully nd fully doument the resoures tht you hve onsultedF he most diret wy to do this is to inlude numered entries in onluding setion entitledD 4orks gited4F hese entries should provide omplete iliogrphil informtion ording to stndrd form @ghigo wnul of tyle or the wve wnul of tyleAF hen insert the numer of the entry in prenthesis in the text next to the pssge tht is sed on itF @ixmpleX 4he self is reltion tht reltes itself to its own self. . .F4 @RA he numer 4R4 refers to the forth item in the 4orks gited4 setion t the end of your pperFA QF rtil norm Sj of the gse ode of ethis sets forth the oligtion of the professionl engineer to give others due redit for their workF por this resonD plgirism will not e tolerted in ny formF ossile forms of plgirism inlude ut re not limited to the followingX

uoting diretly from other soures without doumenting @footnote or iliogrphyA ndGor without using quottion mrksF gliming tht this is n ppendix will not exuse this tionF gliming ignorne will not exuse this tionF sing the ides or work of others without giving due redit or proper knowledgmentF 4roper E knowledgmentD in this ontextD requires stndrd iliogrphil referene nd the use of quottion mrks if the mteril is eing diretly quotedF sf your pper relies exlusively or primrily on extensively quoted mterils or mterils losely prE phrsed from the work of othersD then it will not e redited s your work even if you doument itF o mke it your ownD you hve to summrize it in your own wordsD nlyze itD justify itD or ritiize itF ou will not e redited for mteril tht you trnslte from inglish to pnish unless you dd to it something sustntil of your ownF sn generlD wht you pproprite from nother soure must e properly digestedD nlyzedD nd exE pressed in your own wordsF sf you hve ny questions on thisD plese sk meF eny plgirized doument"one whih violtes the ove rules"will e given zeroF ou will e given hne to mke this upD nd the grde on the mkeEup projet will e verged in with the zero given to the plgirized doumentF ine this is group grdeD everyone in the group will e treted the smeD even though the plgirizer my e only one personF ih memer of the group is responsile to ssure tht other memers do not plgirize in the nme of the groupF @ine the due dte for the written projet is lte in the semesterD this will proly require tht s give the entire groupD iFeFD ll memersD n snompleteFA ih memer of the group will e held individully responsile in the oveEdesried mnner for the (nl ontent of the written reportF
RF his is not reserh projet ut n exerise in integrting ethis into rel world sesF sn ghpters P nd Q of ingineering ithisX gonepts nd gsesD the uthors present thorough disussion of the se study nlysisGprolem solving method disussed in lssF ou lso hve supporting hndouts in your (le folders from wgi gopy genter s well s mterils s hve presented diretly in lssF ingineering ithisX gonepts nd gses lso ontins severl smple se studies tht n help guide you in onstruting your own presenttionF ht s m looking for is disussion of the se in terms of the ethil pprohes nd deisionEmking frmeworks we hve disussed this semesterF ou do not need to 4wow4 me with reserh

PPW into other res peripherlly relted to the seY you need to show me tht you hve prtied deisionEmking nd mde serious e'ort to integrte ethil onsidertions into the prtie of engineeringF SF he usul riteri onerning forml presenttions pply when ompeting in the ithis fowlF hress professionllyF TF ou my write your groupD temEwritten projet in either pnish or inglishF UF ell ompetitions will tke ple in the regulr lssroomF

6.1.5 Media Files Beginning Spring 2007


hese medi (les provide informtion on the ethis owl nd the followEup tivities inluding individul deision point summriesD inEdepth se nlysisD nd group selfEevlutionF hey hve een integrted into the fusiness ithis ourse during the pring semesterD PHHV nd will pply from this dte on into the futureF
Team Member Evaluation Form

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `iew wiwfi esxq riiFdob
Figure 6.1: This le contains the team member rating sheet which each group member must ll out and turn in with his or her group project.

Final Project and Group Self-Evaluation Rubrics

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `feuriHUFdob

This rubric will be used to grade the in-depth case analysis, the group self-evaluation, and the Ethics Bowl case summaries.
Figure 6.2:

Basic Moral Concepts for Ethics Bowl

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `fwiPWUFdob

Clicking on this gure will download the basic moral concepts that you will be integrating into the ethics bowl and your nal in-depth case analysis. You will be asked to show how you worked to integrate these concepts in your group self-evaluation.
Figure 6.3:

PQH

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

Intermediate Moral Concepts for Ethics Bowl

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `swgPWUFdob

Clicking on this future will open a table that summarizes the intermediate moral concepts that are at play in the four cases that are being used in the Ethics Bowl: Hughes, Therac, Toysmart, and Biomatrix.
Figure 6.4:

Ethics Bowl Cases for ADMI 4016: Environment of the Organization 2 [Media Object]

6.1.6 Check List


frekdown of rojet qrdeX
Group Team-Written Project: 200 points, group grade.

his is your group9s inEdepth se nlysis st will nlyze the deision senrio your group presented on in the ethis owl our tsk is to give full nd omprehensive nlysis of deision point using the tles presented oveD ompnying verl desriptionsD nd rrying out the fourEstge prolemEsolving frmework of speifying the prolemD generting solutionsD testing solutions in terms of their ethisD nd implementing these solutionsF
Nota Bene

efter the ithis fowlD s will provide the lss with generl feedk nd presenttions on how to prepre the (nl projetF hen you sumit your (nl reportD s will e looking for how you responded to my omments nd suggestions nd to the omments nd suggestions of the judges nd the lssF ettendne is mndtory for ll ithis fowl ompetitionsF his is importnt euse you will help one nother y the omments nd disussions tht re generted y the presenttionsF tudents not ompeting need to listen tively nd respetfully to the presenting groupF ueep in mind the twin stndrds of respet nd professionlismF s will dedut points from the grdes of groups ndGor individuls who do not listen ourteously to the presenttions of others or who do not ttend lss during the presenttion yleF
xot feneX
Check List

Each group will turn in this checklist, fully lled out and signed. Checking signies that yne pge summries of the IH ithis fowl deision points tken from the herEPSD fiomtrixD oysmrtD nd rughes sesF qroupD inEdepth nlysis of the se your tem presented on in the ithis fowlF vist of ithilly elevnt pts oioEehnil ystem le C erl ixplntion
media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Ethics Bowl Cases.docx>
2 This

your group has completed and turned in the item checked. Failure to submit this form will cost your group 20 points

