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English Pair Work I


Steve Flinders and Simon Sweeney
Illustrated by Nevllle Swalne

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S E R I E SE D I T O R :N I C K B R I E G E R

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In memory of Frunk Zappa (1940-93)

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PENGUIN BOOKS

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Contents
Introduction

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Teachers'Notes PairworkActivities
Activity
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Student A StudentB Activity 25 26 27 28 29 3l 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39


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Ice breaker Advertising Agendas Bank charges Budget presentation Business anecdote Business etiquette Business gifts Business initials Buying and selling Cashflow problems Companyof the year Company organization Company presentation Companytour Companyvisit Corporateculture Corporate sponsorship Costs and reducing overheads Customer care Customercomplaint Customsholdup Employeemorale Entertaining visitors Environmentally friendly office Equal opportunities Franchising Health and safety ln-house magazine Interview techniques Job application Large versus small companies Late payment of invoice

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skills for women Managementqualities Market research Market survey Meeting arrangements Mission statement Pay versusbenefits Performance appraisal Presentinginformation Pressand public relations hoduct endorsement Production delays hofit and loss account Project management Quality Quiz 1 Qaiz2 Raising finance Recruitment Recycling Relocation Salestargets Small talk 1 Small talk 2 Spare parts Team building Time management Training priorities Transportation Work environment Work rotas Works council

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Glossary A-Zof Language Functions


Communication Skill Table

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Teachers'notes
1 lce breaker
Introducti.on 'Ice breakers' are short exercisesfor use with a new classto help peopleto get to know eachother. Lead-in Ask why it is important for business people to be able to: r 'breakthe ice'with strangers . ask polite questionsto find out more about business contacts o be able to say clearly and concisely who they are, what they do and wherethey comefrom. Method o With a group class,divide studentsinto As and Bs. There are two possible methods.Either Bs ask all their questions, then As questionBs. Or students takeit in tums to aska question. r If the group is not too large, get studentsto walk around so that all the As interview all the Bs and vice versa. Follow-up I Get selectedstudentsto tell the whole group in one or two sentences: - their name - their job title and main responsibility - their company, companyactivity (if necessary) and companylocation. You may wish to provide a model, for example:,My name is Sylvia Smith and I'm a language trainer responsiblefor business English training at ABC Pharmaceuticals, basedin Berlin.' Explain rhat this is a vital skill which everyonein the group must be able to perform with easeby the end of the course.If somestudents are unsureabout their job titles, get others to make suggestions. If uncertainty persists in any case, suggestthat both you and the student try to get more information beforeyour next meeting. 2 Get students to write short personaland professional profiles of their partners, for example as in a job applicationform.

2 Advertising
Introduction This role play revolves aroundhow to allocatemoney availablefor advertisins. Lead-in Questions: o what methodsof advertisingare there? o what methods would be suitable for advertisins sportsequipment? Method 1 Direct studentA to statean initial position. B should respond with some general comments and observations- on football sponsorship, for example.A needs to choosebetweena broadly-based packagecentred on athleticssponsorship, or a n.urowercampaignled by TV advertising. Student B has to change A's mind - away from football sponsorship. 2 Make sure learnerscome to an agreement on a total packageand that all points in their roles are included in the discussion. Follow-up After giving feedback, noting the positive achievementsof the negotiation,suggest an exchange of letters summarizingthe agreement.

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3 Agendas
Introduction The activity involves a discussion on the telephone aboutplanningan agenda for a meeting. Lead-in I Discuss the themeof quality: - what is quality? - how do companies raise and maintain quality standards? 2 Then elicit commentson agendas: - shouldall business meetingshave agendas? - are written agendas alwaysnecessary? - the answer could be that all meetingsneed clear objectives,but they may not always be written down.

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! Method 1 After the introductory discussion above, students preparetheir roles and B starts,reminding A about his/her letter and making some general critical remarkstogetherwith suggestions. 2 T\ey should reach agreement on a new agendabut postponesomediscussion to the meetingitself. Note that the final agendadependson other people'scommentstoo. Follow-ip They shouldproducea new agenda together. Method B as a listener Explain the two roles - A as presenter, preciselywhat A is sayingand who needsto understand to questionany part of the budgetthat is not totally clear. Follow-up Someleamersmay chooseto presentsomeother information relating to their own work or interests and invite questionsfrom their partners.This would be a good opportunity to reversethe roles of presenterand listener. ! I I :
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anecdote 6 Business 4 Bankcharges


Introduction This activity is essentiallyabout customerservicein a familiar context:a bank. Lead-in I Ask students to discusswhat they think of banksand the quality of servicethey provide. They may recall good and not so good. somepersonalexperiences, 2 Move discussion on to the natureof customerservice and why the conceptis important. Method ./ A begins the role play by ringing with a complaint. B has to decide how to respond.The role play is potentially highly conflictive, much depending on how student B, the bank employee,decidesto resolve the two problems involved. There are several possible ways to resolve the difficulties, depending on the service. to provide a customer-friendly bank'skeenness Follow-up work togetherto createa short dialogue Have students basedon handling a complaint to a bank. Reversethe roles so B is making the complaint. Altematively get them to change the context from banking to another serviceindustry. Introduction This activity can be used to finish off a lesson or a course, or as a break between two more extended, intensiveactivities. Lead-in Is it important for businesspeople to be able to tell Why is it important for businesspeople to anecdotes? be able to tell them clearly and CONCISELY? Method Tell them how 1 Tell students that there are six stages. long you would like them to spend on each one. (l-ltlz minutes per stage.) when the time for eachstageis up. 2 Signalto students Be firm aboutthe changeover. 3 Listen in to each pair. Be ready to prompt students who havedifficulty coming up with ideas. still in pairs, 4 When the exerciseis over, get students, to go over the story again in order to improve and polishit. 5 Invite selectedpairs to report their stories to the whole group. Follow-up 1 Get studentsin pairs to tell each other their own anecdotes. Get partnersto report back to the business group the anecdotesthey have just heard. Again, at every stage. clarity and conciseness encourage they have the anecdote to write down 2 Get students inventedor their own anecdote. analysisand feedback. 3 Language

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presentation 5 Budget
Introduction The activity provides practice in presentinginformation and in listening to a presentationand asking for explanations. Lead-in of key vocabulary,such Check students'understanding asbudget,salesbudget,costof salesandcostof selling.

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7 Businessetiquette
Introduction to reflect upon everystudents This activity encourages formulate rules for their to behaviour, day business

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Teachers'notes
ou'n behaviour,and to leam about the rules goveming otherpeople'sbehaviour. bad-in \\hat aspects of business etiquetteare important in the srudents'own culture?What happensif you break the rules.r .llethod I Even' studenthas five different areasto cover. Tell -{s and Bs that they are going to take it in turns to .Je:cnbe certain aspects of business behaviour to eachother. I .\s and Bs shouldreadtheir copies.Give them a little Iune to think about the rules goveming their own behaviourfor eacharealisted on their own sheets. -: Get .{s to lead with Shakinghands.As tell Bs what the conventionsfor shakinghandsare in their countn'icompany/department as appropriate.Bs should then comment on the differencesbetweenwhat As havedescribed and their own experience. -1 Get Bs to do the samewith Businesscards and contirue alternationuntil the end. Follow-up I Generalreportingback. Get eachA to report on a B areaand vice versa,leadinginto generaldiscussion. I lnvite opinions about other areasof everydaybusiness life, for example, punctuality, the status of deadlines, smokingat work. 3 .{sk whether any of these areas are codified or u'hetherany of them shouldbe. Follow-up A jointly producedmemo stating company policy on receivinggifts.

9 Business initials
Introduction Like the quizzes,this can be treated as a quite lighthearted exercise to round off a lesson or a course. There is nevertheless a seriousand useful pedagogical objective.It is importantfor business peopleto be able to read the internationalbusiness press.Unfamiliar sets of initials are often a barrier to understandingwhen reading in a foreign language.This activity includes some of the more common sets of initials from the worlds of business, politics,economics, computing, etc. Method 1 Get Bs to test As on setsof initials l-16. Bs should give the correct answer after each attempt by As; where necessary they should explain eachansweras far as they can, and scoretheir partnersout of 16. 2 Now reverse roles and get As to testBs. 3 Pairsreport back to the group with teacherclarifying any remaining problem sets. Ask studentsif their companyhas a VP for HR or R&D, what their company's USP is, or whethertheir companyruns a TQA programme. Follow-up I Ask studentsto provide their own sets of initials in English to testthe rest of the class. 2 Provide newspapers/news magazinesfor the group and askthem to identify eitheras many setsof initials as possiblefrom the quiz; or other setsof initials for further quiz work. Answers MD Managing Director. The manager with overall responsibility for the day-to-day running of the company(British English). VP Vice-President.Usually with a departmentalor geographical responsibility, for example: Vicehesident in charge of Human Resourcesor VicePresident Sales,Centraland SouthAmericanReeion (AmericanEnglish). R&D Researchand Development.The division of a company doing the technical or scientific work needed to find new products. PA PersonalAssistant. A senior executive's helper. PAs are usually thought to be more than secretaries but lessthanmanagers.

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gifts 8 Business
Introduction The activity is basedon an internal discussionto formulate policy on employeesreceiving gifts from suppliersor customers. I*ad-in To introducethe theme,ask: o what is the purposeof business gifts? . aregifts commonin your country? . can they causeproblemsor conflict? r what sort of things could be presented as gifts? Method Studentsshould engagein a wide-rangingdiscussion, bringing in all the points on their role cards.Get them to reacha generallyagreednew policy on gifts.

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Teachers'notes
MBA Master in BusinessAdministration. The most importantbusiness schoolor university qualification in business.Some students do the MBA straight after their first degree;others get a few years'job experience first. EU European Union. The political and economic group whosecurrentmembersareAustria, Belgium, Denmark, Eire, Finland, France,Germany,Greece, Netherlands, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Swedenand the United Kingdom. GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The main internationalfree trading agreementbetween nations,aiming to reduceas far as possiblethe barriers to trade across national frontiers. The most recent GAff was eventually signed in 1994 after lengthy negotiations known asthe UruguayRound. IBM International Business Machines. Still the world's biggestcomputercompany. SAS Scandinavian Airline Systems. The airline company for the Nordic countries. WP Word Processing. Typing and editing text on a computer. RAM RandomAccessMemory. The dynamic system memory of a computer that holds programmes and datawhile they arebeing worked on. AGM Annual General Meeting. The meeting, for example,of a company'sshareholders, which takes placeoncea year. GNP Gross National Product. The measure of the wealth created by a country in a year, including moneyearnedfrom abroad. VAT The general tax applied at each point of exchange of goodsor services. The 4 Ps Price, homotion, Packaging,Place.Theseare the main components of the MarketingMix, the most importantfactorsin the marketingof a product. LO Intemational Labour Organization. A United Nations Agency concemedwith the rights, protection and healthand safetyof workersworldwide. CEO Chief Executive Officer. The manager with overall responsibilityfor the day-to-dayrunning of the company. (More commonly used in American English). VIP Very Important Person.Rich, famous,or powerful peoplewho receivespecialtreatment.Major airports,for example,often have a VIP lounge. HR Human Resources.The managementof such things as pay and conditions for all people who work in a company. PR Public Relations.The job of Public Relationsis to ensurethat the public image of a companyis as positive aspossible. PhD Doctor of Philosophy.The doctoratecan, however, be in any of a wide range of subjects,not just philosophy. ECU EuropeanCurrency Unit. A currency which is an averageof a certain number of other European currenciesand possibly the future single cunency for all the members of the European Union (EU). OECD Organizationfor Economic Cooperationand Development.An economic researchand forecasting agencyfunded by the rich industrializednations and basedin Paris, whose aim is to encourage economic growth, high employmentand financial stability amongits members. ABB Asea Brown Boveri. A major Swiss-Swedish engineering company. JAL JapanAirlines. The main Japanese airline company. DTP Desk Top Publishing. The computer-based activity which producestext with integratedgraphics and varied layout, for examplefor a newsletter, magazine. CY or home-produced Unit. The brain of a computer. CPU CentralProcessing AOB Any Other Business. The last item on the agenda of a meeting. GDP Gross Domestic Product. The measureof the wealth created by a country in a year, excluding moneyeamedfrom abroad. USP Unique Selling Proposition.What every company shouldhave - a unique reasonwhy customers shouldbuy from them ratherthan from any other. An approachto seekTQA Total Quality Assurance. quality of product or sering to achievethe highest vice provided by getting everyonein the organization to focus on quality all the time. IMF Intemational Monetary Fund. A fund set up in 1947 and to which most of the countries in the world belong, which exists to lend money to countries in financialdifficulties, particularlyto help with problems.The IMF often withbalanceof payments govemments if it doesnot approveof loans to holds their economicpolicy plans.

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Teachers'notes

10 Buyingand selting
Introduction Negotiation is an important skill not only for people involved in the kind of lengthy discussionneeded,for example,to set up this kind of agencyagreement; but also in informal everyday situations like persuading someone to stay on late at work or changinga holiday date. This activity can be useful practicefor both for_ mal or large-scalenegotiation and informal or smallscalenegotiation. Lead-in In what situationsare negotiatingskills necessary? Are theseskills relevantonly in the workplace? Method I Give studentsplenty of time to read their activity sheets. Calculators could be useful. 2 Set a clear time limit - 20 or 25 minutes should be enough- for the activity, and give studentstwo or threeminutes'waming beforeyou stopthem. 3 Get studentsto start with some small talk before going into the main body of the negotiation. 4 Get eachpair to summarizethe main points of their agreementso that each participant is clear about what hasbeenagreed. Follow-up I Get selectedpairs to talk through the stagesin their negotiationin order to analysethe reasonsfor their particularresult. 2 Get studentsto write down the terms of their agreement.

3 In discussion, both sidesneedto reachagreement on exactly what is possible and what stepsneed to be takennext. Follow-up I Togetherboth students could work out a letter to the customeroffering a unit price discount but requesting tight paymentterms. 2 They could also work out a revised cash budget on the basisof the order and a possiblebank loan.

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12 Companyof the year


Introdaction This activity can help studentsro focus, albeit in a potentially lightheartedway, on the perennialproblem of how to make small businesses grow. If necessary, the situation could be adapted to the context of a departmentor profit centre if participantsall work in largeorganizations. Lead-in In what situationsarecompanies given prizes?What type of prizesare given?What companies have won prizes? Method I If you suspectthat studentsmay not be very forthcoming about imagining their own company into existence, brainstorm an example with the whole classbeforethe activity begins. 2 Note that the list of preferences for A and B are different. Follow-up During feedback,find out what the students'ownideas wereandlist them on the board.Seewhetherany pattem emerges from the choicesmadeby the differentpairs.

