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AN ASSESSM ENT OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES IN OGBOMOSO REGION

By

AKINLABI PHILIPS ADEOLU

041155

BEING A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING FACULTY OF ENVIRONM ENTAL SCIENCES LADOKE AKINTOLA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OGBOMOSO

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (B.TECH) IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

DECEMBER, 2009

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that AKINLABI PHILIPS A, Matriculation number 041155 of the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso has satisfactorily carried out his project under the supervision of;

. DR. M.O JELILI (PhD, MNITP, RTP) The Department of Urban and Regional Planning Faculty of Environmental Sciences Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso

.. Date

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DEDICATION This work is dedicated to Almighty GOD for his provision and protection over my life.

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ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT

My utmost gratitude goes to the Almighty, Invisible and the only wise GOD, for His goodness, kindness and unmerited favour in the course of my study. Special appreciation goes to my indefatigable supervisor, Dr M.O Jelili for his constructive ideas and comments for the success of this project; indeed you are a great Man. I appreciate the support of my parents: Mr and Mrs P.A Akinlabi for their support, morally, financially and spiritually over my life. May GOD spare your lives to see this mustard seed grow and flourish. This script of gratitude will never be completed without mentioning my dynamic siblings, Rose, Christiana, Richard, George, Cecilia and Ayomide, thank you so much in various ways. Mr Debo Atanda, Hon. Wale Ayedun, Mr Gbola and Peter Akinlabi, thank you. Future House family and all my friends, Lolade, Justina, Wale, Brightest, Deji, Bishop, Kunle, Hakeem, Tunrayo, Soji and Adebola you are so wonderful. Lastly, to the people that contributed in various ways to the success of my programme, my fathers in the Lord, Evang. Doyin Olayiwola and Pastor Tunde Ayanlere, and Mrs. V. Folaranmi, thank you very much and GOD bless you all.

AKINLABI PHILIPS A 2009

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TABLE OF CONTENT CONTENTS Cover Page Title Page Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Table of Content List of Tables List of Figures List of Plates Abstract CHAPTER ONE INTRODUC TION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Statement of Problem 1.3 Aim and Objectives 1.4 Justification for the Research 1.5 Scope of the Study 1.6 Hypotheses 1.7 Research Methodology 1.8 Primary Source and Instruments of Data collection 1.9 Secondary Source of Data Collection 1.10 Sampling Method 1.11 Sample Size and Frame 1.12 Data Analysis PAGE i ii iii iv v vi viii ix x xi

1 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 11

CHAPTER TWO CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Conceptual Framework 12 2.1.1 Concept of Infrastructural Facilities 12 2.1.2 School Infrastructural Facilities 14 2.1.3 Public Participation in Facility Provision 15 2.1.4 Model of Participation 16 2.1.5 Sustainable Facilities Development Concept 19 2.1.6 Maintenance Theory 19 2.1.7 Planning Standard for the Provision of School Facilities 20 2.2 Literature Review 21 2.2.2 Importance of Facilities 21 v

2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7

Accessibility of Public Facilities Effect of absence of Facilities in the School environment Public Facilities Provision in Nigeria Impact of Infrastructure on Development Empirical Studies on Infrastructural Facilities CHAPTER THREE

23 24 25 26 27

THE STUDY AREA 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 The Study Area Historical Background of Ogbomoso Geographical Location Physical Setting Trend of Urbanization in Ogbomoso Educational Development CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The classroom buildings 4.3 Furnitures 4.4 Toilet 4.5 Waste Disposal Facilities 4.6 Health Facilities 4.7 Electricity 4.8 Sporting Facilities 4.9 Water 4.10 Indices of Infrastructural Pathology or Decay Level in the Schools (IIPLS) CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMM ENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary of Findings and Planning/Policy Implication 5.2 Recommendations 5.3 Conclusion REFERENCES 30 30 31 31 33 33

34 34 46 48 53 55 59 61 63 70

74 76 82

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APPENDIX LIST OF TABLES PAGE

Table 1.1 Table 2.1 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Table 4.16

sample size planning standard for nursery, primary and junior secondary Wall type Roof type Floors finishing Materials used for windows and doors. Availability of ceiling Building condition Classrooms built by non-governmental bodies The private donors Furniture adequacy in the schools Availability of toilet in the schools Conditions of toilets in the schools. Waste management methods Availability of health facility Functionality of the Health Facility Actors in provision of health facilities for the schools Availability of electricity in the schools vii

10 20 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 46 49 50 54 56 57 58 60

Table 4.17 Table 4.18 Table 4.19 Table 4.20 Table 4.21 Table 4.22

Availability of computer offering in the schools Availability of water and water facility for the schools Types of water available to the schools Functionality of the water facilities

60 64 65 66

Inter Local Government Variation in Infrastructural Pathology/Decay 70 Variations in level of Infrastructural Decay or Pathology

72

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Model of Participation

PAGE 16

Figure 3.1

The Map of Nigeria showing Oyo State

33a

Figure 3.2

The Map of Oyo State showing Ogbomoso

33b

Figure 3.3

The Map of Ogbomoso showing all the LGAs

33c

Figure 4.1

The adequacy of the Classrooms in the Schools

35

Figure 4.2

Furniture providers for the schools

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Figure 4.3

Stakeholders involved in the provision of toilet for the Schools

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Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5

Availability of Any Waste Disposal Facility in the Schools Availability of sporting facilities in the schools Schools

53

62 67 68

Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7

Actors involved in the provision of water for the Needs for improvement on the condition of the schools.

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LIST OF PLATES Plate 4.1 A Classroom with poor condition

PAGE 45

Plate 4.2

A dilapidated Classroom Building

45

Plate 4.3

A Toilet with poor condition

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Plate 4.4

Example of Waste disposed in available ground in some Schools

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Plate 4.5

An example of deteriorated Sporting Facility in some Schools

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Plate 4.6

An example of type Water available in some Schools

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ABSTRACT This study assessed the Public Primary School Infrastructures in Ogbomoso. This is with a view to identifying sustainable strategies for developing and maintaining the Infrastructural facilities in the Schools. Data on the availability, condition, functionality and providers of the facilities, as well as certain attributes of Primary School environment were obtained on the Schools and a total of 186 questionnaires were administered to the randomly selected Schools in all the Local Government Areas in Ogbomoso zone. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data obtained. In addition to descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to explain the differences in the level of Infrastructural pathology or decay in the Schools and Chisquare test was also conducted on some variables. The study showed the various types of Facilities available in the Schools, condition of the facilities and their level of functionality and decay and the actors involved in the provision of the facilities amongst other attributes of the School Infrastructures. It also revealed the differences in the level of provision and maintenance of the facilities between the schools located in Urban Areas and those in Rural Areas of Ogbomoso, and identified strategies for planning, improving and maintaining the facilities.

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CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION The provision of Infrastructural Facilities is one of the basic necessities of life for

Man in any environment (its sufficiency both in quantity and quality allow maximum comfort, convenience, safety and healthy living). It promotes productivity in terms of developing social, economic, and physical structure of any area and also involves enhancing the welfare of such area. According to Keeble (1969), Infrastructural facilities are very vital to the development of any area or settlement because these facilities enhance meaningful development and these should have a proper management to ensure continuity and functionality of such facilities. Infrastructural facilities provision is not limited to city, town and political boundary only, but facilities are required in all aspects or institutions where human beings can be found. Example of places where infrastructural facilities can be found are; educational institutions (primary, secondary and tertiary institutions), places of work, recreational centers and places of worship amongst others. From the aforementioned areas or institutions where infrastructural facilities can be found, educational institution is a vital area that should be equipped or facilitated with very good infrastructural facilities in order to make it conductive for learning and to achieve the aim of its establishment. This study is focused on the educational facilities, in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso zone. xii

In relation to the Oxford dictionary of current English, education is the process of teaching or learning. It can also be defined as the activities of instructing; activities that impart knowledge and skill to human. Education is divided into formal and informal. The formal education is a type of education received by a child or person from the organized, recognized and recommended sector (School), whilst informal education is a type of education received by a child through his or her immediate and remote environment. In terms of the formal education, a place has been setup for learner to receive education and it is called school. School is characterized with different or various infrastructural facilities, services and equipments in order to have convenience for learning. Prior to building of schools, it was learnt that education was being given to the people under the trees in Africa, particularly in Nigeria. But at certain time things began to change, through the development or building of schools in order to develop the modern education with reference to the development of conducive environments for learning. The Environment is characterized by the following; building of classroom in order to occupy the students and to prevent them from environmental hazards; provision of the classroom furnitures (chair and desk); provision of toilets and so on. The above mentioned infrastructural facilities as supported by Okedara (1980); help in creating and maintaining good learning environments through effective classroom organization and school environment organization in terms of the provision of effective and adequate infrastructural facilities for the school and ensure that they are appropriate, accessible, identifiable and relevant to pupils learning needs. xiii

Moreover, Taiwo (1980) stated that, the development of modern and progressive educational system is universally accepted today as a major way of accelerating economic, social and physical growth of a community through the development of human resources. He then shed more light to it that educational development is seen as a strong weapon to eradicate illiteracy and ignorance, diseases and poverty as well as producing enlightened and industrious citizens for national development. Thus, for these to be achieved, the environment where people (student), will receive education must be conducive for learning in terms of provision of infrastructural facilities needed for such environment. In the course of development of the modern education, Nigeria is one of the countries embarked on it, with the provision of infrastructural facilities to the primary schools (public primary school) by the Nigerian governments (three tiers of Government). But in the recent survey by the World Bank (2004) on primary schools in Nigeria, it was revealed that the school environment was found to be far from conducive for learning, in terms of the pupil safety, security and health. Classrooms spaces were inadequate, meaning that many children are either instructed in the open air or share classrooms with up to four other classes. As well as being insufficient in numbers, classrooms are generally in a poor state of repair; schools lack offices, desks and other furniture and recreational facilities and have few or no toilet facilities. In addition there are extremely low remuneration, poor working conditions and satisfaction and many more in the side of the teachers. xiv

Therefore in Nigeria, the functioning of educational system is fraught with multidimensional problems, ranging from lack or shortage of such facilities like classroom blocks to the inadequate treatments and dearth of human resources. With all these aforementioned anomalies in the Area of infrastructural facilities in the public primary schools in Nigeria, this research embark on an assessment of infrastructural facilities with particular reference to classrooms, water, electricity, library, sickbay, recreational equipments, toilet, dining and sitting equipments in public primary schools in Ogbomoso region of Oyo state.

1.2

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The near absence of infrastructural facilities in some public primary schools has

presented grave incidence of failure, graduation of half baked students and undeveloped education in the Nation. However, the functioning of Educational system is faced with various problems, ranging from lack or shortage of facilities like Classroom blocks to inadequate treatments and dearth of Human resources. Problems of Educational facilities in Nigeria include: (a) Inadequate funding, compounded by mismanagement of resources (b) Inadequate facilities, equipments and materials i.e. Shortage of Classrooms, Furniture e.t.c (c) Skewed distribution of facilities such as between Urban and Rural Areas. xv

(d) Under - utilization of available facilities in some places and over -utilization in other instances. These have been part of the great hindrances to Education Development in Nigeria and the same may be true of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso. The extent to which this is true, and dimension it takes is the pre-occupation of this study. The Questions now are: Is there adequate provision of Infrastructural Facilities in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region?, is there any skewed distribution of facilities such as between Urban and Rural Areas?, Are the facilities up to the standard? Are the Facilities functioning effectively?, and are they overused or underused. This Study shall attempt to provide answers to such questions above, amongst others.

1.3

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.3.1 AIM This study is aimed at assessing Public Primary School Facilities in Ogbomoso region. 1.3.2 OBJECTIVES The Objectives to achieve the above aim are to; (a) Examine the Existing Facilities and Physical condition of the Schools (b) Assess the adequacy and standard of the Facilities provided for the Schools. (c) To identify various actors involved in provision of the Facilities for the Schools. xvi

(d) Identify factors affecting the supply and maintenance of facilities in Public Primary Schools in the region.

