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Exorcism in Modern Christianity

A Bibliography
Jamie Kollar LIS 620 April 14, 2011

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Rituals of possession and exorcism exist in some form in nearly every recorded religion. Because of this, it is impossible for any one work to cover all aspects of exorcism cross-culturally, and this bibliography does not attempt to do so. It focuses on the Christian tradition, both Catholic and Protestant, as well as the ways in which the two have intertwined in recent history, compensating for each others perceived shortcomings. Additionally, while this bibliography does provide basic biblical and early-modern history of exorcisms in the Christian tradition, particularly covering the institution of the Roman Ritual by the Catholic Church in 1614, it is not intended as a comprehensive history. Rather, its primary concern is the cultural resurgence in the 1970s (coinciding with the release of The Exorcist and Malachi Martins Hostage to the Devil) and onward, including the relatively recent institution of the Pontifical Universitys exorcist training program. Sources cover a variety of viewpoints, including those of Catholic exorcists, historical scholars, journalists, and a psychiatrist-cum-deliverance minister; however, there are no sources aimed explicitly at debunking diabolical possession, as I believe the various journalistic sources present enough information on the skeptical side. (There is, however, one article aimed at debunking a particular case of possession, included because that case is so well-known that it is worth looking critically at). Finally, while the majority of sources listed here are available to the casual researcher, I have listed a few (namely, those associated closely with the Vatican and the Catholic Church) which require more extensive credentials to access these are listed simply because they are too significant to ignore.

Over the course of Christian history, exorcisms have many times been written off as oldfashioned, outdated, or simply absurd. The Puritans argued that the age of miracles was over, and both possession and exorcism were things of the past; hundreds of years later, the Second Vatican Council quietly ignored exorcisms while revising the rest of the Roman Ritual, seemingly hoping that they would finish fading from the public consciousness and disappear altogether. But each time, belief in demonic possession has proved hardier than anyone anticipated, and while the perceived need for exorcisms may lessen, it has never died out entirely. Today, both the Catholic and evangelical traditions of Christianity have once again embraced the ritual of exorcism, and exorcisms are easier to obtain now than in any other time in recent memory. It is impossible to fully understand the current cultural phenomenon of exorcism without first looking at its history, particularly the beginnings of its recent resurgence; it is similarly impossible without discussing the aspects of possession, and of the exorcism ritual itself, which are consistent across Christian traditions. Below is a short overview of possession and exorcism in Christianity.

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A Brief History of Possession and Exorcism.

Early Modern History.
Prior to the 17th century, possession and exorcism were largely cultural, with little in the way of standardized church doctrine. While accounts of possessions in a particular area would generally have a certain similarity, there was a great deal of variety in both symptom and treatment across the Christian world. It was not uncommon for laymen to perform exorcisms in those days, apparently without condemnation from their priests. However, none of this sat particularly well with the Vatican, and Church officials began an attempt to exert a much stronger influence over all rituals of the Church, including the rite of exorcism. 1614 saw the publication of the Roman Ritual, which set up explicit rules for how exorcisms (and all other Church rituals and sacraments) were to be performed. It provided a script for exorcists, a mixture of prayers and adjurations of the devil; it also included lengthy instructions on how the exorcist ought to behave before, during, and after the ritual. Additionally, it took exorcism out of the hands of the laity, restricting it to specifically-appointed priests. Although individual exorcists made unofficial modifications to their own application of the ritual, cropping or embellishing it according to their own experiences, the official exorcism ritual existed essentially unchanged for the next three hundred and fifty years.

1960s: The Second Vatican Council.

The Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965 overhauled Church doctrine, updating and modernizing the Roman Ritual except for the part dealing with exorcisms. By this point in Church history, exorcisms had fallen largely out of favor; although they were still officially supported by the Vatican, many members of the clergy found them old-fashioned and even a bit embarrassing. In fact, even many Catholic priests debated the existence of an actual Devil, or actual demons perhaps references to the Devil in the Bible were a personification of evil, rather than a real, concrete figure. For these modern, forward-thinking clergymen, the idea of demonic possession and exorcism seemed distasteful at best. The exorcism rite could not be removed from the Roman Ritual, but it could be ignored until it faded from the public consciousness entirely.

1970s: Exorcism Goes Mainstream.

In 1973, director William Friedkin released The Exorcist, an adaptation of William Peter Blattys novel of the same name. Suddenly, possession and exorcism were thrust into the spotlight. The remainder of the decade saw a rush of possession-related films, including The Possessed, Abby, and even Kung Fu Exorcist (not to mention a sequel to Friedkins film, Exorcist II: The Heretic); a similar exorcism boom hit the publishing industry a few years later, beginning with Father Malachi Martins

Page |3 histrionic bestseller Hostage to the Devil. A ritual which had been sliding into obscurity was now a pop culture phenomenon, scaring the pants off of religious and non-religious moviegoers alike. And in the latter part of the decade, the real-life ritual also made its way into the headlines, when a German woman named Anneliese Michel died of malnutrition after ten months of exorcism sessions and both her parents and her exorcists were prosecuted for neglectful homicide. With this combination of dramatic fiction and even-more-dramatic fact, possession and exorcism had emphatically re-entered the public consciousness, and unsurprisingly, people began visiting their priests in much greater numbers, believing they were possessed and asking to be exorcized. With few officially-appointed exorcists and even fewer who had ever actually performed a solemn exorcism, the Catholic Church was unprepared for this sudden surge in need, and in the United States it fell to the evangelicals to pick up the slack. Exorcisms in the evangelical tradition (including the Pentecostal tradition) saw a dramatic increase; in fact, some Catholic priests have stated in interviews that when they were unable to get their dioceses approval for an exorcism, or simply unable to find an exorcist, they would sometimes quietly direct the person in need of an exorcism toward an evangelical priest who could perform one. With fewer rules and fewer restrictions, the evangelical tradition seemed like a perfect fit for a nation which had suddenly rediscovered demonic possession.

