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TYPES OF RESEARCH METHOD

1. HISTORICAL - comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, such as secondary sources and tertiary sources, to research and then to write history. The question of the nature, and indeed the possibility, of sound historical method is raised in the philosophy of history, as a question of epistemology. The following summarizes the history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. Garraghan divides criticism into six inquiries 1. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)? 2. Where was it produced (localization)? 3. By whom was it produced (authorship)? 4. From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)? 5. In what original form was it produced (integrity)? 6. What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?

2. COMPARATIVE - is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make


comparisons across different countries orcultures. A major problem in comparative research is that the data sets in different countries may not use the same categories, or define categories differently (for example by using different definitions of poverty).

3. DESCRIPTIVE - also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about
the population or phenomenon being studied. However, it does not answer questions about e.g.: how/when/why the characteristics occurred, which is done under analytic research.

4. CORRELATION a statistical measure of a relationship between two or more variables, gives an indication of how one variable may predict another.

5. EXPERIMENTAL - is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables.

6. EVALUATION - the use of scientific research methods to plan intervention programs, to monitor
the implementation of new programs and the operation of existing programs, and to determine how effectively programs or clinical practices achieve their goals.

7. ACTION - is a research model that follows accomplishment and studying at the same time. It is typically utilized in conditions where an accomplishment is likely to be the outcome of a change management process. The intention of the researcher in using this research method is to have both action outcomes and research outcomes in which to improve a process.

8. ETHNOGRAPHIC - as a research method, ethnography is used in many disciplines, among them


anthropology, political and social studies, education, and others. Because ethnography is the study of cultures, before going any further, it is important to define the word culture.

9. FEMINIST - is a means of conducting of scientific investigations and generating theory from an


explicitly Feminist Standpoint. Feminist methodologies are varied, but tend to have a few common aims or characteristics. These common aims include seeking to overcome biases in research, bringing about social change, displaying human diversity, and acknowledging the position of the researcher. Each of these methods must consist of different parts including: collection of evidence, testing of theories, presentation of data, and room for rebuttals. The importance of feminist methods are in how the research is obtained and how it helps the feminist movement. How research is scientifically backed up affects the results. Like Consciousness Raising, some feminist methods affect the collective emotions of women, when things like political statistics are more of a structural result. When knowledge is either constructed by experiences, or discovered, it needs to both be reliable and valid.

10. CULTURAL a cross-disciplinary endeavour that applies a range of methods concerned with
researching the ways in which social groups express their place in the world and hence the meaning of culture in all its diverse forms. The impact and meaning of culture has long been an issue that has fascinated, and to a degree, mystified, researchers from a wide range of disciplines including Sociology, Cultural Studies, Politics, Economics, Human Geography and the Humanities. Cultural research is concerned with the properties associated with a concept, namely culture, that is constantly being revised by courtesy of the fact it is itself the product of on-going social change.