PQI

lue le C rolem ttement C tusti(tion vist of frinstormed olutions C hesriptin of e(ning roess C e(ned list olution ivlution wtrix C erl gomprison of hree elterntives from re(ned solution list ghosen olution C erl tusti(tion pesiility wtrix C olution smplementtion ln onretely desried nd sed on fesiility mtrix reventive wesures @if pplileA
Materials Required from Ethics Bowl

ithis fowl ore heets he deision point your tem presented on in the ompetition he deision point your tem commented on in the ompetition
____ Group Self-Evaluation Form including...

list of the gols your group set for itself refully prepredD justi(edD nd doumented ssessment of your group9s suess in rehing these gols reful ssessment of wht you did nd did not lern in this tivity disussion of ostles you enountered nd the mesures your group took to overome these disussion of memer prtiiption nd ontriution inluding the memer ontriution forms generl disussion of wht worked nd wht did not work for you nd your group in this tivity
ih memer will turn in (lled out em wemer ivlution pormF his form n e essed through the medi (le listed oveF st is suggested tht you do this nonomously y turning in your em wemer ivlution porm in seled envelop with the rest of these mterilsF ou re to evlute yourself long with your temmtes on the riteri mentioned in the formF se the sle suggested in the formF
Group Portfolios Include...

irtue les inluding the morl exemplr pro(le your group prepred nd presentedF he justi(tion using the rights frmework of the right ssigned to your groupF his ws one of the rights sserted y engineers ginst their orporte employersF e one pge summry of how you developed your role in the snident t worles "Vista he ode or sttement of vlues summry prepred y your group s prt of the irte gode of ithis moduleF his summry foused on one of six orgniztionsX ist exs gner genterD fiomtrixD oysmrtD rughes eirrftD gseD or eigv @in the her seAF
gopyEpste this heklistD exmine the ssemled mterils prepred y your groupD nd hek the items your group hs ompletedF hen redD opyEpsteD nd sign the following pledgeF
Group Pledge Publica."

I certify that these materials have been prepared by those who have signed below, and
no one else. I certify that the above items have been checked and that those items with checkmarks indicate materials that we have turned in. I also certify that we have not plagiarized any material but have given due acknowledgment to all sources used. All who sign below and whose names are included on the title page of this report have participated fully in the preparation of this project and are equally and fully responsible for its results.

wemer signture here wemer signture here

PQP

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

wemer wemer wemer wemer

signture signture signture signture

here here here here

6.2 Ethics Bowl: Cases and Score Sheets


6.2.1 Module Introduction

his module is designed to give you rief orienttion in the ithis fowl ompetitionF st is designed to ompliment nd omplete other modules onerning the ethis owl tht you will (nd in the gorporte qovernne ourseF

6.2.2 Ethics Bowl Rules (briey)


he modertor will egin the ompetition y )ipping oin to determine whih tem will present (rstF sf the tem tht lls wins the tossD they hoose whether they or the other tem go (rstF wondyX @IA em I will hve one minute to onsult nd seven minutes to give its initil presenttionF he presenttion must e tied to the questionGtsk given to it y the modertorF @PA em P hs minute to onsult nd seven minutes to mke its gommentry on em I9s presenttionF em P n lose its ommentry y posing question to em IF @QA em I then hs minute to onsult nd (veminutes to respond to em P9s gommentryF @RA em I will then nswer questions posed y the two peer review temsF ih peer review tem will sk questionF e quik followEup is llowedF he peer review question nd nswer session will go for IS minutesF @SA he peer review tems will sore the (rst hlf of the ompetition ut not nnoune the resultsF ednesdyX he sme proedure will our while reversing the roles etween ems I nd PF husD tem P will presentD tem I ommentD tem P respondD nd then tem P will nswer questions from the peer review pnelsF he peer review pnels will dd the sores for the seond prt of the ompetition ut will hold o' on nnouning the results until pridy9s lssF pridyX he two peer review tems will present nd explin their soresF eer eview tems will tke noteX you9re ojetive is not to ritiize or evlute the deting tems ut to provide them feedk in terms of the four tegoriesF heting tems my trde minutes from onsulting to presentingF por exmpleD em I my deide to tke two minutes to onsult when given their se nd tskF his mens tht they will hve T minutesD insted of UD to presentF xot feneX heting tems nd eer eview tems re not llowed to ring notes into the ompetitionF ou will e provided with pper to tke notes one the ompetition strtsF iven though the ntionl ithis fowl ompetition llows only one presenterD deting tems will e llowed to 4pss the tonF4 hen one person (nishes spekingD nother n step in his or her pleF st is solutely foridden tht more thn one person spek t timeF elsoD the ompeting tem9s speking time is limited to its ommentryF yne tht is overD they re instruted to quitely listenF snfrtions will e followed (rst y wrningF eond infrtions will result in points eing tken wyF

6.2.3 Competition Time Line


IF em I resenttionX yne minute to onsultD seven minutes to presentF PF em P gommentryX yne minute to onsultD seven minutes to presentF QF em I esponse to gommentryX yne minute to onsultD (ve minutes to respondF
3 This

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13852/1.6/>.

PQQ RF he question nd nswer session etween em I nd the eer eview tems will lst IS minutes @running lokAF he (rst peer review tem will hve U minutes QH seonds for its questions nd the seond will hve roughly the sme timeF SF sn the seond roundD the time line is the sme while the deting tems hnge rolesF

6.2.4 Advice to Debating Teams


ell us wht you re going to doD do itD nd then tell us wht you hve doneF sn other wordsD strt your presenttion with summryD then lunh into the min ody of your presenttionD nd then onlude with nother summryF his will help the listening udiene understnd wht you re trying to doF fe professionlD formlD nd ourteousF eddress yourself to the other tem nd the peer review temF st is good ide to stnd when you re giving your initil presenttionF fe sure to ommunite your understnding of the soring riteriF ht do you nd your tem understnd y intelligiilityD ethil integrtionD fesiilityD nd morl imgintionGretivityc ke time to listen to the other tem nd the peer review tems to gin insights into their understndingF huring the ommentry nd the question nd nswer session you will get ruil lues into wht others think you hve hieved nd where you need further workF se this feedkF fe sure to thnk the peer review temsD modertorsD nd your opponents during nd fter the ompeE titionF uh formlities mke it possile to penetrte to the deeper prties tht underlie the virtue of resonlenessF elx nd hve fun3 ou my not hve the opportunity to sy everything you wnt to syF yne of the purposes ehind this ompetition is to help you see just how hrd it is to dvote for ethil positionsF e lmost lwys hve to do so under serious onstrints suh s time limitsF elsoD rememer tht you hve other forums for 4getting it sidD4 nmelyD your group self evlution nd your inEdepth se nlysisF sn these ples you will e le to disuss these issues in the kind of depth you think neessryF