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11 Cashflowproblems
Introduction The activity is a fairly complex face-to-face discussion betweena cautiousfinancemanagerand an ambitious marketingmanagerreluctantto turn away a major order. Lead-in As a lead-in, discussthe meaning,causes and implications of cashflowproblems. Method I Both sidesneed a few minutesto preparetheir roles and absorbthe informationthey have. 2 B should start by outlining the order and askinghow much cash is available. A is pessimisticabout the cashflowsituation.

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13 Company organization
Introductinn The activity is based on a face-to-face discussion where both sides need to resolve a problem: how to designa new organizationfor their companies who are planningto merge. Lead-in Startby asking: o why companies havehierarchies o why companies havestructuredorganization r if thereare alternatives to traditional companystructures.

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Teachers'notes
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Method o Each side needsto explain its primary objectivesand to outline its concems.There will be sometrade off betweenthe two. o Studentscan sit side by side and actually draw up a fresh organization chart based on their preferred optionsand what they can agreeon. Follow-up of the new structureusing a board Ajoint presentation or OHP.

Method 1 The notesbelow the plan on A's sheetare only brief guidelinesfor A, who will need time to preparethe presentation. The preparationcould be done before the lesson. Bs to preparelots of questionsso that the 2 Encourage activity is as interactive as possible. Discourage from As. monologues Follow-up I Repeatthe activity with the roles reversed. 2 Get As and Bs to write follow-up lettersto the visit: - As sayingthey arehoping for business from Bs - Bs saying whetheror not they have decidedto do with As. business

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presentation 14 Company
Introduction Introducing oneselfand one's work is a common comThis activity municationneedin intemationalbusiness. gives an oppornrnity to practise a relatively formal presentation. Lead-in To introduce the theme, discussthe function of trade fairs and what goeson at suchevents. Method This is a two-part activity in which studentsboth presenta fictitious companyand hearaboutone. 1 Ask A to present Conta Inc. B intemrpts with requestsfor clarification and/or further information. B can alsotake notes. Edile S.p.A. and the roles are there2 Next, B presents fore reversed. Follow-up Ask learnersto presenttheir own or anotherreal company that they know well. Suggestthey include saying who they are and what their responsibilitiesare.A furbut much ther follow-up is to try a similar presentation, more informally.

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visit 16 Gompany
Introduction This is an information gap exercise which also providespracticein numbersand spellingand checking information. It can thus be used with lower level students. Lead-in if: Ask the students o they haveany problemswith spellingforeign names numbers o they have any problemswith understanding and for spelling o if the! have any special strategies counting. Method to write down any information, e'g. car 1 Get students registrationor telephonenumbers,that they give to their partners. 2 At the end of the activity, get studentsto check that all the information has been correctly transferred. Follow-up Repeat the activity with the roles reversed.Partners now know what information they have to give so shouldgive a more polishedperformance'

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15 Company tour
Introduction It is important for businesspeople to be able to talk clearly and concisely about their company'sproducts, as well as being able to guide history and organization, visitors round the workplace. Lead-in Which companiesreceive visitors?Are there any speAre there any specialrisks cial security arrangements? aboutshowingvisitors around?

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culture 17 Corporate
Introduction The main aim of this activity is to provoke discussion so don't be too concemedif the studentsfail to come up with a coherent policy by the time you call the group together.

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bad-in Ask srudentsif they know any companieswith their o*n specialculture.What are the characteristics of corporate culrure?Does it help employeesto work better together? Methd Encouragestudentsto add ideas in the same spirit to the list. Follow-up I In the group discussionfollowing the activity, get srudentsto identify the assumptions underlying the variouspossiblepolicieson the list, e.g. that companies are too hierarchical, that there are not enough women in top management, etc. and find out if they agreewith theseassumptions or not. Which onesdo they think are nonsensical? Why? 2 Get the group to brainstorm their own equally unorthodoxpolicy suggestions. negotiationin which eachparticipantwill haveto compromise in order to reach the desired objective. See alsoActivity 27 on franchising. Lead-in To introducethe theme,check students'understanding of cosfs,cost of salesandcost of selling. Method Each player in the negotiationapproaches the problem from a rather different perspective:A is more conservative in termsof defendingemployees' interests, while B is more inclined to defend shareholdersand seek improvedproductivity. Consequently, compromiseand bargaining will be required. Encourage students to begin by statingtheir agreedobjectives(to find savings of l0%o)and to find issueson which they agreebefore going into detail on more problematicareas. As a general principle, suggestthat they should only compromise where they get something in retum - in other words, in concedinga point they shouldgain a concession in anotherarea.This may involve looking at two or three points together - a common negotiating approach. Follow-up Set up a similar negotiation involving more participants,so that the negotiationinvolves teams.

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18 Corporate sponsorship
Introduction The activity is designedto encourage extensivediscussion. Studentsmay wish to invent details of the company they both representand such details may influence the final choice.Otherwise,there is no obviously right answer. I*ad-in Why do companiesoffer sponsorship? What types of eventsdo they sponsor? What benefitsdoes each side get? Method Sincethis activity involves quite a lot of reading,allow time for this before beginningthe activity or distribute the activity sheets beforethe lessonbegins. Follow-up I Systematize feedbackfrom the group by asking for the strongand the weak points of eachfile and writing them up on the board. 2 Get studentsto write a letter of acceptance to the sponsorshiprecipient and of rejection to the other two causes.

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20 Customer care
Introduction This activity emphasizesthe importance of looking - thosewho buy a productas well after your customers asthosewho buy a service. Lead-in In your introduction to this activity, ask about the distinction betweeninternal customers(other employees within the same organization whom you serve) and extemal customers(those outside the company who pay you to provide them with a product or service). Ask students how far they serveinternal as opposedto externalcustomers in their work; and ask them whether they shouldbe more focusedon extemalcustomers. Method After the Bs have administered the questionnaire to the As, the partnerscanreverseroles. Follow-up I The group can prioritize the different featuresofcustomer care listed in the questionnaire. One technique

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19 Costsand reducingoverheads
Introduction The activity involves a fairly detailed face-to-face

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! for getting a large group to arrive at a final list is: a) to get eachpair to agreeon a list of priorities; then b)to get two pairs together to agree on a common list; then c) to get two groups of four to agreeon a common list, etc. feel 2 Get detailedfeedbackon how well your students their organizations serve their intemal and their and how thesetwo kinds of serexternalcustomers, vice cogld be improved. Lead-in To setup the theme,ask: r what causes delaysat frontiers o what documents areneeded o how candelays be keptto a minimum r if the problemsat frontiersare the sameeverywhere o if the solutionsto the problemsare the sameeverywhere. Be tactful aboutthe issueof corrupt officials - in some only if placesmention of comrption may be acceptable it refersto othercountries! Method amountof freedomin how have a reasonable Students is led by A to resolvethe problemhere.The discussion statingthe problem and askinghow it may be resolved. B respondsand togetherthe two positions are brought closer - or not, dependingon the degreeof obduracy held by the official, B, or rectitudeheld by A. Follow-up Some studentsmight like to role play a face-to-face meeting at the frontier, with other studentsplaying relatedroles,including the driver.
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complaint 21 Customer
Introduction This activity practisestwo important communication and businessskills. As have to turn an unhappy customer into a happy one. Bs have to avoid being fobbed off with lessthan what they regardastheir properdue. Lead-in Ask students: r in what situationsthey have made complaints over the last few months o whethertheir complaintshavebeenwell handled to be able to deal o why it is important for companies efficiently with complaints. Method time for the heavierreadinginput or 1 Allow adequate begins. beforethe session distributethe activity sheets final the about partners are clear 2 Ensure that both outcomeof the discussionby getting them to write and comparenotes. reached noteson the agreement Follow-up and 1 Get eachpair to report back on their agreement on the board. tabulateall the agreements 2 Get feedback on how the encounter between Bs' firmness and As' desire to win over the customer swayed the discussion one way or the other. Brainstorm language gambits which As and Bs might haveused. 3 Get studentsto write A's letter apologizing for the reached, zing the agreement summari inconvenience, etc.

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morale 23 Employee
Introduction This activity begins with an exchangeof information, It is important for the students followed by discussion. to completethe first part satisfactorilybefore they start the second. Lead-in Ask the studentsin what way morale affects the way people work. What are the possible results of poor employeemorale? Method begin,make it clear to As and Bs 1 Before the students that they have different lists of suggestionsfor increasingcompanymorale on their activity sheets. to comUnderlinethe fact that they are not expected pete by shortlisting more of their own key actions is simplyto get what The objective thantheir parmers'. they both agreeis the bestpossiblepolicy defined. them to simulateformal meet2 You could encourage ings with Bs and then As making shortpresentations of the ideaslisted. They will needextra time to prepare this. This should then be followed by an open of the merits of eachidea in tum. discussion may wish to add their own ideas. 3 Students

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22 Customsholdup
Introduction This is a telephoneconversationbetweentwo people with verv different concems.

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4 Ensure that each pair is clear about what it has agreed beforecalling a halt. Follow-up I Brainstorm students'own additional ideas. 2 Discusshow far there is a group consensus and why some,if any, of the ideasare generallyconsidered to be more feasiblethan others. 3 Get students to write a short report recommending a plan of actionto the company'stop management. Lead-in Ask students first of all what nationallaws exist on, for packaging, example, air andwaterpollution, etc.and ask if they know how legislationdiffersin any othercountry. Method Before the activity begins,you may wish to presentor elicit someof the languagewhich studentsmay use in prioritizing the ideas, particularly comparativeforms occurring in such expressions as: 'Oh no, I think using recycledpaperis much more importantthan . . .' Follow-up I Find out how many peoplefeel this is a relevantand useful topic and how many do not think that safeguardingthe environmentis important. 2 Get feedback on students'own ideas. Additionalsuggestionsmight be: - tuming off computersand other office equipment when not in use - avoiding unnecessary chemicalsby, for example, glues,pump-action usingvegetable-based containersratherthan aerosols - using refillable laserprinter cartridges - using scrappaper for notesrather than brand new memo pads - using electronic mail where possible rather than paper. 3 Questions for the group: - what environmentallyfriendly stepsdo you take in your own offices?What more could you and your colleagues do? - how environmentallyconsciousdo you think your company is as a whole? What more could your companydo?

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24 Entertaining visitors
Introduction This is a fairly extensive telephone conversationin which two new business get to know each associates other a little and discusspossibleentertainment for one of them, who is planningto visit the other. Lead-in Ask: o what types of entertainmentcompaniescould provide for business associates in your country r what sort of entertainmentyou would like if you were visiting other countries. Method o Much of the content here needs to be genuinely basedon students'interests and preferences and on local entertainment available. o An interestingway to do this is for A to explain to B what is availableby referring to a local 'What's On' guide or newspaper. r The conversation hasthreemain partsafter the initial introduction: i) outlining possibleentertainment on offer ii) B's preferences and interests iii) planningan entertainment itinerary for B's visit. Follow-up o A fax from A confirming ideasand/orarrangements. o Reversingroles: B should return the invitation and try to fix up entertainment that A would like. r Repeatthe activity placing emphasison either very formal or very informal typesof hospitality.

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26 Equal opportunities
Introduction This is a straightforward collaborativediscussion based on prioritizinga series of points. Lead-in Discuss the meaning of equal opportunities and the importance of the issue, with reference to students' own country/countries and/orexperience. Method The objective of the activity is to prioritize a seriesof initiatives following discussioncomparingthe relative merits of different proposals.As each studenthas the same list of points, they should discussthe merits of eachone,then decideon an order of importance.

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25 Environmentally friendlyoffice
Introduction This activity can be particularly interestingwith groups of studentsfrom different companies, different sectors and different countries.

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!. Follow-up o Leamers can suggest initiatives which could be introduced in their own working environment to improve equalopportunities. . Students can discuss what measureshave already beentakenand decidehow effectivethey havebeen. Method 1 B should start with a general outline of the health and safety position and some ideas on how to improve matters. A replies with commentson B's more radical changes. remarksbut proposes 2 Encourage students to paraphraseeach other with 'What you're like 'So you think. . .'and expressions saying is . . .' before suggestinga slightly different emphasis. Follow-up A jointly-produced plan of action to presentto other in the form of a shorttalk. colleagues !l-

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27 Franchising
Introductioi The activity is a face-to-facenegotiation where both sides will need to compromisein order to reach an agreement. Lead-in to namefamous Introducethe themeby askingstudents franchisors. Examples are McDonald's, Benetton, Hertz, Kentucky Fried Chicken.Ask: o how franchises operate o what is the relationshipbetweenfranchisorand franchisee. Method their roles, A, have read and understood Once students some general outlining start by should the franchisee, objectivesand by talking aboutthe presentsituation.B, the franchisor,will need to be conciliatory.If the dis'only make cussionfollows the negotiatingprinciple of if you get somethingin retum', then the a concession of offers and counter result shouldbe a lively exchange offers,but compromisewill be necessary' Follow-up I An exchangeof letters outlining the basis for continued collaboration. 2 A jointly prepared statementexplaining what they have agreed.

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magazine 29 In-house
Introduction Discussingthe contentsof an in-housemagazinegives an opportunityto discussthe type of inforthe students mation that shouldbe includedin such amagazine. Lead-in Ask: r if their companyhasan in-housemagazine o ifthe] readit o how do they rate it o how would they improve it. Method o There are really two parts to this activity' The full version involves drawing up a businessplan for the magazine (see the section beginning: Identify the objectivesof the magazine. . .) as well as deciding on the content.This versionis likely to take up conmoretime. siderably o For studentswith less businessexperienceor less time or both, the activity can centre on deciding on contentalone.

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28 Healthand safety
Introduction The activity is based on a face-to-face discussion between colleagues,one more radical and more prosomepersuasion gressivethan the other.Consequently, will be required. Lead-in Discussthe issuesinvolved in health and safety.How are theseissuestreatedin the students'country/counand checked? tries?How are thev discussed

Follow-up After getting feedbackon the various models of corwiden the poratecommunicationproposedby students, discussionto include other tools of internal communication: effective? o how do you makeintemal communication two-way? r how do you makeintemal communication etc.

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30 lnterviewtechniques
Introduction The activity is a collaborativediscussion, studying and sharingopinionsbeforemaking an assessment. Lead-in lntroduce the topic of interviewing by asking students abouttheir experience of interviewsandaboutwhat kind of questions they would expectto get in a job interview. Method Srudentssit side by side. There are three parts to the activity. First, students study the job advertisement, then classify the questions, then assess their usefulness in a job interview. In this last part they shouldjointly a reason for their decision. _eive Follow-up I Use the questionsas a framework for interviewing (or eachother)for thejob in question. other students 2 Study other job advertisements,work out likely questions for an interviewing panel,and set up interviewswith otherstudents.

If appropriate telephones are not available,get pairs to sit back-to-back. Follow-up I During the activity, monitor in particularthe way the call startsand ends,and commenton the authenticity of thesestagesfor the various pairs. Get good pairs to simulate model openings and closings for the others. 2 Discuss how the recruitment processmight go on after this stage. 3 Get students to write a short letter from either the PA or the applicant,following on from this call.