1980s-1990s: The Catholic Church Gets Caught Up.

Though the popular fervor died down, it did not die entirely. Several significant works on exorcism and possession (including Father Gabriele Amorths An Exorcist Tells His Story) were published in the 80s and 90s, indicating that while the 70s pop culture boom was over, interest in the subject was not gone. More importantly, among the faithful the need for exorcisms remained. This, along with a perceived rise in satanic cult activity in Italy, finally inspired the Catholic Church to catch up with the times and embrace the ritual of exorcism again. In 1998, the Vatican released a supplement entitled De Exorcismis et Supplicationibus Quibusdam, finally updating the Roman Rituals official rite of exorcism. However, not everybody in the Catholic community was happy with this revision. A number of veteran exorcists including Father Gabriele Amorth, exorcist of the diocese of Rome felt the revisions weakened the ritual, and openly preferred to continue using the old version. In their eyes, while it was good that the Catholic Church was once again wholeheartedly supporting exorcism, the ritual itself should have remained unchanged. (It probably did not help that the revised ritual was not immediately given any official vernacular translation, meaning that it had to be performed in Latin, while the old version could be performed in the priests native language; indeed, it still has not been translated, and some priests still prefer to use the old version for this reason).

2000s: An Exorcist in Every Diocese.

Page |4 Though exorcism had lost its black sheep status in the Catholic Church, and the formal ritual had finally been modernized, Catholic exorcisms were still somewhat difficult to come by. (Evangelical exorcisms, as always, were much less regulated and thus much easier). In 2004, taking a major step to correct this, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith sent a letter to every Catholic diocese worldwide, asking each bishop to appoint an official exorcist. That same year, the Regina Apostolorum, a Vatican-affiliated university in Rome, developed a training course for exorcists Exorcism and the Prayer of Liberation. Finally, thirty years after possession and exorcism had hit the mainstream again, the Catholic Church was ready to meet the need head-on.

Aspects of Possession and Exorcism.

Types of Diabolical Harassment.
While accounts vary slightly from expert to expert, in general there are considered to be four or five major stages of diabolical harassment in the Catholic tradition (evangelical traditions are not generally as specific). These stages make up what is known as the extraordinary activity of the Devil this is separated from ordinary activity, or day-to-day temptation. While they are basically arranged in order of increasing severity, they are not stages which a demonic attack on one particular person will necessarily progress through; a demonic attack can begin or end at any stage. The first stage is infestation, or the presence of demonic activity in a place or object. This can often result in what most people would refer to as a haunted house, with phenomena such as inexplicable moaning sounds, cold spots in certain rooms, and even levitation of objects. The second stage is oppression, or physical assault by a demonic entity; this often takes the form of scratches or lesions mysteriously appearing on the skin, or a feeling of being pushed by an invisible force. It can also manifest as a spate of unusually bad luck or bad health. (This stage is also called vexation by some experts). The third stage is obsession, a mental assault in which the victim is tormented with obsessive thoughts (often of violence or self-harm) and terrible nightmares. The fourth, and in some accounts last, stage is possession. This manifests in acute crisis points, during which the demon is fully in control of the victims body; between these outbursts are periods of calm, during which the victim is still possessed, but for the most part able to live normally. Finally, some experts list a fifth stage, voluntary subjugation. This refers to a willful and deliberate pact with the devil, in which case the person voluntarily allows themselves to become possessed. People who are voluntarily possessed rarely (if ever) seek out exorcisms.

Causes of Possession.
There are, according to most exorcists, a number of factors which can contribute to a person becoming possessed. One such factor, and one that is fairly common, is ties to the occult; participation

Page |5 in sances, involvement with a medium, use of magic, and the practice of satanic rituals, to name a few, can all bring a person into contact with the demonic. More directly, a person may be dedicated to a demon, either by their own choice (as a member of a satanic cult) or by a family member in exchange for demonic power (in which case the victim is considered blameless). Possession may also result from what priests call a life of hardened sin; essentially, a lifetime of choosing to do evil instead of good can open a person up to possession without any specific tie to the occult or the demonic. A person could also be the victim of a curse, something which is more commonly believed in the Catholic tradition, where stories of curses resulting in possession are relatively common. Finally, in the case of very holy people (including some of the Catholic saints), God may allow them to be possessed or tormented as a way of testing or proving their faith, ultimately allowing them to become more holy through their suffering. It is important to note that Christian tradition both Catholic and Protestant holds that the Devil cannot actively defy Gods will, and thus possession can only occur if God allows it. God is ultimately in control, and while the exorcism is important, the possession ends when God wills it to. Additionally, possession itself is not considered a sin; while a person may have committed sins which made them more vulnerable to demonic attack, they are not considered sinful simply because they are possessed, nor are they responsible for any actions the demon may force them to take.

Symptoms or Signs of Possession.

The outward signs of demonic possession vary from person to person, often making the diagnosis of possession quite difficult. While there are many common traits such as coughing, vomiting, extreme facial contortions, physical convulsions, and a dramatically altered voice (often much deeper and more aggressive) many of these do not manifest until the exorcism begins, making them less useful as diagnostic tools. There are, however, certain signs which exorcists say regularly and consistently appear after a person becomes possessed. First, the manifestation of superhuman strength (often, multiple people will be needed to restrain a possessed person during a moment of crisis). Next, the practice of speaking in tongues, or speaking languages the possessed person does not know. Next, the revelation of hidden knowledge which the possessed person could not have known (in some cases, the demon will taunt the exorcist with his own secrets). And finally, an aversion to holy symbols, often accompanied by fits of blasphemous rage. These four symptoms are considered the consistent symptoms of true possession,1 and date back to medieval times. There are, however, some once-common traits of possession which are no longer seen in the modern day. For example, many accounts of medieval exorcisms describe a lump moving beneath the possessed persons skin, something which modern exorcism accounts never report. While some symptoms are consistent and enduring, others seem to fall in and out favor.