PQR

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

6.2.5 Advice to the Peer Review Teams on Scoring


ememer tht ll three soring events of the ompetition re worth PH pointsF he initil presenttionD the response to the ommentry nd questionsD nd the ommentry on the other tem9s presenttion ll ount for the sme PH pointsF elthough you hve the omplete ruri only for the initil presenttionD you will sore the other prts of the presenttion sed on the four riteriX intelligiilityD ethil integrtionD fesiility nd morl imgintionGretivityF ou will sore I to S on eh riteri for totl of PHF hree is the middle of the rod soreF sn other wordsD three is goodD verge soreF st is not g!don9t think of soring s grdingF trt eh tem o' from defult of threeF hen move o' tht defult only when something exeptionlly good or not so good hppensF sf your sores devite muh from stright twelves @QTAD then you re soring too high or too lowF

6.2.6 Ethics Bowl Scoring Criteria


IF Intelligibility inludes three skills or ilitiesX @IA the ility to onstrut nd ompre multiple rguments representing multiple viewpointsY @PA the ility to onstrut rguments nd provide resons tht re lerD oherentD nd ftully orretY @QA evidene of relizing the virtue of resonleness y formulting nd presenting vlue integrtive solutionsc PF Integrating Ethical Concerns inludes three skillsX @IA presenting positions tht re lerly reE versile etween stkeholdersY @PA identifying nd weighing key onsequenes of positions onsideredY @QA developing positions tht integrte vlues like integrityD responsiilityD resonlenessD honestyD humilityD nd justieF QF Feasibility implies tht the positions tken nd the rguments formulted demonstrte full reognition nd integrtion of interestD resoureD nd tehnil onstrintsF hile solutions re designed with onstrints in mindD these do not serve to trump ethil onsidertionsF RF Moral Imagination and Creativity demonstrte four skill setsX @IA ility to lerly formulte nd frme ethil issues nd prolemsY @PA ility to provide multiple frmings of given situtionY @QA ility to identify nd integrte on)iting stkeholders nd stkesY @RA ility to generte solutions nd positions tht re nonEoviousD iFeFD go eyond wht is given in the situtionF

PQS

6.2.7 Peer Review Team Responsibilities


ettend the dete sessions nd the feedk session on pridy fter the ompetitionF ememer this is the pstone event of the ourseF st looks d if you do not other to ttendF ou tem will sk questions during the deteF his will onstituteD t minimumD one question nd quik follow up if neessryF ou re not to dete with the presenting temF o your questions should not e designed to trp themF therD seek through your questions to explore seeming wek pointsD unler sttementsD nd inomplete thoughtsF se your questions to help you line up the deting tem ginst the four riteriF pill out the sore sheet nd ssess the deting tems in terms of intelligiilityD integrting ethisD fesiility nd morl imgintionGretivityF vedD with the other eer eview temD the feedk sessionsF his requires tht you prepre shortD informl presenttion tht shows your soring nd then explins itF elwysD lwysD lwys e ourteous in your feedk ommentsF ry to present things positively nd protivelyF his is di0ult ut prtie now will serve you well lter when you re trying to explin to supervisor how he or she hs mde mistkeF

6.2.8 Media Files with Cases and Score Sheets


Engineering Ethics Bowl

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVSPGltestGevisedoreheetIPFdo


Figure 6.5:

Score Sheet Team One.

Engineering Ethics Bowl

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVSPGltestGevisedoreheetPPFdo


Figure 6.6:

Score Sheet Team Two.

PQT

CHAPTER 6.

BUSINESS ETHICS BOWL

Ethics Bowl Cases

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVSPGltestGithis fowl gses for pring PHHUFdo
Figure 6.7:

Apring 2007.

Click here to open the word le containing the 12 Ethics Bowl classes for Business Ethics

Ethics Bowl Cases for Fall 2007

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVSPGltestGif pllHUWUFdo

These are the cases for the Ethics Bowl Competition for the Fall Semester in the year 2007. These scenarios or decision points are taken from Incident at Morales, Hughes Aircraft Case, Biomatrix Case, and Toysmart Case.
Figure 6.8:

Debrieng for Ethics Bowl, Round Two

his is n unsupported medi typeF o viewD plese see httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVSPGltestGherie(ngoundPFppt

This presentation was given Friday, April 27 to the Ethics Bowl teams that debated on the Therac-25 case and the Inkjet case.
Figure 6.9:

Chapter 7
Course Procedures
7.1 Rubrics for Exams and Group Projects in Ethics
7.1.1 Key to Links
he (rst link onnets to the ithis fowl ssignment for engineering nd usiness studentsF st orreE sponds with the ithis fowl ruri displyed elowF he seond link onnets to the module on developing reports on omputing soioEtehnil systemsF st outlines n ssignment where omputing students rry out n nlysis of the impt of omputing system on given soioEtehnil systemF e ruri to this tivity used in omputer ethis lsses is provided elowF he third link to the hree prmeworks module orresponds to ruri elow tht exmines how well students deploy the frmeworks on deisionEmking nd prolemEsolving outlined y this moduleF he (nl link to gomputing gses provides the reder with ess to ghuk ru'9s helpful dvie on how to write nd use ruris in the ontext of tehing omputer ethisF
1

7.1.2 Introduction
his module provides rnge of ssessment ruris used in lsses on engineering nd omputer ethisF uris will help you understnd the stndrds tht will e used to ssess your writing in essy exms nd group projetsF hey lso help your instrutor sty foused on the sme set of stndrds when ssessing the work of the lssF ih ruri desries wht ounts s exeptionl writingD writing tht meets expettionsD nd writing tht flls short of expettions in series of expliit wysF he midterm ruris rek this down for eh questionF he (nl projet ruris desrie the mjor prts of the ssignment nd then rek down eh prt ording to exeptionlD dequteD nd less thn dequteF hese ruris will help you to understnd wht is expeted of you s you rry out the ssignmentD provide useful study guide for the tivityD nd fmilirize you with how your instrutor hs ssessed your workF

7.1.3 Course Syllabi


Syllabus for Environments of the Organization 2 [Media Object]

content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m14059/1.17/>. media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <ADMI4016_F10.docx>

1 This 2 This

PQU

PQV
Syllabus for Business, Society, and Government 3 [Media Object]

CHAPTER 7.

COURSE PROCEDURES

Business Ethics Course Syllabus

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `fusiness ithis pring PHHUFdob
Figure 7.1:

Course Requirements, Timeline, and Links

Business Ethics Syllabus, Spring 2008

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `yllusHVWUFdob


Figure 7.2:

This gure contains the course syllabus for business ethics for spring semester 2008.