1.4

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE RESEARCH The inadequate Infrastructural Facilities in most Public Primary Schools in

Ogbomoso region coupled with ineffective planning and maintenance or management policies and low level of Public or lack of Private participation in their provision have caused a lot of hardship and not conducive Academic Environment in the Schools. Therefore, these have led to the poor performance in Public Primary Schools, and the Parents are not motivated to send their Children to the Public Primary Schools again in Ogbomoso region. Therefore, there is the need for a research to be carried out in order to ascertain the conditions of Facilities in Public Primary Schools and the circumstances surrounding same. 1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY The Study is concerned with an assessment of Public Primary Schools

infrastructural facilities with reference to classrooms provision and conditions, classroom furniture, water supply facilities, Electricity, Library, recreational facilities, Sick-bay, Dining Hall and Toilets in Ogbomoso region. The Study covers the five (5) Local Government Areas that Constitute Ogbomoso region namely; Ogbomoso North, Ogbomoso South, Oriire, Ogo-Oluwa and Surulere Local xvii

Government Areas, where the first two Local Government Areas aforementioned are located in Urban Area, while the rests (three others) are located in Rural Area. The study covers the selected public primary Schools in each of the Local Government Areas.

1.6 HYPOTHESES (A) Ho Access to Public Primary School Facilities does not vary with Ruralness and Urbanity in Ogbomoso region. (B) Ho There is no significant difference in the level of Infrastructural pathology or decay amongst the schools located in Rural and Urban area of Ogbomoso.

1.7

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY These are the method of Investigation adopted in the study. The study relies on

published and unpublished material, direct observation and measurement as well as use of questionnaires. These constitute both the Primary and Secondary data that will be analyzed and interpreted to draw rational inference on the subject in discussion.

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1.8 PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION AND INSTRUMENTS OF DATA COLLECTION 1.8.1 Reconnaissance Survey
This is a form of primary data collection that was done in this study. It involves the preliminary visit to the study areas, which are some selected Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region and getting acquainted with the environments and also knowing the existing situation of the area, which includes Identifying the presence of the facilities in the areas and their effectiveness.

1.8.2

Questionnaire
Structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the selected public

Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region, the questionnaires were directed to the Teachers. 1.8.3 Oral Interview Oral interview was also conducted for the pupils in order to acquire correct and valid information. 1.8.4 Map Another Instrument of Data collection is the Route map of the Local Government Areas in Ogbomoso region in order to know the Actual Location of the selected Public Primary Schools, especially those located in the Rural Areas.

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1.8.5

Others One - on - one interview with the staff of the Local Ministry of Education.

1.9

SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA This Source of data collection include previous research works, textbooks, journals,

Internet, newspapers, maps and other relevant documents. The information is also not limited to the Ministry of Education, that is, Local inspector of Education Unit, Local Government Education Board and the Primary Schools document as well.

1.10

SAMPLING METHOD Stratified and Random methods of Sampling were adopted in this study. (a) The Stratified Method; the study Area (Ogbomoso) is divided into Five different

strata (Five Local Government Areas), based on political boundary, that is, Local Government Areas that Constitute Ogbomoso region. There are five Local Government Areas in Ogbomoso Region, namely; Ogbomoso North, South, Surulere, Ogo Oluwa, and Oriire Local Government Areas. (b) The Random method; Schools were chosen randomly out of the total population

of the Schools in each Local Government Area.

1.11

SAMPLE SIZE AND FRAME

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The total number of Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region is three hundred and eleven (311). The total number of the public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region serves as the Sample frame for the study, sixty percent (60%) of the total numbers of the Public Primary Schools from each of the Local Government Area was chosen in order not to be biased about each Local Government Area and this is illustrated in the table below.

Table 1.1 SAMPLE SIZE S/N 1 2 3 4 5 Total Source: Oyo State Primary Education Board From Table 1.1 above, 186 Public Primary Schools were chosen as a sample and they represented 60% of the total population of the Schools in all the Local Government Areas. That is, Local Government Total Number of 60% of the Total Areas Schools Number of Schools Ogbomoso North 24 15 Ogbomoso South Oriire Ogo-Oluwa Surulere 17 112 56 102 311 11 66 34 60 186

Sample = Total numbers of the sample ________________________

X 100%

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The Population

= 186/ 311 x 100 = 60%. One questionnaire was administered in each School, thus the total numbers of 186 questionnaires were administered for the research.

1.12

DATA ANALYSIS
This study employs both the descriptive and inferential statistics to present and

explain the major findings in the study. While tables, and charts are used to present some of the major findings, chi square is used to test if the Schools in both Rural and Urban areas of Ogbomoso region have equal access to the facilities, an Index was computed and used to determine the level of Infrastructural pathology/decay in the Schools by computing the condition of the Facilities the in relation to year of construction and subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to test whether there is significant difference in the level of Infrastructural decay or pathology amongst the Schools from different areas.

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CHAPTER TWO CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2.1.1 CONCEPT OF FACILITIES The conception of infrastructural facilities varies in response to varying, ideological indications and level of civilization or state of growth in nations. Infrastructural facilities are used interchangeably with public at large in most cases. Public Facilities Are Educational Facilities, Health Facilities, Post Offices And Postal Agencies, Shopping Area, Recreational Facilities, Libraries, Museum e.t.c (Obateru, 1993) the provision, location and efficiency of which help to determine the quality of life and development within an area. Fox (1994) is of opinion that public facilities are services derived for the set of public to enhance private sector production and to allow for household consumption, while Sada (1996) defined facilities in terms of roads, airports, utility supply system, communication system and the services flowing from these facilities. Igbozurike (1983), in his definition, used social services synonymously with infrastructural facilities. He asserted that they are those facilities, which have life supporting, aesthetic, recreational or frictional values in the provision of which financial cost-benefit rationalization are not principal objectives. He further made a classification of infrastructural facilities into three categories Vis:

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(a) Physical and infrastructural facilities; these include electricity, having transportation facilities, telecommunication and recreational facilities or services. (b) Composite infrastructures; medical health facilities such as hospitals facilities,

primary, secondary and tertiary institutions include some vocational centers (c) Advisory and institutional infrastructure; financial institutions like banks,

insurance houses and so on, administration institutions, family planning center. Obateru (2003), in his own classification categorized infrastructural facilities into two namely; (1) Physical infrastructures, which comprise transportation facilities, public utilities of electricity, supply, water supply, gas supply, storm water drainage and telephone services. (2) Social infrastructures consisting community facilities and services. Examples of community facilities include schools, shopping areas, religious building, cultural facilities, and recreational areas amongst others. Examples of community services include police protection, fire protection, street cleaning and maintenance, street light and garbage and refuse collection and disposal. Conclusively, infrastructural facilities include government services such as schools, library and public safety and public works, building and utility services such as road construction and maintenance, traffic signalization, building permits and inspections, water, storm water, sanitary sewer and waste disposal. xxiv

2.1.2

SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES School is one of the areas where human beings exist and undergo various

activities in term of learning, training and working. These three aforementioned activities in school can be categorized into two places with respect to the personalities involved in them. Learning and training can be classified under student or pupils; students undergo learning and training in school, while working can be classified under the instructors or teachers because it is their duty to train the student. Christopher (2003) stated that, for learning, training and working to be effective and fruitful in the academic environment, the environment must be provided with relevant, functioning and adequate facilities needed. He then stressed, that the facilities needed in academic environment are building, classroom furnitures, water facilities, conveniences and library. Ken (2004), view the school facilities from the perspective of offices, furniture, recreational facilities, toilet facilities and materials such as textbooks, chalks, board, record books, writing materials and so on. According to Kuku (2003), the basic Infrastructural Facilities in Schools should consist of School buildings (offices and Classrooms), Library, with Books, Water, Electricity and Toilet Facilities, Laboratory, Workshop, Furnitures and Recreational Facilities. In summary, the Facilities needed in the School Environment are; Standard Classrooms building, Furnitures, Recreational Facilities, Electricity, Water Facilities,

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Toilets, Health Facilities, Library, Writing materials, Waste disposal, Laboratory and Workshop, while Primary School Facilities include; Standard and healthy Classroom, furnitures, Toilets, Water Facilities, Sick - bay, Waste disposal, Electricity and Recreational Facilities.

2.1.3

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN FACILITY PROVISION The Public participation in any decision making process as in the management,

provision and distribution of Community Facilities is regarded as the centerpiece of democracy. Its justification is based on democratic theory and utilitarianism. There is a distinction made between participation in the political process which involves decision making and participation in the Consumer process of Facilities which involves implementing or disseminating pre determined courses of action. Since People are affected by the outcome of planning, the idea of participation suggests that People need to be involved in decisions involving their lives. Participation planning involves an Institutional arrangement whereby members of the Public have power to take part in arriving at decisions and policies that affect them in implementing and assessing outcomes. Participation for the People should be treated more than as an opportunity; it is a right and a responsibility even as Community Facilities are regarded as basic Human right. Ike (1996) is of opinion that, the relevant body in Education Sector, that is Lecturers and Teachers, should be involved in planning for the basic Facilities needed in the School. xxvi

Through genuine participation, People learn to identify and interpret their own interests and needs and do not depend on the interpretation of others which is a power to control decisions that affect them. Participation of the Public in the process of planning is assumed to create better plans and increase the likelihood of implementing a plan while at the same time generating support for the agency carrying out the planning activity. 2.1.4 MODELS OF PARTICIPATION A typology of eight levels of participation arranged in a ladder pattern was developed by Sherry Arnstain (1969). Figure 2.1 CITIZEN CONTROL DELEGATED POWER PARTNERSHIP PLACATION CONSULTAT ION INFORMATION THERAPHY MANIPULATION Source: Arnstain (1969). Typology of levels of participation According to this model, these are eight levels in the ladder, level 1 and 2 are nonparticipation level (manipulation and therapy), levels 2, 4 and 5 are the degrees of tokenism (information, consultation and placation). Levels 1 to 5 are non effective in public participation because they either manipulate the idea of the public or get their xxvii

ideas and not bring it into fruition which makes provision of public facilities nonadequate and non effective since what the people need are not provided. Levels 6 to 9 (partnership, delegated power and citizen control) are what are really needed in public participation in the provision and maintenance of the facilities.

PATNERSHIP This allows for power distribution between the citizens that the public facilities are been provided for and the power holders that are to provide it. Here, people can negotiate with power holder in terms of school facilities; the teachers, lecturers and students can negotiate with the people in charge of the facilities provision. This stage in the ladder is usually effective when there is an organized power base in the community. The community can negotiate about the public facility to be provided for them with the power holders that are to provide them and tell them what they want, where they want it and how they want it which will bring about its adequacy and effectiveness. This is also applicable to the educational sector.

DELEGATED POWER This is a form of transfer of power, whereby power is delegated to participants or agencies. This suggests that negotiation between citizens and public officials can result in delegation of certain functions to another group or the community so as to ensure viability of development strategy of any kind. The new authority or power holder retains xxviii

the responsibilities of achieving dominant decision- making over a particular plan or programme. Thus, in terms of educational sector, power can be delegated to a private organization or body to take the responsibility (ies) of achieving dominant decision making in the area of provision of the schools facilities.

CITIZEN CONTROL In this level of participation, citizens are allowed to initiate and control decisions about the provision of public facilities and they are in charge of policy making and implementation. When the publics participate in decisions that have to do with provision of public facilities there is a partial solution to problem of large, complex and unresponsive bureaucracies. It checks governmental autocratic intervention and control over public or community services, thereby making the community to be fixed with whatever public facility provided for them, since they are instrumental to the initiative and implementation.

2.1.5 SUSTAINABLE FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT This concept was formulated by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 (WCED); it was coined from the merger of ecological concept with social sustainability theory. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) defined sustainable development as a development that meets the need of the present without encroaching on the ability of future generation to meet their own need. It xxix

is pertinent to note that infrastructural facilities can be sustained without government backing after been provided. The sustainable concept encourages sustenance in any area, viable projects which will be sustained for a long time, also maintenance culture will be enhanced, it will make project to be viable and functional, it helps to solve the problem of premature death of projects life span in any environment.