Tracy Wilkinson, The Vaticans Exorcists: Driving Out the Devil in the 21 Century (New York: Warner, 2007), 25.


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Obtaining an Exorcism.
In the Catholic Church, all exorcists must receive official permission from their bishop before performing an exorcism. The Roman Ritual stresses the importance of being absolutely certain that the person truly is possessed before proceeding with the exorcism rite; physical illness, mental illness, and fraud must all be ruled out. For this reason, some priests require a psychiatric consult, and its not uncommon in modern days for a psychiatrist (usually a Catholic, but not always) to regularly consult with potential demoniacs in a particular diocese. Some priests prefer to begin with a deliverance prayer, during which the demon if indeed there is one will be compelled to manifest itself. Once the priest is convinced that this person truly does require an exorcism, he presents the case to the bishop of his diocese; if permission is granted, the exorcism can go forth. If not, regardless of the priests personal feelings in the matter, he is bound by Vatican doctrine and cannot perform the exorcism. Protestant exorcists, however, face no such restrictions, though many do still prefer to consult a psychiatrist beforehand and begin with a less formal deliverance prayer. If an evangelical minister believes an exorcism is warranted, he can perform one without waiting for permission from a higher authority. Accordingly, exorcisms are easier to obtain in evangelical traditions; it is not unheard of for a person who has been turned down by a Catholic priest, but still believes themselves to be possessed, to approach an evangelical exorcist instead (in fact, some Catholic exorcists who cannot obtain permission for what they believe is a valid exorcism will even direct the person to an evangelical minister). Prior to the start of an exorcism, many exorcists will have the possessed person and their family sign release forms; this is directly required in the Catholic Church, though not in most evangelical churches.

The Exorcism Ritual.

In the Catholic tradition, this is quite set in stone. The priest reads from the rite of exorcism contained in the Roman Ritual, which includes a number of prayers and Bible verses interspersed with formal adjurations of the demon. Often, priests will choose to perform the ritual in Latin; this prevents the victim, but not the demon, from understanding what is being said, and can avoid the possibility of the victim subconsciously giving the reaction they believe the priest expects of them at a particular point in the ritual. Not all priests are comfortable in Latin, however, and some choose to perform the ritual in their own native language. (For this reason, many priests still prefer the old ritual over the revised one the revised one has not yet received an officially-sanctioned translation from Latin). The Ritual discourages priests from performing exorcisms alone, suggesting that they work with a team of laypeople of strong faith if they cannot work with another priest, and particularly that they include a woman on their team if the possessed person is female. This is largely for practical reasons, rather than spiritual ones; as exorcisms are highly charged and physical encounters, it is wise to have at least one more witness to the ritual. As well, it is not uncommon for victims of possession to become violent or self-destructive during an exorcism, and they may need to be restrained to prevent them from harming themselves or the priest.

Page |7 During the exorcism, Catholic priests are allowed to ask only very specific questions of the demon or demons. Specifically, they may ask how many demons are possessing the person, what their names are, when they will depart, and what sign they will give to show that they have departed; in some cases, they will also ask when and how the possession first began. Beyond that, the Ritual specifically admonishes priests not to seek information, despite the fact that demons often display knowledge of hidden things (deliberately acquiring knowledge from a demonic source is a sin). Regardless of what the demon may say through the victim, the priest simply continues with the prayers and adjurations set down in the ritual. Veteran exorcists often skip around within the ritual, having learned through experience which parts are most effective for them, and will tailor the exorcism rite to their needs; this is not technically permitted by the Roman Ritual, and it is not encouraged for less experienced exorcists, but it is common and not generally frowned upon. Evangelical and Pentecostal exorcists have no equivalent of the Roman Ritual to guide them, and are more free to improvise. Individual priests develop their own pattern of prayer and adjuration. Although it is still generally considered unwise to ask too many questions of the demon, as demons are liars who will try to mislead the exorcist, questions in general are allowed. In particular, many evangelical exorcists will spend more time trying to determine how the possession began. It is also not uncommon for evangelical priests to perform exorcisms on a congregation, with those who are not suffering any form of possession or oppression assisting in the exorcism in the evangelical tradition, all believers are qualified to exorcize demons. In some of the more fringe charismatic groups, exorcisms can get far more violent and aggressive, and there are mainstream fears that some congregation members are simply bullied into accepting that they are possessed. For the most part, however, evangelical exorcisms are simply less rule-bound and less ritualized than their Catholic counterparts.

After the Exorcism.

