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Learn Sanskrit Through English Medium


LEARN SANSKRIT
Through English Medium

A SYSTEMATIC TEACHING AND SELF-LEARNING TOOL







Ratnakar Narale













KALIDAS SANSKRIT UNIVERSITY
NAGPUR, INDIA




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INDEX
anukraman<ika@
~-|>||||+

INTRODUCTION ||-|:||-|| xii
The anus>t>ubh metre ~-|+|-~-=: xvii

BOOK 1
LEARN TO READ & WRITE SANSKRIT
Lesson 1 The Sanskrit Alphabet | -||||||| 3
Lesson 2 Reading Sanskrit (Pronunciation) --|||: 5
Lesson 3 The Sanskrit Characters | -||||: 8
Vowels ||: 8
Consonants ~|~|-|||-| 10
Sound Strings from S}iva ||z|||| ||||| 12
Word endings |=|--||: 15
Lesson 4 Writing the Sanskrit Consonants ~|~|-|||-| 17
|. |. (va, ba, ka) ; |. |. ~. | (pa, s< a, pha, n< a) 18
-|. -|. |. |. +| (ta, na, ga, ma, bha; -|. |. ~|. | (c{a, ja, n~ a, la) 19
. |. |. | (ra, sa, kha, s{a) ; t|. t|. ~ (gha, dha, c{ha) 20
~|. | +|. |. ~ (ya, tha; ks< a, jn~ a, l> ),
. :. . =. <. . z. ;| (t> a, t>ha, d<ha, da, d< a, ha, jha) 21
Lesson 5 Writing the Sanskrit Vowels ||: 22
~. ~|. ~|. ~| (a, a@ , o, au) ; ,. , (i, &) 22
. ~. +. (. |. | (u, u@, r<, r< {, lr<, lr< {) ; }. } (e, ai) 23
Lesson 6 Writing the Vowel-Signs ||-|r||-| 24
Application of Vowel-signs 25



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Anusvara and Avagraha ~-|||: ~||z: -| 26
Rules for Sanskrit to English Transliteration with diacritical marks 27
Lesson 7 Writing Compound Consonants with : 31
, | ; |. t|. . (k, kh, g, gh, n[,) 33; -|. ~. |. ~|. . :. <. . |. -|. |. t|. (c[ , c{h, j[, jh, n~,
t> , t>h, d< m d<h,[ n< , t, th, dh) 34; -|. |. ~. |. +|. |. ~|. |. |. | (p, ph, b, bh, m, y, l, v, s{) 35;
|. |. z (s> , s, h) 36
Lesson 8 Writing Special Compound Characters |~||=|: 37
~-|. (kta); . . . ,. .. . . ; (dr<a, dda, ddha, dga, dbha, dya, dma, dva) 37; >.
|. ~. |. . . (kra, gra, s{ra, tra, tra, sra, stra) 38; . | -| -| ~ (rka, rpa, tta, ttva,
nna) 39
Lesson 9 Rapid Reading : |lt||:-|| 46
The Sanskrit Language | -|+|||| 46
Ra@ma@yan<am |||~||| 48
A Devotional Song +|||l-|| 49
Maha@bha@ratam |z|+||-|| 50
The G&ta@ |l-|| 51
I am S}iva ||||z| 52
Obeisance to Motherland |-= ||-|| 53
The Ga@yatr& Chant ||~||l-||: 54


BOOK 2
UNDERSTAND SANSKRIT, EASY WAY
Lesson 10 Introduction to Sandhi ||-t|: 57
Compounding Vowels |||-t|: 57
Compounding Consonants ~|~|-|||-t|: 64
Flowchart of Visarga-Sandhi ||||||-t|: 68
Lesson 11 Introduction to Numerals |~||: 72
Lesson 12 Sanskrit Verbs |>~|||=||-| 82



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Lesson 13 Persons | ||: 87
Lesson 14 Numbers |-|-|||-| 89
Genders ||||-| 93
Lesson 15 Nouns -|||||-| 95
Dictionary of Nouns |=||: 97
Pictorial Dictionary |-||||: 105
Lesson 16 Pronouns ||-|||||-| 120
Lesson 17 The Present Tense | 123
Use of the Particle sma | 126
Lesson 18 The (Past) Imperfect Tense | 133
Use of the phrase ma@ sma || | 137
Lesson 19 The (Past) Perfect Tense || 138
Lesson 20 The (Past Indefinite) Aorist Tense | 140
Use of the Particle ma@ || 142
Lesson 21 The Indefinite Future Tense | 143
Lesson 22 The Definite Future Tense | 147
WHICH TENSE TO USE? |||~|| |: 151
Lesson 23 Parasmaipad& and tmanepad& Verbs ~|-|-| |=l |||=l -| 152
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs ||| ~|| -| 157
The Causative Verbs |||--|||>~|| 159
The Desiderative Verbs |~--|||>~|| 160
The Frequentive Verbs ~|--|-~|| |--|||>~| 162
Lesson 24 The 11 Classes of Verbs |||: 164
1. The First Class +|||=: 167
2. The Second Class ~=||=: 175
3. The Third Class |z|-~|||=: 181
4. The Fourth Class |=|||=: 188
5. The Fifth Class |||=: 191



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6. The Sixth Class -|=||=: 195
7. The Seventh Class t|||=: 202
8. The Eighth Class -|-|||=: 206
9. The Nineth Class >~|||=: 213
10. The Tenth Class -| ||=: 217
11. The Eleventh Class <||=: 221
Lesson 25 The Cases ||: -| ||+|~|: -| 225
The Nominative (1st) Case |||| 230
The Accusative (2nd) Case |;-|l~|| 232
The Instrumental (3rd) Case -| -|l~|| 237
The Dative (4th) Case -|-| |l 243
The Ablative (5th) Case |~-||l 248
The Possessive (6th) Case |:l 254
The Locative (7th) Case |-||l 251
The Vocative Case |||t|-|| 265
Lesson 26 The Voices |~||||: 267
The Active Voice -|||~|||: 267
The Passive Voice ||||~|||: 269
The Bha@ ve Voice +||||~|||: 272
Lesson 27 The Moods ~||: 275
The Negative Mood -||||: 275
The Interrogative Mood |-|||: 277
The Imperative Mood || 279
The Potential Mood |||t||| 282
The Benedictive Mood ~||||| 286
The Conditional Mood | 287
Lesson 28 The Adjectives and Participles |||||||-| ,=--|||-| -| 289
The Adjectives |||||||-| 290



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The Degree of Comparison -|--||-+|||| 296
The Participles ,=--|||-| 299
Past Passive Participle, ppp\ 299
Past Active Participle |-| 302
Present Active Participle |-|-||-|-| 304
Potential Participle ~-|l~| 310
Future Active Participle 310
Future Passive Participle 311
Indeclinable Past Participle ~-||. ~|| 314
The Infinitive -||-| 318
set> and anit> verbs | ~|-| 321
Creating Existance of Non-existent |-| 322
Lesson 29 The Adverbs and Conjunctions 324
Adverbs |>~|||||||||-| 324
Dictionary of Adverbs 327
Conjunctions ~|||||=|: 340
Lesson 30 The Prepositions ~||||||=|: 344
Lesson 31 The Compound Words |||||: 348

BOOK 3
SPEAK SANSKRIT
Lesson 32 Conversations ||-|||||: 363
Lesson 33 Correct Speaking | |+||||| 372
Lesson 34 Prose Reading ||:-|| 377
Short Stories |t|||: 377
Mother and the Baby Parrot |l|||| 377
Unnecessary Advice |-||: |=|: 379
The Inherant Nature |||-||+|||: 381
Short Essays |t||-||-t||: 383



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The Horse ~|: 383
The Sun |~|: 384
The Knowledge ||| 386
Poetic Sayings |+||||-|||-| 388
The Words of Wisdom |=|=||: 389
Good Sayings ||-|-|||-| 391
Parsing and Analysis |||||| 393
Va@lm&kih |||l|: 393
Ga@yatr& Chant ||~||l-||: 398
Lesson 35 General Knowledge ||||-~|||-|| 399
The Days of the Week ||||: 399
The Names of the Months ||||: 400
The Measurements |||||||-| 401
The Names of the Directions |=|: 402
Time ||~|: 403
Relationships ||-t||: 405
Lesson 36 Antonyms |||||=|: 408
Lesson 37 Words with Suffixes |-~|~||--||=|: 409
Words with Primary Suffixes ,-||-~|~||--||=|: 810
Words with Secondary Suffixes -||-| -|=|: 415
Using Nouns as Verb Roots -|||t||-|: 422
Amazing Sanskrit Creations 423

APPENDICES :
(i) Charts of conjugations of the Tenses 429
Ten Parasmaipad& tenses, Active voice 429
Ten tmanepad& tenses, Active voice 438
Ten Passive Voice tenses 445
(ii) Charts of declensions of the Cases 448



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|| (~. |-| (~. |||| (~| ++ |||| (~|. || (, ++v ||| (,. ||-| (,. |t|l (, +c -|=l (,.
| ( + |t| (. t|-| (. |+| (~ +z |t| (~. ||-| (+ +. -| (+. t||-| (+. ||-| (+ ++
(}. || (~|. || (~| + -|| (~|. | (+o ||| (|. ||-| (-| + || (|. ~| (|. |
(| + ||~-| (~-| +v |~| (~|. |-| (-|.+|||-| (-| +oc +||-| (-|. |-| (-|. ||-| (-| +o
|z-| (-|. ||-| (-| +oz |;= (=. ;= (=. +|t| (t| +o. |||-| (-|. +||||-| (,-| +o+ ~|-|-| (-|.
|-| (-| +o || (|. |+| (+| +oo -| (. || ( || ( +o |=| (|. -|| (|. ||| (| +o
|=| (|. |-|l| (|. t|-|| (| +ov ~|||| (|. -|=|| (| +c |~|| (|. |~|| (| + |l~|| (|.
|| (| +z. |z (z. ||-|z (z +..
(iii) Declensions of Pronouns 474
~|=. ~| |=. -|= (asmad, yus< mad, tad) 474; ~|=. (yad) 475; }-|=. ,=| (etad, idam) 476.
~=| . || (adas, sarva) 477; || (kim) 478; |-|-| (kas{c{it) 479.
(iv) Declensions of Numerical Adjectives 480
}-|. }-|| (ekatara, ekatama) 482
(v) Dictionary of 2000 Verbs t||-||=||: 484
(vi) Which verb to use? 570
(vii) Charts of Verb Declensions 577
~=. ~-| . ~| ~||. , ,|. +-~ v }t|. |. | c ,. >~|. >l<. |+|
+|+|. || z |=. ||. |z . t|| + -||. |-|--|. -| |-|. || || o <l.
-|-|. -|| -|=. -||. -~||. | ==. =z v =| vc |=|. =l|. =. | v t||
vz t|. t||| v. t|| v+ -|-=. -||. -|l v |-| vo |= v ||. || v ||. |t|
vv |-~. | occ +|+|. +|| oc +||. +|l ocz +|| oc. +|. +|. +|| oc+ +|| oc |-|.
||| oco |~-| oc |. ||. |. ~|| oc ~|| ocv ~||. +| oc | o -|. = oz
t|. ||. ||| o. |=. ||| o+ ||= o |||. | o |-| o ||. |z ov |-|. |+|
ozc ||. ~ oz |=. |. |. || ozz || oz. -||. |. z-| oz+ z|. z| oz |z|.
z. ; ozo ;|. rl oz. t oz.