2.1.6 MAINTENANCE THEORY The provision of Social and Infrastructural Facilities by Government and even Private sectors is not a problem in Housing Estates, Commercial centers and Schools, but the big constraint is how it can be maintained and sustained. According to the former Ondo State Administrator, Commander Onyearagbulem (1998), when commissioning the rehabilitated borehole at Ilu Abo in Kure North Local Government Area of Ondo State; the need for the People of the State to imbibe the Spirit of maintenance culture rather saddling the Government with such responsibilities is paramount (Punch, Tuesday April 28, 1998). That rather than expecting the Government to embark on new project, the People should learn how to maintain the one that have already been provided. Maintenance involves the task and process carried out to preserve or improve on Facilities so as to sustain its utility and value. This can includes servicing, repair, clearing, painting, renovation and rehabilitation of Projects. xxx

2.1.7

PLANNING STANDARD FOR THE PROVISION OF SCHOOL FACILITIES

Planning Standard for Nursery, Primary and Junior Secondary The planning Standard provided for, in the Development Control Manual of the Abuja Metropolitan Management Council for the Nursery, Primary and Junior Secondary School is in the Table below, with all the Facilities required for the School. Table 2.0: Planning Standard for Nursery, Primary and Junior Secondary Serial Number Basic Area (m2) Space 1 Play Area 2 Kitchenette 3 Laundry 4 Toilet 5 Office 6 Classroom 7 Laboratory 8 Sick bay 9 Multi Purpose Hall 10 Dining Area 11 Library Source: Abuja Metropolitan Management Council 25 6 6 0.9 x 1.8 12 36 36 3.1 150 26 1.2 / Person

The Facilities in the Table above includes water Facilities, Electricity and Furnitures for the Schools.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.1 IMPORTANCE OF FACILITIES xxxi

Facilities, utilities and Services are the great issues, which have made a clear distinction between developed and third World Countries (developing Countries). This is a reflection of the role played by the Government both in developed and developing Countries. The neglect of the expected focus of attention of many Scholars on the issues of provision and management of Facilities, utilities and service, necessitates a review for further attention. There are some notable and comprehensive views on the phenomenon, which are worthy of review. The importance of Public Infrastructure is etched in economical, social and political consideration (Ugwu, 1993). Economically, Public Facilities are amongst basic Industries on which National Productivity depends and which absorb very large Capital expenditures. Socially, Public Facilities are of great importance to Transport, Communication, Health, Safety and Others, in shaping the Life of People. Politically, they are of collective challenge to privatizing enterprises that replaces Public services motive for profit making. What makes the difference in a modern Society from the past is the higher standard of living enjoyed by all and Sundry. Availability of Infrastructure makes the Society comfortable and habitable. The degree of comfortability of People in any Society could be measured by the incidence of basic Facilities, Utilities and Service in a Society (Ugwu, 1993). An area becomes more competitive and attractive with the provision of basic

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Facilities, Utilities and Services, otherwise, the area may turn into a Slum and a place of Urban decay, making it unattractive and generally of low quality for a provision to be termed Infrastructure, it must satisfy the following conditions; i. The services provided must facilitate or be in some sense basis to the carrying-on of the great variety of economic activities. ii. The services must be provided by public agencies or by private agencies subjected to some public control iii. The services must not be imported.

The list of facilities under the term infrastructure is inexhaustible so far they satisfy the aforementioned conditions. In most countries, the state government either regulates or monitors the operation of such utility agencies. In respect of this reason, public utility agencies are; (a) Required to charge reasonable rates. (b) Allowed to earn, but are not guaranteed a reasonable profit. (c) Obliged to provide adequate services to the entire public on demand (Hirschman, 1985). With these, we can say facilities, utilities and services such as classroom, furniture, sickbay, water, toilet, library, dining, waste disposal, recreation and electricity are essential components in the effective functioning of schools. Whether a given school functions well or not depends to a large extent on a satisfactory provision of such

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facilities depends not only on the numerical value but also on their degree of functionality and accessibility to the population that are to use it.

2.2.2 ACCESSIBILITY OF PUBLIC FACILITY Many authors have defined accessibility. It is the proximity of two or more locations, the activity opportunities available in geographical region or the freedom of individuals to decide whether or not to participate in different activities (Burn, 1977). It could also be seen as peoples ability to reach those things, which are important to them (Owen, Shaw, 1977). The issue of access is complex even with these simple definitions; there is need for a clearer definition. Accessibility could be conceived as possessing two interrelated components, which are legal and physical (Schaffer and Huang 1975). Legal, social or institutional accessibility involves the fulfillment of certain requirements in terms of training, age, ability to pay, support from others and the like, in order to be permitted to pass the barriers around the supply points of goods and services. Legal accessibility determines the eligibility rules, which in turn determines who succeeds in obtaining services, the order in which eligible applicants are served and the meeting places for the provision of public facilities (Schaffer and Huang 1975)

2.2.3 EFFECTS OF ABSENCE OF FACILITIES IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONM ENT The absence of the facilities in the school environment has great effects on the students and teachers. Overall school climate has been found to have a significant impact xxxiv

on the adjustment, academic competence and achievement of children in kindergarten through primary school (Esposito, 1999). Furthermore, the school climate contributes almost as much as the childs own history of adjustment to how well parents perceive their children to be currently doing in school. Kuku (2003) states that the absence of basic infrastructure facilities in most schools today have encouraged the negative aspect of fagging; she further challenge government to provide adequate facilities in schools in order to reduce the incidence of confisticating other student property. Sometimes, the cause of brain drain is the absence of suitable climate in which to pursue intellectual activities in term of the school physical environment (Sekarau, 1990). He stated further that unavailability of facilities in academic environment make it to be not conducive for learning and encourage frequent transfers of students from less facilitated schools to those with better facilities. Pedro (1990), also stated during the national conference on discipline and motivation in schools, held in Lagos that the absence of essential items or services like Classroom, Classroom Furniture, Laboratory, Library, Water, Toilets, Electricity and Sporting equipments e.t.c leads to frustration and in effective learning.

2.2.4 PUBLIC FACILITIES PROVISION IN NIGERIA Satisfactory provision of basic structures and facilities that support positive economic performances requires massive financial commitments, ability to work around xxxv

the difficulty in benefits-split as well as handle the attendant high externalities. Public infrastructure touches on a wide spectrum of basic amenities, which enhance capacity of economic agents to conveniently engage in productive activities with less stress. The absence of these amenities of their un-optional provision can equally result in complete seizure of production at economic unit levels. Provision of infrastructure can be through a variety of ways which encompasses government ownership with government management, government ownership with private management, public private ownership and management; community provision e.t.c in most developing countries such as ours (Nigeria), owing to the established pattern on provision, government is to provide these infrastructures. The most touted reason is the size of funds required. The result is that infrastructure provision has been largely characterized by government ownership and management (Oluba, 2008). The levels of government in Nigeria (federal, state and local) have always taken to lead in the provision of infrastructure. The 1979 constitution gave powers to the federal and state governments in the direct provision of facilities such as housing, industrial, estates, construction and maintenance of certain category of roads and provision of certain amenities and infrastructures like electricity, health, education and public transport. Government has numerous agencies through which their responsibilities are discharged through with the statutory responsibility of providing infrastructure. It is more important to find out the quality and quantity of infrastructure provided has been able to alleviate the living standards in the country. xxxvi

2.2.5 IMPACT OF INFRASTRUCTURE ON DEVELOPMENT There is a direct linkage between infrastructure and development. In other words development is directly proportional to the availability of infrastructures. Then impact of infrastructures on overall development a community or a nation cannot be over emphasized. However the precise linkage between infrastructure and development are still open to debate (World Bank, 1994). Provision of infrastructure has a direct effect on economic growth adequate infrastructure reduces the cost of production which affect profitability, levels of output and employment, particularly in small scale business and that when infrastructure works productivity and labour increases and when it does not work, economic renewal can be postponed or even halted. (Mcneil, 1993). Similarly, good infrastructures raise productivity and lower production cost but it has to expand fast enough to accommodate growth. (World Bank 1994). Apart from economic considerations, inadequate infrastructure affects the health and wellbeing of citizens (McNeill, 1993). Adequate provision of infrastructure will promote health status of the citizens. The most obvious example is the provision of improved water supply. Several diseases are caused by the scarcity of drinking and bathing water especially water borne disease like typhoid fever, choleras, dysentery, water washed disease like scabies and water related disease such as schistomiasis, guinea worm and so on. (Fawehinmi, 2003). xxxvii

Ravallion (1991) noted that infrastructure could provide forms of social protection that more people beyond safety net through the opportunities they create for economic growth.

2.2.6

EMPIRICAL STUDIES ON INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES The importance of infrastructures to a nation cannot be overemphasized as

efficient Infrastructural facilities act as catalysts for development, there is therefore cause for concern while considering the Infrastructure base in Nigeria. According to NEEDS (2004), the Governments policy thrust is to develop and maintain adequate/appropriate infrastructure in all sectors conducive to private sector-driven economic growth and development ensuing in the process. Some elements of this thrust include: Rapid privatization of key infrastructural services to ensure effectiveness in provision. Enhancing and enforcing relevant laws to improve competition and protect consumer welfare in the industries providing infrastructural services. Providing targeted intervention in the provision of infrastructure especially to rural areas and vulnerable groups. Encouraging private sector initiation and participation in the provision of infrastructure using such methods as build-operate-and-transfer (BOT), build-own-operate-and-transfer (BOOT), rehabilitate operate-and-transfer (ROT) etc in the provision of infrastructural services. xxxviii

Providing counterpart funding for major infrastructural projects for which either the resource involvement is too high or the incentive too low for private sector participation. Despise this policy, according to Oni (2004); he find out that Infrastructures in Nigeria today is comparatively unfavourably with several African nations both in terms of quality, maintenance and service coverage. In particular, the rural areas where the bulk of our population resides are largely deprived of the basic Infrastructures On the other hand, Daramola (2003), noted that the construction of infrastructure in many countries has traditionally had a large public sector component. But the last decade has seen a fundamental shift in the paradigm of infrastructure and service provision around the world with governments retreating from being owners and operators of infrastructure and focusing more on their roles as regulators and facilitators of infrastructure services provided by private firms Adeboye (2007) in his work (An assessment of Infrastructural Facilities of Secondary Schools in Ilorin) found that the level of participation even at Government level; is very low. People also do not want to pay for the services they desire; the services do not work because of lack of resources to provide, maintain and sustain them; People do not feel obliged to pay taxes since they feel that they have little or no say in how resources are expended. The inevitable results of the approach lead to unsustainable academic environment where people do not feel committed to protect and maintain these Infrastructures. This is because they are rarely a part of the decision to design, locate and finance these services. Hence Infrastructures go into ruins shortly after they are provided. xxxix

This is because; there is no sense of Ownership and no feeling of belonging and commitment on the part of the People. George (2004) also finds out that in the aspect of School infrastructures; there are inadequacy, poor condition and poor maintenance of the facilities. Schools located in urban areas are well facilitated than the Schools in rural areas in Africa compare to the Western World. This study, thus examines the issue of Infrastructures in educational sector in primary schools in order to bridge this gap.

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 THE STUDY AREA The study Area is the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region, which are located in all the five Local Government Areas that constitute Ogbomoso, namely; Ogbomoso North, Ogbomoso South, Ogo Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area. Ogbomoso is a typical Yoruba settlement and it is the second largest Town in Oyo State.

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3.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF OGBOMOSO


Ogbomoso the second largest city to Ibadan, which is the largest city in Oyo state was founded over 300 years ago. One of the pioneer settlers in the present Ogbomoso was Ale, A Nupe Hunter; He encamped to limit Elephants within a section of the town known as Oke Elerin, Okunsile, who ran away from Otta came to settle in another section of the town known as Oke Ijeru. The third settler was Orisatolu an Ibariba Man who encamped at palm about three kilometers east of the present town and later moved to where he grew vegetable known as Isapa. The area is today known as Isapa area. The name Ogbomoso was derived from one of the heroic act of Soun. It was recorded that he fought on the side of Alaafin of Oyo against the neighboring Ogbomoso people led by a warrior called Elemoso who defeated the Ogboro People and beheaded the Elemoso. The act carried the Soun an appellation Eyitiogbori Elemoso which in translation means, the Man who beheaded Elemoso. Many other warriors were attached to join the Alongo defense league for mutual protection. Ogbomoso later grew from the fusion of the separately developing hamlets into a large settlement with the same as the paramount head.

3.3

GEORGRAPHICAL LOCATION

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Ogbomoso is located on Latitude 8o 08 00 and Longitude of 4o 16 00 North of the Equator. Ogbomoso, the second largest City in Oyo State after Ibadan, which is the Capital of Oyo State, lies within the derived savannah region and it is a gateway to Northern part of Nigeria from the West. Ogbomoso is 57 Kilometers South West of Ilorin (the Capital of Kwara State) 53 Kilometers North East of Oyo, 58 Kilometers North West of Osogbo (Capital of Osun State) and 104 Kilometers North East of Ibadan (Capital of Oyo State).

