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1) In class we discussed several agents of chemical warfare.

Describe the chemistry, biology, and physics of the agent and describe at least 2 specific ways that it has affected history in war and/or peace time. One of the chemical warfare agents that was discussed in class was phosgene. Phosgene is a choking agent. The chemical, COCl2, is a gas at 70oF. It is an acid that dissolves the lining in the lungs. It was developed and used in WWI. It is a colorless gas that is 18 times more powerful than chlorine gas. However, it was often mixed with chlorine gas in weapons. It tends to vaporize easily so to keep in a desired area it was mixed. The containers that had this combination were marker with a white star. This was an effective strategy because chlorine gas did not always kill the people. It did not have to be pure or a great quantity to be lethal. However, it doesnt have to be used for war. It was commonly used in factories. It was needed in the dying process for textiles.

2) Find a type of chemical/biological weapon (may be a novel chemical or a different use of a chemical that we did discuss in class) that we did not discuss in class and describe how it works. Cite your source, and attach hyperlinks as appropriate. Soman is a nerve agent that is also known GD. Chemically it is C7H16FO2P, fluoromethylpinacolyloxyphosphine oxide. It presents as a colorless, tasteless gas. In Germany, it was originally used as an insecticide. However, it was later made into a weapon in WWII. It was extremely deadly; it is more lethal than tabun or sarin. It is also lethal in smaller quantities. Though used as a gas, it will containment the area. If exposed to enough, soman will cause convulsions and respiratory failure. During WWII

people exposed would go into convolution within second. People would be dead within three minutes. However, soman is will become vapor and disperse very quickly. Links: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Soman+nerve+gas http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/soman/basics/facts.asp http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/poison_gas_and_world_war_two.htm

3) Describe the connections between the Nobel Peace Prize and chemical warfare. Explain how explosives can both threaten and promote peace between nations. The Nobel Peace Prize got its starting money from an explosives maker. Nobel figured out how to make dynamite usable by people. This discovery helped make weapons more powerful. Nobel justified what he did because he thought if people saw the destructive power of dynamite they wouldnt want to have war. However, this is not what happened. It was used in war. However, Nobels idea that a weapon was too powerful to use does make sense. It even has happened to some extent. In the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union both had Weapons of Mass Destruction. They did not use them because of MAD, or Mutually Assured Destruction. The idea was that if WMDs were used no one would win because both sides would be destroyed. Nobels principle was correct, but dynamite just was powerful enough.