Business Ethics Syllabus Presentation

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `fisntropHUFpptb


Figure 7.3:

Clicking on this gure will open the presentation given on the rst day of class in Business Ethics, Fall 2007. It summarizes the course objectives, grading events, and also provides a PowerPoint slide of the College of Business Administration's Statement of Values.

7.1.4 Rubrics Used in Connexions Modules Published by Author


Ethical Theory Rubric

his (rst ruri ssesses essys tht seek to integrte ethil theory into prolem solvingF st looks t rights sed pproh onsistent with deontologyD onsequentilist pproh onsistent with utilitrinismD nd virtue ethisF he overll ontext is question presenting deision senrio followed y possile solutionsF he point of the essy is to evlute solution in terms of given ethil theoryF
3 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <ADMI6055_F10.docx>

PQW

Ethical Theory Integration Rubric

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `iiwidtermHSuriFdob

This rubric breaks down the assessment of an essay designed to integrate the ethical theories of deontology, utilitarianism, and virtue into a decision-making scenario.
Figure 7.4:

Decision-Making / Problem-Solving Rubric

his next ruri ssess essys tht integrte ethil onsidertions into deision mking y mens of three testsD reversiilityD hrmGene(eneD nd puli identi(tionF he tests n e used s guides in designing ethil solutions or they n e used to evlute deision lterntives to the prolem rised in n ethis se or senrioF ih theory prtilly enpsultes n ethil pprohX reversiility enpsultes deontologyD hrmGene(ene utilitrinismD nd puli identi(tion virtue ethisF he ruri provides students with pitflls ssoited with using eh test nd lso ssesses their set up of the testD iFeFD how well they uild ontext for nlysisF
Integrating Ethics into Decision-Making through Ethics Tests

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `giuriHTFdob

Attached is a rubric in MSWord that assesses essays that seek to integrate ethical considerations into decision-making by means of the ethics tests of reversibility, harm/benecence, and public identication.
Figure 7.5:

Ethics Bowl Follow-Up Exercise Rubric

tudent tems in ingineering ithis t w ompete in two ithis fowls where they re required to mke deision or defend n ethil stne evoked y se studyF pollowing the ithis fowlD eh group is responsile for prepring n inEdepth se nlysis on one of the two ses they deted in the ompetitionF he following ruri identi(es ten omponents of this ssignmentD ssigns points to ehD nd provides feedk on wht is less thn dequteD dequteD nd exeptionlF his ruri hs een used for severl yers to evlute these group projets
In-Depth Case Analysis Rubric

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `iipinluriHTFdob

This rubric will be used to assess a nal, group written, in-depth case analysis. It includes the three frameworks referenced in the supplemental link provided above.
Figure 7.6:

PRH

CHAPTER 7.

COURSE PROCEDURES

Rubric for Good Computing / Social Impact Statements Reports

his ruri provides ssessment riteri for the qood gomputing eport tivity tht is sed on the oil smpt ttement enlysis desried y ghuk ru' t wwwFomputingsesForgF @ee linkA tudents tke mjor omputing systemD onstrut the soioEtehnil system whih forms its ontextD nd look for potentil prolems tht stem from vlue mismthes etween the omputing system nd its surrounding soioEtehnil ontextF he ruri hrterizes less thn dequteD dequteD nd exeptionl student qood gomputing eportsF
Good Computing Report Rubric

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `gipinluriHTFdob


Figure 7.7:

classes.

This gure provides the rubric used to assess Good Computing Reports in Computer Ethics

gomputing gses provides desription of oil smpt ttement report tht is losely relted to the qood gomputing eportF lue mteril n e essed y looking t the omponents of oioEehnil ystem nd how to onstrut oioEehnil ystem enlysisF4
Business Ethics Midterm Rubric Spring 2008

his medi ojet is downlodle (leF lese view or downlod it t `widterm uri pring PHHVFdob
Figure 7.8:

2008.

Clicking on this link will open the rubric for the business ethics midterm exam for spring

7.1.5
snsert prgrph text hereF

7.1.6 Study Materials for Business Ethics


his setion provides models for those who would (nd the teoprdy gme formt useful for helping students lern onepts in usiness ethis nd the environments of the orgniztionF st inorportes mteril from modules in the fusiness gourse nd from fusiness ithis nd oietyD textook written y enne vwrene nd tmes eer nd pulished y wqrwErillF hnks to eline(tzgerldFom for the teoprdy templteF
Jeopardy: Business Concepts and Frameworks 5 [Media Object]
4 http://www.computingcases.org 5 This media object is a downloadable

<Jeopardy1Template.pptx>

le. Please view or download it at

PRI
[Media Object]

Privacy, Property, Free Speech, Responsibility 7 [Media Object] Jeopardy for EO Second Exam 8 [Media Object] Jeopardy 5 Jeopardy 6 Jeopardy7
[Media Object] [Media Object] [Media Object]

9 10 11

7.2 Realizing Responsibility Through Class Participation


7.2.1 Module Introduction

12

glss ttendne is norml prt of every ollege ourseF sn the pstD ttendne ws left up to the individul studentF xow universitiesD dopting the responsiility of eing lol prentsD require tht tehers monitor lss ttendne losely y tking ttendne eh lss nd reporting students who re hronilly sentF his mkes use of wht re termed 4ompline systems4X minimum stndrds of eptle ttendne re estlished nd ommunited to studentsD ehvior is regulrly monitoredD nd nonEompline is punishedF sn ompline pprohesD the fous is pled on mintining the minimum level of ehvior neessry to void punishmentF fut this leves unmentioned higher levels nd stndrds of ondutF tudents who miss more thn numer of lsses re punished y hving points sutrted from their overll grdeF fut wht onstitutes outstnding ttendne orD more positivelyD exellent prtiiptionc his module uses lss ttendne s n osion to teh the di'erent onepts of morl responsiilityF efter outlining lme responsiility nd exuseEmkingD it explores responsiility s virtue or exelleneF feing sent retes its own responsiilities @IA to the teher @you re responsile for (nding out the mteril overed nd lerning it on your ownAD @PA to your lssmtes @wht did your lss group do in your sene nd how will you reintegrte yourself into the group s n equl prtiipntAD nd @QA to yourself @wht hits will you hnge to improve your prtiiption in lssAF

7.2.2 Where excuses come from


Understanding Morally Legitimate Excuses

he tle elow lists hrteristis of wht ethiists ll 4pity responsiilityF4 hese onditions! presented y pFrF frdley!desrie when we n ssoite n gent with n tion for the purposes of morl evlutionF hey onsist of @IA self-samenessD @PA moral senseD nd @QA ownershipF
6 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy2.pptx> 7 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy_3.pptx> 8 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy4a.pptx> 9 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy5.pptx> 10 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy6.pptx> 11 This media object is a downloadable le. Please view or download it at <Jeopardy7.pptx> 12 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m13788/1.6/>.

