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The Sociolinguistic Paper Arranged by: Siti Nur Hidayah (D35209007) Niswatin Hasanah (D05208085) Laili Jannatul Firdaus

(D05208056) Lecturer: Rakhmawati, M. Pd TARBIYAH FACULTY ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT ISLAMIC STATE INSTITUTE OF SUNAN AMPEL SURABAY 2010 LANGUAGE AND DISADVANTAGE; BERSTEIN AND CODES INTRODUCTION Many people believe that some language or varieties are better than others. They climed that some languages are more beautiful, more expressive, more classed, and so on. But in fact, language is same, no variety of a language is herently better than another. As well as the standard language, its only better in social sense. Because of these many people believe, the term of advantaged and disadvantaged are known. It appears in socially, esthetically, cognotively, and intelectually. The disadvantaged of language just will exist if there are contact between certain social group and the surronding society. A. Language and disadvantage A disadvantge here means to be descriminate against and looked down on. In other word, disadvntage means that a particular social group differs from society at large because its characteristic that different from the norm. Actually, this term relates to the speaker of languages not the language them selves. Because in fact, no variety of a language is herently better than another. Although many people believe that some language or varieties better than others, for example some languages are climed more beautiful and others are primitive, some dialect is more expressive and so on. For a standard variety in a language that climed as better than others, it is only in a social sense; it has a preferred status. B. Basil Bernstein Basil bernstein, a british sociologist that conserned with educational matters interested in the process of socialization include how a child acquires a specific cultural identity and responds to that identity. According to Berstein that influenced by Whorf, the relationship between language and culture are heavely. He said that a particular kind of social structure leads a particular kind of linguistic behavior and this behavior in turn reproduce the original social culture. Consecuently, a cycle exists in which certain social patterns produce certain linguistic patterns, which in turn reproduce the social patterns, and so on. This process differs from social group to social group, therefore it is different in each social group. Berstein climes that there are two different varieties of language in use in society. He calls one variety elaborated code (originally formal code) and another restricted code ( originally public code).

1. Elaborated code This code usually used by the middle and upper classes. It access to education and career advancement. It bonds within this social group are not as well defined and people achieve their social identity on the basic of individual disposition and temperament. From the form, this code has accurate grammatical order and syntac. It uses complex sentence with many conjunctions and much subordinations. Usually, it frequent uses of the pronoun I and a wide range of adjective and adverb. For example:- ibu saya memberi uang kepada saya. - I would like to explain you about Titanic. 1. Restricted code This code usually used by the woking class. It strong bonds beween group members, used in a way which brings people together, and members often do not need to be explicit about meaningshared knowlade. From the form, this code usually short, grammatically simple, and often unfinished sentences of poor syntatic form. The conjunction simply and repetitily and use of adjectives and adverbs rigid and limited. Seldom, it uses idiom and implicit meaning. For example: gak ada air disana (Indonesian) - Just like this, you know? (English) Bersntein views that every speaker has access to the restricted code because all employ this code on certain occation (it is the language between familiars). However, not all social classes have equal access to the elaborated code. It is particulary for lower working classes. The differences of Elaborated Code and Restricted Code: Elaborated code Restricted Code - use of accurate - use idiom frequently - Sense of standard - Sense of nonstandard - Grammatical order and use syntax regulation - Short, grammatically simple - Use complex sentence - Often unfinished sentence - Device for conjunction, subordination, and employ preposition - Little subordination, few conjunction, simply and repetitively - Frequent use pronoun I - Infrequent use of impersonal pronoun subject - Care a wide range of adjective and adverb - Limited in the use of adjective and adverb - Allows for remarks to be qualified - Confounds reasons and conclusions, make frequent appeals to sympathetic circularity - Use which point to the possibilities inherent in a complex conceptual hierarchy for the organizing experience. - Tend toward a dislocated presentation of information. According to Berstein, the consequences of this unequal distribution are considerable. Children from the lower working class disadvantaged when they attend school, in which extensive use is made of the elaborated code; suffer serious consequences when they come to school because the elaborated code is medium of instruction. When school attempt to develop in children the ability to manipulate elaborated code, they are are also attempt to change cultural patterns. Bernsteins theory that social classes differ in their use of language and pass these differences from generation to generation is supported by Henderson that point in study of language used by a hundred mothers to their 7 years old children. they are devided into a middle classes (MC) and working class (WC). The MC use abstract and explisit definitions and nor the WC. The result,