While it is possible for a person to be completely freed from possession after one exorcism, it is not common. This is particularly true in the Catholic tradition; some evangelical traditions allow for lesser forms of possession, such as possession by a demon of greed or a demon of alcoholism, and these lesser forms are more likely to be exorcized with a simple deliverance prayer. For the most part, though, a single exorcism ritual is not a cure-all. The exorcism occurs at a crisis point, when the demon is actively influencing the possessed persons behavior; the session forces the demon to retreat, allowing the person to go back to their life, often with a greater measure of control and a sense of spiritual peace. It does not usually drive the demon out entirely. Generally speaking, the possessed person will continue to visit the exorcist for periodic sessions until they are freed from their demonic oppression; in some cases this takes only a few sessions, while in others it may go on for years. An exorcism is considered successful, particularly in the Catholic tradition, if the person leaves better able to function than they were before they arrived. One common significant result from an exorcism is a renewed ability to pray often, the demon will prevent the possessed person from praying or attending confession, or even going into a church,

Page |8 and the exorcism will restore the persons spiritual connection. It is important that the person continue to maintain that connection, to avoid sin and continually reject the demons influence; without the victims active participation, no number of exorcisms can succeed in completely driving out the demon. Both Catholic and Protestant exorcists agree on this. In one way, though, the Catholic Church is surprisingly non-dogmatic if the possessed person was not already Catholic when they became possessed, the Church does not consider it necessary that they convert (although, given their newly close relationship with Catholicism, many do). Some victims of possession continue receiving exorcisms for the rest of their lives, each time getting temporary relief from their condition, but never truly being freed from possession. Others are freed in weeks or months, and are not troubled by demonic activity again.

LC Subject Headings
Demoniac possession. Demoniac possession Case studies. Demonology. Discernment of spirits. Exorcism. Exorcism Case studies. Spirit possession. Of these, the most useful are Demoniac possession and Exorcism (and case studies for both); virtually all relevant works can be found under one or both of those subject headings. In some cases, relevant works will also be listed under Demonology, Discernment of spirits, or Spirit possession (in addition to Demoniac possession or Exorcism). However, a work listed under one of the latter three, but not one of the former two, is probably not relevant unless youre looking to place Christian exorcism in a broader cultural context. Simply, when it comes to possession and exorcism in the various Christian traditions, if you cant find it under Exorcism or Demoniac possession in LC, it probably doesnt exist.

Dewey Decimal Call Number Areas

133.42 Demonology 133.426 Demoniac possession 133.427 Exorcism of demons 202.16 Evil spirits 203.82 Rites and ceremonies

Page |9 264.02 Roman Catholic Church 265.94 Exorcism Of these, the most useful are Roman Catholic Church, Exorcism and the subsets of Demonology; which of these better suits your needs depends on whether youre looking for a more psychological (100s) or a more religious (200s) approach to the subject, and whether you want information related specifically to Catholicism. Information about Catholic exorcisms (such as Tracy Wilkinsons The Vaticans Exorcists) tends to be found under 264.02 and its subsets. The others are worth checking, but less common.

Almond, Philip C. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern England: Contemporary Texts and their Cultural Contexts. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Primarily a collection of historical case studies, this work puts a particular emphasis on the interaction between cultural setting and possession experiences. It also, in a lengthy introduction, gives an overview of the early modern English religious atmosphere and the associated history of exorcisms, focusing on the 16th and 17th centuries. Additionally, it talks about the ways in which descriptions of possession experiences have changed, citing commonly-reported symptoms (such as a running lump beneath the victims skin) which are no longer reported in the modern day this fits neatly with authors such as Michael W. Cuneo (discussed below) who talk about the impact of popular culture on the way possession commonly manifests. While the information here is purely historical, it provides needed context for more modern accounts, as well as early evidence that the possession experience is not as unchanging as it is sometimes described. Amorth, Gabriele. An Exorcist: More Stories. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2002. A collection of accounts from Fr. Gabriele Amorth, one of the most active and best known Catholic exorcists (and a follow-up to An Exorcist Tells His Story, mentioned below). Based on his own extensive experience, Fr. Amorth discusses what happens before, during, and after an exorcism; he explains the causes of possession, looking particularly at issues relevant to the modern day (he is not, for example, a supporter of heavy metal). He also discusses the difference between exorcism and deliverance prayers (a crucial difference in the Catholic Church), as well as giving advice for laymen and non-exorcist priests who wish to perform prayers of deliverance within the guidelines of the Catholic Church. Finally, the book includes a question and answer section, based on questions Fr. Amorth had received since the publication of his first book. --. An Exorcist Tells His Story. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999. As in his later An Exorcist: More Stories, Fr. Amorth combines personal accounts from his long career as an exorcist with instruction about exorcism and possession in the Catholic tradition. He discusses the history and purpose of the exorcism ritual, in particular the use of the diagnostic exorcism

P a g e | 10 (which is not described in the Roman Ritual, but which he believes is supported by the Rituals warning that an exorcist not be too quick to assume a demonic presence). Here, Fr. Amorth supports the idea that it is better to be safe than sorry an unnecessary exorcism, he says, has never harmed anyone, even if it merely confirmed that a person was not in fact possessed. He also discusses the intersection of possession and psychiatric illness; like many modern exorcists, he believes that the two often accompany each other, and recommends association with an open-minded psychiatrist. As in More Stories, Fr. Amorths personal experiences provide invaluable insight into the life and beliefs of a practicing exorcist. Baglio, Matt. The Rite: The Making of a Modern Exorcist. New York: Doubleday, 2009. A journalistic approach to modern-day exorcisms and training in the Catholic Church, and a solid choice for your first stop in exorcism research. Baglio follows an American priest, Father Gary Thomas, who accepts a request from his diocese that he travel to Rome and train as an exorcist in the Vaticans recently-developed training program. He chronicles Father Garys class time (including his difficulty finding a consistent English translator), his conversations with other exorcists-in-training, and his apprenticeship with a practicing Roman exorcist, Father Carmine; this account shows both the dramatic and the mundane aspects of Catholic exorcism. Concealing names and identifying details, Baglio presents real victims of possession and gives compelling accounts of their exorcisms. His approach is investigative, simply reporting Father Garys experiences without attempting to prove anything, making this (along with Cuneo and Wilkinson, discussed below) a rare unbiased resource. Cuneo, Michael W. American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty. New York: Doubleday, 2001. A journalistic look at the phenomenon of exorcisms in the United States. Cuneo begins in the 1970s, after the release of The Exorcist and Hostage to the Devil, and focuses somewhat on the popcultural aspect of exorcism specifically, the influence of film and popular literature on the increased public interest in exorcisms, and on the way in which both possessions and exorcisms manifest. Rather than dealing exclusively with Catholicism, as many exorcism sources do, Cuneo spends a good portion of the book discussing Pentecostal and evangelical exorcism culture; in particular, he discusses the discrepancy between the perceived public need for exorcisms in the 1970s and the limited availability of sanctioned Catholic exorcisms, and the increase in less formal evangelical exorcisms to fill that need. With firsthand interviews of many prominent figures, an intriguing discussion of the influence of popular culture on religious rites, and attention to the often less-discussed area of non-Catholic exorcisms, as well as an unbiased investigative approach, American Exorcism is an excellent introduction. De Exorcismis et Supplicationibus Quibusdam. Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004. The long-delayed revision of the ritual of exorcism contained in the Roman Ritual (or Rituale Romanum). While the majority of the Roman Ritual was revised during or shortly after the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, the ritual of exorcism was left unchanged until January 1998; scholars often argue that this was due to the rites black sheep status in the Catholic Church, as exorcism was considered old-fashioned and somewhat embarrassing even by many members of the clergy in the

