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Requirements & Best Practices

Todd Jekel, Assistant Director, IRC

Machinery Room

Design
Feb. 8, 2007

Standard Definition
z

What is a machinery room?


z z

ASHRAE 15-2004 3 states:


a a space, space, meeting meeting the the requirements requirements of of 8.11 8.11 and and 8.12, 8.12, that that is is designed designed to to house house compressors compressors and and pressure pressure vessels vessels

8.11 refers to 7.4, which refers to 7.2 z z 7.2.2.7 states:


z z

All All refrigerant-containing refrigerant-containing parts parts in in systems systems exceeding exceeding 100 100 HP HP (74.6 (74.6 kW) kW) compressor compressor drive drive power, power, except except evaporators evaporators used used for for refrigeration refrigeration or or dehumidification, dehumidification, condensers condensers used used for for heating, heating, control control and and pressure-relief pressure-relief valves valves for for either, either, and and connecting connecting piping, piping, are are located located either either in in a a machinery machinery room room or or outdoors. outdoors.
2007 IRC

Standard Definition (cont.)


z What

is a machinery room?
2-1999

z IIAR

a space that is designed to safely house compressors, pressure vessels, or associated refrigeration equipment No further expansion of definition within the body of the standard

2007 IRC

Location & Siting


z Location
z Ideal
z z Ground

floor with multiple outside walls z z Easy access for emergency response
z Often
z z No

found realities in older systems

outside walls due to facility expansion z z Basement or upper floor location (formerly allowed)

2007 IRC

Egress
z

Egress & Doors


z z

ASHRAE 15
z z

8.11.2 8.11.2
z z

tight-fitting tight-fitting door(s) door(s) opening opening outward, outward, self-closing self-closing if if they they open open into into the the building, building, adequate adequate in in number number to to ensure ensure freedom freedom for for persons persons to to escape escape in in an an emergency emergency Same Same as as 8.11.2 8.11.2 but but says says fire fire doors doors shall shall have have a a door door that that opens opens directly directly to to the the outside outside air air or or through through a a vestibule vestibule equipped equipped with with self-closing, self-closing, tighttightfitting fitting doors doors

z z z z

8.12(b) 8.12(b)
z z

8.12(d) 8.12(d)
z z

z z

IIAR 2 6.3.1.5 (same)


2007 IRC

Standard Requirements
z Access
z ASHRAE

8.11.8 & IIAR 6.1.1.1

z z Accessshall be restricted to

authorized personnel. Doors shall be clearly markedto indicate this restriction. z Penetrations
z ASHRAE

15 8.12(f) & IIAR 6.3.1.10

z z All pipes piercing the interior walls, ceiling or

floorshall be tightly sealed to the walls, ceiling or floor through which they pass.
2007 IRC

Standard Reqts (cont.)


z Building
z z

materials
8.12(c)

z ASHRAE

Walls, floor, and ceiling shall be tight and of non-combustible construction. Walls, floor, and ceiling separating the refrigeration machinery room from other occupied spaces shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.

2007 IRC

Ventilation
z ASHRAE 15 8.11.3-5 z z vented to the outdoors utilizing mechanical ventilation z z one or more power-driven fans To obtain reduced airflow for normal ventilation, multiple or multispeed fans shall be used. Openings for inlet air shall be positioned to avoid recirculation. Air supply & exhaust ductsshall serve no other area. The discharge of air shall be to the outdoors in such a manner as not to cause a nuisance or danger.
2007 IRC

Ventilation (cont.)
z Volume
z Modes
z z Emergency,
z z

flow rates (8.11.5)


QE E

Q [cfm] = max ( QE , QT , QC ) QE = 100 G [lb] QT = H [Btu/hr] 1.08 19 [ o F]

100 100 times times the the system system charge charge <19 <19 F F room room temperature temperature rise rise above above ambient ambient 0.5 0.5
2 cfm/ft cfm/ft2

z z Temperature
z z

control , QT T

z z Continuous
z z

, QC C

QC = 0.5 AMR [ft 2 ]

minimum minimum

2007 IRC

Ventilation Layout Considerations


z Exhaust

near potential release sources z Fresh air dampers near ignition sources (i.e. motors)
z Low

on side wall(s) z Fail-open type


z Access
z Dont

doors (roll-up)
short circuit the ventilation!

z Ammonia

detection near sources & near continuous exhaust location


2007 IRC

Ventilation Layout

Dampers

LPR
Roll-up Door

INT

HPR

Fresh Air Recommended Area of Exhaust Fan(s)

Dampers

2007 IRC

Ventilation Equipment Considerations


z Consider
z Balance

system effects

of system pressure drop & fan pressure rise

z Consider

location of exhaust & prevailing weather


z Recirculation z Impact

makeup air units? z Offsite impacts?


2007 IRC

Equipment Specification
z IIAR

Bulletin 111
upblast, high velocity

z Recommends

exhaust fans

z Consider
z Fans

that dilute the exhaust with fresh air


z z Often

used for laboratory fume hood exhausts

z Wetted

media exhaust systems (scrubbers)


2007 IRC

Emergency Controls
z Emergency
z ASHRAE

Controls

8.12(i)

z z Remote control of the

mechanical equipment in the refrigerating machinery room shall be provided immediately outside the machinery room door solely for the purpose of shutting down the equipment in an emergency. Ventilation fans shall be on a separate electrical control and have a control switch located immediately outside the machinery room door.
2007 IRC

Ammonia Detection
z

ASHRAE 8.11.2.1 exempts ammonia but requires continuous ventilation at the emergency amount (8.12(h))
z z

Despite this exemption, the use of ammonia detectors is common

Consider using ammonia detectors for both personnel & property protection
z z z z

Personnel
z z

Low Low level: level:

Audible Audible & & Visual Visual Alarms Alarms & & Ventilation Ventilation Control Control

Property
z z

High High level: level: Machinery Machinery Room Room Shutdown Shutdown
2007 IRC

Electrical Shutdown
z z

Removes power from all non-classified electrical equipment during high ammonia concentrations
z z

motors, motors, motor motor control control centers, centers, floats, floats, switches, switches, etc. etc.

z z

Why? It reduces likelihood of deflagrations in the event of a non-ventilatable release Consider what equipment should be operational during an emergency situation & specify that equipment with the appropriate classification (NEC Class 1, Div. 2)
z z

z z

ventilation ventilation fans, fans, emergency emergency lighting, lighting, alarms, alarms, other other equipment equipment

2007 IRC

Safety Systems
z Eye-wash
z Located

& Shower Station

outside exit door and another recommended inside machinery room (IIAR 2 6.3.1.4 ) z Consider what you would need IF you need to use it!
z z Temperature

appropriate for 15 minute de-con shower z z Drench hose z z Change of clothes


2007 IRC

Safety Systems (cont.)


z

Passive containment for recirculators/vessels


diking z z drain to temporary holding tank
z z

z z

Tie ammonia detection and fire protection alarms into auto-paging system Machinery room secured 24/7 with key card access
2007 IRC

Conclusions
z Familiarize

yourself with the minimum requirements z Consider moving beyond minimums


z Emergency

shutdown z Spill containment z Pseudo-classified space

2007 IRC

Questions?