(viii) Chart of Participles ,=--| 629
(ix) Breakdown, Transliteration and Meaning of the Verses 630
(x) Answers to the Exercises -|||| 647
References |-|=|: 653



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LESSON 1
Prathamah< abhya@sah< |||: ~+~|||:+

THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET
sam~skr<ta-varn<ama@la@ |-|||||||+

Vowels (svara@h< ||:)
~ ~| , , ~ + ( | | } } ~| ~| ~ ~:
a a@ i & u u@ r< r<{ l> l<} e ai o au m[ h<:

Consonants (vyan~jana@ni ~|~|-|||-|
| | t| 1 - the Gutterals
ka kha ga gha n[a

-| ~ | ;| ~| 2 - the Palatals
c{a c{ha ja jha n~a

: < | 3 - the Cerebrals
t>a t>ha d<a d<ha n<a

-| | = t| -| 4 - the Dentals
ta tha da dha na

| ~ | +| | 5 - the Labials
pa pha ba bha ma

~| | | | | | z
ya ra la va s{a s<a sa ha



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NOTES
** In these lessons, the pronounciation of Sanskrit character ch is transliterated as c{ in order to
distinguish it from the common English character c (which = k).
eg\ The car moves. |~||-| -|||-| ca@rya@nam[ c{alati (ca@rya@nam[ calati).


PRONOUNCIATIONS

(1) GUTTURALS : The consonants from k-class (k, kh, g, gh, n[) are pronounced by touching the hind
part of the tongue to the THROAT (Gutter).

(2) PALATALS : The consonants from c{-class (c{, c{h, j, jh, n~) are pronounced by touching the middle
part of the tongue to the middle roof of the mouth i.e. the PALATE.

(3) CEREBRALS : The consonants from t>-class (t>, t>h, d<, d<h, n<) are pronounced by momentarily
touching tip of the tongue against roof of the mouth i.e. the CEREBRUM.

(4) DENTALS : The consonants from t-class (t, th, d, dh, n) are pronounced by touching tip of the
tongue against the base of the TEETH.

(5) LABIALS : The consonants from p-class (p, ph, b, bh, m) are pronounced by touchning the LIPS
together.



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LESSON 2
dvit&yah< abhya@sah< |;-|l~|: ~+~|||:+
Pronouncing Sanskrit Characters









(1) Guttural : (kan<t<hya) = with throat
(2) Palatal -|||~| (ta@lavya) = with palate
(3) Cerebral |t|-~| (mu@rdhanya) = with cerebrum
(4) Dental =--~| (dantya) = with teeth
(5) Labial ~|: (os<t>hya) = with lips
(6) Nasal ~-|-|||| (anuna@sik) = with nose

(1) THE VOWELS :
Vowel Stands for Sounds like As in Pronounciation
a (~ A American Guttural
a@ (~| a car Guttural
i (, I India Palatal
& (, ee peel Palatal
u ( u put Labial
u@ (~ oo moon Labial
Vowel Stands for Sounds like As in Pronounciation
r< (+ ri, ru ring, crucial Cerebral
r< { (( r&, ru@ Cerebral



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lr< (| lri, lru Dental
lr< { (| lr&, lru@ Dental
e (} e grey Guttural+Palatal
ai (} ai aisle Guttural+Palatal
o (~| o go Guttural+Labial
au (~| au gauge Guttural+Labial

(2) THE SEMIVOWELS :
m{ (~ a~ nasal
h< : (~: half-h breath

(3) THE CONSONANTS :
Vowel Stands for Sounds like As in Pronounciation
k ( k kit Guttural
kh (| kh khyber Guttural
g (| g god Guttural
gh (t| gh ghost Guttural
n[ ( n ring Guttural
c{, c (-| ch rich Palatal
c{h (~ chh c{ with breath Palatal
j (| j jug Palatal
jh (;| dgeh hedgehop Palatal
n~ (~| n hinge Palatal

Vowel Stands for Sounds like As in Pronounciation
t> ( t cut> Cerebral
t>h (: th t> with breath Cerebral
d< (< d red Cerebral
d< h ( dh adhere Cerebral



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n< (| n band Cerebral
t (-| t (soft t) Dental
th (| th thunder Dental
d (= th other Dental
dh (t| dh buddha Dental
n (-| n no Dental
p (| p cup Labial
ph (~ ph, f photo Labial
b (| b rub Labial
bh (+| bh abhore Labial
m (| m mug Labial
y (~| y yes Palatal
r ( r rub Cerebral
l (. | l love Dental
v (| v, w wave Dental + Labial
s{ (| sh shoot Palatal
s< (| sh should Cerebral
s (| s sun Dental
h (z h hug Guttural
l< (~ soft l Cerebral




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LESSON 3
tr<t&yah< abhya@sah< -|-|l~|: ~+~|||:+

THE SANSKRIT CHARACTERS
sam~skr<ta-varn<a@h< |-||||:+
The character (varn<ah< ||: that can be pronounced independently is called a VOWEL (svarah< |:.
eg\ ~. ,. (a, i, u) ...etc.
The characters that can NOT be pronounced independently (without the help of a vowel), are called the
CONSONANTS (vyan~ jana@ni ~|~|-|||-|. ~||| |||-||| --||| |-|| -| +|||-| -| ~|~|-|||-| ~|--| +++
eg\ . |. | (k, kh, g) ...etc. Therefore,
- ~ |. - ~ | k + a = ka; kh + a = kha ...etc.

3.1
THE VOWELS
svara@h< ||:+

In Sanskrit, the vowels are of three types. |-|||: ||||t||: ||--|+
(A) The SHORT vowels (hrasva@h< svara@h< r||: ||: are those which take one unit of time to pronounce
them. ~. ,. . +. | (a, i, u, r<, lr<) are the five basic short vowels.
(B) The LONG vowels (d&rgha@h< svara@h< =lt||: ||: are those which take two units of time to pronounce
them. ~|. ,. ~. (. }. }. ~|. ~|. | (a@ , &, q@, r< {, e, ai, o, au, lr< {) are the nine long vowels. Each long
vowel is made up of two or more short vowels.
The Short vowels ~. ,. . +. | (a, i, u, r< and lr< ) and the Long vowels ~|. ,. ~. ( and | (a@ , &, u@ , r<
and lr<{) are together called SIMPLE vowels (~|||||:)
The four Long vowels }. }. ~| ~| (e, ai, o, au) composed of two dis-similar vowels, are called
DIPTHONGS (|||||:)




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EXAMPLES : Long Vowels
(1) Long vowel ~| = short vowel ~ + short vowel ~
(2) Long vowel , = short vowel , + short vowel ,
(3) Long vowel ~ = short vowel + short vowel
(4) Long vowel } = short vowel ~ + short vowel ,
(5) Long vowel ~| = short vowel ~ + short vowel

(C) The PLUTA vowels (pluta@h< svara@h< | -||: ||: are those that take at least three units of time to
pronounce them. The long expressions such as vowel ~| (a@ ) in the word ||, form the pluta vowels.

TABLE : VOWELS (What we learned so far)
1. Short vowels ~. ,. . +. | a, i, u, r< , lr<
2. Long vowels ~|. ,. ~. (. }. }. ~|. ~|. | a@, &, q@, r<{, e, ai, o, au, lr<{
3. Simple vowels ~. ~|. ,. ,. . ~. +. (. |. | a, a@ , i, &, u, u@, r< , r<{, lr< , lr<{
4. Dipthongs }. }. ~| ~| e, ai, o, au
5. Pluta vowels

EXERCISE 1 : A. Read the following characters:
(1) ~. . ,. + (2) ,. +. ~ (3) . ,. ~
(4) ~. ~|. , (5) ~|. }. ~| (6) }. }. ~. ~|

B. Fill in the blanks:
(1) ~ - ~ -------- (2) ~ - -------- (3) ~ - , --------

3.2
THE CONSONANTS
In Sanskrit there are 25 class consonants (varga-vyan~ jana@ ni ||~|~|-|||-| and there are nine non-class
(avarga ~||-) consonants. | -| |~-|||||-|: ||~|~|-|||-| -|| -| ~||~|~|-|||-| ||--|+
(1) The 25 Class Consonants from to | are grouped phonetically into five classes (varga@h< |||:



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consisting of five consonants each. These 25 consonants from k to m are also called Contactuals
(spars{a-vyan~ jana@h< ||-~|~|-||: |=~||: |||||-||: |||:
1. Class k ( | | t| k kh g gh n[ 2. Class c{ (-| -| ~ | ;| ~| c{ c{h j jh n~
3. Class t< ( : < | t> t> h d< d< h n< 4. Class t (-| -| ~| = t| -| t th d dh n
5. Class p (| | ~ | +| | p ph b bh m
(2). The next 4 characters ~| . . | . | are semi-consonsnts or semi-vowels (antastha@h< ~||||: ~ -|||:)
(3). Remaining four characters |. |. |. z are the warm breath characters (us< ma@ n<ah< |||: |||z|:
|||:) of which the first three |. |. | are called sibilants and the last one z is an aspirate.

THE PRONOUNCIATIONS
(1) GUTTURALS are ~. ~|. : . | . | . t| . . z a, a@, h<, k, kh, g, gh, n[ , h.
They are pronounced from the throat
(2) PALATALS are ,. ,. -|. ~. |. ;|. ~|. ~|. | (i, &) c{, c{h, j, jh, n~, y, s{.
They are pronounced from the palate
(3) CEREBRALS are +. (. . :. < . . |. . | r<, r<{, t>, t>h, d< , d<h, n<, r, s<.
They are pronounced from the roof of the mouth
(4) DENTALS are |. |. -| . | . = . t| . -| . | . | lr<, lr<{, t, th, d, dh, n, l, s.
They are pronounced from the teeth
(5) LABIALS are . ~. |. ~. |. +|. | u, u@, p, ph, b, bh, m, v.
They are pronounced from the lips. Character | v is dental-labial; }. } e, ai are guttural-palatal
and }. } e, ai are guttural-palatal.
(6) THE HARD CONSONANTS
The first two consonants from each class (. | -| . ~ . : -| . | | . ~ k, kh, c{, c{h, t>, t> h, t, th, p, ph)
and three sibilants (|. |. | s{, s< , s) are Hard Consonants (kat> hora-vyan~ jana@ni :|-~|~|-|||-|
(7) THE SOFT CONSONANTS
The rest of the consonants, namely, the last three consonants from each class (|. t|. |. |. ~| <.
. | = . t| . -| | . +| . | g, gh, np, j, jh, n~, d< , d<h, n<, d, dh, n, b, bh, m) the semi-vowels (~|. . |. | y, r,
l,v) and the aspirate (z h) are Soft Consonants (mr< du-vyan~ jana@ni | =~|~|-|||-|
(8) THE NASAL CONSONANTS



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The last character from each of the five classes (. ~| . | . -| . | ), are the Nasal Consonants
(anuna@ sika@ ni ~-|-||||||-|
(9) THE ANUSVRA AND THE VISARGA
Anusva@ ra ( and visarga (:) are two more sounds in Sanskrit. The anuswa@ra (~-| ||: is the
modification of nasal consonants . ~|. |. -| and | where as the visarga (||||: is the modified
form of consonant | or + So the anusva@ ra and visarga are counted among the consonants, even
though they are not counted as separate characters, but they are sometimes treated as semi-vowels.
Together they are called yogava@ha/ (a@ yogava@hau ~|~|| |||z|


3.5
THE WORD ENDINGS
|=|--||:+

Below is how consonants and vowels are joined to form words. The last character of a word shows
how the word ends. eg\ in the word || ( - ~ - ~ - | - ~ the last letter is ~, therefore, the
word || is ~||--| (aka@ra@nta = ending in character ~)

(A) ~|--| (ending in ~-| , ending in a vowel)
(1) || - ~| - | - ~ ~||--|
(2) |-| | - ~ - -| - ~ ~||--|
(3) |||| | - ~| - | - ~| ~|||--|
(4) || - ~ - | - , ,||--|
(5) ||| | - ~| - - , ,||--|
(6) ||-| | - ~ - -| - , ,||--|
(7) -|=l -| - ~ - = - , ,||--|
(8) +||-| +| - ~| - -| - ||--|
(9) |t| | - ~ - t| - ||--|