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versus 32 Large smallcompanies


Introduction Large companies can be very powerful; small companies can be very flexible. So what are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Lead-in As a short lead-in, and before distributing the activity sheets,ask studentswhether they prefer working in a large or small organization. Elicit just one or two advantages and disadvantages for each. Method I This exerciseshould be approached as a debate:A has to argue the advantages of working in a small company;B has to speakin favour oflarge organizations. Warn studentsthat they may find themselves being asked to expressopinions that they do not necessarily hold. Point out that this is good debating practice. 2 Roles can be reversedto see if further additional ideasare generated. Follow-up An A and a B from different pairs can be asked to debateagainin front of the group.

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31 Jobapplication
Introduction Although studentsmay appreciate the fantasyelement in the activity, they shouldnevertheless be encouraged to treat it as a serious exercise in recruitment. The respectivepartnersshould make initial assessments of thejob or of the applicant,as appropriate. Lead-in Ask students: o what typesof job application forms they havefilled in o what the purposeof a form is o whether a form is more effective than an open application. Method The procedure is as follows. I B (the applicant)calls A (the currentPA who is leaving the job) to find out what has happened to his/her application. - hasbeenvery busy. 2 A apologizes 3 B asksA questions aboutthe post while, altemately, 4 A asks B questions about his/her experience, tanguages, etc. 5 A should take the initiative to bring the call to an end,tell B what will happennext and say goodbye.

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33 Latepaymentof invoice
Introduction This is a relativelyshortand simpleactivity,wheretwo sides have conflicting interests.The topic relates to customer service: the creditordoesnot wish to upseta c\s\orner. but at the sarnetitne is keen to reee\\R,\ha moneyowedas soonaspossible.

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Lead-in Ask: r why late paymentis a problem o wh! do companies delaypayment. Method 1 A, the creditor,telephones B. Students shouldnot sit face-to-face for telephoningtasks.If possible,usean intemal phoneline for a more effectiverole play. 2 A should securea promiseof when paymentwill be made. Follow-up Repeatthe activity, reversingroles. Seeif the outcome is any different.

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qualities 35 Management
Introduction which The activity is an informal face-to-face discussion involvesreadinga list of points and prioritizing them. Lead-in As an introductionto the theme,ask students to brainstorm ideason the qualitiesof a good managerand the requiredin a management attributes team. Method 1 Students should first discuss the points listed and them all; then set about make sure they understand prioritizing them and come to a negotiatedagreement on the right order. 2 If disagreements occur, compromise or trading of ideasmay be necessary to reachan agreedorder. Follow-up o Individual pairs can report reasons for their decisions they had and how and/or report any disagreements they were resolved. o Some studentsmay like to assess themselves on the basisof someof the qualitieslisted.

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34 Management and leadership skills for women


Introduction This activity is useful for training personnelas well AS of general interest to women, in particular those in management positions. or supervisory Lead-in Ask students: r if they think men and women have similar management skills . if they think men and women have equalopportunities in the workplacein their country/countries. Method Although experiencedtrainers may be interested in spendingthe time necessary to devisetraining ideasfor all five areas,most studentswill probably be happy to concentrate on discussing oneproblemareaanddevising pairsshould: a trainingideafor this areaonly.In this case 1 discusswhich areato concentrate on 2 discusshow bestto handlethe problem 3 devisea training idea. Follow-up I Pairs give feedback to the group of the training ideas.If time permits,pairs can take over leadership of the group to try out the training idea they have devised. 2 Studentswho (rightly) point out that the problem areasare relevantto men just as much as to women, can be told that theseareaswere in fact identified for a successful real-life training programme aimed specificallyat women.The legitimacy of identifying suchareas can,ofcourse,be debated.

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research 36 Market
Introduction betweentwo people,one of The activity is a discussion provided whom has a service with which the other is not happy. Lead-in Introduce the theme by asking if studentshave any and what they seeas the experience of marketresearch advantages of market researchfor producersand serA possibleansweris vice providersand for consumers. that the results of market researchhelp producersto provide products or services which match consumer needsand wants. Method I Preparation is vital. Monitor the preparation:it may be necessary, during the preparation,to prompt A, the hotelier,towardsa set of demandsto resolvethe difficulty. 2 Once the discussionbegins, A raisesvarious objections to the survey technique and reporting. B, in assuringthat the researchis preliminary, avoids the since issueand potentiallyfuels A's dissatisfaction, marketresearch is very expensive.

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3 The third stageshouldconcludethe discussion, either with a resolutionfor how to proceedor with the relations breakingoff in a somewhat hostile atmosphere. Follow-up Each side should write a letter to the other summarizing opinion and statingwhat shouldhappennext. Method I As with other telephoningactivities, use an internal line, or seatstudents back-to-back. They shouldhave a pencil to takenotes. 2 Remind students that good telephoning technique includes summarizingany agreementat the end of the call to confirm that everythingis clear. 3 Give feedbackand repeatthe exerciseif necessary, specifi cally to improve telephoning technique. Follow-up 1 Write a fax confirming detailsof the arrangement. 2 Reversethe roles and repeatthe exercise,or set up a similar situation perhapsbased on students'actual commitments.

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37 Marketsurvey
Introduction This is a questionand answeractivity involving a questionnaire.It could be completedvery quickly, though a variation could be that the respondentdoes not like someof the questionsand challenges the designof the questionnaire! Lead-in Begin by prompting discussionon the purposeof market researchand the importanceof market surveysfor companies. Method Simple questions and answers,with the interviewer notingthe answers. B cangive genuine responses. A variation could be that B plays a role where the respondent really likes to talk a great deal around the questions, so delayingthe (impatient)interviewer. Follow-up Reversethe roles and repeatthe activity. Get students to repeatthe activity severaltimes with other students or teachers, in orderto collectdatafor a groupofpeople. Students could also designtheir own questionnaire on a different topic of their choosing.

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39 Missionstatement
Introduction This is a potentiallydifficult and time-consuming activity which requiresthe exerciseof a variety of different skills, including note-taking and writing. Students' efforts will, however, be rewarded in having given thought to somefundamentalquestionsabout the nature and raison d'dtre of their own businessorganization. Have available some mission statementsfrom real companiesto show to students either at the activity or at the feedbackstage. Lead-in Ask students: . if their companyhasa missionstatement I 3trd,if so, what it is r what its purposeis o ifit is useful. Method I Before starting, discusswith the group the kind of language in generaland the typical structures associated with mission statements. Write suggestions on the board for reference during the exercise, for example:we want to. . ., we need. . ., we believe in. . ., we believe that. . . 2 Students in pairs will move from discussion, through note-taking, to drafting and redrafting their own statements. Give as much help as possible.If available,provide students with word processing facilities while working towardsthe final draft. Follow-up 1 Ask pairs to readout their own drafts.Look for comphase. mon threadsto developin the discussion

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38 Meeting arrangements
Introduction The activity involves a telephone call and making arrangements to meet but each individual has a different attitude.B (the agent) is fairly reluctantto devote time to A's products- or a meeting.The objectiveis to agreeon a meeting. Lead-in Discussthe role of agentsand the natureof the manufacturer-agent relationship. When is the relationship problematic? One possible answeris when the agentis not effectiveor when he/shehasother priorities or sells competingproducts.

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appraisal 41 Performance
Introduction meeting,therefore The activity is an internal discussion a problematic on a decision informal, leading to employee. Lead-in appraisaland ask: Discussthe meaningof performance r what its purposeis o if performance appraisal is used in the students' country. Method B shouldstartby introducingthe purposeof the discussion and outlining the problem. The discussionshould move from generalobservationsand opinions to specific decisionsand agreement. Follow-up o Joint preparation of a memo outlining the agreement reached. o There is also scope for generalclass discussionof the issuesinvolvedin problemssuchasthoseoutlined in the activity.

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40 Payversusbenefits
Introductiiln This activity can be of generalinterestto all managers and of specific professional interest to managers and personnel. involved in humanresources Lead-in that they know remunerAsk students how companies atetheir employees. Method Present the activity in generaltermsand go throughthe details of the current packagewith the group to ensure the terms are clear, before handing out the activity sheets. Notes: o PRB. The manager earned a performance-related bonus of f10,650 out of a possiblemaximum of f20,000 last year. o Long-term disability cover. This is a form of insurancewhich providesthe managerwith an income in the event of his/her being unable to work for an extended period through accident or illness. (The the govemmentof the councover is private because try in which both the studentswork does not make provision for this.) adequate o Parking. The company curently pays for the managerto park in a city centrecar park every day when he/shecomesto work. The companydoes not have its own car park and cheapparking is impossibleto find. r Annual health screenins.A detailed medical examination. Follow-up 1 Get feedback on the results of each negotiation. Clearly, a figure close to f40,000 is good for A (the personnelmanager)while B will have aimed to get more. Find out how close to the total of f40,000 eachpair were. 2 Ask whetherthe fact that the manager(B) only manof his potential PRB last agedto eam just over 5OVo year reflectswell or badly on him/her. Can we draw abouthis/herquality as a manager? any conclusions

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information 42 Presenting
Introduction The activity is an opportunityto presentinformation in a well-structuredmanner and to respondto questions' SeealsoActivity 14 on Companypresentation. Lead-in To introducethe theme,ask studentsto brainstormthe most important characteristicsof good presentation technique. Possible answers include: well prepared, and relevant,clear,enthusiappropriate well organized, by good visuals. and supported asticallypresented Method Two minutes is very little preparationtime and three minutesis a very short talk. Offer a model as an example. The key objective is to get over a limited amount of information in a well structuredand coherentfashion, with an introduction, a middle and an end. After the partner and other students(and each presentation, questions. you) canask

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Follow-up r Allow longerpreparationtime for slightly longertalks. o Allow students to chooseother topics, which may be business or study related,or concernpersonalinterEStS.

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Follaw-up 1 Get feedbackfrom eachpair on the development and outcomeof eachnegotiation. 2 Discussthe advantages and disadvantages ofproduct point out in more detail. If necessary, endorsement that sometimesthe arrangementcan backfire, for example if the pop star endorsing your product is accused of child abuseor the athleteendorsingyour running shoesconsistently fails to win races.

43 Pressand public relations


Introduction The activity is a potentially highly conflictive intervie'*'. A has to be very calm under pressurefrom both the siruation and from aggressivequestioningby the press. l*ad-in Discussthe importanceof public relationsand the relationship betweenPR and corporateimage (see introductionrn activitysection). Ilethod -\ tace-to-faceinterview. It would be fun to video record this if possible, and play it back as part of a ne\r'sextractor documentary on pollution. Follov-up Ertend the video idea to build the interview into a discussionof the problem of industrialpollution. A further possibiliry would be to bring in other roles, such as environmental campaigners,employees, relatives of employees,other managers,local residents,etc., and havea wider debatein the shapeof a public meeting.

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45 Production delays
Introduction This is a telephoneactivity basedon seriousorganization problemsin a subsidiary. Lead-in Ask: r what the relationshipis betweena head office and a subsidiary o when problemsarise o how problemscan be resolved. Method A, at the headoffice, telephones the subsidiaryto know what is going on. A may chooseto insist on visiting the subsidiary.As usual with telephoneactivities, prompt students to summarize any agreement at the end. Follow-up . A should write a confirmatory fax, outlining main pointsof the discussion. . B should write a memo to an English-speaking colleaguein Portugal. o The situation could be extended to a face-to-face meeting.

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Introduction Michael Jacksonand Pepsi becamea famous double act. But who benefitedin the end? Lead-in Lead in by asking for examplesof product endorsements by famous people and discussing briefly the advantages and disadvantages of this form of product promotion. Method This activity is essentially a preliminary negotiation involving an information gap. Studentsshould prepare a strategybefore they begin the negotiationand should try to anticipatethe arguments of the other side as part of their preparation.

46 Profitandlossaccount
Introduction The activity is basically a telephoned information transfer between colleagues,though explanationsare requiredto supportthe details. Lead-in As a lead-in to the subject,check that studentsunderstandwhat a profit and loss accountis. Ask them to say are true (T) or false (F): if the following statements o it showsthe healthof a companyat a given moment(F) o it showsthe trading performanceof a companyin a particulartime period (T)

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Lead-in What doesquality mean?What effect doespoor quality How important is quality for comhave on customers? peting in the marketplace? Method Getting each pair to choose the six most desirable features for their quality programme may require a generous time allowance.Start by getting each pair to eliminate the features that neither member wants to retain. Follow-up I Compare the shortlists drawn up by the different pairs.How similar are they? can be imple2 Discusshow suchquality programmes mented. what experience they have had of qual3 Ask students programmes ity assurance both as employeesand as (noticing a conspicuous improvementin a consumers products company's or services).

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47 Proiectmanagement
Introduction The activity is basedon an informal face-to-face meeting between a project leader and his/her assistant. There is a strong disagreement, so diplomacy and tact are importantqualitiesfor both sides. Lead-in Discussthe purposeof project planning and its importancein industry. Method In group meetings an assistantwould be unlikely to citicize his or her boss'splans.Remind students that in this case,the meeting is private and informal and the disagreementsare real. They must, however, reach agreement. This discussion may be lengthy,sincethere are severalpoints to raiseand to agreeon. Follow-up Togetherthey may prepare a joint plan to presentto othermembersof the team.

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49 Quiz 1
Introdaction This activity can last as long or as short a time as you want, so make a clear decisionin advanceon the time limit you want to set and whether you are going to introduce it as a quick end-of-lessonquiz lasting ten minutesor a main activity involving lots of discussion questioning. and supplementary Method . As can ask Bs all the questionsand then reverse roles. This can also be good listening practice if Bs arenot shownthe sheet. . As and Bs can askeachother questions in turn. r As can ask Bs the questionsin Quiz I and then Bs in Quiz 2. can ask As the questions FolLow-up and a real opportunLots of possibilitiesfor discussion ity for membersof a group to leam more about each other and to get to know eachotherbetter.

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Introduction Increasingly,companiescompeteon quality, but quality cannot be achievedwithout the involvement of the whole workforce. So a good quality programmewill involve people - often people who were previously scepticalaboutsuchprogrammes.

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51 Raising finance
Introduction The activity is basedon a friendly meeting betweena ;trmpan]'executive and an independent financialadviser. Lead-in To Lnrroduce the topic, discussraising finance,ensuring that srudentsunderstand the various ways a company mar chooseto do this as explainedin the students' Lntroductions. .llethod - Thoroueh preparationis important: studentsneed to undentandthe balancesheet. i -\. representingthe company, outlines the present prrsitionof the company.He/shewants adviceon the hlielihood of raising finance. -: B responds by asking for more information and then ans\\ers.giving reasons for his/heropinions. -l Encouragestudentsto check their understanding of uhat the other says by paraphrasing. Elicit/suggest phrases like 'So, you're saying .' and 'So what rou mean is . . .' Follolc-up Look at examples of balance sheets from company repons. Identify the key figuresto assess the health or other$ise of the companies involved.