P a g e | 11 1960s. However, this supplement has now officially replaced the previous ritual. Published in Latin, it does not yet have any official vernacular translations, although some unofficial translations do exist. Despite its official status, the revised ritual has met with criticism from many veteran exorcists, some of whom have simply chosen to continue using the old version. Goodman, Felicitas D. How About Demons? Possession and Exorcism in the Modern World. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988. A cross-cultural look at spirit possession and exorcism, with only a brief focus on possession in the Christian tradition. Goodman studies all forms of spirit possession, from the positive to the simply chaotic to the downright evil; touching briefly on loa possession in voudun, spirit possessions in South American traditional religions, and trickster spirits in Japanese religions, to name a few, she puts Christian demonic possession in a greater cultural context. She also discusses the Pentecostal practice of possession by the Holy Spirit (including glossolalia, or speaking in tongues), making some interesting parallels. Her focus is not on the question of whether or not these various spirits actually exist, but on the commonalities between cultures and the scientific realities of the possession experience. As such, she spends a great deal of time on what she calls the brain-mapping aspect of possession experiences and religious ecstasies, particularly comparing cultures where possession is a repeated and not necessarily negative experience (such as voudun) with cultures where its pathologized and non-routine (such as Catholicism). Her insights into glossolalia and its possible connections to the reports of possessed people speaking unknown languages are particularly valuable (Dr. Goodman was a highly respected expert in linguistics). Goodman makes an unusual attempt to separate the possession experience from its cultural trappings, something few writers on the subject of exorcism do; her book puts Catholic and Pentecostal exorcisms in a fascinating cultural context. Martin, Malachi. Hostage to the Devil: The Possession and Exorcism of Five Living Americans. New York: Readers Digest Press, 1976. Hostage to the Devil played a key role in the resurgence in popular awareness of exorcisms a bestseller at the time of its publication, coming shortly after the release of The Exorcist, it helped push exorcism back into the mainstream. However, it is recommended here for its cultural impact, rather than its factual accuracy, which has often been called into question. While some exorcists have stated that the cases he describes are representative, others have called them overblown or even wholly inaccurate. Fr. Martin himself is a somewhat controversial figure, afforded respect by some Catholic clergy and outright hatred by others; the truth about his own history is as uncertain as the truth about the cases he describes, and his outspoken disapproval of many changes to the Catholic Church makes it nearly impossible to find an unbiased account of him. Still, the impact of his book on popular culture and popular perception of exorcisms cannot be denied, and for that reason it is worth considering. Nicola, John J. Diabolical Possession and Exorcism. Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1974. Published right at the beginning of the 1970s popularity boom, Fr. Nicolas book provides a good look at the Catholic tradition of exorcism when exorcism was still the black sheep rite of the Catholic Church. He presents case studies dating back to the early days of exorcism, and details some of

P a g e | 12 the early history of the rite; while it is impossible to verify the authenticity of these early cases, they are nonetheless compelling and provide solid historical context for more current possession stories. Several chapters also deal with more routine stories of hauntings, covering the various explanations (psychological, paraphysical, spiritual, fraud) and placing exorcism in an interesting context. Fr. Nicolas discussion is a bit bogged down in early-seventies parapsychology, giving inordinate credence to things like spirit writing; however, he is a veteran exorcist himself, and his beliefs are in line with the profession at the time, making this something of a time capsule presentation. Peck, M. Scott. Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrists Accounts of Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption. New York: Free Press, 2005. A detailed case study approach to two cases of diabolical possession, from the perspective of a converted skeptic. Peck, a practicing psychiatrist, came in contact with Fr. Malachi Martin in the late 1970s; out of curiosity and a contrary desire to prove to himself that so-called demonic possessions were merely hysteria and fraud, he agreed to act as a psychiatric consultant on several cases of perceived demonic possession which Fr. Martin would send to him. Instead, two of the cases on which he consulted made a believer out of him. In this book, Peck presents both of those cases in detail what convinced him these women were possessed, how the decision to attempt an exorcism was made, and what happened during and after the exorcisms (which Peck himself performed). Although his conversion to believer in diabolical possession cost him much of his credibility in the psychiatric community (and although neither case is as convincing on paper as it surely was in person), this book provides a fascinating look into the process of becoming a believer. (It should be noted that although Fr. Martin is a Catholic priest, these exorcisms were performed in the evangelical tradition; no official sanction was given for either of them, and as a layman Peck is not qualified to perform a solemn Catholic exorcism. However, they are fairly representative of the evangelical tradition of exorcism). --. People of the Lie: The Hope for Healing Human Evil. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983. Pecks first brief discussion of the cases that would ultimately form the bulk of Glimpses of the Devil. This earlier work focuses primarily on the idea of human evil as a psychiatric condition, a character disorder; Peck only considers the question of spiritual or diabolical evil at the very end. This is, however, the beginning of his conversion from skeptic to believer, and it lays the groundwork for Glimpses of the Devils later elaboration. It also emphasizes the separation between diabolical possession and real human evil (possessed people, he believes, are victims of evil rather than being evil themselves, a point on which he agrees with the Catholic Church). As with anything associated with Fr. Malachi Martin (whose reputation has been discussed above), the credibility of People of the Lie is sometimes questioned however, the cases presented by Dr. Peck are still worth considering for the insight they provide into the more evangelical, less rule-bound approach to exorcism Peck embraces. The Rites of the Catholic Church: The Roman Ritual as Revised by Decree of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council and Published by Authority of Pope Paul VI. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1991.