PRP

CHAPTER 7.

COURSE PROCEDURES

Self-sameness ses responsiility on the ility to mintin n identity over timeY you must e the sme person t the moment of ountility tht you were when you performed the tionF ou nnot e lmed for tions performed y someody elseF o torge nnot e lmed for lsses missed y toseF our professor should e held responsile for tking urte ttendne nd not mrking you sent when you re tully in lssF he moral sense ondition requires tht you hve the pity to ppreite nd omply with morl diretivesF his inludes ertin pereptul sensitivities @the ility to reognize elements of situE tion tht re morlly relevntAD emotionl responses @tht you respond to morl elements with the pproprite emotionAD nd the ility to shpe tion in ordne with morl stndrdsF hose who lk morl senseD whether temporrily s with hildren or euse of psyhologil limittions s with psyhopths re nonEresponsile rther thn guilty or innoentF hey simply lk the generl pity to e held ountleF Ownership gets down to the spei(s of given situtionF hid ftors in the sitution ompel you to miss lssc hid you miss lss euse you lked ertin ruil its of knowledgec hy were you unle to ttend lss nd n this 4why4 e trnslted into morlly legitimte exuseF sn exusing n tionD you 4disown4 itF here re three wys to do thisX A y showing unavoidable and conicting obligationsD A by pointing to compelling circumstancesD or A by citing excusable ignoranceF pormlly de(nedD compulsion is the prodution in n individul of stte of mind or ody ginst the tul willF ikness is stte of mind nd ody tht ould ompel you to sty t home even though you wnt to ome to lss nd tke the testF rving )t tire on the wy to shool ould lso produe stte of ody @eing stuk t the side of the rodA ginst tul will @driving to lss in order to tke the testAF ith ompulsionD the key test is whether the ompelling irumstnes were under your ontrolF hid your tire go )t euse you postponed getting new set of tiresD even when it ws ler tht you needed themc ere you sik nd in ed now euse you overdid it t the prty lst nightc sf the ompelling irumstnes resulted from tions tht you performed voluntrily in the pstD then you re still responsileF ou lso need to hve the knowledge neessry to t responsily in given situtionF smgine tht your lss ws eing tught y professor who limed to e gse gentF re would repetedly hnge the times nd lotions of lss meetings t the lst minute to keep from eing disovered y enemy spiesF xot knowing where @or whenA the next lss would e held would mke it impossile to ttendF rere you would get o' the hook for missing lss euse of exusle ignorneF fut suppose hnges in lss shedule were nnouned during lss y the professorD ut you were sent on tht dyF ou re now responsile for your ignorne euse you should hve found out wht ws overed while you were sent in the pstF sn other wordsD your ignorne in the present ws used y your negleting to (nd things out in the pstF ou re responsile euse voluntry tions in the pst @nd intionA used the stte of ignorne in the presentF he tle elow provides smple exuses given y students for senesF hese re orrelted with onditions of pity responsiility suh s ignorne nd ompulsionF gorrelting exuses with onditions of imputility is one thingF lidting them is something elseD nd none of these excuses have been validatedF rere re some more typil exuses o'ered y students for missing lssF ry orrelting them with the onditions of imputility to whih they titly ppelX @IA s missed your lss euse s needed the time for studying for test in nother lssF @PA s missed lss euse the eletriity went out during the night nd my eletri lrm lok didn9t go o' on timeF @QA s plnned on going to lss ut got lled into work t the lst minute y my ossF sn ll these sesD you hve missed lss nd hve resonF gn your reson e orrelted with ignorne or ompulsionc ere you negligentD relessD or rekless in llowing these onditions of ignorne nd ompulsion to developc ixuses @nd lmeA emerge out of nuned proess of negotitionF wuh depends on trustF our professor might exuse you for missing lss t the end of the semester if your ttendne up to tht point hd een exemplryF re ouldD on this sisD tret the sene s n exeption to n otherwise

PRQ exemplry pttern of ttendne nd prtiiptionF fut you my hve troule getting o' the hook this timeD if there hve een severl previous senesD euse the new sene flls into pttern of poor prtiiption ompnied y lme exusesF ixuse negotition @nd lme responsiilityA our over the kground of other vlues suh s trust nd honestyF
Retroactive Responsibility Table Retroactive Responsibility Excuse Excuse Statement (Some Examples)

IF gon)its within role responE siility nd etween di'erent role responsiilitiesF PF yverly determining situtionl onstrintsX on)iting interestsF QF yverly determining situtionl onstrintsX resoure onstrints

s hve speil projet due in nE other lss nd (nishing it onE )its with ttending your lssF s m interviewing for position fter s grduteD nd s must e o' the islnd for few dysF wy r hd )t tireF wy ysitter ouldn9t ome so s hd to sty home with my hildF wy lrm lok didn9t go o' euse of power outgeF glss ws resheduledD nd s ws unwre of the hngeF s didn9t know the ssignment for lss so s me unprepredF @xot n exuse for missing lssA

RF unowledge limittions SF unowledge limittions

Table 7.1

X gorreltion of ondition of imputiloity with ommon exusesF

Exercise 1: Provide a Morally Justiable Excuse for Missing Class

y'er n honest nd responsile ethil ssessment of the reson you were unle to rry out your role responsiility for oming to lssF xote tht the defult here is ttending lss nd ny deprture from the defult @iFeFD missing lssA requires morl justi(tionF fegin y exmining whether your tion n e lssi(ed s n exuse rising out of ompulsion or ignorneF our sene my not e morlly exusleF sn this seD you nnot excuse your sene ut still must explain itF ememer thtD following eristotleD you must show tht your tion ws done under nd euse of ompulsion or under nd euse of ignorneF sn other wordsD you must show tht it did not rise from pst negligene or reklessnessF

7.2.3 Proactive/Prospective Responsibility


Principle of Responsive Adjustment

esponsiility for oth good nd d things often emerges s pttern exhiited y series of tionF sf you miss one lss fter estlishing pttern of good ttendne nd tive prtiiptionD then your teher will look for something exeptionl tht prevented you from doing wht you hitully doF fut if one sene flls into series with other senesD then this revels pttern nd your teher egins to lssify you s someone who is hronilly sentF

PRR

CHAPTER 7.