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(10) t|-| t| - } - -| - ||--|
(11) |t| | - ~ - t| - ~ ~||--|
(12) ||-| | - , - -| - + +||--|
(13) t||-| t| - ~| - -| - + +||--|
(14) ||-| | - ~| - -| - + +||--|

(B) z|--| (ending in a consonant)
(15) ||-| | - ~| - -| -|||--|
(16) || - ~| - | |||--|
(17) |-| | - ~ - - - -| -|||--|
(18) ||-| | - ~ - | - ~ - -| -|||--|
(19) |;= | - - z - + - = =||--|
(20) |||-| | - ~ - | - , - -| -|||--|
(21) ~|-|-| ~| - -| - | - ~ - -| -|||--|
(22) |-| - ~ - - | - ~ - -| -|||--|
(23) |=| = - , - | |||--|
(24) -| =|| -| - ~ - -| - = - - ~ - | - ~ - | |||--|
(25) |~|| | - ~ - ~| - ~ - | |||--|

EXERCISE 2 : A. Fill in the blanks
(1) || ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(2) |l-|| ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(3) | | ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(4) | ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(5) | -| ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(6) |-|| ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(7) +||-| ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(8) |t| ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +



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(9) |= ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(10) | ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +
(11) |u| ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ - ------ +

LESSON 4
c{aturthah< abhya@sah< -|-||: ~+~|||:+

WRITING SANSKRIT WORDS
PRACTICING SIMPLE CONSONANTS
asam~yukta-varn<a@na@m abhya@sah< ~|~||||-||| ~+~|||:+

Study the order of the Sanskrit consonants given in Lesson 1, and do the following exercises. Uniquely
in this book, the characters are grouped according to their shapes, and not according to their usual
aplhabetical order. For, we have observed that with this novel method it is easy for a new learner to co-
relate and remember the Hind& characters.

4.1
Letters : | va (wa), | ba, ka
| | |
v (w) # va (wa) b # ba v # va # ka

EXERCISE 3 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following in Sanskrit :
1. ka, ba, ka 2. ba, va, ba 3. va, ka, ba
4. ba, va, ka 5. ka, va, ba 6. va, ba, ka
. . |. | . . |. | v. ||. |. ||
c ||. |. || . ||. || z ||. ||



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4.2
Letters : | pa, | s<a, ~ pha (fa), | n<a
| | | ~ |
p # pa s< # s<a p # pa # pha, fa n< # n<a

EXERCISE 4 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following in Sanskrit :
1. pa, pha 2. pha, ba 3. va, pa, ka 4. pa, s< a, n<a 5. pha, s<a, pa 6. ba, pa, pha
. |. |. ~ . . |. ~. | v. |. | c. |. ||. |. ~|. ||. |. ||. ||. ||. |~. ~. ||.
|. |. |. |~. |~. ||. ||. ||. ||. ||. |



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4.3
Letters : -| ta, -| na, | ga, | ma, +| bha
- -| - -| | | + +|
t # ta n # na g # ga m # ma bh # bha

EXERCISE 5 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following in Sanskrit :
(A) 1. ma, bha 2. bha, ga 3. ma, na 4. ka, ta, ga 5. va, s<a 6. pa, na
(B) . -|. -|. +| z. |. +|. -|. -| .. |. -|. . | +. -|-| (body) . |-| (mind. -|| (mountain. |
(particle. |-| (forest. +||-| (devotee. -|| (darkness. | (stork. |-| (opinion). ||-| (sky. |-|-|
(downfall

4.4
Letters : -| c{a, | ja, ~| n~a, | or la
- -| | ~ ~| |
c{ (ch)# c{a (cha) j # ja n~ # n~a l # la

EXERCISE 6 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following characters in Sanskrit
1. ka, c{a, n<a, pa 2. la, ma, ja, ta 3. bha, pha, s<a 4. mana, manana 5. kan<a, vana
6. labha, c{ala
|. -|. ~| . |. |. -| v. . | c. |||. -||| . ||. -|| c. |||
(|-| mind. |-|-| meditation. | particle. |-| forest. |+| get. -|| moving. || water-born, -|| quick, | water,
|| salt)



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4.5
Letters : ra, | sa, | kha, | s{a
| | |
ra s # sa kh # kha s{ # s{a

EXERCISE 7: Only on what we have learned so far
Read and write the following in Sanskrit :
1. c{a, ja, la 2 n~a, ja, c{a 3. la, c{a, ja 4. sa, kha, ra 5. sa, s{a, kha 6. ra, sa, s{a
. -|. |. ~|. | . . |. |. | v. -||. ||. || c. ||. -||. |. |. |. ||. ~|.
||. ||. +|-| . -||. -||. ||. -|-|. |-|. |. ||. -||. |-|. -| z. -|+|. -|. ||. ||.
|. |. ||. -||. ||. |||+

4.6
Letters : t| gha, t| dha, ~ c{ha
t t| t t| ~
gh # gha dh # dha c{ha

EXERCISE 8 : Only on what we have learned so far
Read and witer in Sanskrit :
1. c{a, ga, c{ha 2. na, c{a, ma, c{ha 3. bha, c{a, gha
+. t|. t|. -|. | . ~. -|. +|. -| o. |. ~. +|. -|
. -||. t|-|. t|-| . -|-|. |-|-|. |-| v. ||. |-|-|. -|
c. ~|. |t|. t|||. ||. ||-|. |. ||. ||. ~. ||+
(for meanings of the words, see Answers in Appendix 10)



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4.7
Letters : ~| ya, | tha; +| ks<a, | jn~a
~ ~| | + +| |
y # y a th # tha ks< # ks<a jn~ # jn~a

EXERCISE 9 : Only on what we have learned so far. Write the following in Sanskrit :
(A) 1. c{ha, gha, dha 2. dha, gha 3. ya, tha 4. ks<a, jn~ a 5. gha, jn~a, ya, tha 6. jn~ a, dha, tha, gha. (B) .
t|. t|. ~ z. ~|. | .. +|. | +. +|~|. |. ~|+| . ~||. |. t|-| o. t|-|. ~||. +| . -|-| |~| t|-|. |t|.
|~|. ~|. ~||-|. ~|. |t|-|. t|-|. ||. || . +|~|. |~|-|. |. +||. +|. +||. |+|. +|. -||. ||. ||
v. -||. |-|. ~||. +|+||. . |. t|. +|. |. -|. -|. z. | c. +|+|. ~|+|. +|. -|+|. -||. +|. ~||. ||.
+||. +||. ||. ~||. +|. |+|. +|+|. |+|. |+|. +|. +|+|. |~||+ (for the meanings, see Answers in Appendix
10)

4.8
Letters : t>a, t>ha, d<a, n[a, d<ha, da, Jha, ha
. :. <. . . =. ;|. z
: = < ;| z
t>a t>ha d<ha da d<a n[a jha ha

EXERCISE 10 : On what we have learned. Write the following characters in Sanskrit
1. t>ha, t> a, d< a, ha 2. d< a, t>a, t>ha 3. n[ a, d< a, t>ha 4. d>ha, da, jha 5. da, d<ha, jha 6. t>a, t>ha, d< a, d<ha
7. . :. . =. <. . ;|. z. ;|. =|. =|. |+|. |-|-|+ . <~|-|. |. |. ;||. z-|. . -|||. -||. =|.
||. ||-|. z+ v. ;||. |. -|. |=. |. ||. |=. ||. |-|. |-|-|. ||. -||+ c. +||. |-|. |. +||. ||.
|+|. |+||. t|-|. t|-|. ||. z~|+




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LESSON 5
pan~c{amah< abhya@sah< |~-||: ~+~|||:+
STUDY OF SANSKRIT VOWELS
sam~skr<ta-svara@n<a@m abhya@sah< |-|||+~|||:+

5.1
Letters : ~ a, ~| a@, ~| o, ~| au
~ | ~| ~ | ~| ~ | ~|
a # a@ a # o a # au

EXERCISE 11 : Only on what we have learned so far. Write the Sanskrit characters :
. ~. ~|. ~|. ~| z. ~|. ~. ~| .. ~|. ~|.
+. ~+| ~||| ~||| . ~|t| ~|| o. ~|= ~|+|
(for meanings, see Answers in Appendix 10)

5.2
Letters : , i, , &,
, ,
i &

EXERCISE 12 : Only on what we have learned so far. Write the following in Sanskrit :
1. a, a@ 2. i, & 3. a@, a@ 4. a, & 5. a@, &, i 6. a@, &
7. ,. ,. ,|. ,z. ,<. ,|: ,+|. ,-|. ,+||. ,+||. ,|+
(for meanings, see Answers in Appendix 10)



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5.3
Letters : u, ~ u@, + r<, ( r@<, | lr<, | lr<{
~ + ( |
u u@ r< r<{ lr<

EXERCISE 13 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following Sanskrit characters and words :
. . ~. . +. ( z. +||. = .. |. ||. ||
+. ||=. ~| . |||-|. || o. ~-|. ~|


5.4
Letters : } e, } ai
} }
e ai

EXERCISE 14 : Only on what we have learned so far
(A) Write the following Sanskrit words :
. }. } z. }. }-| .. }||. }+||
+. }||-|. } | . }-|=. }|=| o. }|||. }|




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LESSON 6
s<as<t>hah< abhya@sah< |:: ~+~|||:+

THE SANSKRIT VOWEL-SIGNS

SANSKRIT VOWEL-SIGNS
Vowels : ~ ~| , , ~ + ( } } ~| ~|
signs : | | l | |
sound: a a@ i & u u@ r> r<{ e ai o au
aa ee oo ri r&

| | l | |
a@ i & u u@ r< r<{ e ai o au
eg\ | || || |l | | | | | | || ||
p pa@ pi p& pu pu@ pr< pr<{ pe pai po pau

| | ~ , -| ; | -|
pu pu@ ku ku@ ru ru@ c{hru kr< tr< hr< dr< s{r< tr<{

EXERCISE 15 : On what we have learned. Read and write the following in Sanskrit :
. |~|l. |~||-|. |||l|| z. |||l|. |-| .. ||. || +. =l|. ;=~|. |-|. ||-| . ||. ||-| o. |-|.
. ||-|l. |z|. ||. =:|. |. =||. |||. |||. ||||l . ||-|~|||. |z|+||-|l~|. ||~|. -|l|. |||||.
|+|+|. ||-||||. |. |. -|. -||. |+



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CHART OF
VOWEL-SIGNS APPLICATION

~ ~| , , ~ + ( } } ~| ~|
| | l | |
a@ i & u u@ r< r<{ e ai o au
| | l , | |
+| +|| |+| +|l +| +| +| +| +| +| +|| +||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
t| t|| |t| t|l t| t| t| t| t| t| t|| t||
| | l | |
-| -|| |-| -|l -| -| -| -| -| -| -|| -||
~ ~| |~ ~l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~| ~|
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
| || || |l | | | | || ||
;| ;|| |;| ;|l ;| ;| ;| ;| ;| ;| ;|| ;||
~| ~|| |~| ~|l ~| ~| ~| ~| ~|| ~||
| | l | |
: :| |: :l : : : : : : :| :|
< <| |< <l < < < < < <| <|
| | l | |
| || || |l | | | | | || ||
-| -|| |-| -|l -| -| -| -| -| -| -|| -||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
= =| |= =l = = = = = =| =|
t| t|| |t| t|l t| t| t| t| t| t| t|| t||



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-| -|| |-| -|l -| -| -| -| -| -| -|| -||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
~ ~| |~ ~l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~| ~|
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
+| +|| |+| +|l +| +| +| +| +| +| +|| +||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
~| ~|| |~| ~|l ~| ~| ~| ~| ~| ~|| ~||
| | l | |
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
| || || |l | | | | | || ||
| || || |l | | | | | | || ||
z z| |z zl z z ; z z z| z|

ANUSWARA AND AVAGRAHA
~ m[, ~: h<
| pam[ |: pah<
EXERCISE 16 : On what we have learned so far. Read and write the following words.
. ~|. ~:. ~<|: (born from egg), | |: (linage), || (lotus), |: (colour), =<: (punishment), +||: (breaking),
|t|: (smell), z. ||: (attachment), | |~|: (doubt), z |: (swan), |: (a glass), |-|: (oneself), |-| (shaking), ||:
(bald), +|~| : (terrible), -| =-| (sandlewood), = (cave) .. :: (throat), |-||: (moth), +||-| (breakage), |t|:
(sulphur), -||: (wave), |=-| (mouth), | =-| (salute), | |: (conch-shell), | |-| (weaving), |~-|~|: (assembly), | |=|
(wealth), |~-|: (a stage) +. |<| (of six organs), ~| (mother), | |-| (rubbing compound), ~| (sky), | : (Shiva),
|-|~|: (gathering), |-| (entertainment), || -|: (powerful), +||| -|: (god), | |~| (Sanjaya), | |: (battle), | t|:
(group), |~-|: (gathering), | -|: (saint) , |= (slow). ~-|-| (after) . ~ =: (meter), = +|: (pretending), : (poor),
| ||: (meeting), | : (admixture).