3.4 3.4.1

PHYSICAL SETTING Climate Ogbomoso has the Tropical wet and dry climate as it falls in the transition zone

between the rain forest and the savannah. The region experiences a fairly high uniform temperature, moderate to heavy seasonal rainfall. The mean annual Temperature is about 26.20o C and the mean annual rainfall of 1200mm. The relative humidity is within the range 75 95% 3.4.2 Vegetation Ogbomoso lies in the transition zone forest of Ibadan Geographical region and the Northern savannah region. As a result of this, it is regarded to be of derived savannah vegetation. The Town is seen to be a low land forest Area with Agricultural activities being the major activities carried out on it. 3.4.3 Geology and Soil type

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Rocks of the basement complex, which forms part of the African crystalline shield, underlie Ogbomoso. The basement complex is composed major of folded Gneiss, Schist and Quartzite of the Precambrian age into which have been emplaced Charnokeotic rocks show a high level of variation as regards grain size and mineral composition. 3.4.4 Rainfall

The regions around and within Ogbomoso has four seasons like most of the other area in the southern Nigeria. The long wet season starts from March to July; it is the season of heavy rainfall and high humidity. The short dry season is normally in August. This is followed by short wet season and last September to October. The last season is that of harmattan experienced at the end of November to mid March. The man annual rainfall is 1-24mm. The variation in rainfall quantities between different between stations I rather in significant both on an annual and monthly basis.

3.5

TRENDS OF URBANIZATION IN OGBOMOSO In 1950, the built up area of Ogbomoso covers the traditional area which was about

576 hectares (Popoola, 1998). The traditional area during this time is mainly the core of the city. These Ilogbo, Isale Ora, Ayegun, Oke Isoko, Isale Afon, Ita Alasa, Oke-Elerin, Taraa, Oja Igbo, Arowomole Ijeru and Osupa.

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In 1970, it grows about 1024 hectares (Popoola 1998) covering new areas. The increase in the area developed between 1950 and 1970 due to some notable establishment in the town. It has since increase in its expansion up till date. 3.6 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The first Primary School in Ogbomoso is St. Davids Primary School, Agboin Ogbomoso and it was founded in 1854. Today there is about three hundred and eleven (311) Public primary Schools established by Government, Religious Organization and various Communities in Ogbomoso, includes the Schools in both Rural and Urban area of Ogbomosoland. There are also lots of Private Primary Schools in Ogbomoso. The other Educational Institutions in Ogbomoso includes Public and Private Secondary Schools, a private College of Education (Best Legacy college of Education), various continuous Education Centres, Baptist Nursing School, Baptist Theological Seminary and a University (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology).

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CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTRATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.1 INTRODUCTION The various Data obtained from the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso through the methodology described in chapter one were analyzed and interpreted. The analysis and interpretation follow the order similar to the objectives set. The survey carried out revealed that there are 311 Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso. However, 186 out of the 311 Schools were critically examined, which amount to 60% of all the School (population). The Infrastructures examined include, Classroom buildings, Furniture, Toilets, Waste facilities, Health, Electricity, sporting and water facilities amongst others.

4.2

THE CLASSROOM BUILDINGS This section examines the each of the Classroom building in the Schools covered

in this study, such attributes taking into consideration includes; adequacy of the Classrooms, wall type, roof type, floor finishing, materials used for windows and doors, availability of ceiling, the building condition, availability of private donors in provision of the Classroom building and the private donors involved.

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Figure 4.1

ADEQUACY OF CLASSROOMS IN THE SCHOOLS

Source: Authors Field Survey, 2009.

Figure 4.1 above shows the adequacy of the Classroom in all the Public Primary Schools in the Five Local Government Areas, where 74.6% of the Schools have inadequate Classroom, while the remaining 25.4% of the Schools have adequate Classrooms. This implies that most of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso have Inadequate Classroom.

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Table 4.1

WALL TYPE

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Wall Mud only Count 1 0 0 2 11 14 type % within Local Govt area 7.7% .0% .0% 3.6% 17.7% 8.0% Mud and Plastered Count 0 0 9 24 22 55 % within Local Govt area .0% .0% 27.3% 42.9% 35.5% 31.6% Brick only Count 0 0 0 1 0 1 % within Local Govt area .0% .0% .0% 1.8% .0% .6% Brick nd plastered Count 12 10 24 29 29 104 % within Local Govt area 92.3% 100.0% 72.7% 51.8% 46.8% 59.8% Total Count 13 10 33 56 62 174 % within Local Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table (4.1) above shows the type of wall of the Classroom buildings in the Public Primary Schools involved in Ogbomoso region. In Ogbomoso North local Government Area 7.7%of the Classroom blocks are built with mud only, where 92.3% of the Classroom blocks are built with brick and plastered. In Ogbomoso South Local Government Area, All (100%) the Classrooms involved are brick and plastered. In Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Area, 27.3% of the Classroom blocks are built with mud and plastered, while the remaining 72.7% are brick and plastered. The case is different in Surulere Local Government Area, where 3.6% of the Classroom blocks in the area are built with mud only, 49.9% are built with mud and plastered, 1.8% of them is brick and plastered. Thus, in the public primary schools in all the Local Government Areas, 8.0% of the Classroom blocks are built with mud only, 31.6% are mud and plastered, 0.6% are brick only, while 59.8% are built with brick and l

plastered. This shows that there are more Classroom blocks built with mud and plastered in the School located in Rural Areas than Urban Areas in Ogbomoso region.

Table 4.2

ROOF TYPE
Local Govt area Ogbom oso Ogbom oso North South Ogo-OluwaSurulere Orire Total 12 6 26 49 47 140 Govt area 92.3% 60.0% 78.8% 87.5% 75.8% 80.5% 0 2 7 7 10 26 Govt area.0% 20.0% 21.2% 12.5% 16.1% 14.9% 0 2 0 0 4 6 Govt area.0% 20.0% .0% .0% 6.5% 3.4% 1 0 0 0 1 2 Govt area 7.7% .0% .0% .0% 1.6% 1.1% 13 10 33 56 62 174 Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Roof Corrugated iron sheet Count type % within Local Steep step aluminium Count % within Local Asbestos Count % within Local Leaves Count % within Local Total Count % within Local

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.2 shows the various types of Roof available in the Schools covered in the Study Area, while 80.5% of the Roof is Corrugated Iron Sheet, 14.9% are Steep Step Aluminum, 3.4% are Asbestos and the remaining 1.1% is Leaves. This implies that, most of the roofs are corrugated iron sheet.

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Table 4.3

FLOORS FINISHING
Local Govt area Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere 0 0 2 .0% .0% 3.7% 9 32 52 90.0% 97.0% 96.3% 0 0 0 .0% .0% .0% 1 1 0 10.0% 3.0% .0% 10 33 54 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Ogbomoso North Floor Sand Count 1 finishing % within Local Govt area 8.3% Concrete Count 11 % within Local Govt area 91.7% Tiles Count 0 % within Local Govt area .0% Terrazzo Count 0 % within Local Govt area .0% Total Count 12 % within Local Govt area 100.0%

Orire 4 6.9% 52 89.7% 1 1.7% 1 1.7% 58 100.0%

Total 7 4.2% 156 93.4% 1 .6% 3 1.8% 167 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

From Table 4.3 above, it is observed that the material used for floor or floor finishing of most of the Classrooms in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region are concrete, where they occupied 93.4%. 4.2% of the Classrooms floor is finished with Terrazzo and they are Classroom blocks built by Universal Basic Education.

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Table 4.4 MATERIALS USED FOR WINDOWS AND DOORS.


Local Govt area Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total 1 2 1 8 13 10.0% 6.5% 1.9% 13.3% 7.9% 7 26 40 45 127 70.0% 83.9% 75.5% 75.0% 77.0% 2 3 12 5 23 20.0% 9.7% 22.6% 8.3% 13.9% 0 0 0 2 2 .0% .0% .0% 3.3% 1.2% 10 31 53 60 165 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Ogbomoso North Materials used Mat Count 1 for % within Local Govt area 9.1% windows/doors Plank Count 9 % within Local Govt area 81.8% Metal Count 1 % within Local Govt area 9.1% No Window/Door Count 0 % within Local Govt area .0% Total Count 11 % within Local Govt area 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.4 shows the material used for Windows and Doors in the Public Primary Schools in the study area, while 81.8%, 70.0%, 83.9%, 75.5%, 75.0% of the Windows and Doors in the schools in Ogbomoso North, South, Ogo-Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire respectively are plank and it is 77.0% of the total population. In Ogbomoso North Local Government area 9.1% of the material used for windows and doors are mat and 9.1% also are metal. In Ogbomoso South Local Government Area 10.0% and 20.0% of the windows and doors of the Classrooms are mat and metal respectively. In Ogo-oluwa Local Government Area 6.5% and 9.7% of the Windows and Doors in the schools are mat and metal respectively, while in Surulere Local Government 1.9% of the material used for Windows and Doors are mat and 22.6% are metal. In Oriire Local Government Area 13.3% of the Classrooms Windows and Doors are mat, 8.3% are metal and 3.3% of the Classrooms have no Windows and Doors. liii

Table 4.5 AVAILABILITY OF CEILING


Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Availability Available Count 11 10 19 27 32 of ceiling % within Local Govt area 84.6% 100.0% 57.6% 48.2% 54.2% Not Available Count 2 0 14 29 27 % within Local Govt area 15.4% .0% 42.4% 51.8% 45.8% Total Count 13 10 33 56 59 % within Local Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Total 99 57.9% 72 42.1% 171 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

From Table 4.5 above, there is non-availability of Ceiling in the Classroom Buildings in Schools located in Ogo-oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area (Rural Areas) than Ogbomoso North and South Local Government Area (Urban Areas) and when subjected to Chi-square test, the Probability value (.009) is less than .05, the result shows that there is significant difference in the availability of ceiling in the Classrooms Building amongst the Local Government Areas. Table 4.5 also shows that 84.6%, 100%, 57.6%, 48.2% and 54.2% of the Classrooms Building in Ogbomoso North, South, Ogo-Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area have ceiling respectively. Where 15.4%, 0%, 42.4%, 51.8% and 45.8% of the Buildings in the Local Government Areas mentioned (in order) above have no Ceiling. Thus 57.9% of the Classroom Buildings in Public Primary School in Ogbomoso region have ceiling, while the remaining 42.1% have no ceiling.

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Table 4.6

BUILDING CONDITION

Crosstab

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Building Structurally Sound Count 5 3 6 18 Condition % within Local Govt area 38.5% 30.0% 18.2% 32.1% Structurally Poor Count 0 0 2 10 % within Local Govt area .0% .0% 6.1% 17.9% Fair Count 8 7 24 27 % within Local Govt area 61.5% 70.0% 72.7% 48.2% Dilapidated Count 0 0 1 1 % within Local Govt area .0% .0% 3.0% 1.8% Total Count 13 10 33 56 % within Local Govt area100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Orire 19 33.3% 9 15.8% 28 49.1% 1 1.8% 57 100.0%

Total 51 30.2% 21 12.4% 94 55.6% 3 1.8% 169 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.6 above shows the general condition of the Buildings in the Public Primary Schools in all the five Local Government Areas that constitute the Study Area. The Building Condition in terms of physical appearance and standard. In Ogbomoso North 38.5% Classroom Buildings are not structurally sound while 61.5% are fair. In Ogbomoso South Local Government Area; 30.0% and 70.0% of the Classroom Buildings are structurally sound and fair respectively, thus, most of the classroom block in the area are not structurally sound. In Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Area; 18.2%, 6.1%, 72.7%, and 3.0% of the classroom block are structurally sound, poor, fair and dilapidated respectively. In Surulere Local Government Area; 32.1%, 17.9%, 48.2% and 1.8% of the classroom buildings are structurally sound, poor, fair and dilapidated respectively, while there is a high percentage of structurally poor Building in the place compared to Ogbomoso North, South, Ogo-oluwa and Oriire local government area. There is 33.3%, lv

15.8%, 49.1% and 1.8% of structurally sound, poor, fair and dilapidated buildings respectively in Oriire local government area. When the data in Table 4.6 is subjected to Chi-square test it shows that there is no significant difference in the Building conditions amongst the Local Government Areas, because the probability value (0.463) is greater than 0.05. This Table also shows that most of the Buildings in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region are not structurally sound irrespective of Local Government Area, where 30.2% are structurally sound, 12.4% are structurally poor, 55.6% are structurally fair and the remaining 1.8% is dilapidated. Table 4.7 CLASSROOM S BUILT BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL BODIES Crosstab
Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-OluwaSurulere Orire Total Count 4 0 14 22 23 63 % within Local Govt area 28.6% .0% 41.2% 37.9% 38.3% 35.6% Count 10 11 20 36 37 114 % within Local Govt area 71.4% 100.0% 58.8% 62.1% 61.7% 64.4% Count 14 11 34 58 60 177 % within Local Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Is any block built Yes by private individual? No Total

