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Literature survey

Time Temperature Transformation Diagram:


To study the behavior of transformation of austenite and resultant phases, Davenport and Bain first introduced the isothermal transformation study and found that by studying the transformation below A1 isothermally, a characteristic curve can be obtained. This type of curve which illustrate the transformation of austenite as a function of time at constant temperature is called TTT, or isothermal transformation diagram. These curves may have a C or S shape. This curve depends upon steel composition but the grain size of austenite and the presence of inclusions or other inhomogenities can also change the shape of TTT diagram. Usually these factors are neglected.[1] vigindra sing Temperature plays an important role in determining the rate of transformation of austenite to pearlite. The temperature dependence for eutectoid composition is shown in fig.2.1, which plots S-shape curves of percentage transformation versus logarithm of time at three different times. Each curve was obtained by rapid cooling a specimen of 100% austenite to that temperature at which transformation is studied.

For an ironcarbon alloy of eutectoid composition (0.76 wt% C), Isothermal fraction reacted versus the logarithm of time for the austenite-to-pearlite transformation. [2] calistor
Figure 2.1

A complete representation of this time and temperature relationship is shown in fig.2.2. Here, vertical axes and horizontal axes represent temperature and time respectively. Two curves are

shown, one shows the start and completion of transformation and other is for transformation conclusion. The dashed curve shows 50% completion of transformation of austenite to pearlite. Theses curves were obtained from a series of plots of the percentage of transformation versus logarithm of time taken for different temperature. The upper S curve shows how the data is transferred from S curves to C curve.

Figure 2.2

Demonstration of how an isothermal transformation diagram (bottom) is generated from percentage transformation-versus logarithm of time measurements (top). [Adapted from H. Boyer, (Editor), Atlas of Isothermal Transformation and Cooling Transformation Diagrams, American Society for Metals, 1977, p. 369.]

Steps to develop a TTT Diagram:

The following steps are followed to determine isothermal diagram of 1080 eutectoid composition. Step 1. Cut large number of samples from same bar and prepare them. Use any method for handling the samples, best method of handling is using a wire threaded through a hole in the sample. This is shown in fig 2.3. Step 2. Determine the austenizing temperature which will be above 50C of eutectoid temperature Ae1 line. Place the samples in furnance at this temperature and hold them untill the whole sturucture become austenite(soaking time). Step 3. Transfer the samples in a molten salt bath or furnance which is held at constant subcritical temperature which will be a temperature below Ae1 line. Step 4. After different time intervals, each sample is quenched in cold water.

Step 5. After cooling , hardness was measured of each sample and studied its
microstructure. Step 6. These all steps are repeated for different subcritical temperatures untill sufficient points are determined so that a curve can be plotted on the diagram. Steps 3,4,5 are shown schematically in fig 2.4. Sample 1 was taken out after 30s at 704C and quenched, it showed 100% martensite at room temperature. Since only martensite was present, it means that there was only martensite present and no transformation occur. Sample 2 was taken out after 6h at 704C and quenched, it showed 5% transformation of austenite to pearlite and 95% martensite was present at room temperature. In this case pearlite formed was coarse pearlite. Following same reasoning, it was shown that in sample 6, transformation was comleted after 66h. Isothermal curve at 704C and microstructures at room temperature are shown in fig 2.5. [3]