there is a gap between the lower working class child brings to school and what happens in school that called hiatus. The other figures that influenced by Berstein idea (such as Cook, Hess and Shipman, etc.) found that lower working class mothers use more commands to their children and often use on their positional authority to get their way. The middle class mothers prefer to point out to their children the consequences of what theyre doing. e.g : MC mothers: Now you have broken the cup, and I am very angry WC mothers: Im your mother and Im telling you to do that. Beside that, WC mothers usually require their children to do things without any explanation and the MC mothers usually answer their childrens question with genuine explanations. Berstein, also shows his concern with what he called position oriented and person oriented families. In Position oriented families, language use is closely related such matters as close physical contact among members, and preferences for implisit rather than explicit meaning. And in the person oriented families, communication is more explicit and more context free. In his theory, Berstein aware that not all the language diffeences between WC chldren and MC children are advantagous to the letter. He has acknowledge that young middle class children do not tend to respond as uninhibitedely as their working class counterparts in certain activities like role-playing. C. African American Vernacular English African American Vernacular English that usually called by black english is one of varieties language used by many black residents of the Northen United States. AAVE has certain phonological, morhological, and syntatic characteristics. It is often be quite different homophones from the standard varieties language. The rules of the language are often different from the standard English about the pronounciation, Words like things and this may be pronounced as ting and dis. Bath may sound as baff, brother as bruvver, nothing as nuffin, thread as tred. Bold and bowl as bo and bow (because l after a vowel is often deleted). The final of t and d are also often unpronounced such as I walked sounds I walk, test as tes (tesses = plural). In the rules of phonology one result of such losses is that there are likely to be quite different homophones in AAVE and in standard varieties of the language. Vowels may nasalized and nasal consonant lost: run and end may just be in the first case an r followed by a nasalized vowel and in the second case a simple nasalized vowel with no pronuncaiton at all of the final nd. The diphthongs in words like find and found may be both monophthongized and nasalized, and the words may lack any pronunciation of the final nd. Consequently, find, found, and even fond may become homophonous, all pronounced with an f and a following nasalized vowel. In morphology, because final t and d are often unpronounced, there may be no overt signaling of the past tense, so that I walked sounds just like I walk. There may also be no signaling of the third-person singular in the present tense of the verb, resulting in a form like he go. Tesses as a pronunciation of tests would also indicate that there is no final t at all in the speakers basic form of the word, which has become for that speaker a word just like dress, with its plural dresses. Syntactically, AAVE has special use of be,or lack of be (zero capula). For example He nice means (He is nice right now) and He be nice means (He is nice sometimes). One of the interesting charachteristic of AAVE is the used of zero capula. The rules of it, that if you can contract be in SE, you can delete in AAVE. For example: in SE Hes nice, in AAVE He nice. Its except in present moment it-is- or about habitual condition, for example thats the way it is here (SE) cannot become thats the way it here, it can become that the way it is here or that the way it be here.

AAVE that indicated solidarity (the use of AAVE may be regarded as a strong solidarity maker for the enic group in US)is not a dialect of English but it is a creole origin of Zero Capula and some residual Africanism. From the style of speaking, its looked back into an African origin. There is such a variety of English as AAVE in the United States. It is almost identical in cities such as Boston, Newyork, Detroit, Chicago, San Fransisco, and Los Angles. CONCLUSION Disadvntage means that a particular social group differs from society at large because its characteristic that different from the norm. This term relates to the speaker of languages not the language them selves because in fact, no variety of a language is herently better than another. About language and disadvantage, Bernstein had three main theory. They are: the two different varieties of language in use in society that he calls one variety elaborated code (originally formal code) and another restricted code ( originally public code), the second the theory that social classes differ in their use of language and pass these differences from generation to generation, and the last position oriented and person oriented families. African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is one of varieties language used by many black residents of the Northen United States. AAVE has certain phonological, morhological, and syntatic characteristics. REFERENCES Wardhaugh, R. 2006. An Introduction to Sociolinguistic. USA: Blackwell Holmes, J. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistic. England: Pearson Education.