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.7 above shows the availability of Buildings built by Non-governmental Bodies such as Parent Teachers Associations, Private Organization and Private Individuals, where Ogbomoso north, south, Ogo-oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area have 28.6%, 0%, 41%, 37.9% and 38.3% buildings built by Non lvi

governmental Bodies respectively, while 71.4%, 100%, 58.8%, 62.1% and 61.7% of the Classrooms blocks are built by Government in Ogbomoso North, South, Ogo-oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area accordingly. Thus Non-governmental Bodies built 35.6% of the Classrooms Buildings in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region and Government built 64.4% of the classrooms. The Missionaries and Parent Teachers Associations build most of the Buildings built by Non-governmental bodies. When Table 4.7 is subjected to Chi square test, it shows that the probability value (0.127) is greater than 0.05 and this implies that there is no significance difference in the level of Non Governmental Bodies participation in provision of Classroom

buildings for the Schools amongst the Local Government Areas. Table 4.8 THE PRIVATE DONORS .
Local Govt area Ogbomoso North Ogo-Oluwa Surulere 4 14 19 Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 79.2% 0 0 5 Govt area .0% .0% 20.8% 0 0 0 Govt area .0% .0% .0% 4 14 24 Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

The private PTA body donor

Total

Count % within Local Private OrganizationCount % within Local Private Individual Count % within Local Count % within Local

Orire 20 76.9% 5 19.2% 1 3.8% 26 100.0%

Total 57 83.8% 10 14.7% 1 1.5% 68 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.8 above shows the various private Donors or Non-governmental Bodies in the aspect of provision of Classrooms Block for the Public Primary Schools in

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Ogbomoso region, where there are Private donors such as Parent Teachers Association, which includes Missionaries, Private organization, that is, Non-governmental Organizations (NGO) and also, there is Private Individuals. In Ogbomoso North and Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Area, all of the donors are Parent Teachers Associations, which include Missionaries mostly, and they are 100% each for the two Local Governments Areas. In Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area 79.2% and 76.9% of the donors is Parent Teachers Association that includes Missionaries respectively, where the remaining 20.8% donors in Surulere Local Governments Area are Private Organization and the remaining 19.2% and 3.8% donors in Oriire Local Government are Private Organizations and Individual respectively. This implies that most of the donors of the Classrooms buildings in the Four Local Government Areas (Ogbomoso north, Ogooluwa, Surulere and Oriire) are Parent Teachers Association which includes the Missionaries mostly and they occupied 83.8%, while the remaining 14.7% and 1.5% are donated by Private Organization and Individual respectively.

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Plate 4.1

a Classroom in poor condition

Source: Authors Field Survey

Plate 4.2

Classroom Building in poor condition

Source: Authors Field Survey lix

4.3

FURNITURE In this section the attributes related to furniture provision in the School is examined in

terms of the adequacy of the furniture and the actors involved in the provision of the Furniture. Table 4.9 FURNITURE ADEQUACY IN THE SCHOOLS
Local Govt area Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere 5 8 4 55.6% 29.6% 9.3% 4 19 39 44.4% 70.4% 90.7% 9 27 43 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Is furniture Yes adequate No Total

Ogbomoso North Count 9 % within Local Govt area 64.3% Count 5 % within Local Govt area 35.7% Count 14 % within Local Govt area100.0%

Orire 5 18.5% 22 81.5% 27 100.0%

Total 31 25.8% 89 74.2% 120 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.9 above shows the adequacy of the Classroom Furnitures in the Public Primary Schools, in all the Local Government Area that constitute Ogbomoso and this includes the furnitures such as Chair, Desks and Shelves for keeping books. The table shows that 64.3%, 55.6%, 29.6%, 9.3% and 18.5% of the Schools in Ogbomoso North, South, Ogo-oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area have adequate Furnitures in school in terms of Chairs, Desks and Shelves respectively, where 35.7%, 44.4%, 70.4%, 90.7% and 81.5% have no adequate Furnitures accordingly. This shows that

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25.8% of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region have adequate Furnitures, while 74.2% have no adequate Furniture. When data on Table 4.9 is subjected to Chi-square tests, the result shows that there is significant difference in the level of provision of Classroom Furnitures for the Schools amongst the Local Government Areas, where the Schools located in Ogbomoso North and South enjoy provision of Furnitures than the Schools located in Ogo Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Areas.

Figure 4.2

FURNITURE PROVIDERS FOR THE SCHOOLS.

Sources: Authors Field Survey 2009

The Figure 4.2 depicts the actors involved in the provision of Furnitures for the Schools, which includes Government, Private Individual, and Parent Teachers Associations. Where the Government is the highest provider of the Furnitures for the

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Schools, while the Private Individual and Parent Teachers Associations have a very little participation in Furnitures Provision for the Schools 4.4 TOILET

According to George (2004); some 2.2 million people mostly children die from an affliction, that to most Westerners is the result of bad take-out food. Diarrhea is the result of faecal-contaminated water or food and it kills a child every 15 seconds. According to the UN childrens agency UNICEF, diarrhea is a bigger threat to children than AIDS, tuberculosis or malaria. Children without a toilet have to spend many days of the year being sick, and many eventually drop out of school.

This section thus assessed the availability of Toilet in the Schools covered in this study, condition of the Toilet and actors involved in the provision of Toilet for the Schools.

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Table 4.10

AVAILABILTY OF TOILET IN THE SCHOOLS

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-OluwaSurulere Orire Total Any toilet in Yes Count 13 6 6 20 18 63 the school % within Local Govt area 92.9% 54.5% 17.6% 35.1% 30.0% 35.8% No Count 1 5 28 37 42 113 % within Local Govt area 7.1% 45.5% 82.4% 64.9% 70.0% 64.2% Total Count 14 11 34 57 60 176 % within Local Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

From above Table (Table 4.10), it is shown that most of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region have no Toilet. 64.2% of the Schools have no Toilet while the remaining 35.8% have Toilet. The incidence of Non -availability of Toilet is common to all the Schools located in the Rural Areas of Ogbomoso region, while most of the Schools located in Urban Areas such as Ogbomoso North and South Local Government Area have Toilet. This is also observed when the data in Table 4.10 is subjected to Chisquare tests, where the probability value (0.000) is less than 0.05 and it implies that there is significant difference in the availability of Toilet amongst the Schools in the Local Government Areas.

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Table 4.11

CONDITIONS OF TOILETS IN THE SCHOOLS.

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-OluwaSurulere Orire Toilet Structurally sound Count 6 2 2 2 2 Condition and healthy % within Local Govt area 46.2% 33.3% 50.0% 14.3% 14.3% Structurally sound Count 1 3 2 2 7 but not healthy % within Local Govt area 7.7% 50.0% 50.0% 14.3% 50.0% Structurally fairCount 5 % within Local Govt area 38.5% Structurally poor Count 1 % within Local Govt area 7.7% Count 13 % within Local Govt 100.0% area 0 .0% 1 16.7% 6 100.0%

Total 14 27.5% 15 29.4%

Total

0 8 4 17 .0% 57.1% 28.6% 33.3% 0 2 1 5 .0% 14.3% 7.1% 9.8% 4 14 14 51 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.11 above shows the condition of the Toilets, where they are available in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso. In Ogbomoso North Local Government Area, 46.2% of the Toilets are structurally sound and healthy, 7.7% are structurally sound but not healthy, 38.5% are fair while the remaining 7.7% are poor, and this implies that most of the Toilets are not structurally sound. In Ogbomoso South, most of toilets are not healthy. Where 33.3% of the Toilets are structurally sound and healthy and 16.7% are structurally poor. In Ogo-oluwa Local Government 50% of the Toilet available are healthy and structurally sound, while the remaining 50% are structurally sound but not healthy. In Surulere Local Government 14.3%, 14.3%, 57.1% and 14.3% of the Toilets in the Public Primary Schools are structurally sound but not healthy, structurally fair and structurally poor respectively, while in Oriire Local Government 14.3% of the Toilets are lxiv

structurally sound and healthy, 50% are structurally sound but not healthy, 28.6% are structurally fair, while 7.1% of the Toilets are poor. This implies that 27.5%, 29.4%, 33.3% and 9.8% of the in the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region are structurally sound and healthy, not healthy, fair and poor respectively, that is, most of the Toilets are not structurally sound and healthy. Plate 4.3 a Toilet in poor condition

Source: Authors Field Survey

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Figure 4.3 SCHOOLS

ACTORS INCLUDED IN THE PROVISION OF TOILET FOR

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

The Figure above depicts the various Stakeholders involved in the provision of toilet for the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso, while Government is the only provider of Toilets in Public Primary Schools located in Ogbomoso North, South and Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Areas with 100% involvement in each of the Local Government Areas. In Surulere Local Government Area, there is participation of Private Individuals and Parent Teachers Associations in provision of Toilet for the Schools, while Private Organizations and Parent Teachers Associations also take part in the provision of the Toilet for the Schools in Oriire Local Government Area.

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4.5

WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES This section of the study examines the hygienic condition of the Schools covered in

the area of availability of waste disposal facility and waste management methods in the Schools. Figure 4.4 AVAILABILITY OF ANY WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY IN THE SCHOOLS

Source: Authors Field Survey From data shown in Figure 4.4 above, there is higher percentage of nonavailability of Waste disposal Facility in the Schools in Ogbomoso. This is shown in Ogbomoso South, Ogo-oluwa, Surulere, and Oriire Local Government Areas, where there are more Schools without Waste disposal Facility. With these, only 19.7% Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region have waste disposal facilities, while 80.3% of them have no Waste disposal Facilities. lxvii

Table 4.12

WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS


Crosstab Local Govt area Ogbomoso South Ogo-OluwaSurulere Orire Total 2 1 7 18 32 33.3% 50.0% 87.5% 81.8% 72.7% 1 1 1 3 8 16.7% 50.0% 12.5% 13.6% 18.2% 0 0 0 1 1 .0% .0% .0% 4.5% 2.3% 3 0 0 0 3 50.0% .0% .0% .0% 6.8% 6 2 8 22 44 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Waste Burning mgt Method Incineration

Total

Count % within Count % within Recycling Count % within Disposal into any Count available ground % within Count % within

Local Local Local Local Local

Ogbomoso North 4 Govt area 66.7% 2 Govt area 33.3% 0 Govt area .0% 0 Govt area .0% 6 Govt area 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.12 above shows the various methods of waste management in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso, where most of the wastes being generated by Schools are being burnt. In Ogbomoso North 66.7% and 33.3% of the Schools burnt and incinerated their Wastes respectively. In Ogbomoso South Local Government 33.3%, 16.7% and 50.0% of the Wastes are burnt, incinerated and disposed in available Ground respectively. In Ogo-oluwa Local Government, 50.0% of the Wastes are burnt, while the remaining 50.0% are incinerated. 87.5% and 12.5% of the generated in Public Primary Schools in Surulere Local Government Area are burnt and incinerated respectively, while in Oriire Local Government Area, the Public Primary Schools used burning, incineration and recycling as Waste management method with 81.8%, 13.6% and 4.5% of the Schools respectively. Thus, 72.7% of the Wastes being generated by the Public Primary Schools

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in Ogbomoso are burnt, 18.2% are incinerated, and 2.3% are recycled while the remaining 6.8% are disposed into the Ground.

Plate 4.4

Example of Waste disposed in available ground in some Schools

Source: Authors Field Survey 4.6 HEALTH FACILITIES

This section also examines the hygienic condition and safety of the Pupils in terms of Health facility in the Schools covered. Amongst what examined includes the availability of health facility, functionality of the health facility in the Schools and actors involved in the provision of the facility for the Schools.

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Table 4.13

AVAILABILITY OF HEALTH FACILITY


Crosstab

Local Govt area Ogbomos oOgbomos o North South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Any Sick-bay Yes Count 0 3 4 7 12 26 % within Local Govt area .0% 27.3% 14.8% 13.2% 20.7% 16.1% No Count 12 8 23 46 46 135 % within Local Govt 100.0% area 72.7% 85.2% 86.8% 79.3% 83.9% Total Count 12 11 27 53 58 161 % within Local Govt 100.0% area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.13 above shows the availability of Health Facility in the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region, where most of the Schools referred to First Aid Box as their Health Facility, while some referred to the Clinic, Maternity and Health Centre that are located around the School Environment as their sick Health Facility. There is unavailability of Health Facility in Schools located in Ogbomoso North Local Government Area, where 72.7% of Primary Schools in Ogbomoso South Local Government have no Health Facility, while only 27.3% have the Facility. 14.8% have and 85.2% have no Health Facility in Ogo-oluwa Local Government Area, 13.2% have Health Facility, while 79.3% do not. In Oriire Local Government Area 20.7% of the Schools have Health Facility and the remaining 79.3% of the Schools do not. This implies that most of the Public Primary School in Ogbomoso Region Has No First Aid Box or do not have nearness to the Health Facilities such as Hospital and Clinic with

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83.9%, where 16.1% of the schools have either First Aid Box or near to the Health Facilities around them. When Table 4.13 is subjected to Chi-square test, the result shows that, there is no significant difference in availability of Health Facilities amongst the Schools in the Local Government Areas, where the probability value (0.334) is greater than 0.05. Table 4.14 FUNCTIONALITY OFCrosstab THE HEALTH FACILITY.