P a g e | 13 The official publication of the revised Roman Ritual, updated after the Second Vatican Council. However, this publication still contains the old rite of exorcism, as the revised rite (De Exorcismis et Supplicationibus Quibusdam, discussed above) would not be published until 1998. Aside from occasional minor updates over the years (such as one in 1952), the exorcism ritual contained here dates back to the original Roman Ritual of 1614. While it has technically been superseded by the revised ritual, the exorcism ritual seen here is still commonly used by many priests who dislike the revisions. Additionally, this version of the ritual is officially available in English (the English text of the Roman Ritual, including the rite of exorcism, can be found here: http://www.ewtn.com/library/PRAYER/ ROMAN1.TXT and http://www.ewtn.com/library/PRAYER/ROMAN2.TXT, with the second part containing the exorcism ritual). Sluhovsky, Moshe. Believe Not Every Spirit: Possession, Mysticism, & Discernment in Early Modern Catholicism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. Focusing primarily on the 15th-18th centuries, this work studies the intersections between mysticism, spirit discernment, and possession and exorcism. Sluhovsky attempts to trivialize possession, showing it as a mundane part of life before the Catholic Churchs institution of the Roman Ritual; in particular, he emphasizes the fact that exorcisms were often carried out by laymen prior to the Roman Ritual, as well as by priests who were not officially sanctioned as exorcists. He shows how the Catholic Church imposed order on a previously rather chaotic aspect of religious life. Additionally, he focuses on the role of women in various aspects of possession and mysticism, from discerning women to possessions in convents to the sexual aspects of exorcism. (It should be noted that this is a particularly heavy and scholarly work, more recommended for readers with an existing understanding of exorcism, discernment, and theological history; it is, however, worth a look regardless of background). Wilkinson, Tracy. The Vaticans Exorcists: Driving Out the Devil in the 21st Century. New York: Warner Books, 2007. Another journalistic look at exorcisms in the Catholic Church, as well as a solid overview of the current debate within the Church over the concrete existence of demons and possession. Like Baglio, Wilkinson witnesses an exorcism and speaks with several people who are (or have been) possessed; rather than following one priest and chronicling his experiences, as in The Rite, she interviews several of the more famous modern exorcists, showing the different approaches and attitudes within the profession. She pays particular attention to the prolific exorcist Fr. Gabriele Amorth (whose own books are described above). Wilkinson also gives a great deal of history of both the phenomenon of exorcism and the Catholic Churchs belief in demons in general, helping to place modern attitudes toward exorcism in their proper historical context. Additionally, she discusses the rise in satanic cult activity in Italy, looking at it from both a religious and a law enforcement perspective. Finally, unlike many authors in this field (who are themselves true believers), she also touches on the more strictly skeptical side, including psychiatric explanations for all the major signs of possession and interviews with psychologists and sociologists. The Vaticans Exorcists is notable for its balanced approach, as well as its wide focus, relating the experiences of many practicing exorcists.

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Cruz, Gilbert. The Story of a Modern-Day Exorcist. Time (March 16, 2009). http://www.time.com/ time/nation/article/0,8599,1885372,00.html (accessed March 20, 2011). An interview with Matt Baglio, author of The Rite: The Making of a Modern Exorcist. Baglio gives a basic overview of his books findings: the intersection of exorcism and modern psychiatry, the marginalization of exorcists within the Catholic Church, and a description of what goes on during a Catholic solemn exorcism. He also briefly discusses the difference between the depreciatory exorcism prayer (asking God to bless the person) and the imperative prayer (commanding the demon to leave), something which has been the subject of some controversy in the Church the depreciatory prayer, a new addition in the revised ritual, has been criticized by some priests as weak and contrary to the spirit of the exorcism ritual. Although there is little in this interview that is not present in greater detail in Baglios book, it still provides a solid overview of the current state of exorcisms in the Catholic Church, and will probably answer many of the readers initial questions. Opsasnick, Mark. The Haunted Boy of Cottage City: The Cold Hard Facts Behind the Story that Inspired The Exorcist. Strange Magazine 20 (1999/2000). http://www.strangemag.com/ exorcistpage1.html (accessed March 20, 2011). An investigative look at the case that inspired The Exorcist, that of the boy known as Roland Doe. His name might not be that well-known (it is, after all, a pseudonym), but Rolands case might be one of the best known in recent history almost every book on exorcisms published during the midseventies boom references his story, and the idea of the true story that inspired The Exorcist has entered the public consciousness largely unchallenged. However, a close look at the various accounts shows numerous inconsistencies, and the identities of many involved have been deliberately obscured, making it difficult to conclusively tell fiction from fact. In this article, Opsasnick attempts to do just that. He pieces together what information there is, tracks down neighbors at every address ever reported as having been Rolands house (there are several in various articles), re-interviews priests involved in the exorcism, talks with Rolands friends at the time of his possession, and even manages to uncover Rolands identity and call him on the phone (he chooses not to reveal Rolands real name in the article, although several articles published since then have published it). Ultimately, he concludes that this was not in fact an actual case of demoniac possession just a disturbed, attention-seeking thirteen-year-old. While this article does not actually provide information about exorcism as a ritual, it does provide important context for dealing with the famous Roland Doe case (and is the primary reason why I have not included any of the often-fictionalized accounts of Rolands case in this bibliography). Tennant, Agnieszka. Exorcism Therapy: An Interview with Michael W. Cuneo, Author of American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty. Christianity Today (September 2001). http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2001/september3/2.49.html (accessed April 11, 2011).