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53 Recycling
Introduction The activity involves an informal face-to-facediscussion betweencolleagues. The essentialobjective is to priorities agreeon and on a plan of action. Lead-in Discussrecycling,its purposeand value and students' experience of it. Method The activity has two parts. Studentsshould decide on the three key advantages of recycling and any drawbacks involved. They should then formulate a policy for the companyinvolved. Follow-up Combinethis activity with other environment-related studies from other sources.(Activity 43 also concems an environmental issue.) Studentsmay also commenton recycling policies in companiesor institutions they are familiar with, as well asdomesticrecycling. Design a questionnaire to find out the extent of recycling and people'sviews on the subject.

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52 Recruitment
Introduction This activity involves finding the most suitable candidatefor thejob. Lead-in r Discussrecruitmentprocedures experienced by your students,either as job applicantsor as employment providers. . Give some practice in paraphrasing information so that students do not readout the file cardsverbatim. Method Judge whether studentsare able to structurethe telephone meeting without help or whether you should advisethem to postpone discussion until all the candidateshave beendescribed. genuinesummarEncourage izing and paraphrasing rather than reading out the file cardsverbatim.Give an exampleof how to do it.

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54 Relocation
Introduction This is a difficult activity because the positions of the parties quite two are initially far apart. You should monitor the processby which the studentssucceedin finding - or fail to find - a solutionto a problem which hasno obvioussolution. Lead-in Briefly discussthe notions of win-win, win-lose and lose-lose in negotiation and ask the students to describe business situations in which it is betternot to compromise.

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Method for the activity to last only a short time (in Be prepared the caseof neither party being willing to compromise) to comor quite a long time (where there is readiness promise). If somepairs finish the activity quickly, get them to write eachother follow-up letters. Follow-up 1 Get feedbackon the outcomesfor the different pairs in the group and the processby which the outcomes were arriyedat. 2 Ask students if they have ever been involved in negotiatinga problem where the two sides were so far apart that there seemedlittle chance of agreein sucha situation. ment. Discussdifferent strategies 3 Get studentsto write formal letters to each other as reached. A or B with their versionsof the decisions Follow-up to the table on the board and get students 1 Reproduce fill in the missingfigures. work. figurescentralto the students'own 2 Discuss 3 Discussthis kind and other kinds of incentivefor salespeopleand others.
Figures in $US First quarter Second quarter Third quarter Fourth quarter Totaf North West South East

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55 Salestargets
Introductian This activity is a straightforwardexchangeof figures betweenthe two partners.It may thereforelast rather less time than a first glance suggests.Pocket calculatorswill be useful. Lead-in Ask: o why settingtargetsis important o what happens if targetsare not met. Method Therearetwo setsof figuresto exchange: o each partner has a couple of figures missing for the otherregions o eachpartnerhas only his/her own revisedfigures,so might be: the procedure a) exchangethe missing fourth quarter figures for the otherregions b) calculate and agree on the totals for the other regions c) calculateown revisedtotal (strictly speakingit is to exchangeall the revised figures not necessary unlesseach wants to check the other's figures in detail) d) add the two revised totals and comparewith the otherregionaltotals . as you can seefrom the figuresbelow, your students have indeedwon the pize - but don't give the game awav: let them find out for themselves.
Figures in $US First quarter Second quarter Third quarter Fourth quarter Totaf Central East East West West Central Central Central Central Revised Revised Total Revised lnitial lnitial 46,0 |0 46,9l0 47,194 47,668 94'578

48,763 48,963 51,309 5l'309 100'772 49,345 49,727 5l,499 51,699 l0l '426

49,557 50,847 51,446 50'230 l0l '077 193,675 196,447201,148 200'906 397'353

56 Smalltalk 1
Introduction a very importThis is difficult but the activity practises Eachbox contains: the conversation' ant skill - steering r four nouns o threeverbs r threeadjectives Method Ten minutes for the activity. Comparescoresand experiences at the end: which were the easiestand which were the most difficult words to elicit and why? Then reversethe roles. Follow-up I Discussthe importanceof taking the initiative and steeringthe conversation.

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pairs to perform in front of the others. .\sk selected and less Get feedbackfrom the group on successful gambits. successfu I steering - thinking in particufeedback,suggestimprovements of language. lar abouttheseaspects Follow-up A fax confirming the order from both sides.

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57 Smalltalk 2
Intrduction Tell lour srudentsthat they have the opportunity to temporarill' ,rssume a new persona.Encourage them to rn\.ent interesting ones. L.od-in . Lead in u ith brainstormingon ways of opening a !-onversation in a plane. r Encourage srudents to userealisticgambitsto open. . Talli about balancebetweenthe two members:you do not want to hear one talking a lot more than the from both erther. lbu expectto hear lots of questions partners. .llethod i Srudensfill in the form. I Srudents talk to eachother for ten minutes. Follov-up Crt t-eedback from all members of the group,for example: o \r hat \r'asthe most interestingthing you heard? . $'hat was the most surprisingthing you heard? . what future do you predictfor the personyou met?

59 Teambuilding
Introduction We usedto have leaders;now we have teams.Success dependsmore and more on picking and developinga winning team. Lead-in This exerciseis designedto help studentsunderstand that colleaguesmay work in very different ways, yet each may make a vital contribution to meeting shared objectives. Ask students about their experiencesof working together with people who have a different from their own. approach Method may wish to definewhat kind of project it is I Students that they are working on. This in turn will influence what kind of people they need to carry it through. for the project could include: Parameters o objective o time scale o budget o overallsizeofteam o functionsof key teammembers. candiscuss: \ 2 Students o the functions(jobs) needed for the project asa whole o the roles they themselves will play o the roles to be played by two or more other people to be recruited to the team. Follow-up 1 Find out where studentsfeel they might be on the wheel and what kind of personthey feel is required for thejob they currentlydo. 2 Discusswhetherthe wheel could be a useful tool in teams. creatingbalanced for one of 3 Get studentsto write a job advertisement the missing team members,describingthe characteristics of the personthey are looking for.

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Introduction The activity is a telephone dialogue,basedon information transfer. Both sides have information that they and supplierthey needto needto convey.As purchaser reachagreement on an urgentorder. Lead-in Discuss: r the relationshipbetweenpurchaser and supplier o the importance of spare parts for certain types of equipment. Method Sameprocedureas in other telephoneactivities. Both sidesneed to refer to the information they have, citing The conrespectively. needsand production schedules versation will realistically include pauses while the supplier checksinformation and the purchaserconsiders what he/sheis told. Stalling language,spacefilling and supportingsilence is important in telephoning.In

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60 Timemanagement
Introduction Everybodyin employmentwill have an opinion on this issue.The fairly simple matching exerciseis intended
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F F Teachers'notes
as a preliminary to discussion within eachpair of more detailed and additional ways of managingone's time more successfully. Lead-in Ask students aboutthe importanceof: o deadlines o schedules o keepingappointments e time-management systems e.g. filofaxes. Method I A presentsproblem 1 to B. B choosesthe most - a, b, appropriate solution from the four alternatives c and d - and proposes this to A. Note that both the list of problemsand the list of solutionsfor A and B are different. 2 A continueswith problems 2, 3 and 4 with B suggesting the best remaining solution each time. If B has chosenwrongly, it will finally becomeapparent. A and B can now sort out any mistakesin selection together. 3 Roles are now reversedand B presentsa new problem 1 to A, etc. Follow-up I Elicit the time management problems that students have and the solutionsthat thev recommendto each other. 2 Get the group as a whole to formulate somegolden rules for time management. These might be along the lines of: - do it now - getridofclutter - plan your day. 2 Then there are two stages: first to prioritize the nine different training options,then to eliminate the least useful. They may also decide that others could be postponed until later. Follow-up Preparea short presentation to the board of directors, outlining key training needs,requestingfull financial resources,time and full backing from the training department.The presentationshould explain why the training is so important. = )=
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62 Transportation
Introduction Quite a challengingrole play, involving a salespitch from one side and an important comparisonof two offers purchaser. followed by a decisionfrom the prospective Lead-in Ask: o what types of transport are used for what types of goods? o what problemsface transportation companies? o what problems face companiesusing transportation services? Method The activity requires a good level of preparationand understanding of their roles from both sides. EssentiallyA has to listen to B trying to sell a particular transportation serviceand at the sametime compare it with an offer alreadyon the table from a Greek company. A's role is the more complicatedone, and he/she is also the decisionmaker.When readv.B calls with a preparedsalespitch. Follow-up Both sides can write a letter confirming their requirements(A) or their offer (B).

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61 Trainingpriorities
Introduction This is a short activity basedon working together to studya list of optionsandto agreeon their relativevalues. Lead-in Ask leamerswhat kind of training they think is most useful for companies working in intemationalbusiness. They shoulddraw up a list of optionswhich could then be comparedwith the training types presentedin this activity. Method I To preparefor the activity, both students shouldfully understand the information on the company involved.

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63 Workenvironment
Introduction The activity is a face-to-facediscussion,involving a sharing of both information and opinions. The atmosphereshouldbe constructiveandpositive. Lead-in Introduce the theme by talking about good and bad working conditions and their consequences for productivity,morale,staff tumover and sickness.

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Method 1 A beginsby outlining generalintentionsand remindof the company's ing the employees'representative concerns,while also not wanting to raise expectations too high. Note the low budgetavailable. 2 T\e objective is to reach a satisfactory position, whereboth sidesfeel they haveachievedsomething. 3 Studentsshould note what they agreeand summarize it. Follow-up o A can write a glowing account of improvements being made,either for companynotice boardsor for an in-housemagazine. o B can write a letter supportingthe improvements but pointing out other areaswhere progressshould be made and requestinga longer term commitment to thesefurther improvements.

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65 Workscouncil
Introduction A fantasy activity for general discussionfor all categories of businesspersonnel.Tell studentsthat they can choosemore than one option but that they must decideclearly how all the moneyis to be spent. Lead-in Ask students aboutjoint decisionmaking in their companies.Ask if there is a works council and in what areas there is consultation between employer and employees. Method within eachpair. Opendiscussion Follow-up 1 Get feedbackfrom the group. Alternatively use the method describedin the Teachers'notes to Activity 20, Follow-up 1, to get the whole group to reach a decision. collective 2 Get feedbackon students'own ideas.Which of the ideasgiven did they think were best and which were worst? to write to the rest of the staff on behalf 3 Get students of the works council, explaininghow the money is to be spentand giving reasons.

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64 Workrotas
Introduction A fairly straightforward conflict in this face-to-face informal meeting over holiday plans and production schedules. There might just be room for compromise, or else B will simply refuse - but must explain why and get A to understand the position. Lead-in Introducethe theme by asking about potential conflict of interest over holiday plans and company requirements. Family holidays and school holidays may coincide with companies' busiesttimes. How can such difficulties be resolved? Method to A, the boss,has a meetingwith B, a line supervisor, see if he/she can change holiday plans. A should or altematexplain why and offer some compensation ive deal. B may simply refuseor enter into somekind of negotiation.Of course,a further problem will be to presentthe family with the changedholiday arrangements,which might be disastrous. Follow-up o Discussthe responsibility of a managerto think of general well-being,includingfamily ciremployees' Ask what would happenif the company cumstances. decided to pay the holiday cancellationfee and to insist on the supervisorchangingplans. o Discussthe extentto which companyneedsprevail over personalor family needsin a given culture.

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questioning) (lntroducing selfandothers;

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Get the following information about your partner. One of you can ask all the questions f.rst or you can take it in turns to ask each question.

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ADVERTISING
(Measuring urging) negotiating; andcalculating;

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Advertising is one aspectof promotionat activity used by companies to increase consumer awareness of the company and itsproducts, and to improve salespertormance.

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AGENDAS
(Agreeing/d isagreeing ; iudging)

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An agendacons,bfs of the pointsthat will be discussed in a meeting,in orderto reachagreed d objective: objectives. ^lotall meetings have writtenagendas, but everyone shouldunderstand the objectives of a meetingan. and <tow whatr.ssues will be discussed, withinan agreedtime.

-.h projectleaderfor a new quality programme, you have sent the following agendato various : -,lleagues and have askedfor comments. you to discussthe planned One of them telephones
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llepartmental Development Group Ouality Agenda forMeeting - 11.00 Time: 9.30 Date: January 14,19-. Place: Head Room 2*17. Office. 1. Customer feedback 2. lnternal suggestions 3. Quality standards - Please Gomments welcome call

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BANKCHARGES
(Measuring obliging; correcting; andcalculating; regretting)

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theyprovide.Bankschargeintereston Bankchargesare the feespaid to banksfor the variousseruices in funds, or for assisting the moneytheylend,but alsochargefeesfor settingup loansand overdrafts, seruices. adviceand a widerangeof financial the provisionof references, transfers, currencyexchange, You Your bank has sent you the following notification of a funds transfer from a Chinesecustomer. a f,10 f2,020less noticethat you havebeencreditedwith only f 1,995when it shouldhavebeen You call the bank. handling charge.

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judging (Questioning; ; hesitating ; forecasting)

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At a finance meeting you have to present the following sales budget for an existing product, a mobile telephonecalled the CX20. Invite intermptibns and questions. If you cannot give all the information that you are asked for, promise to provide that information at a future meeting.

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(continued) Presentation Budget


Sales Forecast

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(Telling ; sequencing ; emphasizing)

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1 When Jo Batsoukis and Les Chan left businessschool,they immediately founded a company making . . .

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31

BUSINESS ETIQUETTE
(Agreeing/disagreeing ; questioning)

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- formsof politebehaviour - can varynotjust fromone countryto another, Busrness etiquette but also fromone profession to another, fromcompanyto company, from to This even department department. exercisewill helpyou measurehow far you and your partnerfollowdifferent codesof etiquette. Five areasof business etiquetteare listed below. In eachcase, tell your partner what the rules or conventions are in the companywhere you work, using the questionsto help you. Then get your partner to tgll you how his or her conventions differ from yours and discussthe differences.

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BUSINESS GIFTS
(Agreeing/disagreeing; permitting emphasizing; ; vetoing)

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Giffs - what to do?? - Nogifto ehould beaccepted. - Onlyqifto up lo a certainaqreed value ohould beaccepted. Allgifto ehould be pooled and useda6 ?rizeo in the com?any Chrietmaeraffre.

YO U: . tend to think that gifts compromise - they are morelikelyto buy from your colleagues companies who supplythe best gifts, not those offeringthe best productsand the best service. YOURPARTNER WILLSTART.