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-Oluwa Orire Total Is the sick-bay Yes Count 3 3 7 1 14 functioning effectively? % within Local Govt area 100.0% 60.0% 87.5% 12.5% 58.3% No Count 0 2 1 7 10 % within Local Govt area.0% 40.0% 12.5% 87.5% 41.7% Total Count 3 5 8 8 24 % within Local Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

From Table 4.14 (above), the minimum numbers of Health Facilities available in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso South Local Government are functioning effectively with 100% level of effectiveness. 60%, 87.5%, 12.5% of the Health Facilities available in the Schools in Ogo-oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Area respectively, are functioning effectively, while 40.0%, 12.5% and 87.5% of the Health facilities in the Local Government Areas as mentioned above are not functioning. Thus, 58.3% of the Health facilities available into few public primary schools in Ogbomoso

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region are functioning effectively, while the remaining 41.7% are not functioning effectively.

Table 4.15 SCHOOLS

ACTORS IN PROVISION OF HEALTH FACILITIES FOR THE

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-OluwaSurulere Orire Total Mainactor involved Govt Count 5 4 14 40 25 88 in the provision of % within Local Govt area 71.4% 66.7% 100.0% 90.9% 92.6% 89.8% the health facility Private Individual Count 0 1 0 3 2 6 % within Local Govt area.0% 16.7% .0% 6.8% 7.4% 6.1% PTA Count 2 1 0 1 0 4 % within Local Govt area 28.6% 16.7% .0% 2.3% .0% 4.1% Total Count 7 6 14 44 27 98 % within Local Govt area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

In Table 4.15, 71.4% of the health facilities available in some Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso North are provided by the Government, while the remaining 28.6% are provided by the Parent Teachers Associations. In Ogbomoso South, 66.7% of the Facilities are provided by Government, 16.7% by Private Individual, while the remaining 16.7% are provided by the Parent Teachers Association. In ogo-oluwa Local Government, the case is different, where all the Health Facilities available in some Public Primary Schools are provided by Government. 90.9% of the Facilities are provided by the Government in Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Area, 6.8% of the facilities are provided lxxii

by Private Individual, while the remaining 2.3% of the Facilities are provided by PTA. In Oriire Local Government Area 92.6% and 7.4% of the Health Facilities are provided by the Government and Private Individual respectively. This shows that 89.9% of the Health Facilities available in some Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region are provided by the Government, where 6.1% and 4.1% of the Facilities are provided by the Private Individuals and PTA respectively. Thus most of the Health Facilities are provided by the Government. Table 4.15 shows that there is significant difference in the level of participation amongst Government and Non-Governmental Bodies in the area of provision of health facilities for the public primary schools in Ogbomoso when subjected to Chi-square test. Where probability value (0.022) is less than 0.05.

4.7

ELECTRICITY As part of the modern educational development, there is need for the provision of

electricity in the School in order to have effective delivery of good education in terms of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which requires computer as a subject in the Schools. Thus, this section examines the availability of electricity in the Schools and availability of computer offering.

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Table 4.16

AVAILABILITY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE SCHOOLS Crosstab

Local Govt area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso North South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Any electricity Yes Count 0 0 1 1 1 3 supply? % within Local Govt area .0% .0% 3.7% 2.1% 2.0% 2.0% No Count 12 10 26 47 49 144 % within Local Govt 100.0% area 100.0% 96.3% 97.9% 98.0% 98.0% Total Count 12 10 27 48 50 147 % within Local Govt 100.0% area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.16 shows that there is no Public Primary School in Ogbomoso North and South Local Government Area that has Electricity Supply, while 3.7%, 2.1% and 2.0% of the Schools in Ogo-Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire Local Government Areas respectively have Electricity Supply, while 96.3%, 97.9% and 98.0% have no Electricity supply accordingly. This shows that 98.0% of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso have no Electricity Supply while 2.0% have Electricity Supply but not functioning. Table 4.17 AVAILABILITY OF COMPUTER OFFERING IN THE SCHOOLS

Local Govt area OgbomosoOgbomoso North South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Do you of fer computer Yes Count 6 7 1 6 1 21 as a subject? % within Local Govt area 50.0% 63.6% 3.4% 11.8% 1.8% 13.2% No Count 6 4 28 45 55 138 % within Local Govt area 50.0% 36.4% 96.6% 88.2% 98.2% 86.8% Total Count 12 11 29 51 56 159 % within Local Govt100.0% area 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

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From the data in Table 4.17, very few (13.2%) Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso offer Computer as subjects while very many (86.8%) of them do not offer it. When subjected to Chi-square test, the result shows that there is significant difference in the level of computer offering in the schools amongst the Local Government Areas, where the probability value (0.000) is less than 0.05. The minimum numbers of schools that offer Computer as a subject do not have the required facilities to back it up such as Computer Systems, electricity and so on.

4.8

SPORTING FACILITIES

True education should aim at developing an all-round personality of the child. It means that education should result in the mental, moral and physical development of the child. In fact, for an all-round development of children the curriculum of studies should include sports and games and health education. Sufficient time should be devoted to sports and physical training. This is absolutely necessary because mental and moral development is just not possible without physical development, for it is wisely observed that there is A sound mind in a sound body. A strong and healthy student will in the long run surpass the pale, sickly scholar who is but a mere bookworm. This is the reason this section examines the availability of sporting facility in the Schools

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Figure 4.5

AVAILABILITY OF SPORTING FACILITIES IN THE SCHOOLS

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

In Figure 4.5 above, it is shown that most of the Public Primary Schools in all the local Government Areas have sporting Facilities, especially Football playing Field, while the few of the schools in all the five local government areas have no sporting facilities such as football, field and track event facilities and so on. This shows that most of the public primary schools in Ogbomoso have sporting facilities

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Plate 4.5

an example of deteriorated Sporting Facility in some Schools

Source: Authors Field Survey

4.9

WATER This section examines the provision of Water in the School with the focus on the

availability of water and water facility in the Schools, type of water available to the Schools, functionality of the water facility and stakeholders involved in the provision of water for the Schools.

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Table 4.18

AVAILABILITY OF WATER AND WATER FACILITY IN THE SCHOOLS

Local Government Area Ogbomoso Ogbomoso Ogo - Surulere North South Oluwa Do you have 8 13 12 37 Water in School? 53.3% 100.0% 35.3% 62.7% Yes No 7 0 22 22 46.7% .0% 64.7% 37.3% Total 15 100.0% 13 100.0% 34 100.0% 59 100.0%

Oriire 39 62.9% 23 37.1% 62 100.0%

Total 109 56.6% 74 40.4% 183 100.0%

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

Table 4.18 shows the availability of Water and Water Facility in the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso. In Ogbomoso North 53.3% of the schools have access to water and water facilities where 46.7% does not have. From the table 100% of the schools in Ogbomoso South have access to Water while in Ogo-Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire 35.3%, 62.7% and 62.9% of the schools have access to Water and Water facilities respectively, where 64.7%, 37.3% and 37.1% of the Schools have no access to the Water and Water facilities respectively. This implies that 59.6% of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso have access to Water and Water facilities, while 40.4% does not have.

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Table 4.19

TYPES OF WATER AVAILABLE TO THE SCHOOLS.

Local Government Areas Ogbomo so North 0 .0% 0 .0% 4 50.0% 4 50% 0 .0% 0 .0% 8 100% Ogbomoso South 1 7.7% 1 7.7% 7 53.8% 2 15.4% 1 7.7% 1 7.7% 13 100% Ogo-oluwa 1 8.3% 1 8.3% 4 33.3% 3 25.0% 2 16.8% 1 8.3% 12 100% Surulere 2 5.5% 6 16.2% 11 29.7% 14 37.8% 3 8.1% 1 2.7% 37 100% Oriire 1 2.5% 3 7.7% 19 48.7% 7 18.0% 9 23.1% 0 0.0% 39 100% Total 5 4.6% 11 10.1% 45 41.3% 30 27.5% 15 13.8% 3 2.7% 109 100%

Availability Pipe borne %within LGA Bore hole %within LGA Well %within LGA Hand pump %within LGA Stream %within LGA Tanker supply %within LGA Total %within LGA

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

The data on Table 4.19 shows the types of Water that is available to the Schools, where 4.6% of the Schools have access to Pipe-borne Water, 10.1% have access to Borehole, 41.3% have access to Dug Well, while 27.5% have access to Hand pump, 13.8% have access to Stream Water and the remaining 2.7% of the Schools have accessibility to Tanker supply. From Table 4.19, most of the Schools that refer to Borehole as their source of Water are located in the Rural Areas and they refer to the bore-hole in settlements around the School.

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Plate 4.6

an example of type Water available in some Schools

Source: Authors Field Survey Table 4.20 FUNCTIONALITY OF THE WATER FACILITIES
Local Government Areas

Ogbomos o North Functionality functioning adequate and 0 .0% 3 37.5% 5 62.5% 8 100%

Ogbomoso South 2 15.4% 4 30.8% 7 53.8% 13 100%

Ogo-oluwa 4 33.3% 5 41.7% 3 25.0% 12 100%

Surulere 9 24.4% 11 29.7% 17 45.9% 37 100%

Oriire 17 43.6% 2 5.1% 20 51.3% 39 100%

Total 32 29.4% 25 22.9% 52 47.7% 109 100%

Functioning but not adequate Not functioning Total

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009

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Table 4.20 shows the functionality of the Water facilities in the Schools where they are available in Ogbomoso. The Table shows that most (47.7%) of the Facilities are not functioning, where 22.9% of them are functioning partially and not providing adequate Water for the Schools, and 29.4% of the Water facilities in the Schools are functioning properly. This implies that most of the Schools have no access to Water despise availability of Water Facilities in some of the Schools.

Figure 4.6 SCHOOLS

ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE PROVISION OF WATER FOR THE

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009.

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Figure 4.6 depicts the various stakeholders involved in the provision of Water for the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso. Government is the only provider of Water in Public Primary Schools located in Ogbomoso South, Ogo-Oluwa and Surulere Local Government Area with 100% involvement in each of the Local Government Areas. In Ogbomoso North and Oriire Local Area the Government Area there is participation of Parent Teachers Associations and Private Individuals in provision of Water for the Schools respectively with a little participation. Thus, most of the Water in Public primary Schools in Ogbomoso is provided by Government.

Figure 4.7

NEEDS FOR IMPROVEMENT ON THE CONDITION OF THE SCHOOLS .

Source: Authors Field Survey 2009.

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Figure 4.7 above depicts need for improvement in the condition of the schools in terms of infrastructural facilities provision and from the Figure it shows that out of all Schools, in Ogbomoso region 99.4% of them call for an improvement in aspect of Infrastructural Facilities development and maintenance and while 0.6% of the Schools do not call for the improvement in the level of Facilities. Thus, there is need for an improvement in the level of Infrastructures in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso.