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RULES FOR PROPER TRANSLITERATION OF
SANSKRIT CHARACTERS INTO ENGLISH
with diacritical signs

m~ (~, m[, m (| ma (|. n[ (. n~ (~|. n< (|. n (-|. na (-|

Character m~ (~ or m[ (| is the nasal dot (~-|||: placed over any chacter in a word :
(i) m[ Within a sentence, when character m (| comes at the end of any word that is followed by a word
that begins with any consonant, only that nasal dot means m[ (|
eg\ aham kim kromi = aham[ kim[ kromi ~z| || ||| ~z | |||+
(ii) m Within a sentence, when m (| comes at the end of the sentence, it stays as | (m).
eg\ kim kromi aham = kim[ kromi aham || ||| ~z| | ||| ~z|+
(iii) m[ Within a word, when the nasal dot is followed by any consonant from p-class (p ph b bh m | ~
| +| |), then that nasal dot means half character | (m).
eg\ sam[ pada@ ||=| |||=| ||=|+ gum[phana |~-| ||~-| |~-|. am[ bara ~ | ~||
~|+ dam[bha = +| =|+| =+|+ sam[ mati | ||-| || ||-| |||-|+
(iv) m~ Within a word, when the nasal dot is followed by any non-class consonant (y r l v s{ s< s h ~| |
| | | z), that nasal dot means m~ ~ (just a nasal sound, even though it is generally inaccurately
transliterated as m[). eg\ |,-| |: = sam~skr<tam[ pat>ha NOT sam[skr>tam[ pat>ha |,-| |: or
sanskr<tam pat>ha |-,-| |: (NOTE: the nasal dots in sams || and in kr<tam ,-| both have
different pronounciations, and thus must be transliterated differently (as m~ and m[), but NOT both
as m[)
Similarly, |~|| = sam~yama, not ||~|| sam[ yama; |+|| = sam~ raks< an< a, not ||+|| sam[ raks<an<a; ||-|
= sam~ lagna, not |||-| sam[ lagna; |||= = sam~ va@da, not ||||= sam[vada; || = vam~s{a, not |||
vam[s{a; | = kam~ sa, not || kam[ sa; |z| = sam~ hara, not ||z| sam[ha@ra ...etc.
(v) m The half character m | may come (1) at the end of any word that is followed by any word that is
starting with a vowel, eg\ bho Ra@ ma ma@ m[ tvam uddhara! +|| || || -|| or (2) it may come at
the end of a sentence. eg\ bho Ra@ma ma@m[ uddhara tvam! +|| || ||| -|| +|| || ||| -||



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(vi) The full character ma | (| - ~ | m + a = ma) may come anywhere in a sentence. eg\ bho Ra@ma
ma@m[ tvam uddhara! +|| || || -|| +|| || || -|| +|| || ||| -|| +|| || |||
-|| +|| ||| -| |||+ +|| || -|| |||+

AGAIN REMEMBER
Anuswara = n[ ( . n~ (~| . n< (| . n (-| . m[ (| . m~ (~
For transliterating the nasal dot (anusva@rah< ~-|||: within a word, into English,
following six rules apply.

(1) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from k-class (. |. |. t| k, kh, g, gh), that
nasal dot is transliterated as # n[ (
(2) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from c{-class (-|. ~. |. ;| c{, c{h, j, jh), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # n~ (~|
(3) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from t>-class (. :. <. t>, t>h, d<, d<h), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # n< (|
(4) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from t-class (-|. |. =. t| t, th, d, dh), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # n (-|
(5) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from p-class (|. ~. |. +| p, ph, b, bh), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # m (|
(6) When the nasal dot is followed by any non-class character (~| | | | | | z y, r, l, v, s{, s<, s),
that nasal dot is transliterated as # m~ (~

EXERCISE 17 : What we learned so far. Read and write the following words
(answers are on the next page)
(1) ~z| ~|||| |~|| ||| |~|| | || -|: ||~| -|| |: -|| -| -| -| || -||| ~|: ~|| ~| ~|| ~||-| ~|-| ~|| ~||: ~||| ~|~||
}|: }-| }-|| }-||-| }-| -| }-|: }-| | }|| }-||: }-||| }-|~|| }-||| }-|-| }-|= }-|||-| : | | -| | |
|: ~|| ||+|: || ||-| ~~|| ,| ,|| ~-|-| }||| }| ,=| ,|||-| ~|| ||: |-|| |||| ||: ||| ||-|:
-|=l |t| t|-|: |t| ||-|| t||-| ||-|| || | ||-| |||-| |= |~|: +| ~| ~= -|= -|-|+
(2) ~z| |||+ ~t|-|| |l-|| ~-|+|||||+



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(3) }-|-| =||| -| |||+ |: :" |: || |-t|:+
(4) +|||-| ||| | -| +|||-|"
(5) }-|-| ~z -| ||-||||+ ||-| -|||||+
(6) || |z }: |: ~||l-|+ |l-|| }| -|-|| |||||+
(7) |: ~|=-| || ||-|l -| ||||-| ,|-|+
(8) |~|| -|| |-||||-|l =|z+ ~z| ,=|-|l| ||||||-| ||"
(9) |=| |z|+||-| -| |||~|| -| |:+
(10) -|| ||||z|l|-| |||~| +|~||-|
(11) |~|| |z +|||-| -||~|||-| -| +
(12) ||-| ||| || |=+ ||| |||-|| -|=l+
(13) |l|| ~z +|-||-|| |-||-|-|| ,|-| ||: ||-|+
(14) |~||||| |-||| ~-||-| ~|||||-| -| | ||| ||-|+
(15) || |-| |-| -| |||: ~|| =:+
(16) -||-| : ~~||" ~~| ~||-|:+ ~||-|: | ||-|"
(17) |||=||: |z|||: ~||l-|+
(18) || ||||||~|| |-|: -||| |z|-| ||| |+||+

ANSWERS TO THE PREVIOUS EXERCISE

(1) aham a@va@ m vayam ma@ m maya@ me mama nah< mayi tava sah< tam tena te sa@ ta@m yah< yau ye yam ya@ n
yena ya@ ya@ h< ya@ m yaya@ es< ah< ete etam eta@ n etena etaih< etes< u es< a@ eta@h< eta@ m etaya@ eta@su etat etad eta@ni
kah< kau ke kam kena kes<u ka@ ka@h< kaya@ ka@bhih< kim ka@ ni ayam ime imam anena es< a@m es< u idam ima@ ni
asau ra@ mah< vanam ma@ la@ kavih< va@ ri matih< nad& madhu dhenuh< vadhu@ pita@ dha@ tr< ma@ ta@ va@k ra@ t> jagat
s{as{in dik payah< bhu@ as ad tud tan.
(2) aham[ karomi. adhuna@ s{&tam anubhava@mi.
(3) etat kada@pi na karomi. sah< kah<? sah< mama bandhuh<
(4) bhojane lavan<am kahtam[ na bhavati?
(5) etat aham[ na ja@na@mi. ma@taram[ nama@mi.
(6) mama gr<he ekah< s{ukah< a@s&t. s&ta@ eka@ c{atura@ ba@lika@>



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(7) sah< avadat mama lekhan& na likhati.
(8) kr<paya@ tasmai nijalekhan&m[ deh&. aham ida@n&m upavis{a@ni kim?
(9) sada@ maha@bha@ratam[ c{a ra@ma@yan<am[ c{a pat>ha.
(10) tava vaiva@hika-j&vanam[ sukhamayam[ bhu@ya@t!
(11) maya@ saha bhojanam[ c{a@ya-pa@nam[ c{a kuru!
(12) mu@d<havat vr<tha@ ma@ vada. gan[ga@ pa@vana@ nad&.
(13) b&jam aham[ bhu@ta@na@m[ sana@tanam iti kes{avah< uva@c{a.
(14) praya@n<a-ka@le manasa@ ac{alena yoga-balena c{a param[ purus<am upaiti.
(15) ra@me vane gate sakala@h< ruruduh<.
(16) ta@t! kah< ayam? ayam[ ya@c{akah<. ya@c{akah< kim[ karoti?
(17) ka@lida@sah< maha@kavih< a@s&t.
(18) pura@ mithila@ya@m[ janakah< na@ma maha@n ra@ja@ babhu@va.


LESSON 7
saptamah< abhya@sah< |-||: ~+~|||:+

COMPOUND CONSONANTS
sam~yukta-vyan~jana@na@m abhya@sah< |~|~|~|-||-||| ~+~|||:+

Very well, now that you have studied the chart of simple consonants and vowels, let us study
compounding of the consonants and application of vowel-signs, through proper examples.
THE HALF CONSONANTS : (halanta@h< z|--||: - The Chart shown in Lesson 1 containes the full
consonants i.e. each base consonant with vowel a (~ added to it. Let us now see the consonants without
this vowel (~ a. These consonants are called Half-consonants (halanta@ h< z|--||: and they are either
written by attaching a small slant at the bottom of the character or by writing their half-letter shapes.
A half-consonant can not be pronounced by itself, unless a vowel is added to it. A vowel can be
pronounced by itself. A consonant can be added to another consonant or consonants, and, at least one
vowel must be added to it, to make it a complete compound character that can be pronounced.