P a g e | 15 This interview focuses on the cultural aspects of exorcism, discussing what makes possession and exorcism appealing to modern Americans. Cuneo describes possession as morally exculpatory: it gives people an excuse for their behavior, something he thinks current American culture encourages. (It should be noted that hes speaking primarily about the evangelical tradition, which promotes the idea of being troubled by a demon of anger or a demon of alcohol, and often performs deliverances in these cases). He also discusses the therapeutic aspects of exorcism, regardless of whether demonic possession is in fact a real thing, suggesting that exorcism can be empowering and uplifting for people who believe their troubles to be the result of possession. Although largely a retread of American Exorcisms content, this interview distills many of Cuneos points and is certainly worth a read. X, Father. The New Rite of Exorcism: The Influence of the Evil One. The Latin Mass Magazine (Summer 2002). http://www.latinmassmagazine.com/articles/articles_2002_SU_Father_X.html (accessed April 11, 2011). Credited only to Father X, this article discusses objections to the revised exorcism rite published in the New Roman Ritual, as well as outlining the major differences between the old rite and the new. Dislike of the new rite is surprisingly common among Catholic exorcists, particularly among those with a long career behind them; they find the new ritual less powerful, and many in fact choose to continue using the old rite.

Neff, David (ed. in chief). Christianity Today Magazine. Christianity Today International. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/. Not fully devoted to possession and exorcism, but Christianity Today Magazine has published several recent related articles, including an interview with American Exorcism author Michael W. Cuneo. It also provides insight into the evangelical mindset, helping to put exorcisms in the evangelical tradition in their proper context. Scherer-Edmunds, Meinrad (executive ed.). U.S. Catholic. Claretian Publications. Covering the Catholic perspective, U.S. Catholic also contains a few recent articles related to exorcism (once again, including an article by Michael W. Cuneo). Again, it is not devoted entirely to possession and exorcisms, but its a good overview of current Catholic thought. Yong, Amos and Dale Coulter (eds.). Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies. Brill. http://brill.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/brill/pne. And finally, Pneuma deals with the Pentecostal perspective. Once again, its a general religious studies journal rather than one devoted exclusively to possession and exorcisms, but there are several recent exorcism articles.

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Audio and Visual Recordings

An Evening with an Exorcist. Audio Sancto MP3 file, 54:47, http://www.audiosancto.org/sermon/ 20081007-An-Evening-with-an-Exorcist.html (accessed March 25, 2011). Firsthand account from an anonymous Catholic exorcist (as a rule, Audio Sancto does not provide the names of any of the priests whose sermons they archive). The speaker discusses the biblical background and theological motivation for exorcism, giving valuable religious history, before moving into an account of his own experiences as a practicing exorcist and walking the listeners through what happens during the exorcism ritual. In addition to the more spiritual aspects, such as how a person becomes spiritually vulnerable to possession, he also takes on the completely practical aspects of performing exorcisms for example, he recommends using a wooden cross rather than a metal one, in case the possessed person grabs it and hits you with it. Finally, he discusses the late 90s revision of the exorcism ritual, adding himself to the list of veteran exorcists who feel the revisions weakened the ritual as a whole. (It should be noted that while the majority of this recording is an interesting firsthand discussion of exorcism, the final fifteen minutes or so are a deeply unpleasant tirade against abortion, which he calls child sacrifice to the roaring approval of his audience I recommend switching the recording off around 44:45, as there is really no useful information in this final segment). Blatty, William Peter. The Exorcist. DVD. Directed by William Friedkin. Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers, 1973. This is, obviously, a work of fiction, based on an allegedly true story that has (in the Opsasnick article described above) been possibly debunked. However, the impact of The Exorcist on popular culture of the 1970s cannot be overstated; together with Malachi Martins Hostage to the Devil, it seems to have been the driving force behind the sudden resurgence in interest in possession and exorcism. For this reason alone, it is worth watching. Additionally, veteran exorcist Fr. John J. Nicola served as a consultant on the film, and has stated (in his book Diabolical Possession and Exorcism, described above) that with the exception of the crucifix violation scene, which he calls gratuitous and purely for shock value, its depiction of exorcism is remarkably accurate. (Other experts in the field have called it overly dramatic and exaggerated, however). While its authenticity is debatable, its impact is clear, and its portrayal of the exorcism ritual has dramatically influenced public perception. Dokowicz, Lech, and Maciej Bodasiski. Egzorcyzmy Anneliese Michel [The Exorcism of Anneliese Michel]. DVD. Directed by Maciej Bodasiski. Poland: Polska, 2007. This Polish documentary covers the now-famous Anneliese Michel exorcism and ensuing wrongful death trial. It provides interviews with Annelieses family and the priests who performed the exorcisms, as well as another Catholic priest who gives background information about exorcism. While the documentarys bias is fairly obvious there is no attempt to suggest that Anneliese was not in fact possessed, and only the perspective of her family and priests is provided it provides a compelling look into the mindset behind her case. Audio tapes of her final exorcism make the documentary somewhat