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4.10

INDICES OF INFRASTRUCTU RAL PATHOLOGY OR DECAY LEVEL IN THE SCHOOLS (IIPLS)

This section examines the Infrastructural pathology/decay level in the Schools, while the data in the indices is subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to show the level of variation of Infrastructural pathology/decay amongst the Schools with respect to Local Government Areas. Table 4.21 INTER LOCAL GOVERNM ENT VARIATION IN THE LEVEL OF INFRASTRUCTURA L PATHOLOGY/ DECAY Local Government Areas IIPLS 7.5714 Index of Furniture Ogbomoso North Ogbomoso South 11.0909 pathology / decay Ogo Oluwa 10.6061 Surulere 10.1404 Oriire 9.8333 Total 9.9771 4.1538 Index of Convenience Ogbomoso North Ogbomoso South 4.2000 pathology / decay Ogo Oluwa 4.0000 Surulere 5.2500 Oriire 4.8333 Total 4.6087 9.5556 Index of Infrastructural Ogbomoso North Ogbomoso South 7.6667 pathology / decay Ogo Oluwa 9.2667 Surulere 9.1282 Oriire 9.7037 Total 9.3118 lxxxiv

General level of Ogbomoso North Infrastructural pathology Ogbomoso South Ogo Oluwa / decay Surulere Oriire Total Source: Authors Computations, 2009

301.6429 347.1303 435.7224 488.9138 459.8379 445.5420

The indices above show the various level of Infrastructural decay in all the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region, where it is categorized into index of Furniture decay, index of Convenience decay, and index of other Infrastructures such as Recreational facilities, Waste disposal, Electricity, Classroom Buildings and Water facilities, while all of these are combined together to form the general level of Infrastructural decay or pathology amongst the schools. In aspect of Furniture decay, Schools Located in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area have the highest level of decay with the index value of 11.0909, this is followed by Ogo-oluwa, Surulere and Oriire with the index values of 10.6061, 10.1404 and 9.8333 respectively, where Ogbomoso North Local Governments Public Primary Schools have lowest level of Furniture decay with the index value of 7.5714. From the index of Convenience decay, Schools located in Surulere Local Government Area have the highest level of decay with the index value of 5.2500 and Ogo-oluwa has lowest index value of 4.0000. The third index shows the level of Infrastructural decay amongst the Schools in each Local Government Area. Infrastructures such as Waste disposal, Recreational

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Facilities, Electricity, Water facilities and buildings are examined amongst others. From the index, the Schools located in Oriire Local Government have the highest incidence of decay with the index value of 9.7037, while Ogbomoso North, South, Ogo-Oluwa and Surulere have the index value of 9.5556, 7.6667, 9.2667, and 9.1282 respectively. The last index in the Fourth row shows the general level of Infrastructural decay in all the Schools in Ogbomoso with respect to each Local Government Area. The Schools Located in Surulere Local Government Area have the highest incidence of Infrastructural decay with the index value of 488.9138, followed by Schools located in Oriire and OgoOluwa Local Government Area with the index values of 459.8379 and 435.7224 respectively, while the Schools located in Ogbomoso North Local Government Area have the lowest level of Infrastructural decay with the index value of 301.6429. Schools in Ogbomoso south have the index value of 347.1303. This implies that the Public Primary Schools located in Rural areas of Ogbomoso have high level of Infrastructural decay than the Schools located in Urban areas

Table 4.22

VARIATIONS IN LEVEL OF INFRASTRUCTURAL DECAY OR PATHOLOGY (ANOVA RESULTS) F Significance

General Level of Sum of Degree of Mean Infrastructural Square Freedom Square Pathology/Decay Between Groups 523162.0 4 130790.505 Within Groups 3573909 174 20539.709 Total 4097071 178 Source: Authors Computations, 2009

6.368

.000

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When data on Table (4.21) above is subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the relationship of variation between index of Infrastructural pathology / decay amongst the Local Government Areas, it shows that there is significant variation in the level of Infrastructural decay / pathology (within) amongst the Local Government Areas and between the Schools situated in Urban Local Government Areas and Rural Local Government Areas in Ogbomoso region.

HYPOTHESES TESTING (A) Ho Access to Public Primary School Facilities does not vary with Ruralness and Urbanity in Ogbomoso region. Based on the Chi-square tests in Table 4.5,4.6,4.7,4.11,4.12,4.14,4.16 and 4.18, it shows that; Access to Public Primary School Facilities vary with Ruralness and Urbanity in Ogbomoso because the variation is observed between the Local Government Areas in Ogbomoso metropolis (North and South) and Rural Areas (Ogo Oluwa, Surulere and Oriire).

(B) Ho There is no significant difference in the level of Infrastructural pathology or decay amongst the schools located in Rural and Urban area of Ogbomoso. The Indices of Infrastructural pathology/decay above (Table 4.21) and difference in level of Infrastructural decay (Table 4.22) revealed that; There is significant difference in the

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level of Infrastructural pathology or decay amongst the schools located in Rural and Urban Area of Ogbomoso. Based on the results, it implies that the Null hypotheses (Ho) are rejected, while the alternative Hypotheses (Hi) are accepted in (A and B) above.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND PLANNING/ POLICY IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND PLANNING/ POLICY IMPLICATIONS This section summarized the findings in this study. It states in conclusive terms, the general and specific observations on the Facilities available, and the condition of the facilities, the factors that affect the provision, functionality and effectiveness of the Facilities as well as the stakeholders in the provision of the Facilities. The next section presents the suggestions that are considered relevant to provision and maintenance of the Facilities based on data analyzed in this study and the conclusion of the study. The results of Data generated in this study revealed that; There is an inadequacy of Infrastructural facilities in many of the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso region. This is due to the ineffectiveness in the area of supply of the Facilities for the Schools and this leads to poor condition of the physical environment of the Schools and un-conducive learning environment.

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The Facilities available in some of the Schools are in the state of disrepair, that is, they are in very poor condition, for example; the Water Facilities are not working anymore, there is unhygienic condition of School environment due to disposal of Waste in any available space, and poor condition of Toilet. This is due to poor maintenance of these Facilities, while can result to outbreak of sickness and disease in the Schools.

There is variation in the level of Infrastructural pathology / decay amongst the Schools with respect to Local Government Area, where the Schools located in Ogbomoso North and South have low level of Infrastructural pathology / decay, while the Schools located in Ogo Oluwa, Surulere, and Oriire Local Government Area have high level of Infrastructural pathology / decay. This implies that, the Schools located in Urban Areas (Ogbomoso North and South) have low level of Infrastructural pathology compared to the Schools located in Rural Areas (Ogo Oluwa, Surulere, and Oriire Local Government Area) that have high level of Infrastructural pathology / decay. It is also observed that Schools located in Urban Areas enjoy more Facilities than the Schools located in Rural Areas in terms of provision and maintenance; this is as a result of Governments more attention on Urban Areas than Rural Areas and skewed distribution of Facilities and this may lead to the ineffective Primary Education in the Rural Areas.

Schools that are located along the major roads in Ogbomoso, such as, Osupa Baptist day School, Ijeru Day School, Methodist Primary School I Obada, Baptist School Gambari and Baptist School Oolo are more facilitated than the Schools located inward and this is attributed to Political reasons. lxxxix

There is no good maintenance culture for the Schools in Ogbomoso region and this is due to political issues, this is because; instead of Government to repair, renovate or rehabilitate the deteriorated Facilities in the Schools, they tend to provide or construct new ones, examples of this is the issue of Classroom buildings, in which Government spend money on new buildings instead of rehabilitating the deteriorated ones. This leads to the waste of resources to be committed on other project for the Schools.

There are some Facilities provided for the Schools that are underused in some of the Schools such as Library Resources Centre Located in Okelerin and Methodist (Arowomole) Primary School in Ogbomoso North and South respectively and Science Laboratory located in Obada School I, II, III Odo-oba and Baptist School Iresaadu. There are also Facilities underused in some Schools such as Classroom, while some have no adequate Classrooms and this is due to improper Facility Planning for the Schools and waste of resources.

There is very low level of Private partnership in the aspect of Facilities provision for the Schools, where the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are not supporting the Government in the aspect of Infrastructural Facilities development for the Schools and this is as a result of inadequate orientation of the importance of these Facilities to Educational Development. Others Findings include; drinking of unhygienic water by the Pupils, where the Pupils in Rural Areas drink stream Water

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5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS With due regard to the problems identified it is imperative after this empirical

assessment of public primary schools infrastructural facilities in Ogbomoso to give recommendations on possible way forward or approaches at improving the condition of the Schools. Because any attempt to improve or even maintain the standard of a sustainable academic environment cannot go forward without adequate and healthy physical Infrastructures and utility services. Thus the efficient delivery of physical Infrastructures in turn depends on effective planning and management. The solution to Infrastructural facilities problems is not merely to expand capacity by making new investments; but a much more systematic change must be undertaken if service delivery is to attain the standards necessary to improve quality of life in academic environment. The following recommendations are hereby made;

PROVISION OF ADEQUATE FACILITIES Government should improve in provision of adequate Infrastructural Facilities for the Schools and improve the aspect of maintenance of the Facilities in other to achieve sustainable learning environment in the Schools. The aspect of maintenance of the Facilities must not be vested on government only, while the Schools must also improve in maintenance culture. Thus, the Public Primary Schools environment in Ogbomoso would be conducive for learning.

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MAINTENANCE CULTURE The Schools should improve in the maintenance culture, because before any Facility can be enjoyed and last, there must be a proper maintenance of the Facility in which it will involved fund and other commitment.

THE REMOVAL OF BIAS In order to improve the quality of Academic Environment in the Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso, because through the findings it was observed that the Government is biased in terms of Facilities development for the Schools, whereby Government focused more attention in the Schools located in Urban Areas than the Rural Schools. Schools that are located along the major road side are also focused more than the schools located inward and this ought not to be. There should be an evenly distribution of Infrastructures amongst the Schools irrespective of their location, that is, provision of Infrastructures for the Public Primary Schools in the are a must not be a One-sided activities but it should be generalized.

ESTABLISHMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS INFRASTRUCT URES MONITORING COMMITTEE ( PSIMC) The Government should establish a Committee that will be in charge of monitoring of the Public Primary Schools Infrastructures in order to have proper planning and improvement on the facilities as that of Education Inspection Department. This xcii

would involved what is called Infrastructural Facility Auditing this would help to improve the Public Primary School Infrastructure Facilities in Ogbomoso, which would include; taking an inventory of initial and existing condition of the Facilities in the Schools for evaluation and proper planning purpose. This would heavily influence the improvement of these facilities. It was found that Government pays more attention to one facility, which is Classroom building development than all other facilities and this does not suppose to be like that. There should be development, improvement and good management of other facilities. Some Schools need some facilities than others, for example, Okelerin Primary School has underused Classroom buildings where other Facilities such as Water, Health, and Solid waste management Facilities are not functioning. So Infrastructural facilities delivery should meet users demands, that is, It must be provided by demand derived Institutions. Through the establishment of Primary Schools Infrastructures Monitoring Board (PSIMB), there would be an improvement and proper planning in provision and maintenance of the Facilities.

INVOLMENT OF ALL STAKEHOLDERS This is another important aspect if sustainable and conducive learning environments are to be achieved; all Stakeholders must be involved in the aspect of the provision and maintenance of the Infrastructures of the Schools, the stakeholders such as xciii

Parent Teachers Associations (PTA), Community Based Organizations (CBO), Individual Philanthropists and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The stakeholders must also be involved in planning process on the Facilities to be provided for the Schools such as Parent Teachers Association (PTA) and Community Based Organization (CBO). For a planning process could be regarded as a good one, there must be an involvement of the stakeholders (beneficial of the project), that is, Public Participation in provision of Facility that will benefit them. Therefore, in the aspect of the Public Primary Schools, the Parent Teachers Association are the People in the best position to be regarded as stakeholders here, because of the level of there knowledge and reasoning is high than that of the Pupils. Thus, they must be involved in planning process on the provision, development and maintenance of the School Infrastructures. This will help in provision and maintenance of the Facilities in the Schools.

PROPER FINANCING SYSTEM There should be a proper financing system, because finance is the back bone of the provision and maintenance of Infrastructures. So, proper financing system on the provision and maintenance of Infrastructures is necessary and important. This involves the enforcement of users fee charge for service delivery and fund from the Government. All Users are required to pay for the utilities and services enjoy, especially Water, electricity, waste management, Toilet and so on, in order to achieve sustainable maintenance of Infrastructures. For example, pupils would charged on the services enjoy xciv

through the facilities and this fee is different from the School fee, because the charge must be minima and can be collected quarterly or annually. The Teachers, which are part of the Users, must also pay for the service. That is maintenance programmes that result in the maximum benefit from the Infrastructure system, while delivery services at the least cost must be developed. It can also be financed through self-help programme by the PTA and Community Based Organization.

PUBLIC ORIENTATION AND PARTICIPATION


Government should orientate the general public of the importance of education (Primary Education) and the importance of these facilities to educational development. Since the Primary education is free in Oyo State in which Ogbomoso is part of, this shows that there is no internal revenue from the sector again for the Government, this can probably result to Partial participation in the area of Infrastructural development by the Government for the Schools, with regards to this, government should motivate the people to participate in Infrastructural development for the Schools. This implies that, the general Public in term of Individual philanthropists, Community Based Associations (CBAs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and so on must be charged to participate in the aspect of Infrastructural development and maintenance in the Schools.

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RIGHT COORDINAT ION The Urban and Regional Planners should champion the enlighten programmes for the Ministry of Education on Infrastructures provision and maintenance, because of the multidisciplinary nature of their discipline. This would help in proper, effective and sustainable provision and maintenance of Infrastructures in the Schools.

