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1. What is Artificial Intelligence?

The basic objective of AI is to represent humans' thought processes in computers. These machines are supposed to exhibit behavior that, if performed by a human being, would be considered intelligent. An alternate definition, not covered in the text is by Astro Teller: "Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science of how to get machines to do the things they do in the movies."

2. Major advantages and disadvantages of artificial intelligence over natural intelligence

Advantages Disadvantages

AI is Permanent Can be easily duplicated Can be less expensive Can be documented

Artificial intelligence is not creative It is limited in the use of sensory devices It cannot make use of a very wide context of experiences It does not use common sense

3. Motivation for developing intelligent systems

Cost savings achieved by the reduction of employees Consistency in service provided to the end-users

4. Explain the role of the intelligent systems and their potential benefits
Intelligent systems are used to support decision-making and problem-solving applications. Their benefits include:

Enhanced problem-solving Improved decision quality Ability to solve complex problems Consistent decisions.

5. What are the major difficulties in developing these systems?

The major difficulty in developing these systems is extracting the expertise needed to develop the knowledge base. It is difficult to extract an experts knowledge and codify it into a format that can be used in an automated application.

6. Major AI technologies:
Expert systems Natural language processing Robotics Speech understanding Speech (voice) recognition Computer vision and scene recognition Intelligent computer-aided instruction Neural computing Intelligent agents Automatic programming Translation of languages

An expert system An expert system is a computer program that attempts to imitate human experts by the system's capability to render advice, to teach and execute intelligent tasks. They use inference methods to a specific body of knowledge called the domain. Inference is the reasoning process of AI. It takes place in the brain of an AI process. Natural language processing Natural language processing is a program that permits (to a certain degree) a human-computer dialogue in a conversational, day-to-day language (a natural language like English, French, or Dutch). Speech recognition and understanding Speech or voice recognition is a data input method. For example, the computer recognizes and understands one (or a few) word commands. Speech understanding on the other hand is the computer's ability to understand a spoken language. That is, the computer understands the meaning of sentences and paragraphs through syntax and semantics. Intelligent agent An intelligent agent is a program that runs in the background and learns your patterns, like any other agent working for you. It learns your needs to serve you better. The little paperclip guy that shows up in Microsoft Word is an example of an intelligent agent.

7. Types of knowledge that comprise expertise

Theories about the problem domain Rules and procedures regarding the general problem area Rules (heuristics) of what to do in a given problem situation Global strategies for solving these types of problems Meta-knowledge (knowledge about knowledge) Facts about the problem area

8. Major components of an ES.

Knowledge base--the software that represents the knowledge/ expertise Working basethe data which is specific to a problem being solved Inference engine--the reasoning mechanism. User interface--the hardware and software exchange of ideas between people and the computer. E.g. Bank Teller Machine.

9. Roles of individuals who interact with the system:

Domain expert--the individual who is considered an expert. Knowledge engineer--the individual who encodes the experts knowledge in a declarative form, that can be used by the expert system User--the individual (non-expert) who uses the system for consultation.

10. Expert system shells

Many expert systems are built with products called expert system shells. A shell is a piece of software which contains the user interface, a format for declarative knowledge in the knowledge base, and an inference engine. The knowledge and system engineers use these shells in making expert systems.

11. Role of a knowledge engineer?

Knowledge engineering is the art of designing and building Expert Systems. Major duties are to acquire and represent the knowledge. Some knowledge engineers do the computer programming as well.

12. How expert systems perform inference?

The brain of an expert system is the inference engine that provides a methodology for reasoning about information in the knowledge base. Inference can be performed using semantics networks, production rules, and logic statements.

13. Genetic categories of ES applications are:

Rule-based ES. Knowledge is represented by a series of rules. Frame-based systems. Knowledge is represented as a series of frames (an object-oriented approach). Hybrid systems. Involve several approaches such as fuzzy logic and neural networks. Model-based systems. Structured around a model that simulates the structure and function of the system under study.

