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William McKeever

Nutrition Education

Hw 2

Behaviorism Classical Major Theorist(s): Watson & Pavlov Focused Sentence: Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through repeat pairings with an unconditioned stimulus to create a conditioned response. Major Concept: Learning occurs through association of stimuli with new meanings. The classic example is taking a physiological pairing such as the sight of food (US) causing Salivation (UR) and pairing it with something otherwise unrelated, like the sound of a bell (NS). If one rings a bell (NS) before presenting food (US) and this pairing is repeated, eventually the neutral stimulus of the bell will become a conditioned stimulus that creates salivation, now a conditioned response (CR) even in the absence of food. Learning Curve Baseline: previous stimuli pairs, appropriate biological USs Acquisition: pairing 2 stimuli US, CS) together for a number of trials Maintenance: continue to pair the US w/ the CS Extinction: Cease the stimulus pairings Operant Major Theorist: Skinner Focused Phrase: conditioning a response through positive or negative reinforcement. Major Concept: Learning occurs through behavioral change. This change/learning is brought about through consequences (Rf) attached to specific behaviors. Negative reinforcers (e.g. electric shock when you do something bad) decrease a behavior. Positive reinforcers (e.g. a treat when you do something good) increase a behavior. Learning Curve Baseline: previous Rf and P history Acquisition: application of a contingency of Rf +/or P in natural environment Maintenance: continued exposure to a Rf or P contingency Extinction: reversal of Rf or P contingency

William McKeever

Nutrition Education

Hw 2

Connectionism Major Theorist: Thorndike Focused Phrase: Learning through trial and error. Combines behavioral and operant. Major Concept: Centers on: The Law of Effect- Behavior will be increased if it is rewarded with a beneficial effect and decreased if followed by a negative effect. The Law of Readiness- the reinforcement is born of a sequence of events that will upset the subject if blocked. Connection with the end result satisfies the subject. The Law of Exercise- Learned connections are strengthened through practice and weakened through disuse. Learning Curve Baseline: previous S-R connections w/ Rf Acquisition: satisfying S-R connections w/ Rf Maintenance: practice of S-R connections w/ Rf Extinction: practice is discontinued or Rf is removed from S-R connections Social Learning Major Theorist: Bandura Focused Phrase: People learn through modeling others in behavior, attitude and emotion. This theory bridges Behavioral and Cognitive models. Major Concept: People learn through: Attention- observing every facet of the person modeling a behavior including the response from contextual environment Retention- cognitive and symbolic coding of the event and rehearsal of the event blending symbolic thought with motor movement Motor Reproduction- Performing the modeled behavior and observing oneself Motivation- The system of positive or negative reinforcement that comes from modeling the behavior. Learning Curve Baseline: previous history of S-R pairings and cognition related to pairings

William McKeever

Nutrition Education

Hw 2

Acquisition: S-R contiguity and cognitive mediation (thinking & cognition) Maintenance: continued S-R contiguity and cognitive mediation w/in learners environment Extinction: eliminate the S-R contiguity and dont think about the model Cognitivism Gestalt Major Theorist: Koffka, Kohler, Wetheimer Focused Phrase: Grouping new knowledge into existing schemas Major Concept: New information is grouped based upon previous templates. Grouping occurs based on four primary factors: Proximity: according to nearness Similarity: Items that have something in common Closure: Items grouped together because they complete some entity Simplicity: items organized into simple figures to maintain continuity These factors guide perception to create templates for understanding and organizing what we are learning. Because of this, our past templates often act as a filter that skews our perception towards that which we are already familiar. Learning Curve Baseline: Previous history of perceptual templates Acquisition: Successful grouping with existing templates Maintenance: Consistent organization of templates Extinction: Loss of grouping organization Cognitive Development Major Theorist: Piaget Focused Phrase: Learning through adaptation to the environment and then returning to equilibrium. Major Concept: Adaptation- Assimilation and Accommodation Assimilation- Using existing cognitive structures to interpret events Accommodation- Changing your cognitive structure to make sense of the environment. Stages of Development Sensorimotor (0-2): learn through senses, Language begins to take form Preoperational (3-7): trial & error solver; focus on 1 stimulus at a time, egocentric

William McKeever

Nutrition Education

Hw 2

Concrete (8-11): reason on perception, reversible thinking, concrete object Formal (12+): abstract, problem solve Implications for Learning Sensorimotor (0-2): touch,feel,taste Preoperational (3-7): active experiences Concrete (8-11): classifying, ordering concrete objects, discuss, games Formal (12+): case studies Learning Curve Baseline: Existing cognitive structures Acquisition: appropriate stage situations/ activities that require adaptation Maintenance: Continued adaptation with equilibrium Extinction: loss of equilibrium Information Processing Major Theorist: Miller,Glaser,Anderson,Ausubel Focused Phrase: Strategies for taking in information successfully and remembering what you learn. Major Concept: Chunking- grouping items together to remember many things in 1 chunk. No more than 7 chunks (+- 2) at a time in short term memory. Chunks get larger with sophistication. TOTE- Test Operate Test Exit Sensory store Short Term Memory Long Term Memory 3 Types of Knowledge Declarative Knowledge-Knowing what Procedural Knowledge- Knowing how Working Knowledge- Knowing why and when Learning Curve Baseline: Existing schematic structures Acquisition: New and accommodation of old schematic to harmonatze with new Maintenance: New is anchored to old, to what is already known Extinction: in new is not easily anchored to existing schematic representations

William McKeever Constructivism Cognitive Major Theorist: Bruner

Nutrition Education

Hw 2

Focused Phrase: Learners construct their own knowledge Major Concept: Here student is at the center constructing their own new ideas from a palate of learning opportunities. They build on their own existing schemas. Instruction addresses the students predisposition towards learning, how to structure a body of knowledge to make learning easier, the most effective sequence in which to present the material, and the nature and pacing of rewards and punishment. Learning Curve Baseline: prior history of events, conceptions Acquisition: association of new events with background knowledge and prior conceptions with a change in existing structures to adapt to new information Maintenance: individual striking a balance between the internal and external Extinction: the experience of a new event - no balance between assimilation and accommodation Social Major Theorist: Vygotsky Focused Phrase: Knowledge is co-constructed through our social environment. Major Concept: This theory focuses on the volition of the learner to learn through interacting with his/her environment, often in specific social contexts. The teaching style is supportive, allowing room for self-discovery of competence. Learner builds on what they already know and the teacher is like a coach. Learning Curve Baseline: prior history of events, conceptions Acquisition: association of new events w/background knowledge and prior conceptions w/ a change in existing structures to adapt to new information Maintenance: individual striking a balance b/t the internal and external Extinction: the experience of a new event - no balance b/t assimilation and accommodation