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GEOL*4090 LOGGING SEDIMENTARY OUTCROPS AND CORES Graphic logs are visual representations of the information you collect

about the outcrop (see attached example). It should summarize the following: 1. Thickness of units (vertical axis) 2. Texture (average grain size-horizontal axis) 3. Lithology 4. Sedimentary structures 5. Fossils 6. Diagenetic features 7. Contacts between units 8. They may also contain additional descriptions, notes, measurements and so on if required Guidelines for logging a section 1. Examine the outcrop from a distance to establish where the major changes and breaks in sediment types are. Sketch a general view of the outcrop showing the major breaks and geometry of the units you see (Fig. 1) 2. Establish and describe accurately the most typical sediment types (facies). Usually you will have 5-6 fundamental types and a lot of variations. Describe the most characteristics types (facies). Name these facies with pre-established codes (like those of Miall shown in Figure 2) or make up your own mnemonic ones. Keep the description short and to the point. You can do this in paragraph form illustrated with sketches and photographs and/or you can set up a summary table (see example below) (Fig. 3) In the description make sure you note the following. Lithology. Composition of grains and cement/matrix. Mean grain size, sorting, shape, fabric. Degree of cementation or weathering. Bedding Geometry. Thickness, including lateral variation. Are beds sheet-like, lenticular, etc.? Nature of upper and lower boundaries (erosional, sharp, gradational, etc...) Sedimentary Structures. Describe internal and external structures, including their dimensions, orientations, spatial variation, etc. If difficult to see, collect a sample for laboratory analysis. Direction Indicators. Record direction azimuth separately for each structure. If regional dip exceeds approximately 15, a correction is required to obtain the true paleocurrent azimuth. Fossils. Identify body and trace fossils, and collect samples if possible. Record variation in size and shape, abundance and spatial distribution, orientation, sediment-fossil and fossil-fossil associations, nature of preservation.

3. Measure (from the bottom up) and describe the most characteristic exposed vertical sections. Such sections will be composed of stacked up beds (units, facies associations) containing the sequences of facies you have selected, but some will show variations from the types you have selected and described in detail. So as you measure and describe the sequence, note the facies you encounter pointing out any differences from the type you selected (for example average grain size, slightly different sedimentary structures, paleocurrents directions, and so on). Note that facies associations (units) may repeat several times in the section and they may be separated by erosional or other major breaks. Carefully note these facies associations and the breaks. They represent respectively the environments and changes that occurred during deposition. Try to describe things as you see them without bias. However in the field you may start formulating an idea of what type of environment and hydrodynamic conditions produced the sediments. 4. Once you have collected your field data, draw up your logs following the examples provided (Figs. 4,5,6,7), indicating diagrammatically the sediment unit you have identified, thickness, grain size, sedimentary structures and other major features, using standard symbols or making your own if needed. Make sure that your log has a legend describing the meaning of the symbols used. Add any extra measurement you made such as paleocurrents directions fossils if any, and brief explanatory additional notes. You may add very simple sketches of unusual features that are difficult to describe in words. Use a shorthand facies symbols in a column. Make sure that your log is to scale. Figure 1. (From Nichols,1999)

Figure 2. Suggested Facies Codes (After Miall, 1978)

Figure. 3. Example of Facies table

Figure 4. Example of a form for stratigraphic/sedimentologic log (from Nichols, 1999)

Figure 5. Example of sedimentologic log

Figure 6. Example of interpreted log

Figure 7. Standard symbols used in straigraphic/sedimentologic logs

Figure 8. Examples of sand and gravel fluvial sequences (after Miall, 1978). These are simplified versions for comparison of different fluvial systems only. As a result they are missing some information.

Figure 9. Example of a panoramic picture of a sand and gravel pit face [Lesley Pit (Right side of upper picture ties with left side of the lower one)]

REFERENCES Miall, A.D. 1978. Lithofacies types and vertical profile models in braided river deposits: a summary, In: Miall, A.D. (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary, Memoir 5, pp. 578586. Nichols, G., 1999. Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. Blackwell Science, Osney Mead, Oxford. pp 62-75 (Environments and facies)