COURSE PROCEDURES

oD it is not enough to o'er morl exuse to get 4o' the hook4 for your seneF ixpressing remorseD guiltD nd regret do not sustitute for tking tive mesures to void repeting the wrongful tF hese hnges or responsive djustments lue others in to whether you hve lerned from your pst mistkesF ht hppened in the pst ws d nd you regret itY ut re you willing to mke the neessry hnges in your future ondut to void repetition of the d tc his is expressed y the "Principle of Responsive Adjustment" @or eAF tted negtivelyD filure to tke mesures to prevent pst exusle wrongs from reourring in the future leds to reevlution of these pst tionsF pilure to responsively djust shows tht the pst tion elongs to ontext of similr d tions inditing d hit or d hrterF hisD in turnD leds to reevlution of the pst tY wht when tken in isoltion ws not lmeworthy eomes lmeworthy when inserted into this roder ontextF howing n unwillingness to lern from the pst etrys entrenhed ttitudes of negligeneD relessnessD or reklessnessF @ee eter eF prenhD Corporate
and Collective Responsibility) Responsibility as a Virtue

esponsiility n e reon(gured s virtue or exelleneF he tle elow desries the hrteristis of preventive stne where we egin y identifying potentil wrongs nd hrmsF yne we identify these then we tke serious mesures to prevent them from ourringF pinllyD responsiility s virtue opens up the horizon of the exemplryF ursuing exellene requires our identifying opportunities to go eyond preventing hrm to relizing vlueF sn this ontextD lss ttendne eomes lss prtiiptionF es ws sid in the introdutionD missing lss retes series of new tsks tht rise out of your ommitment to exellene in prtiiptionF hese inlude the followingX IF ht ws overed while you were sentc yr etterD if you know in dvne tht you re going to miss lssD wht will e overedc row n you over this mteril on your ownc ht n you doD protivelyD to sty with the lss during your senec PF row will your sene impt the rest of the lss @espeilly those in your lss groupAD nd wht n you do to minimize ny hrmful e'etsc rere you should notify your tem memers tht you re going to miss lss nd develop plns for mintining your equl prtiiption in the group nd lss during nd fter your seneF QF sn ordne with the riniple of esponsive edjustmentD wht hnges re you mking to void senes in the future or!putting it s positively s possile!to hieve level of exellene in lss prtiiptionc xote how ll these items fous on improvement or etterment rther thn 4mking upF4 es hewey reognizesD the rel funtion of morl responsiility is to tke the lessons we lern from the pst nd use them to improve ourselvesF

PRS
Responsibility as a Virtue or Proactive Responsibility Characteristic Proactive Response

hi'use lme voidne strtegies

evoid trying to di'use the lme for missing lss on some other perE son or situtionF por exE mpleD s ouldn9t ome to lss euse s hd projet due in nE other lss is not morlly legitimte exE use euse it ples the lme on the other lssF ou hve not tken responsiility for your seneF sf you fil to prtiiE pte in group tivE ityD desrie the group9s ln fD iFeFD how they worked round your E seneF hesrie how you found out wht ws overed in lss nd doument how you hve lerned this mteril hesrie the mesures you hve tken to elimE inte the responsiility gp etween you nd your work groupF por exmpleD how did you mke up for not prE tiipting in the tivE ity held in the lss you missedF hesrie wht mesures you hve tken to void missing lsses in the fuE tureF

hesign responsiiliE ties with overlpping domins

ixtend the sope nd depth of knowledgeF

ixtend power nd onE trol

edopt protive proE lem solvingGpreventive pproh for the future

Table 7.2

Guidelines for Avoiding Absences

IF fuild redundny into your sheduleF wny students develop shedules tht re 4tightlyEoupledF4 his mens tht filures or rekdowns nnot e isoltedY then tend to )ow over into other res produing sding dissterF e oEworker lls in sikD nd your oss lls you in during the time you hve lssF ou miss one lss nd fil to study for notherF @he time you set side for study hs een tken up y this unexpeted jo demndFA ou hve een working so hrd to th up tht you

PRT

CHAPTER 7.

COURSE PROCEDURES

th oldF xow everything eomes tht muh hrder euse you re not working to full pityF he lesson here is to set up your shedule from the eginning with ertin mount of )exiility uilt inF his ould e s simple s tking four insted of (ve lsses or working IH insted of PH hours per weekF PF vook for inentives or motives to ome to lssF yne importnt inentive is tht you my get etter grdeF ehers tend to know students who ome to lss etterY they onsider them more responsile nd more ommittedF QF qet protive when you returnF snsted of sking the professorD 4hid we do nything importnt while s ws sentc4 onsult the syllus nd lssmte to (nd out wht you missedF hen hek your understnding with the professorF 4wy understnding is tht you disussed morl responsiility with the lss nd pplied the frmework to seF ss this orretc4 snsted of sking the professorD 4ht should s do to mke up for wht s missedc4 ome with your own plnF how tht you hve tken responsiility for your sene y getting protive nd plnning the future round relizing vlueF RF esenes hve n impt on your fellow students s muh s on you or your instrutorF sf you re working in groupsD (nd out from your peers wht ws overedF sf your group is depending on your ompleting tsk for the lss you re missingD try to develop 4workEroundF4 @4s won9t e in lss tomorrow ut s m sending you my prt of the group ssignment vi emil tthmentF4A vet your tem know wht is hppening with you nd mke sure tht you keep up on ll your ommitment nd responsiilities to the groupF
Exercise 2: Getting Proactive about your absence

hevelop pln for 4getting k into the loopF4 ht re you going to do to over the mteril nd tivities you hve missedc qet reventiveF hesrie wht you re going to do now to void senes in the futureF hoot for the idelF ht n you do!ove nd eyond lss ttendne!to relize exemplry prtiE iption in your ethis lssF

7.2.4 Conclusion
Exercise #3: Getting and Staying Honest

felow is templte tht you need to dupliteD (ll outD nd ple in the lss ttendne (le tht will e on the desk in front of lssF huplite nd sign the honesty pledge t the end of this moduleF tudents often wish to provide evidene doumenting their lims regrding their senesF ou my do thisD ut rememer tht this is neither required nor in the spirit of prospetive responsiilityF purthermoreD e wre tht you re not to provide on(dentil informtion suh s personl helth informtion or student id numers or soil seurity numersF relth issues re to e referred to generilly y sying something likeD s ws unle to ome to lss uesdy euse of helth resonsF
IF glss wissed @hy of week nd dteAX PF wteril overed during lssX QF eson for missing lss @plese do not provide on(dentil informtionAX RF etion ln for eseneX row you intend to tke responsiility for the mteril overed while you were sentY row you intend to mke reprtions to your group for not prtiipting in group lerning tivities for the lss you missedY SF row do you pln to void senes in the futureX
Honesty Pledge

o relize the vlue of honestyD you will mke the following 0rmtionX

PRU

The information I have provided above is truthful, the excuses I have ennumerated rigorously examined from a moral point of view, and the responsive commitments I have made above are serious, and I will take active and realistic eorts to carry them out.