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7.1
The Sanskrit Half-Consonants
EXERCISE 18 : Write the following
Half Consonants (pure consonants without a vowel)


~ | | t| t
k kh g gh n[

-| - ~ | ;| ; ~| ~
c{ c{h j jh, z n~

: < |
t> t>h d< d<h n<

-| - | = t| t -| -
t th d dh n

| ~ ~ | +| + |
p ph, f b bh m

~| ~ | |
y r l v, w

| | | z r
s{ s< s h



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7.2
COMMON COMPOUND CHARACTERS

With the use of half characters such as:
k, | kh, | g, t| gh, n[, -| c{, ~ c{h, | j, ~| n~, t>, : t>h, < d<, | n<,
-| t, | th, t| dh, -| n, | p, ~ ph, | b, +| bh, | m,
~| y, r, | l, | v, | s{, | s<, | s, z h

EXERCISE 19 : Read, study and write the following groups of Sanskrit Compound characters.
Compare each of them with the corresponding full-character.
(1) Character k ( ~
|~|. || (pakva ripened). ~l||. |l||. (kl&bam weakness) ~|=: =: (kledah<
wettness). ||~~||. ||~|| (va@kyam speech). ~-||. -|| (raktam blood). |~||l.
|||l (rukmin<&). ~||-|-|. ||-|-| (kvac{it sometimes)
(2) Character kh (|
~|||-|: |~|||-|: (khya@tih< fame), ~|~|| ~||~|| (a@khya@ saying), |~|| ||~|| (sakhyam
friendship)
(3) Characters g and gh (| t| t
|||-|: ||||-|: (gla@nih< downfall). ~|-|: ~||-|: (agnih< fire). +||~|| +|||~||
(bha@gyam fortune). +|-| +||-| (bhagnam broken). ||t-|| ||t|-|| (vighnam
obstacle)
(4) Characters n[ (
n[ n[ka n[kta n[kha n[ga
n[gha n[ma n[la n[ks<a n[ks<va
|| || (lan[ka@ Sri Lanka). ||: ||~-|: ||-|: (pan[ktih< line, row). |: ||: (s{an[khah<
conchshell). : |: (ran[gah< colour). |: |t|: (san[ghah< group), ||~|| |||~|| (va@n[mayam
literature). ~| ~|| (a@n[la English), || |+|| (ka@n[ks<a@ desire), +| (bhun[ks<va please enjoy)
~ k
kh
g; t gh



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(5) Characters c{ and c{h (-| - ~
~-~|-|: ~-|~|-|: (ac{yutah< Krishna). ~||-~| ~||-|~| (ava@c{yah< unspeakable).
|||-~| |||-|~| (suva@c{ya well said), -~||: -|~|||: (uc{c{hava@sah< breath)
(6) Characters j and n~ (| ~| ~
|~|| ||~|| (ra@jyam kingdom). || ||| (sajja ready). || |||
(ujjvala bright). ~|||-|: |~|||-|: (jyotih< light) |~-| |~|-| (pan~c{a five)
(7) Characters t>, t>h (. :
|: |: (pat>t>akah< plate). |-|| |-|| (pat>t>anam town). : |:~|
(kan<t>hya guttural)
(8) Character d<, d<h (<.
_~|-|| _~|-|| (ud<d<ayanam flight). |_-| (ud<d<ita flown), -|, (c{akr<d<hve
you all had done)
(9) Character n< (|.
||<|: |||<|: (pa@n>d<vah<). :: |:: (kan<t>hah< throat). : |: (kan<t>akah<
thorn). ||||: |||||: (s<an<ma@sah< six-months)

(10) Characters t, th and dh (-| - | t| t
|-|: |-||: (satka@rah< honour). =t|| =|t|| (dughdam milk). --||:
-|-||: (ratna@karah< ocean). -||-|: -|||-|: (utpa@tah< rise). ~|-|| ~|-|||
(a@tma@ soul). |-~|| |-|~|| (satyam truth). -~|||: -|~|||: (tya@gah< sacrifice). -|| -||| (tvara@ rush)
-|~|| -||~|| (tathyam reality) ||t~| ||t|~| (ba@dhya binding)
(11) Character n (-|. -
~|-|-=: ~|-|-|=: (a@nandah< joy). ~~| ~-|-|| (annam food), |-| |-|| (janma birth). ~-~|
~-|~| (anya other). ~-|~|: ~-||~|: (anvayah< relation). |+|~ |+|-|-| (bhinna different).
|-=-|| |-|=-|| (vandanam salute). |-t|-|| |-|t|-|| (bandhanam bondage)
(12) Characters p, ph (| ~ ~
|||-| ||||-| (sama@pta ended). ~|| ~||| (apsara@ celestial maid). |-||
|||-|| (svapnam dream). |||-| ||||-| (pa@pman sin). ~|| |~||
- c{ ; ~ c{h
j ; ~ n~
t> ; : t>h
< d< ; d<h
n<
- t ; th ; t dh
- n
p ; ~ ph



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(rupyakam Rupee).
(13) Characters b, bh and m (| +| + |
|=: ||=: (s{abdah< word). |~|: ||~|: (s{aibyah<). |+~| |+|~| (sabhya
gentle), ||=| |||=| (sampada@ wealth). |~| ||~| (samyak right).
t| t|+| (dhr<s<t>a courageous). ~ ~| (amla sour)
(14) Characters y and l (~| ~ |
|~~|| |~|~|| (s{ayya@ bed), | | (ulka@ meteor). ||: |||: (ullekhah<
reference). ~| ~| (alpah<, short). ~|||| ~|||| (kalya@n<am benefit)
||-|| ||-|| (valgana@ chatter)
(15) Character v (|
~|~|: |~|~|: (vyayah< expense). ~||~|||: |~||~|||: (vya@ya@mah< exercise). ~||| |~||| (vyoma
sky). ~| |~| (vyu@d<ha, arranged). ~|| |~||| (vyangam deformity). ~||||~|:
|~||||~|: (vyavasa@yah< business)
(16) Chararacter s{ (|
|||||: |||||: ||||||: (vis{va@sah< trust). |-|-|~|: |-|-|~|: |-||-|~|: (nis<c{ayah< firm
resolution). |-||-| |-||-| ||-||-| (pas{c{a@t after). ||l: |||l: (ka@s{m&rah<).
~|~|| ~||~|| (avas{yam certainly). ~|: ~||: (as{makah< stone). ||||| ||||||
(vis{les<an<am analysis)
(17) Character s< (|
~ ~| (as<t>a eight). , ,| (is<t>a desired). | || (kas<t>am trouble). ~||||:
~|||||: (a@vis<ka@rah< discovery). |-|~|: |-||~|: (manus<yah<, man). ||| |||| (pus<pam
flower). || ||| (us<ma@ heat). ~|:: ~||:: (os<t>hah< lip). |: ||: (us<n<ah< hot). |: ,||:
(kr<s<n<ah<). |||| ||||| (ba@s<pam vapour). +|||~|| +||||~|| (bhavis<yam future)
(18) Character s (|
-|: (taskarah< thief). ~-| ~|-| (astu let it be). |||-|: ||||-|: (sthitih< state). ~|:
|~|: (sphat>ikah< crystal). -||~|: |-||~|: (sna@yuh, muscle). | ||| (spas<t>a clear).
~~| ~|~| (asya of this). z|~|| (ha@syam laughter). ||-|| (smitam a smile). |-|: ||-|: (svatah<
oneself). |=|: ||=|: (svades{ah< motherland). |||-|| (sva@gatam welcome). -=: |-|=:
b ; + bh ; m
~ y ; l
v
s{
s<
s



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(skandah<). ||-|: |||-|: (smr<tih< memory, rememberance)
(19) Character h (z r
r h ; hr< r hn<a r hna z hya
u hma r hra r hla t hva
;=~|| z+=~|| (hr<dayam heart), ||z ||z~| (ba@hya external). |u |z| (brahma Brahma). ~|r|=:
~|z||=: (a@hla@dah joy<). |r||-| |z|||-| (gr<hn<a@ti he takes). r| z|| (hrasvah< short) |-|r| |-|z-||
(c{ihnam sign), ||r: (vahnih< fire), ||t| ||t| (jihva@ toung)

LESSON 8
as<t>amah< abhya@sah< ~|: ~+~|||:+

8.1
STUDY OF SPECIAL COMPOUND CHARACTERS

Characters + -| can be written as ~-| (kta), but there is a special single character for this purpose.
eg\ ~-|| | (raktam blood). +||~-|: +||: (bhaktih< devotion). |~-|| || (vakta@ speaker). ~| ~-|: ~| :
(yuktah< equipped)
~-| kta
Character da (= has following common compounds
1. d + da = dda = - = (|: uddes{ah< objective, -||-|| tadda@nam that charity
2. d + dha = ddha # = - t| (~|| yuddham war, ||: buddhih< thinking
3. d + ga = dga # = - | , (,|: udgamah< rise. +|||,l-|| bhagavadg&ta@
4. d + bha = dbha # = - +| . (|.||: sadbha@vah< goodness; .|: udbhavah< rise
5. d + ya = dya written as : = - ~| (~|: a@dyah< first; -|| dyu@tam, gambling
6. d + ma = dma written as : = - | (|| padmam lotus, ~l c{hadm& cunning
7. d + va = dva written as : = - | ; (;;: dvandvah< duality, ||;|-| vidva@n learned



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dda , dgha ddha , dga
. dbha dya dma ;dva

Letter ra ( forms following two groups of compounds:
(A) When full-consonant (ra) comes after any half-consonant, it is written as a slanted line ( )
attached to that half-consonant.
1. k + ra ( - > -|>| c{akram wheel, >||--|: kra@ntih< revolution. >|t|: krodhah< anger. |>~||
kriya@ deed. >: kru@rah< cruel. >-|| kreta@ buyer
2. g + ra (| - | ~|| agram tip. ~||: agresarah< leader. |||| gra@mam village. |l|| gr&va@
neck
3. d + ra (= - = +|=: bhadrah< gentle. |+|=| subhadra@. =||< dravid<a. =||: dron<ah<. =|z:
drohah< treachery. =|: drumah< tree
4. s{ + ra (| - | - ~ ~| s{raddha@ faith. ||~||-|: vis{ra@ntih< rest. ~l s{r& divine. ~::
s{res<t>hah< superior. ~|-|| s{rota@ listner. ~-|| s{rutam heard
5 t + ra (-| - | ~||| yantram machine. |||: ra@trih< night. ||| patram leaf. |-|| treta@ saviour.
||t|| tridha@ in three ways, |t|| tredha@ in three ways.
> kra | gra ~ s{ar | tra
6. t> or d< + ra (. < : : |: us<t>rah< camel. |: ||: ra@s<t>rah< country. ||<: |||<:
paun<d<rah<
7. s + ra (| - |z| |z|| sahasram thousand. |-|: ||-|: srotah< flown. ||: |||:
sra@vah < a flow
8. s+ t + ra (|--|- l |-|l str& woman, ~| ~|-|| astram weapon. || ||-|| vastram
cloth
tra sra stra
(B) When half-consonant (r) comes before any consonant, it is written as ( )



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9. - | (| ~: ~: arkah< sun. ||: ||: sargah< the creation. ~-|-|| ~-|-|| arc{ana@
worship. ||-|| ||-|| va@rta@ news. ||: ||: sarpah< snake. | | karma deed. |~|| |~||
ka@ryam duty
rka | rpa
Character ta (-| makes following common compounds
1. t + ta = tta (-|--| -|. --| -||| uttamam best. |-|| satta@ jurisdiction. |-|| sattavam truth. 2.
n + na = nna (-|--| ~ ||~ khinn sad
3. h + ma = hma (z-| u |u| brahma@ the Creator. |u|<| brahman<d<am universe
4. h + ya = hya (z-~| z ||z: ba@hyah<, external, |z| guhyam, secret
- tta -| ttva ~ nna

EXERCISE 20 : What we learned so far. Read and write the following Sanskrit words
1. >|: (order), | (black). >: (angry), ||: (miser)
2. -|~-|: (quick), |-~|: (pure), |~|: (holy), ~||--|| (moonlight). t|-|~|~|: (Arjun)
3. |-|| (dream). |-|: (question), ||t||-~|| (priority). ||~| (pleased). t|-|: (Draupad&s
brother). ~~| (food)
4. ~||t|: (tiger), ||| (thunderbolt). ~+|| (cloud). ||| : (three worlds). -|-|: (satisfied), t||:
(steady), t||-|: (courage), |-~| (each). |u (God. -|l|| (strong)
5. |: (vision), ||: (rain), ||: (creation), ||l (earth). |-||-|| (dead person). |:| (surface)
6. |-|| (news). t|-||: (a kings name). -||: (king), >||-|: (revolution)
7. l (woman). |~|: (women), -|||| (praise). ~|| (huge). ||-|| (creation); |-||+|: (Vis{n< u),
|| (Laks<m&). || (poetry). || (prose)
8. ||-|| (place). |~|: (old), ||-|: (memory), -||-|| (bath). |-|t|| (viscous)
9. =||=l. =||=l. =~||t|-|:. =~||t|-|:, +||||: +||||: (proper nouns)
10. ||: (pride), ||: (all), ||| (earlier). ||: (heaven), ~-|-|| (worship). -|: (guess), =||:
(mirror)



