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Protected areas of India

Protected areas of India


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Wildlife of India

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As of May 2004, the protected areas of India cover 156,700 square kilometres (60,500sqmi), roughly 4.95% of the total surface area.

Classification
India has the following kinds of protected areas, in the sense of the word designated by IUCN:

National parks
National parks (IUCN Category II): India's first national park was Hailey National Park, now Jim Corbett National Park, established in 1935. By 1970, India had 5 national parks; today it has over 90 species of animals residing in its world famous forests.

Animal sanctuaries
Animal sanctuary (IUCN Category IV): India has over 500 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife Sanctuaries. Among these, the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger.

Biosphere reserves
Biosphere reserve (UNESCO designation roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V): The Indian government has also established Biosphere reserves, which protect larger areas of natural habitat, and often include one or more national parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic .

Reserved and protected forests


Reserved forests and protected forest (IUCN Category IV or VI, depending on protection accorded): These are forested lands where logging, hunting, grazing and other activities may be permitted on a sustainable basis to members of certain communities. In reserved forests, explicit permission is required for such activities. In protected forests, such activities are allowed unless explicitly prohibited. Thus, in general reserved forests enjoy a higher degree of protection with respect to protected forests.

Protected areas of India

Conservation and community reserves


Conservation reserve and Community reserve (IUCN Category V and VI respectively): These are areas adjoining existing protected areas which are of ecological value and can act as migration corridors, or buffer zone. Conservation reserves are designated government owned land from where communities may earn a subsistence, while community reserves are on mixed government/private lands. Community reserves are the only privately held land accorded protection by the government of India.

Village and panchayat Forests


Village and panchayat forests (IUCN Category VI): These are forested lands administered by a village or a panchayat on a sustainable basis, with the habitat, flora and fauna being accorded some degree of protection by the managing community.

Private protected areas


Private protected areas: These are regions which are owned by an individual or an organization / corporation not affiliated to the government or a communal body. Even though Indian legislation does not provide for protection of such areas, some NGOs are using land trusts to help in the conservation effort, and providing limited means of protection.

Conservation areas
Conservation areas: Conservation areas are large, well-designated geographical entities where landscape conservation is undergoing, and usually contains different kinds of constituent protected areas, as well as privately owned land.

References
United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas: India (1993) [1] Ministry of Forests and Environment Protected Areas website [2] Ministry of Forests and Environment-Report Ch10 Biodiversity [3] SPECIES CHECKLIST: Species Diversity in India [4]; ENVIS Centre: Wildlife & Protected Areas (Secondary Database); Wildlife Institute of India (WII) ENVIS Centre: Wildlife & Protected Areas (Secondary Database) [5]; Wildlife Institute of India (WII)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. wcmc. org. uk/ igcmc/ parks/ un93. html http:/ / www. wii. gov. in/ envis/ envis_pa_network/ index. htm http:/ / envfor. nic. in/ divisions/ ic/ wssd/ doc2/ ch10. html http:/ / oldwww. wii. gov. in/ envis/ species_database. html http:/ / oldwww. wii. gov. in/ envis/ database. html

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Protected areas of India Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=552234710 Contributors: Adam.J.W.C., Alan Liefting, Amartyabag, Arjuncm3, Atulsnischal, Belasd, Clarkbhm, Colchicum, Donlammers, Ecomantra, Figma, Frietjes, GDibyendu, Gareth Griffith-Jones, Kku, MKar, Marcus334, Materialscientist, Neelix, Orlady, Planemad, Pradiptaray, Rajchoudhary00, Rich Farmbrough, Sardanaphalus, SkyWalker, Thiseye, World8115, 10 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Nagzira Tiger By Vijay Phulwadhawa.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nagzira_Tiger_By_Vijay_Phulwadhawa.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Vijaymp

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/