igntureX

7.2.5 Bibliography
IF eristotleF Nichomachean EthicsD fook QD ghpters IEQF PF frdleyD pF rF @IWPUGIWTQAF Essay I: The vulgar notion of responsibility in connexion withe theories of free-will and necessity. Ethical StudiesF yxfordX yxford niversity ressD QERF QF hvisD wF @IWWVA Thinking Like an Engineer: Studies in the Ethics of a ProfessionF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressX IIWEISTF RF pingretteD rF @IWUIA Criminal InsanityF niversity of gliforni ressD ferkeleyD geX IUIF SF prenhD FeF @IWVRA Collective and Corporate ResponsibilityF golumi niversity ressX xew orkD xF TF tkllD F @IWVVA Moral Mazes: The World of Corporate ManagersF yxfordD uX yxford niversity ressF UF vddD tF @IWWIA fhoplX en essy on morl responsiility nd ivi virtueF Journal of Social PhilosophyD QP@IAF VF wyD vF @IWVUA The Morality of Groups: Collective Responsibility, Group-Based Harm, and Corporate RightsF niversity of xotre hme ressX xotre hmeD sxF WF wyD vF @IWWRA The Socially Responsive Self: Social Theory and Professional EthicsF niE versity of ghigo ressX ghigoD svF IHF rithrdD wF @IWWTA Reasonable Children: Moral Education and Moral LearningF niversity of unss ressD vwreneD uF IIF rithrdD wF @IWWVA 4rofessionl responsiilityX fousing on the exemplry4D Science and Engineering EthicsD ol RD pp PISEPQRF IPF rithrdD wF @PHHTA Professional Integrity: Thinking EthicallyF niversity of unss ressD vwreneD uF IQF toneD gF hF @IWUSA Where the Law Ends: The Social Control of Corporate BehaviorF rospetor reightsD svX velnd ressD sxgF

PRV

INDEX

Index of Keywords and Terms


re listed y the setion with tht keyword @pge numers re in prenthesesAF ueywords do not neessrily pper in the text of the pgeF hey re merely ssoited with tht setionF Ex. pplesD IFI @IA Terms re referened y the pge they pper onF Ex. pplesD I
Keywords

A B

edemi sntegrityD UFP@PRQA essessmentD UFI@PQWA fusinessD PFQ@RIAD PFR@RSAD QFP@TIAD QFQ@UHAD QFR@VHAD TFP@PQRA fusiness nd rofessionl ithisD SFS@PIQA fusiness ithisD PFR@RSAD QFI@SQAD QFS@VVAD RFI@WWAD RFP@IIPAD RFR@IQHAD SFI@IRSAD SFR@IWHA gse enlysisD SFQ@IVPA gigyD RFR@IQHA glss ettendneD UFP@PRQA gode of ithisD RFQ@IPQA godes of ithisD RFP@IIPA gollortive verningD IFR@IUA gomplineD RFP@IIPA gomputerD SFP@ITVA gomputer ithisD IFI@IAD PFP@PWAD SFI@IRSAD SFR@IWHA gomputersD SFT@PIVA gomputingD SFQ@IVPA gorporteD QFQ@UHA gorporte governneD PFQ@RIAD QFI@SQAD QFP@TIAD RFR@IQHA gorporte worl esponsiilityD RFI@WWA gorportionsD RFI@WWA hetingD TFP@PQRA heisionD SFP@ITVA heision wkingD PFP@PWA heisionEmkingD PFQ@RIAD RFP@IIPA heontologyD PFI@PQA hutyD PFI@PQA ieg oolkitD QFI@SQAD RFI@WWAD SFI@IRSAD SFR@IWHA ingineeringD PFR@RSAD RFQ@IPQA ingineering ithisD IFI@IAD PFI@PQAD PFP@PWAD TFI@PPSA ithil hilemmD IFI@IA ithil vedershipD PFQ@RIA

ithil heoryD IFI@IAD IFP@SAD PFI@PQA ithil luesD IFR@IUA ithisD IFI@IAD IFQ@IPAD IFR@IUAD PFI@PQAD PFP@PWAD PFQ@RIAD PFR@RSAD QFP@TIAD QFQ@UHAD QFR@VHAD QFS@VVAD RFI@WWAD RFP@IIPAD RFQ@IPQAD RFR@IQHAD RFS@IQSAD SFI@IRSAD SFP@ITVAD SFQ@IVPAD SFR@IWHAD SFT@PIVAD TFP@PQRAD UFI@PQWAD UFP@PRQA ithis fowlD PFP@PWAD TFI@PPSAD TFP@PQRA ithis gse enlysisD TFI@PPSA ithis in heisionEwkingD TFI@PPSA ithis of iskD QFS@VVA ithis y0erD RFR@IQHA ixmsD UFI@PQWA

G H I J M

qroup rojetsD UFI@PQWA ronestyD UFP@PRQA rumnitiesD RFS@IQSAD SFI@IRSAD SFR@IWHAD TFI@PPSA snident t worlesD QFR@VHA to gndidyD RFS@IQSA worl worl worl worl worl greerD QFP@TIA iologyD QFP@TIA ixemplrsD IFQ@IPA syhologyD IFQ@IPA esponsiilityD QFI@SQA

P R S

irte greed or godeD RFQ@IPQA rofessionlD QFR@VHA rofessionl ithisD IFP@SAD RFS@IQSA esponsiilityD QFQ@UHAD QFR@VHAD UFP@PRQA ightD PFI@PQA uriD UFI@PQWA fetyD SFQ@IVPA oilD QFQ@UHA oil smptsD PFR@RSA oil esponsiilityD PFQ@RIAD SFS@PIQA oioEtehnil nlysisD PFP@PWA

INDEX

PRW

oioEehnil ystemD PFR@RSA oioEtehnil systemsD SFT@PIVA ttement of lueD UFP@PRQA

ehnil smptsD PFR@RSA emplteD RFI@WWA oolkitD RFI@WWA

lueD RFP@IIPAD UFP@PRQA luesD SFS@PIQA luesEfsedD RFP@IIPA irtue ithisD IFP@SAD IFQ@IPA