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INITIALS BUSINESS
(Knowing; correcting)

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When reading the pressin a foreign language, understandingthe initialscan sometimes create almost as many problems as understanding the words. Here is a quizto test and increase your knowledge of some basic - and not so basic sets of initials which you could meet when reading the business press in English. First test your partner on what the foliowing sets of initials stand for. Then your partner will give you a similar test. Then compare scores.Warning: each test gets harder as you go along!

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MD YP R&D PA MBA EU GAIT IBM SAS WP RAM AGM GNP

Director) (Managing (Vice-President) (Research andDeveloPment) Annum) (Personal AssistanVPer Administration) in Business (Master (EuroPean Union) andTrade) onTariffs (GeneralAgreement Machines) Business (lnternational Systems) Airline (Scandinavian or word processing) SNordProcessor MemorY) Access (Random Meeting) (Annual General Product) National (Gross (Value AddedTax) Place) Packaging, Promotion, (Price, (lnternational Organization) Labour

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(Negotiating; urging; declining; reiecting)

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r--u are an import-export agent specializing in high-tech consumer products. You want to negotiate r:. agreement with the foreign manufacturer of an exciting new computer game. You are now going . . rave a meeting with this person (your partner). Using the table below,negotiate an agreement - ,';ering: . th number of units that you will agree to take: although you think it's a good product, you are careful about committing yourself too much to a small, unknown company . the terms of payment . your discount on the standard price.

Ouontity 10,000 points Score:25 20,000 poinls Score:Z0 30,000 Score: 15poinls 40,000 kore: l0 points 50,000 points Score:S 90 doys points Score:Z5 60doys points Score:20 3Odoys 15paints Score: Holf inodvonre Holf wifiin 30 doys Score: I0 points lnodvonre points Score:S

Distount 30% points Score:25 20% points Score:Z0 15% Score: 15points ll%o Score: l0 points 5o/o points Score:S

YOUwouldalsolike the manufacturer to provide: . a CD-Rom versionof the softwareas soon as possible. Thereis hugedemandfor CD-Rombasedgamesin your country.Score5 pointsfor deliveryof a CD-Rom versionin 6 months,10 pointsfor deliveryin 4 months,15 pointsfor deliveryin 2 months c Dwpackagingadaptedto the local market:score 5 points if the manufacturer agrees . promotional literature in the main language of your region:score5 points if the manufacturer agrees. \egotiate an agreementwith the manufacturer. Aim to get as many points as possible but do not :er-ealyour scoringsystemto your partner.At the end of the negotiation,summarizeyour (quantity,terms,discount, ,sreementunder all six headings packaging adaptation, and literature) :nd compare your score with your partner's. your objective Remember: is to get as many points as possible but alsoto carry on doingbusiness with the manufacturerafter the negotiation is finished. YOUR PARTNER WILLSTART.

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35

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judging (Forecasting; ; urging ; negotiating)

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Cashflow problems occur when a company has insufficient funds available to meet existing operating cosfs. A company may have full order books, but still suffer from funding problems while they wait for customers to pay.

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You work in the finance department of a company which has received an urgent order for 150 trailers from the government of a Gulf state. The trailers must be custom-built to meet highly specific reqtirements and must be delivered in only three months. Your existing production budget is not able to meet this order on top of present cost commitments. To raise the necessary funds would involve a 25Voincrease in expenditure to buy the materials and to hire workers and a further f,200,000in other costs,making a total increase of f,550,000.This is well above the estimated closing cash balance for the year. You have a meeting with a colleague in the marketing department to discuss the order. You have to decide what to do. Here is a copy of the cash budget for the present year:
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YOU: . think that the 9550,000 requiredto meetthe order cannot be raisedwithin the existing cash budget o hsd to know the time schedulefor payment palment with order + 25o/o o would want the following terms: 25o/o on delivery+ the balance within threemonths,i.e.paymentcompleted within six months e USUsll) schedulepaymentsfor your products over twelve months from the order.This would be unacceptable . wonder if other sourcesol finance could help you to meetthis order. YOURPARTNER WILLSTART.

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12 COMPANY OFTHEYEAR
judging;urging) (Agreeing/disagreeing ; emphasizing;

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3ne way of encouraging smallbusrnesses to grow is to organize competitions with prizes for young :ompanies with special entrepreneurialflair.A money prize can be very usefulfor a company with znbitions to expand but limited finance to do so. The only danger for competitors, successful and -''rsuccessful,is for them to spend more time on the competition than on doing business!

\,:,u and your partner together run a successful small business. You have just won a regional young ::--iness competition sponsoredby the local press,television,local government and the local :hamber of commerce. Frrst decideon the following:

Company activity:
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\orr decidehow you are going to spend the f100,000 first prrze.Some suggestionsare given below. Share your ideas with your partner and agree on a common plan. You should decide which options :o go for and how much of the money to spend on each. Draw up a final investment plan for the '.i-hole sum of monev. YOU would like to: . organize a well-earnedand much needed holiday for both managing partners . lease new offices (since you feel that your existing offices are not very good for your image) r S?ve (some of) it

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o upgr?dthe company'scomputersystem . buy a marketsurvey from an agencyto researchnew markets o cotlltnission a management consultancy financesand to do a full audit of your company's procedures management . buy management training for you and your partnerso that you are both readyfor the next growth. step in your company's List your own ideas. YOUSTART.

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@Peneuin Books1996

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ORGANIZATION 13 COMPANY
(Declining/rejecting; iudging;likingand preferring)

A Student

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oftena simplified chaft or organigram, in an organization described is sometimes organization Company for keypersonnel. diagramshowingareasof responsibility
Your company,Altman Kopp, is involved in negotiations with a competitor, KEP Ltd, over a possible merger. In an informal meeting, you discuss ways to combine the two businesses into a single organization, allowing for the following facts:

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of AltmonKoPP: Structure Present


M a n a g i n gD i r e c t o r ( f ) Chemicals Division Medical Products Division

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F i n a n c( ef ) (f) Sales (f) Marketing (f ) & Personnel Administration (f ) CorporatePlanning

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F i n a n c( ef ) (f) Administration (f (Fertilisers )) Production (f (Chemicals )) Production (f) CorporatePlanning

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YOU: o w?rt to keepthe basic structure of your presentcompany,but would like to enlargeit to take in the new product areasthat your potentialpartnersspecializein o plan to reducethe numberof Altman Kopp directorsfrom the presenteight to five or six on the new board but would acceptfewer board o woht approximately equal representation membersif the Chairmanof the Board is from your company to a single department o wort to reduceyour presentMarketingand Sales Departments insteadof CorporatePlanning o wort to createa new Logistics Department who is also on the Board,is retiring. and Administration, . know that the Headof Personnel YOU START.
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t_PRESENTATION t_ 14 COMPANY (Questioning ; sequencing) t: t_ll-

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t_are at a trade fair. Introduceyour companyto someone who visits your stand.Use the following t_- lbu profile as a sourceof key facts about your company. t: t_t: Roberlo/a Zofl t_- Marketing Deputy Vice-President t(Florida) C0NTA Limited Roosevelt Building
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Trade fairsare opportunities for individuals and companies to make contacts withpotentialcustomers and otherprofessionalsin the industry.Whilemany companieshope to sign up ordersfor goods, most are happyto improveconsumer awareness of the company and to promotethe corporate image.

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C0NTA lnc. Property development Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan, Philippines, USA. 199Sales: $93.3m Hotel/leisure: (21.7%) $20.25m Management (8.0%) services: $7.sm Engineering: (1 6.1%) $15.05 m Property trading: 1.6%) $ 1 . 4 5(m ProperU investment: $49.05m (52.6D
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39

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(continued) Presentation 14 Company

A Student

location of head office (osaka)' the Be prepared to add other information about the numberof direct employees (890)' number of overseas subsidiaries (eigfttl a"a the Ask about: tfr"r, ask the other person about his/her company'

name'turnover,markets'sales o GOtnp?hy growth of Americansubsidiary r flaffie/location in USA . numberof emPloYees r salSof USAsubsidiary . if the companywas recentlyinvolved in a maior takeover.

Internrpt to ask for clarification or additional information Note: As an alternative' presentyour own company' WILL START. YOURPARTNER

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15 COMPANY TOUR
(Greetings andfarewells; questioning, sequencing; welcoming)

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Showing a visitor round your company can be a usefulway of winning customersas well as promoting the image of your company.

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You work for a manufacturer of sweets and chocolates,a subsidiary of a major US food company.You are going to show an important potential client (your partner) round your company.Before you go round, make a'short presentation of the main features of the tour, using the plan below.Your visitor ,your partner) has a copy of the same plan. Start by telling your visitor very briefly about the company's main products, its history and its organization. Then talk through the tour which you are about to make. You want to impress your risitor with the quality of your products, the sophistication of your technolory and the good morale ofyour staff.

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A This is where you are now: the product range. B A million Munchy Crunchies (chocolate-coated biscuits) per day producedhere.

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Your medium-range box of milk chocolates- Lotsachocs- produced and packed here. Warehouse:in the processof being fully automated. Computer centre: company's local area networks and direct links with the US managed from here. Personnel:includes mini-hospital, managed by company doctor,and company health and fitness centre; you are very proud of your policies on health, safety and welfare. Very active: numerous sports clubs and leisure time activities for employees,their families and retired members.

Tell your partner that you'll be happy to answer questions during your talk. Remember that this is only an introduction to the tour you are about to make.
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@ Penguin Books 1996 4l

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VISIT 16 COMPANY
(Questioning ; regretting)

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Before you visita company, it is usefulto check with the personyou are visiting about how to get in. you Somecompanies, for'exaipte those involved in defence, can have strictsecurity procedures which need to know about in advance. you work in a large company which sometimes does top secret research for the government. At the moment there are worries aLout losing these contracts and about sPFng, and security is tight. You are looking forward to receiving a visii tomorrow from someoneyou met recently at a trade fair and have already sent the fax below.You are about to call your contact for the information you need when you receive a call.

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YOUNEEDTO KNOW: o lour contact'sfull nameand companyname . th car registrationnumberand type of car so that you can reservea space . whot kind of identiticationyour contact will bring: passport,identity card . . . (it has to havea photo)and the number. you are embarrassed about having to ask for all these details.Say you'll fax the numberof the parking space bY the end of the daY. WILLSTART. YOURPARTNER
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17 CORPORATE CULTURE
(Agreei ng/disag reei ng ; f orecasti ng ; hesitati ng)

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-.e culture of a company is the set of beliefs, valLtes,attitudesand organizationat characteristicswhich -ake it unique. Some managers and businessobseruersbelieve that changing the culture of an :'Eanization is the best way to significantlyimprove its businesspertormance. ':

:,,uand your partner woke up this morning to find yourselves joint heads of a large international : - mpany. Unfortunately, it is losing a lot of money.You both feel that a major transformation of the :"lture of the company is needed and you have brainstormed ten possible policies below. Now go :::rough the list and decidetogether which ones you will implement.

- fie loinl - should I You monoging give your dhectors up big offices on fielop your floor snd e$oblhh bose by the moin photocopier on fieground floor. 2 Abolish poy, individuol poy infioduce bosed teom 0n peilormonce. 3 Aim for50% ofmonogers tobe women within fie next two (Al yeors. |he momenl 60% ofyour employees ond 5% ofyour senior monogers ore women.l 'senior' 4 Abolhh monogemenf. Reduce the number ofloyers in |he possible. orgonizolion 0s for0s 5 Abolhh fiePersonnel Deportment. 6 Moke ollmonogers flyeconomy dos. (ompony (ors. 7 Abolish people Poy 0n ollowonce when fieyhove (ompony todrive on busines. - yourselves - weor E Moke ollemployees induded 0(ompony uniform. 9 Moke meelings shorler, hove everyone stund up. l0 In$eod ofmonogers opproising get subordinoles, subordinotes loopproise monogers.
-:--,u may come up with your own ideas as well. YOU START.

@Penguin Books1996

43

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SPONSORSHIP 18 CORPORATE
judging; negotiating) urging; (Forecasting;

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Corporate sponsorshipis big business.Companies give money to sporting, culturaland charitable organizationsas a way of biinging the company's name and products to the attention of a wider public. your company has decided to spend a large sum of money on some kind of sponsorship.Yoy-an-d your partner have been made responsibl" for t".o-mending the bestoption to the Board. You have ,rro"tiirt"a three possible organizations you could sponsor.The cost of each option is approximately the same.Yori are now in a meeting with your partner to decide on the best option.

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FILE T The football club in the city where your company is based has just lost its sponsor after going down from the national frrst to the second division at the end of the last season.Norr the club is desperately looking for a replacement.The manager has been sacked and replaced by a well-kno\Mnex-international player with no previous managerial er<perience.There are no new players in the team. The club has large debts. Advanced sales of season tickets are poor and some people Iresaying that the number of down on last ye.rr. Hovvever' spectators next season could be 20%o sponsorship would give your company excellent opportunities for advertising the company logo on the team shirt, in the weekly match progrramme and around the ground.You can expect two or three home matches to be televised live during the season.There are also good opportunities for corporate hospitality at home matches.

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FILE 3 Your city is the base for a young troupe of dancers who, in a short period of time, have gained a reputation for exciting choreogrraphyand irurorrativetechniqne. One national newspaper critic hailed them as'the most exciting development in modern ballet in the last twenty yeus.'Thetroupe is especially popular with young people: some of their most enthusiastic fans had never previously been to a performtrnce of ballet. So far they have managed on a shoestring budget but are now receiving invitations to perform elsewhere in the country and even abroad, and they need money to invest in rehearsal rooms, to pay an administration manager, and so on.At the moment they have no permanent headguarters.The troupe uenow actively looking for a sponsor and would be willing to incorporate the sponsor's name into their own name.Their activities are not, however, without controversy: there have been complaints about political bias in the themes presented in the dancing and some people have been shocked at what they see on the stage.You know that one of the Board members is unhappy about his teenage children attending their performances. On the other hand, you have been advised privately that the troupe could have an international reputation within the next ten years.

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45

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ANDREDUCING 19 COSTS OVERHEADS


(Judging ; forecasting) ; emphasizing

A Student

Costs include production costs and the costs of selling. All aspectsof a company's expenditure should be recorded as costs and good management aims to keep costs to a minimum within an agreed budget.

You wqrk for a subsidiary of an international company.Your head office has sent instructions that costs should be reduced by l|Vo next year. Discuss the following options with a colleague and decide which options you would introduce to meet the required savings.

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are very keento developthe companyin the mediumand long term know that the marketis very competitiveand customersare easily attractedto competitors'products and wishes to employees'opinions are sensitive think that the companyshould not reduceits workforce for routinework, think the companyshould not changeto using contractors is concernedand safety could be affected especiallywhere maintenance realizeyou will haveto compromiseon some of these ideas.

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20 CUSTOMER CARE
(Questioning ; iudging)

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your customers, Customer careis knowing knowingwhatthey want,reactingto their changing needs,and keepingcloseto them.lt is important for all membersof business organizations to thinkabout whotheircustomers are and how theycan improvetheir sruice to them.