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8.2
SANSKRIT COMPOUND CHARACTERS
(WITH EXAMPLES)

soda@haran<a@h< sam~yukta-varn<a@h< ||=|z||: |~||||:+

A Reading and Writing Exercise :
. ~ (||-|. |~|-| ||-| vukkati, he barks. ~| (~||-| kakkhati he laughs.
~| kakkhat>a hard. ~-| (-|~-|| tvakc{aiva skin also. ( ukta said. ~-~|
(+|~-~|| bhaktya@ with devotion. ~| (|~|| vaktram, mouth. ~-| (~-|| uktva@ having said. n
(|n||| s{aknomi, I am able. ~| (||~|| pr<thak-pr<thak separately. ~| (|~||l rukmin<&. ~~|
(||~~|| va@kyam speech. > (>|: kramah< order. (~||-| kla@nta tired. ~| (~||-|: klr<ptih<
invention. (~||-|-| kvac{it sometimes. ~| (||~|l||||+||| pra@k-s{ar&ra-vimoks<an<am before
death. +| (+||| ks<ama@, forgiveness. ~| (+~||| r>k-sa@ma Rigveda and Sa@mveda
+~| (||+~|| sauks<myam minuteness). +~| (||l+~| sam&ks<ya having seen. +| (Iks<va@ku
,+||:
~| (||~|: sa@n[khyah<
= (||=|l va@g-dev& Sarasvat&. t| (=t|: dagdhah< burnt. u (~|u: agnih< fire. |
(|||: va@gpat>uh< elouquent. +| (||+|||: pr<thag-bha@vah> different nature. +~|
(||+~||| lignhya@m for two writers. ||: (jagmuh< they went), ~| (+||~|| bha@gyam luck. | (||-||
grasanam eating. | (|||-|: gla@nih< downfall. | (||||t|| pr<thagvidha@ differently. ~|
(|~|~||||-| samyag-vyavasthita properly established)
t-| (||t-| vighnam obstacle. t-~| (~t-~|: aghnyah< not to be killed. t~| (~t~| arghya
holy. t| (t||| ghra@n<am nose. t| (|t|||l laghva@s{& moderate eater
(~: an[kah< body. (+| bhun[kte he eats. ~| (+|~| bhun[gtha you all enjoy.
(|: s{an[khah< conch-shell. (|| gan[ga@. (|l-|| san[g&tam music. (|:
san[ghah< attachment<. t| (+|t| bhun[gdhve you all enjoy. (||~|| va@n[gmayam literature.
(|||| ka@n[ks<a@mi I desire. +~| (||+~||| pra@n[gbhya@m for two Easterners

+|
|
|
t|




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--| (--|: uc{c{aih<, loudly. -~ (,-~| ic{c{ha@, desire. -~ (-~| uc{c{hr<n[khala un-
restrained. ~||-~~|: (yuddha@c{c{hreyah< better than war). -~| (~-~|-|: ac{yutah< Krishna).
-~|-| uc{yate it is called. |-| (c{vi existance of non-existant)
~ (~|-| c{hyavate he approaches. ~ (~|-~~|: yac{c{hreyah that which is better),
|-~-| (uc{c{hrita raised. -~||: uc{c{hva@sah< exhalation
| (|| sajja ready. ~| (-|~|||-|: tajjyotih that light<. | (-|||-|| tajjn~a@tva@
knowing that. ~| (|~|| ra@jyam kingdom. | (||| vajram thunderboalt. | (||||
jwa@la@ flame
~-| (|~-| pan~c{a five. ~~ (||~~| van~c{ha@ desire. ~| (|~|~|: san~jayah< . ~~|
(~|~~||||| yun~ja@dyogam should practice yoga. ~;| (~;||-| un~jhati he lets it go. ~|
(+|~| bhun~jma we all enjoy. ~| (+|~| bhun~jva we both enjoy. ~~ (|~|~~|-| pas{yan~-s{run<van
while seeing and hearing. ~| (||~||-| svapan~s{vasan sleeping and breething
(||| pat>t>ika@, plate. (|| ra@s<tram country. (| drs<t>va@, seeing
_ (_~|-| ud<d<ayate he flies. <+~| (|<+~||| ra@d<bhya@m for two kings. < (,< &dya
glorified
(~| a@d<d<hya< wealthy
(: kan>t>akah< thorn. : (|:| vaikun<t>ham heaven. < (||<||: pa@n<d<ava@h<.
(| s<an<d<ha impotant. < (||<: paun<d<rah<. | (|||| vs<an<n<a dejected. |
(|||||: s<an<-ma@sah< six-months. ~| (||~|| ka@rpan<yam pity
- (-|-||: tatka@lah<, that time. - (~|+|+|||-| abhibhava@t-kr<s<n<a! O Krishna! from
the rise of. -> (|||->|t|: ka@ma@tkrodhah< anger from desire. -+| (~-~|-+|||~|~| anyat-
ks<atriyasya anything else for a warrior. --| (+|~||--| bhaya@tc{a and from the fear. -| (|-|| satta@
power. -~| (+|~||-~||-| bhaya@t-tyajet let go out of fear. -| (-|-|~|| tat-trayam those three. -| (-|-||
tattvam principle. -| (~|-|||| as{vattha@ma@. --| (--||: ratna@karah< ocean. -| (-|-|| tatparam
that supreme). -||-|~| (ta@tparyam morale), -| (-|-||~| tatpra@pya having attained that. -| (~|-||
a@tma@ soul. -~| (|z|-~|| maha@tmyam greatness. -~| (-~|~-|| tyaktva@ having renounced. | (t||+|||
dharmaks<etram righteous place. ~| (|~|||| ra@trya@game at night. -| (-|| tvam you. -| (-||z:
utsa@hah encouragement. -| (|~||-|-||-| pas{yatsthita@n he saw the standing ones. --| (--||
-|
~
|
~|

<

|
-|



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kr<tsnam all. -| (||| z|-||-|||+||: sammoha@tsmr<ti-vibhramah< loss of thinking as a result of
delusion -~| (||-|~||-~|||| pratiyotsya@mi I will defend) -| (|t|||-|-||:-||-| para-dharma@t-
svanus<t>hita@t than performed others duty
|-|||-| (mathna@ti he churns. ~| (-|~|| tathyam truth) ||~|| mithya@ false
, (,|: udga@rah< exclamation. (~||z: asadgra@hah< misunderstanding. , (,|-||
udgha@t>anam inauguration. (|: uddes{ah< objective. (|z|-|: mahad-
dyutikarah<, sun. (~-~|||-~|| anyad-dras<t>um-ic{c{hasi whatever else you wish to see. (~||
yuddham war. (~|| yuddhyasva please fight. (|| buddhva@ having known ;
(||-|+|||;|-|||: smr<ti-bhram~s{a@d-buddhi-na@s{ah< misunderstanding due to confusion. (-|||u||
tasma@d-brahman<i therefore in the brahma. . (|.||: sad-bha@vah< righteousness. . (+|||.||
bhagavadbhya@m for two gods. (|| padmam, lotus. (|| padyam song. = (=|=:
drupadah<. ; (;;. ;-;|| dvandvam duality. ; (~~||;~|: avyakta@d-vyaktayah<, the manifest
emerged from the unmanifest
t-| (|t-|||-| badhna@ti it binds. t| (=t|| dadhmau he blew. t~| (t~||-|| dhya@nam
meditation. t| (t|| dhruva unmoving. t| (t||: dhvajah< flag
- (|||-||--| samaveta@n-kuru@n to the assembled Kuru/. -| (~-|-|-~-| as{nan-
gac{c{han eating and going. --| (~--|: antah< the end. --~| (~||~|--~|-| vyathayantyete
these do bother. -~| (~||-~| a@mantrya having invited. -| (|-|-|| manthanam churning. -|
(~|-|| yantram machine. --| (||--|-|| sa@ntvana@ consolation. --~| (+|--~||-| bhantsyati he will tie.
-= (~|-|-=: a@nandah< joy. -= (,|-=~|| indriyam organ. -; (;-;| dvandvam duality. - (-||
runddha@m he should resist. ~-| (arunddhvam you all had resisted. - (-|-|||
runddhya@ta@m may they stop. -t| (~-t| andha blind. ~-t||z (arundhmahi we all had resisted.
||-t~|--|: (vindhyantah> lacking. ~-t||z (arundhvahi we two had resisted. ~ (~~| annam food.
-| (||-||-|||: sthita@n-pa@rthah< Arjuna to the seated ones. -| (||||-||| | pra@n<a@n-pra@n<es<u breath in
the breaths. -| (|||-|-t|-| sarva@n-bandhu@n to all brothers. -| (-||-||l|| ta@n-brav&mi I tell about
them. -+| (+||||-+||: bhava@n-bh&s<mah< you Bh&shma. -+~| (|-+~||| khanbhya@m for two lame men).
-+| (||-|||-+||-|-| ma@tula@n-bhratr<{n to uncles and brothers. -| (|-| janma birth. -~| (~-~|: anyah<,
other. - (~||-| asmin-ran<e on this battlefield. -| (~-|~|: anvayah< following. -~| (+|||-~|||
|
=
t|
-|