W ork emsD IFR@IUA

PSH

ATTRIBUTIONS

Attributions
golletionX Business Ethics idited yX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGolIHRWIGIFWG vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4heory fuilding etivitiesX wountin errorist ixerise4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUTRGIFIIG gesX IES gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4heoryEfuilding etivitiesX irtue ithis4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUSSGIFIQG gesX SEIP gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4worl ixemplrs in fusiness nd rofessionl ithis4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPSTGIFIHG gesX IPEIU gopyrightX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4ithis of emwork4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUTHGIFISG gesX IUEPP gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4ithil ights for orking ingineers nd yther rofessionls4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmISSSRGIFIG gesX PQEPW gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG fsed onX heoryEfuilding etivitiesX ights fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUSVGIFRG woduleX 4hree prmeworks for ithil heision wking nd qood gomputing eports4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUSUGIFPPG gesX PWERI gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG

ATTRIBUTIONS

PSI

woduleX 4luesEfsed heisionEwking in qilne qold4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmISUVQGIFTG gesX RIERS gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4oioEehnil ystems in rofessionl heision wking4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRHPSGIFWG gesX RSESP gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4e hort ristory of the gorportion4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIUQIRGIFQG gesX SQETI gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4worl iologies in gorporte qovernne4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIUQSQGIFUG gesX TIEUH gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4hree iews of g @gorporte oil esponsiilityA4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIUQIVGIFTG gesX UHEVH gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4heory fuilding etivitiesX 4esponsiility nd snident t worles44 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmISTPUGIFUG gesX VHEVV gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG

PSP woduleX 4ithil sssues in isk wngement for fusiness4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIWHVSGIFIG gesX VVEWV gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4hi'erent epprohes to gorporte qovernne4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIUQTUGIFSG gesX WWEIIP gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4heveloping ithis godes nd ttements of lues4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRQIWGIFWG gesX IIPEIPQ gopyrightX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4irte gode for ingineering ithis4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVRWGIFIHG gesX IPQEIPW gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4gorporte ithis gompline y0er eport4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIVTRTGIFIG gesX IQHEIQS gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4feing n ithil to gndidte4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRRTVGIFWG gesX IQSEIRR gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG

ATTRIBUTIONS

ATTRIBUTIONS

PSQ

woduleX 4fiomtrix gse ixerises E tudent wodule4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmISIVUGIFIRG gesX IRSEITV gopyrightX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG fsed onX oysmrt gse ixerises E tudent wodule fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRUVWGIFIG woduleX 4qry wtters for the rughes eirrft gse4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRHQTGIFIRG gesX ITVEIVP gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4gse enlysis woduleX herEPS4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUTSGIFVG gesX IVPEIWH gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4oysmrt gse ixerises E tudent wodule4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRUVWGIFVG gesX IWHEPIQ gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG fsed onX ieg oolkit E tudent wodule emplte fyX tose eF gruzEgruzD illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPWIGIFWG woduleX 4ithis nd vptopsX sdentifying oil esponsiility sssues in uerto io4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRPSUGIFUG gesX PIQEPIV gopyrightX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4gse enlysis nd resenttionX whdo4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVIVGIFPG gesX PIVEPPR gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4rtil nd rofessionl ithis fowl etivityX pollowEp snEhepth gse enlysis4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUSWGIFIPG gesX PPSEPQR gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG

PSR woduleX 4ithis fowlX gses nd ore heets4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQVSPGIFTG gesX PQREPQV gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG woduleX 4uris for ixms nd qroup rojets in ithis4 fyX illim prey vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIRHSWGIFIUG gesX PQWEPRQ gopyrightX illim prey vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGQFHG woduleX 4elizing esponsiility hrough glss rtiiption4 fyX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vX httpXGGnxForgGontentGmIQUVVGIFTG gesX PRQEPRW gopyrightX illim preyD tose eF gruzEgruz vienseX httpXGGretiveommonsForgGliensesGyGPFHG

ATTRIBUTIONS

Business Ethics

fusiness ithis is derived opy from the gorporte qovernne ourse previously pulished in gonnexionsF hile mny ourses using this title ple emphsis on pplying lssil philosophil nd ethil theoryD this ourse9s pproh is deidedly interdisiplinry nd prtilF st is not designed s soioEhumnisti eletiveD servie philosophy ourseD or even n pplied philosophil ethis ourse ut s lortoryD skillsEsed ourse where students developD prtieD nd re(ne deisionEmking nd prolemEsolving strtegies tht they will rry with them into the world of usiness prtieF imphsis hs een pled on responding to the four ethil themes identi(ed y the eegf ethis tsk foreX ithil vedershipD ithil heisionEwkingD oil esponsiilityD nd gorporte qovernneF wodules inlude @IA theory uilding tivities @responsiE ilityD rightsD virtueAD @PA prolem spei(tion frmeworks emphsizing soioEtehnil system uilding nd nlogies with designD @QA spei( modules responding to eegf ethis themes @morl eologiesD orporte soil responsiilityD orporte governneD nd history of the modern orportionA nd @RA modules tht provide the ourse with pstoneD integrtive experiene @fusiness ithis fowlD oil smpt ttement eportsD nd gorporte ithis gompline y0er eportsAF hile quik glne shows tht this olleE tion holds more modules thn n possily e overed in single semesterD this pproh gives the user )exiility s to the method used for integrting ethis into the usiness dministrtion urriulumF wodules n e reomined into di'erent stndlone ourses suh s usiness ethisD usinessGgovernmentGsoietyD or environment of orgniztionsF ine eh module n e overed independentlyD they n e integrted into the usiness dministrtion urriulum s spei( interventions in minstrem usiness ourses in res like ountingD (nneD mngementD informtion systemsD humn resoures or o0e dministrtionF @sn ft mny hve een written for nd tested in these irumstnesFA fusiness ithis hs een developed through the xpEfunded projetD 4gollortive hevelopment of ithis eross the gurriulum esoures nd hring of fest rtiesD4 xp i HSSIUUWF

About Connexions

ine IWWWD gonnexions hs een pioneering glol system where nyone n rete ourse mterils nd mke them fully essile nd esily reusle free of hrgeF e re eEsed uthoringD tehing nd lerning environment open to nyone interested in edutionD inluding studentsD tehersD professors nd lifelong lernersF e onnet ides nd filitte edutionl ommunitiesF gonnexions9s modulrD intertive ourses re in use worldwide y universitiesD ommunity ollegesD uEIP shoolsD distne lernersD nd lifelong lernersF gonnexions mterils re in mny lngugesD inluding inglishD pnishD ghineseD tpneseD stlinD ietnmeseD prenhD ortugueseD nd hiF gonnexions is prt of n exiting new informtion distriution system tht llows for Print on Demand BooksF gonnexions hs prtnered with innovtive onEdemnd pulisher yy to elerte the delivery of printed ourse mterils nd textooks into lssrooms worldwide t lower pries thn trditionl demi pulishersF