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\bur partner is a work colleague who is part of a special task force set up by top menagement to improve customer care throughout the company.The first job of the ta-.k force is to find out how customer-consciousstaffmembers think the company is at the moment. (Later on, employeeperceptionsof customer attitudes will be compared with customer attitudes themselves.) lbur partner is going to ask you questions from a customer attitude survey to find out trow _vou think customers rate your organization's current performance. YOU: r ?rrSrvr the questions with reference to your own organization.

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21 CUSTOMER COMPLAINT
judging; (Blaming; negotiating; declining/rejecting)

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You are the customer relations manager for a British company offering package skiing holidays. You have received a letter of complaint from a dissatisfied customer.

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23 Pennylong Avenue London NW25PG 27 February I99Customer Relations Manager Super Skibreak Holidays 27 Porthill Road Oxford OX4 2AR Holiday
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service for the following reasons. 1 The two-star hotel described in your brochure as a "comfortable family-run hotel" in fact offered only basic facilities The food was poor. and was dirty. " i f 2 Your brochure also says that insufficient snow in your resort causes lifts andlor ski school to c1ose, we'11 do our best to arrange free coach transport to another resort where skiing is possible." Although skiing conditions were so poor on three days out of six that the skiing was unsafe, as your own 1ocal representative himself admitted, we were not provided promised. with the transportation
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\bu have talked to the local representative who says:

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1 that the hotel is indeed family-run and is usually appreciated for its friendliness. This usually compensatesfor its fairly basic facilities. Unfortunately there was a serious flu epidemic in February which led to staff shortages - hence the problems rrith the food. The customer did not mention hotel problems to the rep. 2 although the snow was not good, there was no question of the lifts or ski school closing. Most of the other holiday makers would have missed half or one day's skiing at most becauseof the conditions. Your rep. denies admitting that the conditions were very poor on three days out of six. Call the customer (your partner) to resolve the problem.

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49

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HOLDUP 22 CUSTOMS
(Questioning; amazement; urging;expressing regretting)

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(Urging; sequencing ; agreeing/disagreeing)

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Many companiesare reducingthe size of the workforce,whileat the same time expecting themoraleof the care.Maintaining theiremptoyees to providea highlevelof customer moreand morea central staff is both difficultand necessary, and is becoming management challenge.
You and your partner, in the Human Resourcesdepartment of a company which is in the process of reducing its workforce by 20Vo, meet to devise a strategy to ensure that employee morale remains as high as possible during the period of downsizing. Tell your partner about the following list of five strategic actions which you have drawn up. Your partner will also tell you about the points which he or she has noted. Then, together, choosethe five key actions for your strategy in order of priority. YOU want to: 1 introduce an annual employee opinion survey with responsibility tor analysis of results and implementation of actions held by the Director of Human Resources

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2 introduceweeklyteam briefingsystemsfor all employees 3 createa suggestionsschemewith attractivefinancial rewardsfor prize-winning suggestions explaining 4 haveall staff attenda seriesof seminarsled by seniormanagement the businessobiectivesof the company 5 providean in-housecounselling serviceto dealwith problemsof employee stress. YOURPARTNER WILLSTART.

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selfandothers; introducing (Greetings andfarewells; questioning ; sequencing) ; welcoming

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part of buildinggood rektions with is oftenan important entertainment Corporate prominent and highlyplanned,involving formal be may partners.Enteftainment business more be may entertainment peoptefrom thecompanyor the region;in other cases, personaland informal. You hre about to receivea visitor from another city or country who has cometo your hometown for the first time. You telephonehimlher to plan a fairly detailed entertainmentpackage,lastingthree days.After this time, you plan to begin some informal businessdiscussions. YOU: . shouldoutlinesome ideason how your visitor could spendthe threedays . find out what would interestyour visitor . learnwhat he/shelikes to do to relax . try to work out a fairly detaileditinerarywith your visitor. aboutbusiness. - after three daysyou have to start informal discussions Remember YOU START. When you have finished,your partner invites you to visit his/her hometown in return. You accept! WILLSTART. YOURPARTNER

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t_ t-FRIENDLY A Student t: 25 ENVIRONMENTALLY OFFICE t_(Sequencing; urging;agreeing/disagreeing) t_t: t_- More and more companies are becoming concerned about the effect their activities have on the natural Some companies are carrying out environmentalaudits, others are publishing t: environment. environmentalaccounts which try to measure this impact. There is no doubt that this will become a major activity of companies in the future. t_t_- -\ part of a campaign to make your company more environmentally friendly, you and your colleague been made responsible for improving the environmental balance in the office block where you t_- have both work. t_- Look together at the following suggestions and prioritize them. t-t-plosfics. I Seporole wosle forpoper bins ond t(before 2 Seporole woste bins forboileries recyding). t(before woste for newspopers recyding). 3 Seporole bins ond mogozines
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@Penguin Books1996

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26 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES
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(Agreeing/disagreeing; correcting ; likingandpreferring)

and manysfateshaverulesor legislation an area wheremanycompanies Equatopportunities,s or unfair treatment.Such areas as termsof designedto protect specificgroups from discrimination job are affectedby equal prospects, conditions and working security career contract,wagesand salaries, rtun itiespolicies. oppo to the Board on ways to group which must producerecommendations You are part of a discussion improvethe.positionof womenin the company. Note that: . 58o/o of the 400 companyemployeesare women positions are held by women o onl! 5o/o ol management . th companyhas no policy on encouragingwomen to return to work after maternityleave, only a very small numberdo return consequently . th Chairman has said he wantsto improvethe positionof womenin the company. (from the most important to the prioritize the following suggestions with a colleague, In discussion policy for employment. least important) to createan enlightenedand progressive

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leove. molemifi . Aclively towork ofter fuking women lorelurn encouroge promolions. forinlernol loopply women . lmprove en(ouroging troining opporlunilies, inlernol ilghts. . [ncouroge porl{ime etc. with full employee w0*, more iob+hodng, (flexilime). . lnfioduce flexible timerobling . Provide focilities. a6che . lmprove wilh full security. molernity leove iob posilions. . Sel inmonogement represenfolion forfemole oqu0l0 conditions. induded inemployment . (orporole horossmenl tobe sexuol sfolemenl 0n immediotely. horossmenl . Apromise loinve$igole reports ofsexuol monogemenf from . More woment choice ofdothing. lowords liberol ofiilude

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27 FRANCHISING
(Judging; knowing; hesitating; correcting; declining/rejecting)

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tranchising is running a business which appears to be part of a chain of similar businesses,each with 3e same name, image and ethos, similar products and a similarmarketing strategy.Afranchisee pays a +anchisor a fee and in return gets advice and support on how to run the business.

\bu are the manager of a franchised fast food outlet in a medium-sized town. Your relationship with :he franchisor, Eet Up, is not very good.You have scheduled a meeting with an Eet Up representative to try to sort out some problems. In preparation for the meeting you have written the following letter, which lists key points in order :t importance to you. You should aim to achieve some,but not all, of the improvements listed. Your rand-r*ritten notes to yourself are added, showing your thoughts.
A. Cook Area Manager (Franchise Eet Up Park Grove -ondon SW152RT

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@Penguin Books1996 55

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28 HEALTH ANDSAFETY
(Obliging; permitting; emphasizing; urging)

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Companies are controlled by legislation affecting health and safety. ln addition, many have their own policies to ensure that health and safety rssues are constantly monitored and improved where necessary.

Your company has a very bad record on health and safety. Employee representatives and government officials have demandedimmediate improvements;otherwise the company may be forced to close. You have a'meeting with a colleague to discuss ways to improve the situation. The following is an extract from a report on incidents concerning health and safety in recent months.

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C a s u a Lw o r k e r e t e c t r o c u t e d b y f a u L t y wiring. F e b r u a r y 1 5 : F o r k L i f t a c c ' id e n t worker hospitaLized. The operator was not quatif ied to use a fork Lift. F e b r u a r y1 7 : W o r k e r f a L L s o f f a r o o f w h i t e c a r r y i n g out a repair. A p r i[ 4 : ChemicatIeak f rom a fauIty waste pipe. May 19:. C h e m i c a tt e a k : u n d i L u t e d c h I o r i n e agents pottuted nearby river. J u L y? = Roof bIown off storage depot in a storm. Two workers injured. August 23= Fire on a rubbish tip. S e p t e m bre ? = N i g h t s e c u r i t y m a n a t t a c k e d b y intruder. Not discovered for two hours. Receivedhospitat treatment. 0ctober 16: Lorry crashes i n despatch area. W it n e s s e s s a y d r i v e r u t a s g o i n g t o o f a s t . A I o t o f d a m a g ec a u s e d t o vehicLe: driver unhurt.

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YO U : o w?rt immediate any changes decisionson what must be done and a firm date for implementing . think that cost is not the issueas failureto improvematterswill resultin the closureof the factory . know that the government is planningmuch stricterruleson healthand safety,including powersto fine companies which allow accidents to happen o w?ht an end to using untrained, casuallabour o wort a detailedtraining programme of safety issues established to improveworkers'awareness . think that a bettertrained,full-timeworkforcewould improveboth safetyand productivity . think that maintenance and house-keeping on site could be improvedwithout incurringmaior costs,e.g.by improvingdisposalof wasteproducts. YOURPARTNER WILLSTART.
56
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29 IN.HOUSE MAGAZINE
(Agreeing/disagreeing ; likingandpreferring ; measuring andcalculating)

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An in-house magazine can be an important tootfor internalcommunication. tt can serueto informstaff membersof importantcompanydevelopments and encourage themto identify withcorporateobjectives. You and your partner are membersof a small task forceformedto upgradeyour comjournal.Youhavebeengivena free hand to draw up a set of pany'sin-house recommendations to submit to seniormanagement. You must: . identifythe objectivesof the magazine . decideon how oftenthe magazine shouldappear . decideon the pagesize,numberof pagesand generallook . thinkof a name . draw up a budgetfor a magazine with a circulation of 5,000(editorial, designand productioncosts). For the content,decidewhich of the following you think shouldor shouldnot appear in eachissue: o o hesSsgefrom the Chairman of the company o rec|rtsalesfigures . otherfinancialinformation relatingto the company'sperformance r nwSand photographs of new recruits o hews and photographsof recentretirements . featurespresenting individual employees . featurespresenting the work of individual departments o colrlp?hy sports news,socialclub news,newsfrom the company's variousclubs and associations . interviews with seniorexecutives . tradeunion news o ? sulrllrlary of coverage of the companyand its productsin the national and press specialized . future plansfor expanding or contracting the workforce o reGerlt acquisitions, ioint ventureagreements r rechtproductlaunches, newsof futureproductplans. Can you think of anythingelsewhich shouldbe included? YOUSTART.

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TECHNIQUES 30 INTERVIEW
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asked'Many and the typeof questions of an interuiew techniqueaffectsboththe styte lnteruiewing applicant' the possible about as muchas b discover of approaches usea combination interuiews Look at the followingjob advertisement:

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compony developmenl young softwore exponding An inLondon office wifiitsheod employees, 950 wilh ond Rotlerdom inLondon, sites wifiproduction ond groduote ombitious forodynomic, islooking Poris, $rolegic ond selling indired wiftexperience seclor. preferobly inorelevonl plonning,

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for osk ond 5656 0800 Telephone forfurther Professionol Freephone form. onoPPlitotion ond detoils

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into three groups: Personav with your partner, classify the following interview_questions (AP), Hypothetical (H)' Then assess psychological (pp), Academic and Profe-ssionalBackground and 5 = rot useful at all' Give them on a scale of L to 5: where 1 = most useful in ajob interview' reasonsfor your assessments. in conflict with colleaguesin your 1 Can you give an example of a situation where you have been presentjob or in a Previousjob? 2 bo you enjoy working alone or do you prefer teamwork? in this company? B How does your op"ri"rr." until now pi"p."" you fol the work 4 How does your family feel about your relocation to London? - your backgtound is in the food sector - is 5 Given your lack of experience in software development this likely to be a Problem? 6 What do you do when you need to relax? in a particular market, what would you 7 If aproduct you were responsible for was obviously failing do to resolve the situation? years'time?8 How do you see the future of the computing industry in ten involved with in your present job? 9 Can you describe a particul., pro5".lit at y:ouhave Leen closety YOU START.
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(Questioning; urging)

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A job apptication is a formal request for a job. You usually make an application by replying to an adveftisement. People who apply for a iob are iob applicants. You are the personal assistant to a well-known film director, planning to leave for a s'ell-earned rest after five years in the post. You placed the job advertisement below in the national press and received several good applications, including a very interesting one from your partner. Although you acknowledged this some weeks ago, you have been too busy to invite him/her to interview. You now receive a call from him/her to find out what is happening and to get more information about the job. You can tell the applicant (your partner) about: . travel: you travel constantly, to all parts of the world, and are away on location

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for months at a time sometimes . hours:from0 to 24 hoursperday- thereareno typicalworkinghours is element r po|: the basesalaryis nothingspecial, the performance-related of the latestfilm related to the success actorsand temper, terrible o problems: the director's livingout of suitcases, whofall ill, etc.. . . actresses
You can invent other details about the job but you are not at liberty to reveal the director'sname. In turn, you would like somemore information about this applicant: . . . . . o . . o languages spoken? typing? driving licence? tough? adaptable? coh get on wellwith all sorts of people? experience? as from when? available plus otherquestionsof your own.

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HELP! MY PA IS LEAVING ME! we'repartingon goodtermsafterflve In fact, FAST lf you've years but I needa replacement film to be PAto a well-known got whatit takes at thisnewsPaPer writeto BoxXPA14T5 director; (performance-related). now Goodsalary required. experience filmindustry No previous

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MEGA MEDIA ENTERTAINMENT 7l GracechurchStreet London N1 1QA T e l :0 1 7 12227548Fax:01713586037 Berlin - London - Paris - New York - Rome - San Francisco
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judging; (Liking correcting) andpreferring;

A company's workforce may range in size from one employee to tens of thousands of people. Some people prefer to work in small companies, others prefer to be part of a large organization.

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In this activity, you are going to debate with your partner the advantages of working for large and small companies.You prefer small companies,your partner prefers large. Use the arguments below to help you win the argument. Add your own arguments to the discussion. YOU believe the following arguments: 1 In a small company,you know everyone. Small companies are friendlier.It's good to be able to get to know the people you work with really well. 2 In small companies,you can sort out problems face-to-face. 3 There's more variety to your work in a small company.You have to be ready to turn your hand to more or less anything. 4 You are more independent in a small company.When you want to do something, you don't have to wait for permission from all kinds of people above you. 5 When you work for a small company,you feel proud of making a direct contribution to the successof the organization. 6 People who work in big companies are too ready to conform. 7 You know where you are in a small company: you're not afraid that you'll suddenly lose your job without warning. 8 The advantages of working in a small company are freedom, flexibility and openness. 9 You've got more chance of realizing your full potential in a small company. You also think that . . . YOUR PARTNERWILL START.