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bhagavan-vyaktim O Lord! Your personifiction. -| (-||-||l+~| ta@n-sam&ks<ya having seen them. -~|
(||||-~||-| buddhima@n-sya@t he will be wise. -| (t||-|||-|||-t|||-| dha@rtara@s<t>ra@n-sva-ba@ndha-
va@n, to our brother Kauravas. -z (|~|-|~|-z|| san~janayan-hars<am, while increasing the joy
-| (|~||-|| parya@ptam limited. -| (|||-|| loluptvam eagerness. v (|-||
svapnam sleep, dream. | (||||-|| pa@pma@nam to the wicked. ~| (~||~| ava@pya
having obtained. | (||-| prati towards. | (||-||= samplutodakam full of water. | (~|
apsu in the water. ~| (~||~||| ava@psyasi you will attain
= (|=: s{abdah< sound. t| (|t| labdha attained. t| (|t|| labdhva@ having. +~|
(|+~||| gubbhya@m for tow defenders. ~| (|~|: s{aibyah<. | (|u brahma
+~| (~+~|||: abhya@sah< study. +| (+||: bhramah< delusion. +|||= (bhva@di bhu@ etc.)
(t|-|: dhr<s<t>adyumnah<. | (|||: vikampah< trembling. ~ (||~-| gumphita
intertwined. | (~|| anba@ mother. +| (~+||| ambhasi in the water. +~| (|+~|||
pumbhya@m for two persons. | (|||-|: samma@nah< respect. ~| (~| ramya enchanting. | (||~|-|
mriyate it dies
~~| (-|~~|||-| tvayyupapadyate it befits you
(~: arkah< sun. +~| (||+~|~||-| su@rks<is<yati he will disrespect. | (|| mu@rkha
foolish | (||: vargah< class. +~| (~+~||| u@rgbhya@m with two languages. ~| (~|~|
asvargya un-heavenly. t~| (~t~|| arghyam offering -| (~-|-|| arc{ana@ worship. -~| (~+~|-|:
abhyarc{ah< salute. -~ (|-~|-| mu@rc{c{hati it coagulates. | (+|l|||-|| bh&ma@rjunau of Bhima and
Arjuna. ~| (|~| varjya without. | (|=-||||.: vadanairjvaladbih< with balzing mouths. ;|
(;|;|| jharjhara@ prostitute. | (||: varn<ah< a class. ~| (~|~| a@karn<ya, hearing. -| (t||-||:
dha@rtara@s<t<rah< Kaurava. -| (~|-| a@rtta afflicted -| (|-||-| vartmani on the path. -~| (|-~| martya
dying. | (~|: arthah< meaning. = (|-||=-|: jana@rdanah< Kr<s<n<a. t| (~t| ardha half. t-| (||t-|
mu@rdhni in the head. t-~| (||t-~||t||~||-|-|: mu@rdhnya@dha@ya@tmanah< having fixed in ones head. t|
(|-~|t||| mr<tyurdhruvam death is certain. t| (~t| u@rdhva up. -| (|-|||l|-|||: nira@s&rnirmamah<
indifferent and selfless. | (||: sarpah< snake. | (=||: dur-buddhih<, wicked. | (z|||u|-||
havirbrhma@gnau offering in the fire of brahma. +| (=+|: darbhah< grass. | (| karma deed. ~|
(t|~||-| dharmya@t than the righteous. ~| (||~|| s{auryam bravery. | (|-|l|||||z| c{ik&rs<ur-
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lokasan[graham desirous of people. | (|| sarva all. ~| (||~||-|-||~||-| buddhirvyatitaris<yati
mind will transcend. | (||: spars{ah< contact. | (z|: hars<ah< joy. | (|||~|: va@rs<n<eyah<
Krishna. z (~z: ahrah< worthy. | (|-|||-|||-||| pr<kr<terjn~a@nava@napi the wise also - with his own
nature
(||| valkalam bark. | (||-|| valgana@ chatter. | (~| alpa short. |-|
(ulbena with umblical cord. ||+| (pragalbha proud. | (||| kalmas<am sin. ~|
(|~|: s{alyah< thorn. | (~||||+|-| s{raddha@va@m~l-labhate the faithful person attains. | (||||
bilvam the Bel tree
~| (~||t|: vya@ghrah< tiger. | (|-| vratam austerity
~| (~|-|~|| a@s{c{aryam wonder. ~ (+||~~| bhras<t>s{c{hinnam broken and spoiled.
-| (~-|||| as{na@mi I eat. | (||| kas{malam delusion. ~| (|~| pas{ya see. ~
(~l s{r& divine. | (~|: as{vah> horse. | (~|l as{l&la obscene
(|-|||: nis<ka@mah< without desire. (|-||-|: nis<kr<tih< fruitless act. (~ as<t>a
eight. (;||| dves<t>ya-kus{alam he hates non-pleasent. (|| ra@s<t>ram
country. (| dr<s<t>va@ seeing. : (|:| pr<s>t>ham surface. | (|: kr<s<n<ah< black. | (|||
pus<pam flower. | (=|||: dus<pra@pah< difficult to attain. ~| (~|~|| aus<n<yam warmth. | (+|l|:
bh&s<mah<. ~| (|-|~|: manus<yah< man. | (| kurus<vah< do
(=: skandah< chapter. | (|||-| skhalati it falls. | (+|| bhrasj to roast. -|
(~-|| astam setting. -~| (||||--~|~-|| pra@n<a@nstyaktva@ having renounced their lives.
(|-| sram~sate it falls). |-|: (srotah< flow. (l str& woman. -| (-|-|| kutastva@ from
where did you?. | (||-|| stha@nam place. -| (-||-|| sna@nam bath. | (||: spars{ah< contact.
~ (||~|: visphot>ah< explosion. | (-|||-| tasma@t therefore. ~| (||||~||+|| gira@m-
asmyekam-aks<aram among the syllables I am the syllable of Om. ~| (~~| asya its. (|z|
sahasram thousand. | (|-|: svatah< oneself), | (|z-||| hinassi you kill
; (;=~|| hr<dayam heart). ;~||-| (hrs<yati he enjoys. r (|r||-| grhn<a@ti he takes. r (||r:
vahni fire. u (|u| brahma@. z (=z-| dahyate it burns. r (||r|-| jihreti she blushes.
r (|r|=: prahla@dah<. t (|t|-| juhvati he performs offering

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LESSON 9
navamah< abhya@sah< -|||: ~+~|||:+

RAPID READING

9.1
THE SANSKRIT LANGUAGE
sam~skr<ta-bha@s<a@ sa>staBaaPaa_

||-|||t|| ||||-|||| |||-|| ;| ||l~||+
~|-||||l |-|+|||| -|| |~|| -| -| |:-||++++
Surasa-subodha@ vis{va-manojn~a@ lalita@ hr<dya@ raman<&ya@,
Amr<ta-va@n<& sam~skr<ta-bha@s<a@ naiva klis<t<a@ na c{a kat>hina@.
(for meaning of Sanskrit verses, please see Appendix 9)

EXERCISE 21: ONLY FOR READING PRACTICE on what we have learned so far in the previous
pages. I assume that you have understood all previous lessons, before proceeding to the following
eight exercises.
Following eight exercises are ONLY FOR A PRACTICE IN READING simpler sentences containing
easy-to-read Sanskrit compound words. Please read the exercises several times, skip the meaning at this
stage, until you finish the book up to lesson 30. Attain a comfortable Sanskrit-reading skill, so that you
may be able to tackle the subsequent difficult exercises.

| || ~-||: +||||: ||--|+ (sam~ sa@ re aneka@ h< bha@ s<a@ h< santi) -||| |||| | -|-+|||| |||-||| -|
~:| -| ~|-|+ (ta@su sarva@su sam~ skr<ta-bha@ s< a@ sarvottama@ c{a s{res< t> ha@ c{a asti) }|| ~|-|-|||l
|l|||-|||l |l|||+||-|l =|-|||l ,-~|||=|+|: -||||+|: ||~|-|+ (es< a@ amr< ta-va@ n< &, g&rva@ n< a-va@ n< &,
g&rva@ n< a-bha@ rat& deva-va@ n< & itya@ dibhih< na@ mabhih< jn~ a@ yate) }|| -| || +||-|l~||-|| +||||||



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|-|-|l ~|-| (es<a@ na kevalam[ bha@rat&ya@nam[ bha@ s< a@ n< a@ m[ janan& asti) ~||-| |=|||-|| +||||-|||
~|| |-|-|l ~|-|+ (apitu vaides{ika@ na@ m[ bha@ s< a@ na@ m api janan& asti) +|~|: ||||t|| ~|||~| }-||
||+||-| -||--|: (r< s< ayah< sama@ dhim a@ stha@ ya ena@ m[ sa@ ks< a@ t kr< tavantah< ) ~-| }| }|| +||||
=|||z-|| ||||-~|| | |-| |~| -| ~|-|+ (ata eva es< a@ bha@ s< a@ dos<a-rahita@ , vika@ ra-s{u@ nya@ ,
sam~ska@ ra-sampanna@ c{a asti)
~~||: ~|||| ~. -|| ~|-|+ (asya@h< vya@ karan<am adbhutam asti) | ,-| ||||-|
||||| -| ~|-|+ (sam~ skr< tam[ vaijn~a@ nikam[ sarva@ n[ ga-pu@ rn< am[ c{a asti) ~~||: |=-|-||
~+| -|| || ~|-|+ (asya@ h< s{abda-racana@ abhu@ ta-pu@ rva@ asti) ~~||: -| |=||: | |||||: ~|-|+
(asya@h< c{a s{abda-kos< ah< suvis{a@lah< asti) |||z-~| -| ||||-|| ~|-|+ (sa@ hityam[ c{a sulalitam
asti) |||l|: ~|||: |||=||| +| -|~|: |z||~|: ||||||z-~| = |+||: ||--|+ (va@ lm&kih< , vya@ sah< ,
ka@ lida@saprabhr< tayah< maha@ -kavayah< vis{va-sa@hitye durlabha@h< santi)
| -|+||||~||| ~-|||t|||-|| ||-|+ (sam~ skr< ta-bha@ s< a@ ya@ m aneka-vidha-jn~ a@ nam[ vidyate)
~~|| +||||~|| |||-|~| ~|||-||~| ~|~| |=~| ~t~||-|~| -| |+|-||| -|-|| ||+~|-| + (asya@m[
bha@ s<a@ m[ gan< itasya, jyotis< asya, a@ yurvedasya adhya@ tmasya c{a su@ ks< ma-vivec{anam
upalabhyate) | -| +||-|l~|-| -|: ||| ~|-|+ (sam~ skr< tam[ bha@ rat&ya-sam~ skr< teh< mu@ lam
asti)
9.2
Ra@ma@yan<am
ramaayaNama`_


|||||-|||l|-|||-|-|| |||~||-||l~|||+
~-|l| ||| |t|| |~||| -|| |~|| -| -| |:-||++z++
Kavi-kokila-va@lm&ki-virac{ita@, ra@ma@yan<a-raman<&ya-katha@,
At&va sarala@ madhura@ man~jula@, naiva klis<t<a@ na c{a kat<hina@.




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EXERCISE 22 : ONLY A READING EXERCISE.
|| |||=-| : || : ~| ||l+~| =||: -|~| ~||||~|| ~|-~|-|+ (Ra@mam[ samuditaih< gun<aih< yuktam[
sam&ks<ya das{arathah< tasya yauvara@jyam amanyat) ||||t||-| -|||||-| -||-|| ||-||=|-| ~|| ||| |+||| ~||-~|
=||: ||-|+ (Vividha@n na@garika@n na@na@ ja@napada@n api sarva@m[ sabha@m a@mantrya das{arathah< uva@c{a) ~::
}| || ||: ||: || : || : ~|: ~|-|+ ~-|: ~|| ||~| -|| |-|~|||~|||| -|||-| ~-||-~|-|||+ (S}res< t< hah< eva mama
putrah< ra@mah< sarvaih< gun<aih< yuktah< asti. Atah< yauvara@jye tam[ niyojaya@mi tasma@t anumanyata@m)
-| ~|| =||| ~-|: (te api das{aratham u@c{uh<) -||-| (Nr<pate!) ~l||: t|||: |-~||-t|: |l|||-| ~-||~|:
(S}r&ra@mah< dharmajn~ah< satyasandhah< s{&lava@n anasu@yakah<) -|||-| ||||=|-|| ,|| ~l|| ~|| ||~| |~|| ~||
=| ,-~||: (Tasma@t sarvas{atrudamanam imam[ s{r&ra@mam[ yauvara@jye vayam api dras<t<um ic{c{ha@mah<)

EXERCISE 23: Fill in the blanks.
(1) || |||=-|: ||: ------------- ||l+~|+ (2) ||| |+||| ~||-~| ------------- ||-|+
(3) || ||: ------------- ||: ||: ~|: ~|-|+ (4) ~||||~| ------------- |-|~|| | ~||+
(5) -| ~|| ------------- -|:+ (6) ~l|| ~||||~| ------------- ~|| =| ,-~||:+

9.3
A Devotional Song
bhakti-g&tam BaiFgaItama`_

EXERCISE 24 :
Only a Reading and Writing exercise. Read the paragrapha and write them in Sanskrit. If you want, the
meaning of the verses is given in Appendix 9 at the end.

S}r&kr>s<n<a govinda hare mura@re, He na@tha na@ra@yan<a va@sudeva,
Jihve! pibasva@mr>tametadeva, Govinda da@modara ma@dhaveti.
Jihve! sadaiva bhaja sundara@n<i, Na@ma@ni kr<s<n<asya manohara@n<i,
Samasta bhakta@rtivina@s{ana@ni, Govinda da@modara ma@dhaveti.
S}r&kr<s<n<a ra@dha@vara gokules{a, Gopa@la govardhana na@tha vis<n<o,



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Jihve! pibasva@mr>tametadeva, Govinda da@modara ma@dhaveti.