P a g e | 17 morbidly fascinating as well. Unfortunately, Egzorcyzmy Anneliese Michel is not currently available in the United States, or with official English subtitles; it is, however, available on YouTube (from user brugner) with amateur English captions. MalachiMartinAudio. Malachi Martin 1-9of9: The nature of evil / Exorcism, possession, YouTube video, 1:28:14, http://www.youtube.com/user/MalachiMartinAudio#p/a/664F33ED1CA8642E/ 0/Xhnr0VC3Fio (accessed April 11, 2011). In this audio interview, Fr. Malachi Martin (previously discussed above) discusses possession and the nature of evil, including the question of why so many modern theologians struggle with (and even reject) the idea of an actual Devil. In keeping with his often-expressed objection to what he saw as the increasing secularization of the Catholic Church (the cause of a fair amount of the controversy surrounding him), he takes these theologians to task for their lack of faith, even accusing many modern Catholic clergy of apostasy. He discusses the ease of losing ones faith, and the tactics Satan can use to undermine a believers faith when possession isnt an option; then, he talks about Satanism and the Black Mass. Beginning in part five, he relates his experiences as an exorcist, with an emphasis on the personal (spiritual) danger the exorcist himself is placed in during an exorcism and the manipulative nature of the possessing demons. Granted, Fr. Martins reputation precedes him, but this is a compelling account of his career, and the beliefs he espouses here are largely in keeping with those professed by the Catholic Church as a whole. (All nine parts of the interview can also be found archived here: http://newcovenantjournal.blogspot.com/2010/07/nature-of-evil-exorcism-possession.html)

Organizations and Institutions

American Association of Exorcists. http://americanexorcists.com/ (accessed April 11, 2011). Founded in 2003, the American Association of Exorcists provides a network for those involved in exorcism or deliverance ministry, as well as serving as a resource for victims of possession. It also provides a licensing program to become an exorcist or spiritual warfare minister in the evangelical tradition. Unlike the far more secretive International Association of Exorcists (discussed further down), the American Association is open to those outside the ministry who are simply seeking information; this is referred to as supportive membership. While the training course seems questionable to this secular observer (at one point suggesting that students cite Wikipedia or Conservapedia), the Association itself can be a valuable resource for firsthand information on the evangelical tradition of exorcism and deliverance. Ateneo Pontifico Regina Apostolorum/Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum. http://www.upra.org/ (accessed April 11, 2011). The Regina Apostolorum is the Vaticans university, dedicated to religious research and the training of Christian leaders, particularly members of the clergy. More importantly, it is the home of the recently-developed exorcist training course. For anyone interested in learning more about the course

P a g e | 18 (or even participating, courses at the Apostolorum are open to the laity), the website provides an overview of its content as well as contact information. The sites command of English leaves something to be desired, but the content is easy enough to understand. (Since the site can be somewhat difficult to navigate, here is the link chain that will lead you to the course itself: Home Institutes and centres Inst. Sacerdos Corsi V Course on the ministry of exorcism). International Association of Exorcists. Founded in 1992 by six Roman Catholic priests (including the famous Fr. Gabriele Amorth, now the honorary president), the International Association of Exorcists is exclusive and somewhat secretive. Membership is open only to priests authorized by their bishop to act as exorcists (who may join only with their bishops permission) and the medical professionals who assist them (called auxiliaries); the Association meets every two years for what Tracy Wilkinson describes as a secret exorcists convention. (It does not have official support from the Vaticans Congregation for Divine Worship, apparently because of uncertainty over its membership). In addition to exorcists conventions, the Association publishes a quarterly newsletter (which Michael Cuneo calls worth the price of admission). Unfortunately, little of this information is available to the public, as the Association stringently polices its membership; I would, however, be remiss if I did not at least mention its existence. Vatican Library. http://www.vaticanlibrary.va/ (accessed April 11, 2011). The Vatican Library is a premier source for information about anything to do with the Catholic Church, containing many works which are not available anywhere else. It is, however, difficult to access; visiting the Vatican Library requires extensive academic qualifications, generally above graduate level, and is permitted for serious research purposes only. Prospective visitors must submit their qualifications (including an outline of their intended research) to the Admissions Office, and must be granted a readers pass before entering the Library. Consultation of manuscripts (as opposed to printed books) requires further special authorization. For those with the proper credentials and a willingness to travel in the name of research, though, its an invaluable resource.

Currently, there are no publishers who deal exclusively or even primarily in works about possession and exorcism. There are, however, several publishers whose previous track records make them worth keeping an eye on. First, and most obvious, is the Libreria Editrice Vaticana (http://www.libreriaeditricevaticana.com/), which is dedicated to publishing Papal and Vatican documents, including De Exorcismis et Supplicationibus Quibusdam. While the majority of their output is not exorcism-related, any official rituals, revisions, or mandates from the Catholic Church will be published here. Next is Ingatius Press (http://www.ignatius.com/), the Catholic publishing company responsible for both of Father Gabriele Amorths books. Liturgical Press (http://www.litpress.org/) is another Catholic publishing company, which put out one binding of the revised Roman Ritual (prior to the revision of the exorcism rite). Finally, in the secular publishing world, Doubleday (http://doubleday.

P a g e | 19 knopfdoubleday.com/) published both Matt Baglios The Rite and Michael W. Cuneos American Exorcism; it seems likely that if another journalistic work on exorcisms is published in the next few years, it will come from them. (It is probably worth noting that many books on exorcism, particularly many of those published in the 1970s, come from small independent publishers).