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negotiating) (Urging; emphasizing;

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one companywants wherenaturally createdifficulties may sometimes Cashftowconsiderations possible. as prefers long to delayas paymentbut the other immediate It is now January 7th. Your companysent the following invoicefive weeksago,plus a reminder a week ago.You have still not receivedpayment.

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62 Books1996 @Penguin

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ICEBREAKER
(lntroducing questioning) selfandothers;

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lce breakers are shortactivitieswhichhelppeopleget to knoweachotherat the beginningof a trainingcourse. Get the following information about your partner.One of you can ask all the questions first or you can take it in turns to ask eachquestion.

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Advertising is one aspectof promotional activity used by companies to increase consumer awareness of the company and its products, and to improve sales pertormance.

You work for an advertising agency.You specialize in the sportswear sector.You have received the following letter: You prepare the following notes: You prepare the following notes: COMPANY REGIS & BENNETT SPORTS
9-10 HouchenIndustrial Estate Coventry CY3 2TH Fax 01203 542281 Telephone01203542181
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An agendacons,bts of the pointsthat will be discussed in a meeting,in orderto reachagreedobjectives. \ot all meetings have writtenagendas, but everyone the objectives of a meetingand shouldunderstand <nuw <nowwrrat whatrSuues rssueswilt willue withinan wtuuIl be (Jr$cu5.5ect, discussed, an agteeu agreedurIle. time.
\bur company is planning a new quality programme. You are new to the company and you feel that ,rcmmunications within the company are not very good.You have received the following agenda.

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Departmental Development Group Ouality Agenda lorMeeting - 11.00 Time: 9.30 Date: 14,19-. January Place: Head 0ffice. Room 2-17. 1. Customer feedback 2. Internal suggestions 3. Ouality standards - Please Gomments welcome call
Ring the project leader with your questions and./orsuggestions for ways to improve the agenda. YOU: . leel that the agenda is too vague - it should be more explicit. Make suggestions

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@Penguin Books1996

103

BANKCHARGES
(Measuring obliging; correcting; andcalculating; regretting)

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theyprovide.Bankschargeintereston Bankchargesare the feespaid to banksfor the variousseruices in funds or for assisting and overdrafts, up loans the moneytheylend,but aisocharge feesfor setting seruices. financial wide range of provision a and references, advice the of transfers, currencyexchange,
You are a clerk for Credit Bank International. A small business customer calls with a query about a funds transfer that you have handled. Here is a copy of the notification of the funds transfer:

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total f.2,020.00 lnvoice 00878654 Accountnumber:

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HLT Below is an extract from the agreement between the bank and the customer regarding international funds transfers.

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Funds Translers 16.International fromcertransfers Inaddition, transfers. 0f t10 onallinternationalfunds willlevy charge a standing CBI soaffected total. Countries charge of 2%of theinvoice to anadditional may taincountries beliable Please African states. and several Korea, Malaysia North Korea, South lraq, lran, Japan, include China, list. the forthe complete bank contact
YOU: o realiz that the t25 deductionwas wrong- it should havebeen810 ot r realizethat becausethe transferwas from China,the bank should have chargedan extra 2o/o the invoicetotal (t40.40) less t10 less t40.40 = o calculatethat the customershould only have been creditedwith t2O2O t1,969.60p accountfor a . explainthe mistakes to the customerand decidewhetherto debitthe customer's further25.40p. WILLSTART. YOURPARTNER
104
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(Questioning ; iudging ; hesitating ; forecasting)

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Budgeting involvescombiningsalesforecasts withexpectedcosts.Effective ptanningrequires accurate cudgeting and also a clearunderstanding of the effectsof variations in any particutar figure,fromraw naterialcosfsto unitprice or promotionalcosts. \bw partner presents a salesbudgetfor an existingproduct,a mobiletelephone calledthe CX20,to a financemeeting. He/she is proposing a unit priceincrease of t\Vo.He/sh"o."r the following illustrationsto showthe effects of the priceincrease:

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@Pensuin Books1996

105

(continued) Presentation Budget


SalesForecast E Rtttso perunit I Rtet0s perunit

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YOU: Discussthe price rise.Ask the following: r wh! is the cost of sellingso high? . how important do you think marketshareis? o dr there other ways to makethe return on this product greater,insteadof raising the price? . how price sensitiveis the market? the pricewithout losingsales? r ?re thereways to increase o could salesbe increased? their pricesduringthe year? lowered o wh?t if competitors WILLSTART. YOURPARTNER

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(Telling ; sequencing ; emphasizing)

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ETIQUEfiE BUSINESS
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BUSINESS GIFTS
(Agreeing/disagreeing permitting ; emphasizing; ; vetoing)

B Student

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Businessgifts are sometimes sent to customers or clientsin the hope that they build goodwilt- and help to secure business.ln many cases the activity is perfectly reasonable and open - but in some cases the practice of offering and receiving gifts is connected to dubious behaviour, malpractice or illegat activities.

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You are one of two purchasing directors in a large manufacturing company with a $70m turnover. One of your punchasershas been sent a case of Grand Cru Bordeaux wine by a supplier. Some of vour management colleaguesfeel he should not have acceptedthis gift. At present the company has no policy on receiving grfts. Together with your partner, decide on a new company policy on receiving gfts. Prior to your meeting you draw up the following options:

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- Gifte policy-choiceo - Any kindof qifLohould beaccepted with a smilet. - lf a new io adopted, all emVloyeel and ouVVliere shouldbe Volicy told by letter. - Onlyeenior manaqerlshould accew qifNo.

YO U: o persor?lly like the idea of gifts - you have receivedsome good ones in the past o receiveda case of GrandCru from the same companylast year - but you didn't tell anyone . think you and your colleagues would only iudge supplierson purelyobjective and factual considerations. YOUSTART.

4 --_ @Penguin Books1996 109

INITIALS BUSINESS
(Knowing; correcting)

B Student

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When reading the pressin a foreign language, understandingthe initialscan sometimes create almost as many problems as understandingthe words. Here is a quiz to test and increaseyour knowledge of somebasic - and not so basic - sets of initials which you could meet when reading the business press in English. First test your partner on what the following sets of initials stand for. Then your partner will give you a similar test. Then compare scores.Warning: each test gets harder as you go along!

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Officer) (Chief Executive Person) (Verylmportant (Human Resources) (Public Relations) (Doctor of PhilosophyT Unit) (European Currency andDevelopment) Cooperation (Organization for Economic (Asea BrownBoveri) (japan Airlines) Publishing) (DeskTop (Central Processing Unit) (AnyOther Business) Product) (Gross Domestic Proposition) (Unique Selling Assurance) Quality fl-otal Fund) Monetary (lnternational

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(Negotiating; urging;declining; reiecting)

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Buying and selling a product or seruice, especially abroad, often involves negotiation - an agreement through discussionof the terms of the buying and selling arrangement.

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You are the owner of a small company manufacturing computer games.You have just designed an exciting new game which you want to sell abroad. You have arranged a meeting with a potential agent (your partner), who operates in a region where there is a good market for new games. Using the table below,.negotiatean agreement covering: . the number of units that the agent will agree to take . th terms of payment: you are a small company and have the usual cashllow problems

. the discount pricewhichyou agree on the standard to paythe agent.


0uontity 10,000 Score: 5 points 20,000 Score: l0 points 30,000 Score: 15points 40,000 Score:2|points 50,000 points Score:25 Terms 90 doys Score: 5 points 60doys ftore: l0 points 30 doys Score: 15paints Holf inodvonce Holf wilhin 30 doys Score:2?points Inodvonce points Score:Z5

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11 CASHFLOW PROBLEMS
judging; (Forecasting; negotiating) urging;

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problemsoccurwhena company fundsavailableto meetexistingoperating has insufficient Cashflow cosfs.A companymay have full order books, but stillsufferfromfundingproblemswhilethey waitfor to pay. customers You work in the marketing departmentof a companywhich has receivedan urgent order for 150 trailers from the governmentof a Gulf state.The trailers must be custom-builtto meet highty specificrequirementsand must be deliveredin only three months. the presentcash is in the financedepartmentand is not keenon the orderbecause Yourcolleague what to it. Discuss budgetcannotaccommodate the orderand the presentcashsituationand decide your do.Find out from colleague: . how much cash is available . the estimated cost of completing the order. YOU: your companyshouldacceptthe order- it could be a good lead-in to other business . believe . think that the existingcash budgetshould be redrafted to take into accountincomefrom the of this saleof a further150trailers- remindyour colleague o estimate to sales that the ordercould add t700,000 to meetthe . think your companyshouldask the bankfor a short-term loan(aboutt250,000) production costs of . think therewould be no practicalproblemin meetingthe order if supportfrom the bank can be quickly arranged for a discount . imagine that the customerwould accepta tight paymentschedulein exchange this with the client on the unit price you can promiseto negotiate a . think that a discounton the unit pricewould help securethe contract,if you can guarantee threemonthdelivery. YOUSTART.

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r 12 COMPANY OFTHEYEAR r r r
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(Agreeing/disagreeing; emphasizing; urging) iudging;

)ne wayof encouraging smatl businesses to grow is to organizecompetitions withprizesfor young :tmpanies withspecialentrepreneurialflair. A moneyprize can be veryusefulfora companywith =nbitionsto expandbut limitedfinanceto do so. Theonly dangerfor competitors, stJccessful and -lsuccessful,is for themto spendmoretime on the competition thanon doing business!
Yru and your partner together run a successfulsmall business.You have just won a regional young -.:siness competition sponsoredby the local press, television,local government and the local :tamber of commerce. First decideon the following:

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113

13 COMPANY ORGANIZATION
(Declining/rejecting ; iudging;likingand preferring)

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chart or organigram,often a simplified is sometimes describedin an organization Companyorganization tor keypersonnel. diagramshowingareasof responsibitity
Your company,I(EP Ltd, is involved in negotiations with a competitor, Altman Kopp, over a possible merger. In an informal meeting, you discuss ways to combine the two businesses into a single organization, allowing for the following facts:

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rrade fairs are opportunitiesfor individuals and companies to make contacts with potentialcustomers and other professionals in the industry. While many companies hope to sign up orders for goods, most are happy to improve consumer awareness of the company and to promote the corporate image.

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\bu are at a trade fair. You visit the stand of a company called Conta Inc. You talk to someonethere a'oout Conta. Ask in particular about: . where the company is based o ovrS&ssubsidiaries . number of employees. Intermpt to ask for clarification or additional information whenever you like. Then talk about your own company,Edile S.p.A., using the following profile as a source of key facts.

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THEO/A MARTIN Sales& marketing Department

Edile I nternational (Singapore ) Limited 48 TanneryRow, Cencon Building, Singapore 1336 Tel747 7676Fax747 7688

Name: Sector: Markets: 199- Sales:

Edile S.p.A. Property development Italy, Europe, South East Asia, United States,Argentina. $373m.

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Include any of the following additional information:

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Head ffice: Subsidiaries:

Milan,ItalY' Edile International in France,Germany' UK' Argentina' Singapore,United Statesof America (Chicago and New York) and (planned for next year) Brazil and Japan' more than 4,000' new SpaceResearchCentre in Houston, Texas.

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15 COMPANY TOUR
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S"owing a visitor round your company can be a usefulway of winning customers as well as promoting :-e mage of your company.

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16 COMPANY VISIT
(Question ing; regretting)

B Student

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Before you visit a company, it is usefulto check with the person you are visiting about how to get in. Some companies, for example those involved in defence, can have strictsecurity procedures which you need to know about in advance.

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You are planning to visit a contact whom you met at a trade fair and who works in a large company which has recently tightened up its security becauseof industrial espionage.Your contact has faxed you a plan of the premises but the bottom half of the page of the fax was eaten by your machine. The meeting is tomorrow. Telephone your contact to ask how to get inside.

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17 CORPORATE CULTURE F \r{

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\bu and your partner woke up this morning to find yourselves joint heads of a large international company.Unfortunately, it is losing a lot of money.You both feel that a major transformation of the culture of the company is needed and you have brainstormed ten possible policies below. Now go through the list and decide together which ones you will implement.

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- should - fieioinl youl give big up monoging direclors | You your fiemoin bose by the top floor ond estoblhh offices on fieground floor. on PhotocoPier poy, poy 0n leom introduce bosed 2 Abolish individuol pelformon(e. lwo wilhin the nexl lobe women for50% ofmonogers 3 Aim (At yeors. ofyour ond 5% fie momenf 60% ofyoul employees monogels ore women.) seniff 'senior' in ofloyers Reduce fie number 4 Abolish monogemenl. possible. 0s for 0s fteorgonizolion Deporlment. the Penonnel 5 Abolish flyeconomy dos. 6 Moke ollmonogers (ompony (ors. people fiey hove when 0n ollowonce Poy 7 Abolhh todrive on iompony business. - weor - yourselves 0(ompony included oll employees 8 Moke uniform. up. shnd meelings shorler, hove evetyone 9 Moke gel subordinofes opproising subordinoles, | 0 In$eod ofmonogers monogers' looPProise

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18 CORPORATE SPONSORSHIP
judging; (Forecasting; negotiating) urging;

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Corporate sponsorship is big business.Companies give money to sporting, cultural and charitable organizationsas a way of bringing the company's name and products to the attention of a wider public.

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FILE T The football club in the city where )rour company is based has just lost its sponsor after going down from the national first to the second division at the end of the last season.Now the club is desperately looking for a replacement.The manager has been sacked and replaced by a well-knorrn ex-international player with no previous managerial experience.There rreno new players in the team. The club has large debts. Advanced sales of season tickets are poor and some people are saying that the number of spectators next season could be 2Oo/o dovrn on last year. However, sponsorship would give your company excellent opportunities for advertising the company logo on the team shirt, in the weekly match programme and around the grround.Youcan e:rpect two or three home matches to be televised live during the season.There are also good opportunities for corporate hospitality at home matches.

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FILE 3 Your city is the base for a young troupe of dancers who, in a short period of time, have gained a reputation for exciting choreography and irurovative technique. One national newspaper critic hailed them as'the most exciting development in modern ballet in the last twenty years.'The troupe is especially popular with young people: some of their most enthusiastic fans had never previously been to a performance of ballet. So far they have . managed on a shoestring budget but are now receiving invitations to perform elsewhere in the country and even abroad, and they need money to invest in rehearsal rooms, to pay an administration manager; and so on.At the moment they have no permanent headguarters. The troupe are novvactively looking for a sponsor and would be willing to incorporate the sponsor's name into their own name.Their activities are not, however, without contrwersy: there have been complaints about political bias in the themes presented in the dancing and some people have been shocked at what they see on the stage.You knor that one of the Board members is unhappy about his teenage children attending their performances. On the other hand, you have been advised privately that the troupe could have an international reputation within the next ten years.