Ready-made systems. Utilize prepackaged software. Real-time systems. Systems designed to produce a just-in-time response.

14. Limitations of ES
Knowledge is not always readily available, knowledge acquisition is a problem. It can be difficult to extract expertise from humans. There are frequently multiple correct assessments. Time pressures. Users have cognitive limits (limited knowledge on usage). ES works well only within a narrow domain of knowledge. Most experts do not have an independent means to validate results. Vocabulary is often limited and difficult to understand. Help from knowledge engineers is difficult to obtain and costly. Potential for lack of trust on the part of the end-users. Knowledge transfer is subject to biases.

15. Requirements of ES:

Level of knowledge must be sufficiently high. Expertise must be available from at least one expert. The problem to be solved must by fuzzy.

The problem must be narrow in scope. The shell must be of high quality and naturally store and manipulate the knowledge. The user interface must be friendly to novice users. The problem to be solved must be difficult and important enough to justify the development of a system. Knowledgeable developers with good people skills are needed. The impact of the ES must be considered. The impact should be favorable. Management support is needed.

16. Major benefits of the ES compared to the manual systems

Cost Saving Accumulation of high quality knowledge into the shell, thus, improved quality of decision making It is faster and easier to set up and reschedule. It provides more information. Information is more accurate (previously, magnetic displays used to fall apart), the graphics are superb. Preservation of scarce expertise It includes a built-in reminder system, which increases safety. Explanations of decisions recommended by the system are available (so training of new employees is faster).

A wealth of historical data is available for planners.

17. General Problem Categories for ES/ Tasks done by ES

Interpretation Forming high level conclusions from collections of raw date Prediction Help to predict situations (e.g. Tsunami situation) Diagnosis Determining reasons for malfunctions (failures) based on observable symptoms Designing Finding a arrangement of system components that meets performance Planning Planning a sequence of actions that will achieve a set of goals to given certain starting and runtime constraints

Monitoring Comparing a systems behavior to its expected behavior Instruction Assisting by giving instructions in the education process in technical domains Control Governing the behavior of a complex environment

Those above areas can be categorized into six major areas. Thus, major application categories of ES are; 1. Decision Management 2. Diagnostic/ Troubleshooting 3. Maintenance/ Scheduling 4. Design/ Configuration 5. Selection/ Classification 6. Process Monitoring/ Controlling

18. Why go for ES

Helping in saving human lives (e.g. Tsunami warning system, Medical expert system, Air craft engine monitoring systems)

For saving cost and time Since, human experts are not always available where it is needed (e.g. remote mining and drilling sites) The problems may be solved using symbolic reasoning Does not need sophistication and flexibility of humans Does not need human dexterity (use of hands) and perceptual skills

19. Application and Examples for ES

Diagnosis and troubleshooting of devices and systems Medical diagnosis Planning scheduling- Airline scheduling of flights, personnel and gates, the manufacturing process planning and job scheduling

Configuration of manufactured objects from subassemblies Modular home building, manufacturing Financial decision making Insurance, Loans to business and individuals, foreign exchange trading Knowledge Publishing Relatively new. Primary function is to deliver knowledge relevant to the users problem. Two mostly known systems are; an advisor on grammatical usage in a text; a tax advisor on tax strategy, tactics and individual tax policy.

Process monitoring and control Do analysis of real-time data from physical devises. Predicting trends, failure corrections

Design and manufacturing Assist in designing physical devices and processes

20. Expert Systems vs. Conventional Programs

Characteristic Control by... Solution by... Representation Execution Development of the system Conventional Information & control integrated Algorithm Numeric Generally sequential Considering how a computer would perform a task Expert Knowledge separate from control Rules & inference Symbolic Opportunistic rules Considering how a human expert would perform a task

21. Expert Systems vs. Human Experts Human Experts Perishable Unpredictable Slow reproduction Expensive Slow processing Creative Adaptive Broad focus Common sense

Expert System Permanent Consistent Quick replication Affordable Fast processing Lacks inspiration Needs instruction Narrow focus Machine knowledge