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IEC 61508

SIL
Safety Integrity Level

UNDERSTANDING SAFETY INTEGRITY LEVELS


PFDavg
Average probability of failure on demand per year (low demand) 10-5 and < 10-4 10-4 and < 10-3 10-3 and < 10-2 10-2 and < 10-1

IEC 61511
Risk cannot be justified except in extraordinary circumstances

SIL LEVELS ACCORDING IEC 61508 / IEC 61511


RRF
Risk Reduction Factor

PFDavg
Average probability of failure on demand per hour (high demand) 10-9 and < 10-8 10-8 and < 10-7 10-7 and < 10-6 10-6 and < 10-5

SAFETY:
FREEDOM FROM UNACCEPTABLE RISK

TOLERABLE RISKS AND ALARP (ANNEX B)


Intolerable Region

SIL 4 SIL 3 SIL 2 SIL 1

100000 to 10000 10000 to 1000 1000 to 100 100 to 10

The ALARP or tolerability Region Risk is undertaken only if a benefit is desired

AVERAGE PROBABILITY OF FAILURE ON DEMAND (PFDAVG)


Tolerable accident frequency 1 = Frequency of accidents w ithout protections RRF
Simplified equations Without common causes 1oo1 1oo2 1oo2D 1oo3 With common causes (Beta factor)
-

Tolerable only if further risk reduction is impracticable or if its cost are grossly disproportional to the gained improvement. As the risk is reduced, the less proportionately, it is necessary to spend to reduce it further, to satisfy ALARP. The concept of diminishing proportion is shown by the triangle. It is necessary to maintain assurance that risk remains at this level RISK IS NEGLIGIBLE

Broadly Acceptable Region No need for detailed working to demonstrate ALARP

PFDavg

DU

TI 2

RISK REDUCTION
Vapor cloud explosion (BLEVE)
2
Residual Risk Tolerable Risk EUC Risk

DU1 DU2

TI 3

(1- ) ( DU TI) + ( DU TI) 3 2


(1- ) ( DU TI) + ( DU TI) 4 2
3

INCREASING RISK
Necessary risk reduction Actual risk reduction Partial risk covered by other technology safety-related systems Partial risk covered by E/E/PE safety-related system Partial risk covered by external risk reduction facilities

DU1 DU2 DU3

TI3 4

2oo2

( DU
(

+ DU2

TI 2

(1- ) ( DU TI) +
2

( DU TI)
2

2oo3

DU DU + DU DU 1 2 1 3 + DU 2 DU3

) ( )

) TI

(1- ) ( DU TI) +

( DU TI)
2
Flash Fire

Risk reduction obtained by all safety-related systems and external risk reduction systems

AVAILABILITY AND RELIABILITY


Reliability

1oo1 (Et 100%)

TI SL DU Et + (1-Et ) 2 2

TI: Proof Test time interval Et: Test Effectiveness DU: dangerous undetected failures

Basic Concepts:
Failure Rate : = Failures per unit time Components exposed to functional failure

MEAN TIME TO FAILURE SPURIOUS

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES

Operating time

MTTFs
1oo1 1oo2 2oo2 2oo3
1 S 1 2S
1 2 S MTTR
2

1 FIT = 1 10-9 Failures per hour

Time

A B

MTBF = MTTF + MTTR MTTF = MTBF - MTTR =

Failure time

TTF

1
= =

MTTF MTBF

MTTR

1oo1

1oo2

Availability

= =

Operating Time Operating Time + Repair Time MTTF MTTF + MTTR MTBM MTBM + MSD = MTTF MTBF

A A B 2oo2 B C 2oo3

1 6 S MTTR
2

V o t i n g

Jet Fire

Success

Repair time (failure)

Unavailability = 1- Availability =


RELIABILITY AVAILABILITY UNRELIABILITY UNAVAILABILITY

SAFE FAILURE FRACTION (SFF) AND SIL LEVELS

SFF

DD

DD

DU

SD

SD

SU

SU

= 1

DU

Acronyms: MTBF: Mean Time Between Failures MTTF: Mean Time To Failure MTTR: Mean Time To Repair MTBM: Mean Time Between Maintenance MSD: Expected Mean System Downtime

Success MTTF

Failure MTTR

TOT

Hardware fault tolerance 0

Hardware fault tolerance 1

Hardware fault tolerance 2

SAFETY INTEGRITY LEVEL CALCULATION


Pool Fire
Process and process control system Safety integrity of non-SIS prevention/ mitigation protection layers, other protection layers, and SIS matched to the necessary risk reduction

< 60% 60% - < 90% 90% - < 99% > 99% < 60% 60% - < 90% 90% - < 99% > 99%

TYPE A Components SIL 1 SIL 2 SIL 2 SIL 3 SIL 3 SIL 4 SIL 3 SIL 4 TYPE B Components Not allowed SIL 1 SIL 1 SIL 2 SIL 2 SIL 3 SIL 3 SIL 4

SIL3 SIL 4 SIL 4 SIL 4 SIL2 SIL 3 SIL 4 SIL 4

Consequence of Hazardous Event Process Risk Frequency of Hazardous Event

Necessary Risk Reduction Non-SIS prevention / mitigation protection layers

SIS

Other protection layers

Failure rates categories: DD: dangerous detected; DU: dangerous undetected SD: safe detected; SU: safe undetected

Fireball

Quantitative Method for SIL level determination As found in IEC 61508 Annex C

Tolerable Risk Target

ITALY
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RUSSIA
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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


GM International Safety Inc. 17453 Village Green Drive Houston, TX 77040 Tel: +1 713 896 0777 Fax: +1 713 896 0782 info@gmisafety.com www.gmisafety.com

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