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19 COSTS ANDREDUCING OVERHEADS


(Judging ; emphasizing ; forecasting)

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Cosfs include production costs and the costs of selling. Allaspects of a company's expenditure should be recorded as costs and good management aims to keep costs to a minimum within an agreed budget.

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your customers, Customer care is knowing knowingwhatthey want,reactingto their changing needs,and keepingcloseto them.lt is important for all members of business organizations to thinkabout whotheircustomers are and how theycan improvetheir seruiceto them. You are part of a specialtask forceset up by top management to improve customer job your carethroughout the company. Your first is to find out how customer-conscious colleagues think the companyis at the momentso that later on you can compare perceptions employee of customerattitudes with customerattitudes themselves. YOU: . explainthe rating system belowto a fellow employee(your partner),then o ?sk the questionsin the customerattitudesurvey below to find out how he/she thinks customersrate his/hercompany'scurrent performance.

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21 CUSTOMER COMPLAINT
(Blaming; negotiating; declining/rejecting) iudging;

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as it is impoftantto resolvetheproblemas quicklyand courteously Whena customer complains, possible.


You have just returned from a skiing holiday and have written the following letter of complaint to the company which organized the package.

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"February I have just returned from one of your so-ca11ed skiing breaks" extremely disappointed with your company's service for the following reasons. 1 The two-star hotel descrj-bed in your brochure as a "comfortable family-run hotel" in fact offered only The food was poor. and was dirty. basic facilities "if insufficient snow in 2 Your brochure also says that t o c 1ose, your resort causes lifts a n d /o r s k i s c h o o l we'11 do our best to arrange free coach transport to another resort where skiing is possible." Although skiing conditions were so poor on three days out of sj-x that the skiing was unsafe, as your own 1ocal representative himself admitted, we were not provided promised. with the transportation
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r ?re unhappybecauseyou had really neededa breaklrom a very stressfuljob and found the hoteland the skiing conditionsbelowyour expectations . definitelyfelt that it was unsafeto ski at least half the time you were there e would settle for less than you have claimedin your letter,but want Super you have been Skibreakto offer significantcompensation for the inconvenience caused. YOURPARTNER WILL START.

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HOLDUP 22 CUSTOMS
(Questioning amazement; ; expressing ; urging regretting)

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discoveredthat the electroniccomponentsinvolvedrequiredan export licence and the driverdid not haveone intend to searchthe lorry to examinethe cargo in detail in the next few days. You are very busy at the moment do not know where the driver is - the police havetaken him away the lorry untilyour boss says you can.This processsometimes will not release takes severalmonths of the vehicleover the cannotdiscussthe possibilityof speedingup the release meeting. a face-to-face phone,althoughyou could be willingto arrange

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(Urging ; sequencing ; agreeing/disagreeing)

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You and your partner, in the Human Resourcesdepartment of a company which is in the proces.s of reducing its workforce by 20Vo, meet to devise a stratery to ensure that employee morale remains as high as possible during the period of downsizing. Tell your partner about the following list of five strategic actions which you have drawn up. Your partner will also tell you about the points which he or she has noted. Then, together, choosethe five key actions for your stratery in order ofpriority. YoU want ro: 1 introduce full consultation with the trade unions on future redundancies

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pay for all staff 2 introduceperformance-related programmes for all staff 3 promisetraining-for-all and training-for-life plansfor all staff involvingfull consultation 4 createcareerdevelopment with each individual member staff in particular for the infundingfor the Communications Department, 5 increase housemagazine.

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24 ENTERTAINING VISITORS
(Greetings introducing selfand andfarewells; questioning; welcoming; others; sequencing)

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25 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY OFFICE


(Sequencing ; urging ; agreeing/disagreeing)

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More and more companies are becoming concerned about the effect their activities have on the natural environment.Some companies are carrying out environmentalaudits, others are publishing environmentalaccounts which try to measure this impact. There is no doubt that this will become a major activity of companies in the future.

As part of a campaign to make your company more environmentally friendly, you and your colleague have been made responsible for improving the environmental balance in the office block where you both work. Look together at the following suggestions and prioritize them.

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poper plosfics. I Seporole wo$e bins for ond (before 2 Seporole wo$e bins for botteries reryding). (before 3 Seporofe wosle bins for newspopers ond mogozines lecyding). (before gloss 4 Seporote woste bins for reryding). poper phohropier. 5 Use ofrecyded for the plonl 6 An indoor on every desk. 7 Adoily photocopies record sheet for oll mode. photocopying quolo per 8 Adoily deporlment loreduce number by25%the of pholocopies mode. 9 Apolicy ofturning offoll electric lights inuno(cupied r00ms. | 0 Punishmenl ofemployees who leove lights inunoaupied rooms. on | | Use oflow energy ligh bulbs throughod fiebuilding. 12 Reduction ofthe lemperofure by 5"(ftroughout the building. glozing | 3 In$ollofion ofdouble ftroughouf. | 4 Incenlives loencouroge employees lofrovel lowork fionsporl rofter fton bypublic by ror. you your | 5 Any your portner ofter suggeslions whkh ond lomoke offices con offer pl0(es. m0re environmentolly friendly

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26 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES

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have rulesor legislation and many states is an area wheremanycompanies Equatopportunities or unfair treatment.Such areas as termsof designedto protectspecificgroups from discrimination job securityand working are affectedby equal conditions career prospects, contract,wagesand salaries, n itiespolicies. opportu to the Board on waysto group which must producerecommendations You are part of a discussion improvethe.positionof womenin the company. Note that: . 58o/o of the 400 companyemployeesare women positionsare held by women o onf| 5o/o of management leave, womento returnto work after maternity . the companyhas no policyon encouraging only a very small numberdo return consequently . the Chairman has said he wantsto improvethe positionof womenin the company. (from the most important to the prioritize the following suggestions with a colleague, In discussion policy for employment. least important) to createan enlightenedand progressive

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leove. molernity . Actively ofler loking lorelurn lowork women en(ouroge promolions. forinternol loopply women . lmprove encouroging fioining opportunilies, inlernol dghts. porl{ime . [ncouroge wilh fullemployee work, elc. more iob-shoring, (flexilime}. . Iniloduce flexible fime{obling . Provide fodlifies. crdche . lmprove wififull secudty. molernily leove iob posilions. . Sel represenlolion inmonogemenf for femole oqu0l0 condifons. inemployment . (orporole tobe induded hotossmenl slolemenl 0n sexuol immediotely. horossmenl . Apromise reporls ofsexuol l0inve$igole from monogemenl . More ofdofiing. woment choice lowords liberol ottitude

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27 FRANCHISING
(Judging; knowing; hesitating; correcting; declining/rejecting)

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\bu are an area manager for a franchising company,Eet Up, which has over 300 fast food outlets. \bu have a meeting with the manager of one of them, in a medium-sized town. You need to sort out someproblems. \bu have received the following letter - you have added some points showing your thoughts. You realize you will have to compromise on some issues, but do not want to give much away.

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Dear Mr Cook, Following our recent conversation, I write to confirm the points for discussion at our meeting next month. I would like to talk about the following agreement changes to our present which is due for renewal in the Spring of next year: - a reduction in the franchise fee from the present

$so, ooo per year . Av pre*vrt sizc, no rduottbn po*ible.


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ANDSAFETY 28 HEALTH
urging) permitting; emphasizing; (Obliging;

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affecting heatth and safety. ln addition, many have their own Companies are controlled by legistation poticiesto ensure that heatth and safetyissues are constanttymonitored and improved where necessary. Your company has a very bad record on health and safety. Employee representatives and gorr"rr*urrt officials have demanded immediate improvements; otherwise the company may be forced to close. You have a meeting with a colleague to discuss ways to improve the situation. The following is an extract from a report on incidents concerning health and safety in recent months.

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J a n u ar y 1 2 = C a s u a I w o r k e r e L e c t r o c u t e d b y f a u t t y wiring. worker February15= Fork tift accident hospitaLized. The operator llas not quatified to use a fork Lift. February 17:. ttorker faIts off a roof whiIe carrying out a rePair. C h e m i c a Lt e a k f r o m a f a u L t y H a s t e p i p e ' ApriL 4: C h e m i c a LL e a k : u n d i t u t e d c h L o r i n e t4ay 19= a g e n t s p o Lt u t e d n e a r b Y r i v e r Roof bLown of f storage dePot i n a JuIy 2; storm. Two trorkers injuredFire on a rubbish tiP. August 23= N ight security man attacked bY r 2 = Septembe intruder. Not discovered for two hours' ReceivedhospitaI treatment0ctober 16= Lorry crashes i n desPatch areaW it n e s s e s s a y d r i v e r u t a s g o i n g t o o f a s t . A L o t o f d a m a g ec a u s e d t o vehicte: driver unhurt.

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YOU: are necessary . basicallyagreethat maior improvements money o ?re not keen on spendinga lot of than employingfull'time,trained . think casuatlabourand fart-time labouris much cheaper workers e or preparedto make radicalchangesit there could be improvementsin productivitywhich cover the increasedGosts in workingconditions on improvements commitments o or reluctant to makemanyshort-term or training. YOU START.

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(Agreeing/disagreeing ; likingandpreferring ; measuring andcalculating)

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An in-house magazine can be an important toolfor internal communication.lt can serue to inform staff members of important company devetopmentsand encourage them to identify with corporate objectives.

You and your partner are members of a small task force formed to upgrade your company's in^housejournal. You have been given a free hand to draw up a set of

recommendations to submit to seniormanagement. Youmust: . identifythe objectivesof the magazine . decideon how often the magazineshould appear . decideon the pagesize, numberof pagesand generallook . think of a name . draw up a budgettor a magazine with a circulation of 5,000(editorial, designand productioncosts). For the content,decidewhich of the following you think shouldor shouldnot appear in eachissue: o ? trless?ge from the Chairmanof the company r teCht salesfigures o otherfinancialinformation relatingto the company's performance . news and photographsof new recruits o news and photographsof recentretirements . teaturespresenting individualemployees . featurespresentingthe work of individualdepartments o colrlp?lly sports news,social club news,news from the company'svarious clubs and associations . interviewswith senior executives . tradeunion news o ? sulrllrlaryof coverageof the companyand its products in the nationaland press specialized . future plansfor expanding or contracting the workforce o rGer|t acquisitions,ioint ventureagreements r roGeht productlaunches, newsof futureproductplans
Can you think of anything else which should be included? YOUR PARTNERWILL START.

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TECHNIQUES 30 INTERVIEW
ng) isagreei ng/d (Judg ing; agreei

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asked.Many and the typeof questions of an interuiew techniqueaffectsboththe styte tnteruiewing applicant. possible the about as muchas to discover of approaches usea combination interuiews Look at the followingjob advertisement:

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compony young developmenl sofhvore An exponding inLondon office wiftib heod wilh 950 employees, ond Rofierdom produclion inlondon, siles wifh ond groduole ombitious forodynomic, islooking Poris, sfiolegic ond selling indirecl wilh experience seclor. preferobly plonning, inorelevont

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lor osk ond 5656 0800 Ielephone forluilher Professionol Freephone form. onopplkotion ond detoils

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31 JOBAPPLICATION
(Questioning; urging)

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A iob applicationis a formalrequestfor a job. Youusuallymake an appticationby replyingto an advertisement. Peoplewhoapply for a job are job appticants. You saw the followingjob advertisementin the newspaper five weeksagoand immediatelysent your letter of application.Sincethen you have heard nothing apart from the acknowledgement below. Call the current personal assistant(your partner)to find out what has happened to your application.You alsowant to know more about the job: . . o o r . travel:how much and whereto? hours:typicalworkinghours? p?|: bonusesdependon what? wh?t are the main problems? the nameof the director! ary otherdetailsyou would like to have.

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And remember:this is the chanceof a lifetime - sell yourself! o |ou speakyour own language, Englishand one other language fluenily o |ou can type, and have good word processingexperience o |ou havea cleandriving licence o |oU are hard-working, flexibleand havegood communication skills o |ou can start tomorrow.
HELP! MY PA IS LEAVING ME! In fact,we're partingon good terms after five yearsbut I need a replacement FASTlf you'vegot what it takesto be PA to a well-knownfilm directo; write to Box XPAl475 at this newspaper now.Good salary(performance-related), No previous film industry experience required.

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7I GracechurchStreet LondonN1 lQA Tel: 01712227548Fax: 0171 358 6037 Berlin - London - Paris - New York - Rome - San Francisco
Thank you for your recent advertised post. You will shortly. application for the hear from us very

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@Penguin Books1996 135

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VERSUS SMALL 32 LARGE COMPANIES


correcting) (Likingandpreferring; iudging;

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A company's workforcemay range in size from one employee to tens of thousands of peopte. Some people prefer to work in smatt companies, others prefer to be part of a large organization.

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In this activity, you are going to debate with your partner the advantages of working for large and small companies.You prefer large companies,your partner prefers small. Use the arguments below to help you win the argUment. Add your own arguments to the discussion. YOU believe the following arguments: 1 In a big company,there are more people to meet. It's more stimulating. 2 Inabig company,if you don't get on with one group of people,you can get a transfer to another department. 3 There's more opportunity for specialization in a big company.And there's more mobility within the organization. 4 People in big companies earn more money. 5 You feel proud of belonging to a company which has a national or even an international reputation. 6 People who work in big companies are not afraid of competing with large numbers ofother able and talented people. 7 Big companies are stronger during downturns in business.You're less likely to lose your job becausethe company is less likely to go bust. 8 The advantages of working in a big company are more resources,bigger responsibilities, more opportunities. 9 You've got more chance of realizing your full potential in a big company' You also think that . . . YOU START.

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(Urging; emphasizing ; negotiating)

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Cashflow considerations may sometimes createdifficutties wherenaturally one companywants paymentbut the otherprefersto delayas long as possible. immediate It is now January 7th. You have not paid the following invoicefor services receivedin November. The creditor calls to ask about your intentions regardingthe payment.

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KWAN SERVICES
450-58JalanBukit Bintang 55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (03) 77878779 Fax (03) 77878562 Telephone

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INVOICE Arndale Promotions 112Depot Row PO Box4567 Auckland, NewZealand 2 December 199Ref.Yourorderdated24 September Singapore Market Analysis Consultancy Report Fee: Expenses: $Us4,ooo $US 567

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TOTAL NOWDUE Bankdetails: KWAN Services Current account No.70852406 Branch Sorting Code:20-99-56 Credit BankInternational, Jefan Melaka200, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Terms: 30 daysfromdateof invoice.

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L LLL YOUnotethat: L_- r |ou havecashflowproblems . report supplied by KWANcametwo weeks later than they promised L o th you agreeto pay before |ou havea policy of paying60 days from invoicedate(but sometimes 60 days). LL YOURPARTNER WILLSTART. L t3'7
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