EXERCISE 25 :
Fill in the blanks with the Sanskrit words used in above English transliterated verses.

(1) ||t |=| ------------------- | -=||| + (2) ------------------- |~| |-||z|||+
(3) ------------------- +|||-|||-|||-|||-|+ (4) ~l| |t||| ------------------- +
(5) ||||| |||t|-| ------------------- ||||+ (6) ------------------- =||| = ||t|||-| +

9.4
Maha@bha@ratam
mahaBaartama`_

~||||||-|-|| |||||||-|| |z|+||-| |=~|||+
||||<|-|-|||-|| -|| |~|| -| -| |:-||++o++
Vya@sa-virac{ita@ gan<es<a-likhita@, maha@bha@rate divya-katha@,
Kaurava-pa@n<d<ava-san[gara-mathita@, naiva klis<t<a@ na c{a kat<hina@.
(for meaning of Sanskrit verses, please see Appendix 9)

EXERCISE 26 : READING EXERCISE. This is only a reading exercise. Read the following Sanskrit
paragraphs. Write them for practice.

||||~|-|: ~||l-| (Vais{ampa@yanah< abrav&t)
-| ||<||: |l|: ||<|: ||||||: |||-=l -|=l| ~|+|||| -|| ||: (te pa@ n< d< ava@ h< v&ra@ h<
baddha-khad< ga@ h< baddha-kes{a-pa@ s{ah< ka@ lindim[ nad&m abhimukham[ kr< tva@ jagmuh< ) -|-|: -| =|+||
-|l ||=|+~||| }| ~-||-~-|+ (tatah< te daks< in<am[ t&ram[ pada@ bhya@ m eva anvagac{c{han) -|=| -|
||<||: (tada@ te pa@ n< d< ava@ h< ) |-||-||-|||||: (nivr< tta-vana-va@ sah< ) || |||: (sva-ra@ s< t< ram[
prepsavah< ) |||=| | |-|=|| t|-| |--|: (giri-durges< u vana-durges< u dhanus< mantah<) -| |z|t|-|t||||:
|z||||: (te maha@ -dhanurdha@rin<ah< maha@ -bala@ h< ) |-|| ||||z|-| |: ||-t~|--|: (vanes<u



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mr< gasamu@ha@ n s{araih< vindhyantah< ) -| | =||| = ||-| (uttaren< a das<a@ rn< a des{a@n) -||| =|+||-|
||~-||||-| = ||-| (tatha@ daks< in<ena pa@ n~ c{a@ la@n des{a@n) ~--|| -| (antaren< a c{a) ~||| ||-| || -||-|
-|| (yakr<lloma@ n s{u@rasena@ n kr< tva@ ) |-~|~| |||~| = | ||||: (matsyasya vis<ayam[ des{am[
pravis< t< a@ h< )
-|-|: |-~|~| -|| ||~| (tatah< matsyasya nagaram[ pra@ pya) t|||||-| =||=l ||-|+
(dharmara@ ja@ nam[ draupad& uva@ c{a) |~| }|: ~|--|+ (pas{ya! ekapadyah< dr< s{yante) ~-|: ~-|-|
|-|r -| ~| +|||-| (atah< anena c{ihnena vyaktam[ bhavati) ~|-| |||~| ||-||l ,-|: = }| +|||~||-|+
(yat vira@ t> asya ra@ janagar& itah< du@ re eva bhavis< yati)

EXERCISE 27 : Fill in the blanks :
(1) -| ------------- |l|: ||<|:+ (2) -| ------------- -|l |=|+~||| }| ~-||-~-|+
(3) |||~| ||-||l ,-|: ------------- }| +|||~||-|+

9.5
The G&ta@ gaItaa_

+||-||||-|l-||. |||||-=-|| +|||,l-||+
~|-||t|| |=l|||. -|| |~|| -| -| |:-||++++
Kuruks<etra-samara@n[gan<a-g&ta@vis{va-vandita@ bhagavadg&ta@,
Amr<ta-madhura@ karma-d&pika@ naiva klis<t>a@ na c{a kat<hina.

EXERCISE 28 : READING EXERCISE
|~|~|: ||-|+ -| -||| |~|| ~|||| ~~| ||+||| |||l=-| -|| ,= ||~~|| ||-| |t| | =-|:+ -|: -||
|| ,=| |||| |||||-||+ ~-||~||| ~|~|| ~l|-|| ~|-| ~~| || | ||: ||| -| }-|-| -||~|
||-| + +|=| ;=~|-=||~| -~|~-|| |-|: |-||
San~jayah< uva@ c{a. Tam[ tatha@ kr< paya@ a@ vis< t>am as{ru-pu@ rn<a@ kuleks< an<am[ vis<&dan tam idam[ va@ kyam uva@ c{a
madhusu@danah<. Kutah< tva@ kas{malam idam[ vis< ame sam-upasthitam. Ana@ rya-jus<t> am asvargyam
ak&rtikaram arjuna! Klaibyam[ ma@ sma gamah< pa@rtha! na etat tvayi upapadyate. Ks< udram[ hr<daya-
daurbalyam[ tyaktva@ uttis<t> ha parantapa!



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EXERCISE 29 : Fill in the blanks
(1) |||l=-| -|| ,= ||~~|| ||-| ------------- +
(2) -|: -|| || ,=| ------------- |||||-||"
(3) +|=| ;=~|-=||~|| ------------- |-|: | -||

9.6
I am S{iva
s{ivo]ham ioavaae~hma`_

EXERCISE 30: Reade and write the verses as you see them. For meaning see Appendix 9.

Na me dves<a-ra@gau na me lobha-mohau, Mado naiva me naiva ma@ tsarya-bha@vah< ,
Na dharmo na c{a@rtho na ka@mo na moks<ah< , C}ida@ nandaru@ pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
-| | ; |||| -| | || +||| z| + |=| -|| | -| | ||-|~|+|||:+
-| t||| -| -|||| -| ||| -| || +|:+ |-|=|-|-=|: |||| z |||| z|++++
Na pun< yam[ na pa@ pam[ na saukhyam[ na duh< kham, Na mantro na t&rtham[ na veda@ na yajn~ a@ h< ,
Aham[ bhojanam[ naiva bhojyam[ na bhokta@, C}ida@nandaru@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
-| |~| -| ||| -| ||~| -| =:||+ -| ||| -| -|l| -| | =| -| ~|||:+
~z +|| |-| -|| +|| ~| -| +|| |+ |-|=|-|-=|: |||| z |||| z|++v++
Na me mr< tyu-s{an[ka@ na me ja@ ti-bhedah< , Pita naiva me naiva ma@ ta@ na janma,
Na bandhurna mitram[ gururnaiva s{is< yah< , C}ida@nandaru@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
-| | |-~| || -| | |||-|+| =:+ ||-|| -|| | -|| ||-|| -| |-|+
-| |-t|-| ||| |-|| ||~|:+ |-|=|-|-=|: |||| z |||| z|++c++
Aham[ nirvikalpo nira@ka@ra-ru@pah<, Vibhurvya@pyasarvatra sarvendriya@n<a@m,
Sada@ me samatvam[ na muktirna bandhah<, C}ida@nandaru@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
~z |-||||| |-||||:+ ||+|~||~|||| || |-=~|||||+
|=| | ||-| -| ||-| |-t|:+ |-|=|-|-=|: |||| z |||| z|++++






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PART 9.7
OBEISANCE TO THE MOTHERLAND
Vande Ma@taram vande maatarma`_

EXERCISE 31: Read this beautiful prayer from Bankim Chandra Chaterji's poetry.

|-= ||-||+ |||| |~|| ||~||-|l-||||+
|~|~||||| ||-||+ |-= ||-||++z++
Vande ma@taram, Sujala@m[ suphala@m[ malayaja-s{&tala@m,
S}asya-s{ya@mala@m[ ma@taram, vande ma@taram.

|+|-~||--|| |||-|-~||||-|l|+ |z|||-|l ||t|-+|||||l|+
||=| |=| ||-||+ |-= ||-||++.++
S}ubhra-jyotsna@m[ pulakita-ya@min&m, Suha@sin&m[ su-madhura-bha@s<in<&m,
sukhada@m[ varada@m[ ma@taram, vande ma@taram.

|||=||~||-| -||||| -|||+ -||||| |||| ~|||| ~-||||+
|||| |~|| ||-||+ |-= ||-||+++++
Vidya@-da@yini! nama@mi tva@m, Nama@mi kamala@m amala@m atula@m,
Sujala@m[ suphala@m[ ma@taram, vande ma@taram.

~||||| ||||+ |||-|| +|||-|||+
t||l +||l ||-||+ |-= ||-||++++
S}ya@mala@m[ sarala@m, Susmita@m[ bhu@s<ita@m,
Dharan<im[ bharan<im[ ma@taram, vande ma@taram.






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9.8
THE VEDAS

The Ga@yatr& Chant gaaya%aI-ma>%a:_

|l-|| || -| ||~||l ||||-=|-| ;|= ||-|+ -|-||||~| |-||-| -| ||-|++o++
G&ta@ gan[ga@ c{a ga@yatr& govindeti hr<di sthite, c{aturgaka@rasam~yukte punarjanma na vidyate.
Loftiest among all Sanskrit writings is the divine Ga@yatr& Mantra.

EXERCISE 32: Read, write and compare the Sanskrit and English characters.
1. +| +| |: |:+ -|-|||-| |~| +||| =|~| t|l||z+ |t|~|| ~|| -|: |-|| =~||-|++++
Om[ bhu@rbhuvah< svah<, tatsaviturvaren<yam[ bhargo devasya dh&mahi, dhiyo yo nah< prac{odaya@t.
2. }=--||~| ||z + |>-| <|~| t|l||z+ -|~| =--|l |-|| =~||-|++++
Om[ ekadanta@ ya vidmahe, vakratun< d< a@ ya dh&mahi, tanno dant& prac{odaya@ t.
3. -|-|||~| ||z + |z|= ||~| t|l||z+ -|~| =: |-|| =~||-|++v++
Om[ tatpurus< a@ ya vidmahe, maha@ deva@ ya dh&mahi, tanno rudrah< prac{odaya@ t.
4. -|||~|||~| ||z+ |||=||~| t|l||z+ -|~| |||: |-|| =~||-|++zc++
Om[ na@ ra@yan<a@ ya vidmahe, va@ sudeva@ ya dh&mahi, tanno vis<n<uh< prac{odaya@ t.
5. = ~| | u|~| ||z + |z||~-~| -| t|l||z+ -|~| = |l |-|| =~||-|++z++
Om[ devyai brahma@ n< yai vidmahe, maha@ s{aktyai c{a dh&mahi, tanno dev& prac{odaya@ t.
6. |z||+~| -| ||z + ||||--~| -| t|l||z+ -|~| |+|l |-|| =~||-|++zz++
Om[ maha@ laks< myai c{a vidmahe, vis< n< upatnyai c{a dh&mahi, tanno laks< m& prac{odaya@ t.
7. +|||~| ||z + |z |-||~| t|l||z+ -|~| ~||=-~|: |-|| =~||-|++z.++
Om[ bha@skara@ya vidmahe, mahaddyutikara@ ya dh&mahi, tanno a@dityah< prac{odaya@ t.
8. ||~|~||-| |~||-| ||t|-| |||||||+ ||~|-| ||~|-| ~|||,|~||l || -|-|: |-||++z+++
Ga@yatrya@stu paranna@sti s{odhanam[ pa@pakarman<a@m, Ga@yantam[ trya@te yasma@t ga@yatr& sa@ tatah< smr<ta@.