5.3

CONCLUSION The recommendations have been made through the consideration of the needs for

sound and sustainable academic environment, having considered the data from the surveys conducted and field measurement. It is therefore believed that when Infrastructure is adequately provided and maintained in Public Primary Schools in Ogbomoso, the academic environment would be conducive for proper learning. Thus, there would be a remarkable progress in provision and maintenance of the Infrastructures in the Schools in relation to the satisfaction of the Users (pupils and Teachers) and achievement of conducive environments for learning.

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REFERENCES Abdulkareem, A. Y. and I.O. Umar (1997): Follow-up Study on Primary Education Cost, Financing and Management in Kogi, Kwara and Nigeria States and the Federal Capital Territory. National Primary Education Commission Project. Adeboye, S.D (2007): An Appraisal of Physical Infrastructural Facilities in Ilorin Secondary Schools. An Unpublished Project for Postgraduate Diploma in URP, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, LAUTECH Ogbomoso pp 27. Aminat, J.I (2006): An Overview of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs): Being a Paper Presented at The Town Planners Registration Council and Nigeria Institute of Town Planners Mandatory Continuing Professional Development Programme (MCPDP) 2006. Ajao, C.A, Oyegbade, E.A and Gbadamosi, J.O (eds) (2002): Ogbomoso Community; The Dawn of a New Era Ogbomoso. Ogbomoso Community, p5. Buhari, M . (2000): The Role of Infrastructural Development and Rehabilitation in Sustainable Economic Growth in Nigeria, A Paper Presented At The All Peoples Party Economic Summit, Held At The Ladi Kwali Conference Center, Sheraton Hotel and Towers, Abuja, 9th - 10th November, 2000, http://www.buhari2003.org//speeches.htm Christopher, C et al (2003): Achieving Schooling for All in Africa. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. England. Daramola, A. Y. (2003): Innovative Options for Financing Transport Infrastructure in Nigeria, in NISEREEL, The Magazine of the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Nos. 4 & 5, December, 2003, Ibadan. Development Control Manual (2007): Planning Standard for Educational Institutions. Abuja Metropolitan Management Council 2007 Manual page 96. Durosaro, D.O. (2000): Resource Allocation and Utilization for University Education in Nigeria, Trends and Issues in E.G. Fagbamiye and D.O. Durosaro (eds,). Education and Productivity in Nigeria, NAEAP 51-67. Esposito (1999): Strategies for Resolving Ethical Problems in School Administration. Harlow, Longman. xcvii

Fawehinmi (2003): Infrastructures Development: Way Forward for Public Housing Delivery in Nigeria. Amazing Grace Publishing Ltd, Lagos, Nigeria. Federal Government of Nigeria (1997 - 2002) Annual Budgets FGN/UNESCO/UNDP (2003). A Decade of Basic Education Data in Nigeria (19881998). Fox .G. (1994): Management Theory and Practice. London: DP Publications. George, B (2004): Importance of Sports in Education. Retrieved from www.findingdaycare.com Hirschman, A.O (1985): Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. John Wiley & Sons New York. Igbozurike, A.G (1983): Public Service in Nigeria Urban Areas Ike (1996): Towards Effective Fiscal Resources Management System in the Nigerian Secondary Schools: Some Guidelines. Godwin Publishing Ltd, Uyo, Nigeria. Jean, C.G (2001): Emotional Disorders and Learning Disabilities in the Elementary Classroom. Corwm Press, Inc Sage Publishing Ltd. London UK. John, R (1974): An Introduction to Town and Country Planning. Hutchinson and Co (Publishers) Ltd. London. Kabir, M.Y (2006): National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDs) and Challenges of Poverty Reduction at the City Level in Nigeria. Being a Paper Presented at The Town Planners Registration Council and Nigeria Institute of Town Planners Mandatory Continuing Professional Development Programme (MCPDP) 2006. Kehinde, G.C (1999): Basic Principles and Methods of Urban and Regional Planning. LibroGem Ltd, Lagos. Nigeria. xcviii

Ken, C.A (2004): Quality of Learning in Nigerias Universal Primary Education Scheme. Springer Publisher. Netherland. Kuku (2003): School Facilities: Management Practice In Nigeria. Macmillan Publishing Ltd. Nigeria Mcneil (1993): Health Education and Mental Development. Goodman Publications, Stretford End. UK Monsignor, P.M (1990): The National Conference on Discipline and Motivation in Schools. Volume II Conference Paper 1990 NERDC Press. Yaba Lagos. Moses, O.A (2006): The Role of Urban and Regional Planning in Achieving the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). Being a Paper Presented at The Town Planners Registration Council and Nigeria Institute of Town Planners Mandatory Continuing Professional Development Programme (MCPDP) 2006. NEEDS (2004): National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy, National Planning Commission, Abuja. Nwagwu N. A, Ehiametalor E. T, Ogunu M. A, and Nwadiani M. (Eds) (2008): Current Issues in Educational Management In Nigeria. Nigeria Association for Educational Administration and Planning Publication 2008. Obateru, I.O (2003): Land Subdivision Basics. Penthouse Publications, Ibadan. Nigeria. Okedara, J.T (1980): Growth Patterns and Projections of Primary Educational Resources in Oyo State of Nigeria 1972 1985. Nigeria Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Nigeria. Oluba (2008): Planning and Managing Universal Basic Education (UBE) at the Primary School Level in Cross River State. Nigeria Association for Educational Administration and Planning Publication 2008 (Pg 60-70). Oni, S. I. (2004): Urbanization and Transportation Development in Metropolitan Lagos in Industrialization, Urbanization and Development in Nigeria 1950-1999, Adejugbe M. (ed), Concept Publications Limited, Lagos. Pedro (1990), Educational Management in Nigeria: Being a Paper Presented at the National Conference On Discipline And Motivation In Schools 1990, Held In Lagos. xcix

Peter, B.B (1995): Rural Water Supply in Nigeria. Introduction to Rural Development Planning. H. Chike and J.U Ogbazi (ed). Pg 129 141. computer Edge Publishers: Enugu, Nigeria. Peter, H. (1999): Urban and Regional Planning. Routledge Publihsers, London. Punch , Tuesday April 28, 1998. Pg 21 Ravallion (1991): Leadership and Strategic Management in Education. Leicester: University of Leicester. EDMU. Sada, P.O (1996): Schaffer and Huang (1975): Effective Provision and Maintenance of Facilities, Utilities and Services. Schweinsteinger Publications, Hamburg, Germany. Taiwo (1980): A guide to supervision of Instruction. Ilorin: My Grace Graphics Repro. Co. Tuoyo, M.U. (1999): Inspection and Supervision as Practice of Quality Control in the School System. In J.O. Fadipe & E.E. Oluchukwu (eds). Educational Planning and Administration in Nigeria in the 21th Century. Ondo: National Institute for Educational Planning and Administration. Ugwu (1993): Public Facilities and Economic Development. Edge Publishers, Enugu. Nigeria. West - Burnham, J. (1992): Managing Quality in Schools. Harlow: Longman. West - Burnham, J. (1994): Inspection, Evaluation and Quality Assurance. In T. Bush and J. West - Burnham (eds). The Principles of Educational Management, pp. 157176. Harlow: Longman. West - Burnham, J. (1995): Total Quality Management in Education. Leicester, University of Leicester EDMU.

World Bank (1999): Consultations for Improvement Primary Education. March 1999. World Bank (2002): Infrastructure Delivery, Private Initiative and the Public Good, Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, Ashoka Mody (ed). World Bank (2004): School Education in Nigeria: Preparing for Universal Basic Education. (Human Development II, African Region), September 1.

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APPENDIX A

LADOKE AKINTOLA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OGBOMOSO


AN ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL FACILITIES IN OGBOMOSO REGION
Sir / Ma, This questionnaire is designed by AKINLABI PHILIPS A. A Student of the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso to enable His research exercise in Your Area. Your prompt and sincere response is required. Thanks

SECTION A (Information about the School)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Name of the School. Local Government Area .. Ward Major Road Along The School ... Total Number of Classrooms blocks in the School. Population of the Pupils in the School Year of establishment of the School

SECTION B
(An Assessment of Infrastructural Facilities) CLASSROOM

8. Is there adequate provision of Classrooms for the School? (a) Yes (b) No 9. Class Primary1 2 3 4 5 No of pupil/ classroom

10. Is there any Classroom built by Private Individual for the School? (a) Yes (b) No 11. If YES to question (10) above, tick any of the options (a) Parent Teachers Association (b) Private Organization (c) Private Individual cii

Question 18 23 Fill as appropriate in Table below with the option provided below; Wall type (a) Mud Only (b) Mud and Plastered (c) Brick Only (d) Brick and Plastered (e) Plank. Roof type (a) Corrugated Iron sheet (b) Steep step Aluminum (c) Asbestos (d) Leaves Floor finishing (a) Sand (b) Concrete (c) Tiles (d) Terrazzo Materials Used for Windows/ Doors (a) Mat (b) Plank (c) Metal (d) Glass (e) No Window/ Door Availability of Ceiling (a) Available (b) Not Available Condition (a) Structurally Sound (b) Structurally Poor (c) Fair (d) Dilapidated

and the condition of each block of classrooms in this School in the second column. Very Good- V, Good-G, Fair-F, Bad-B Attributes Block 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wall type/condition Roof type/condition Floor finish/condition Material used for Window and Door/ condition Availability of Ceiling/condition Building condition

FURNITURE
24. Is there adequate Furniture in most of Your Classrooms? (a) Yes (b) No Fill as appropriate in the Table Below (yes or No) whether it is adequate or not Classroom Primary1 Adequate (Yes or No) 2 3 4 5 6

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25. Tick as appropriate the Actors involve in provision of the Furniture for the School (a) Government (b) Private Individual (c) PTA (d) Private Organizations

26. Condition of the Furnitures Class Structurally sound Primary 1 Primary 2 Primary 3 Primary 4 Primary 5 Primary 6

Structurally fair

Structurally poor

TOILET
27. Do you have Toilet in the School? (a) Yes (b) No 28. If NO to question (27) above, where do you use as a Toilet? (a) Bush (b) Spreading of paper or Nylon (c) Open space 29. If YES to question (27) above, how many for Pupils?.. 30. How many for Staff?.. 31. Is the Toilet functioning effectively? (a) Yes (b) No 32. If NO to (31) above why? 33. Type of the Toilet (a) Water closet (b) Pit (c) Pail 34. Toilet Condition (a) structurally sound and healthy (b) structurally sound and not healthy (c) structurally fair (d) structurally poor 35. Tick as appropriate the Actors involve in provision of the Toilet for the School (a) Government (b) Private Individual (c) PTA (d) Private Organizations

ELECTRICITY
36. Do you offer Computer as a subject in this School? (a) Yes (b) No 37. If NO to question (36) above, why? 38. Is there Electricity supply for the School? (a) Yes (b) No civ

39. If Yes to question (36) above, how would you describe the supply (a) Very regular (b) Regular (c) Fair (d) Erratic 40. What opportunity? .

WATER
41. Do you have an access to water in the school? (a)Yes (b) No

41. Identify the Sources of Water available to you in the School and its functionality and adequacy. Sources of Not available Functioning Functioning Not Water and adequate and not Functioning adequate Pipe borne Bore hole Well Hand pump Steam Tanker Supply 42. How do you maintain the Water facility? 43. Tick as appropriate the Actors involve in provision of the Water for the School (a) Government (b) Private Individual (c) PTA (d) Private Organizations

WASTE DISPOSAL
44. Do you have waste Disposal Facility in the School? (a) Yes (b) No 45. If Yes to the question (42) above, how do you manage the waste generated in the School? (a) Burning (b) Incineration (c) Recycling (d) disposal in the available ground 46. Tick as appropriate the Actors involve in provision of the Waste disposal facility for the School (a) Government (b) Private Individual (c) PTA (d) Private Organizations

RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

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47. Are there any Recreational (Sporting) Facilities in this School? (a) Yes (b) No 48. If No to question (47) above, why? 49. If yes, what are the Facilities? 50. What is the condition of the Facilities? (a) Very Good (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

HEALTH FACILITY
51. Do you have Health Facility in the School? (a) Yes (b) No 52. If No to question (51) above, how do you treat the Pupils that are Sick? .. 53. If Yes to question (51) above, is it functioning effectively? (a) Yes (b) No 54. Tick as appropriate the Actors involve in provision of the Health facility for the School (a) Government (b) Private Individual (c) PTA (d) Private Organizations

SECTION C
(General Condition of the School)

55. How would you describe the general condition of this school? 56. Do you think there can be improvement in the physical condition of the School? (a) Yes (b) No 57. If No to (56) above, why? . 58. If Yes to (56) above, How? . 59. Do you think all the facilities (if provided for the School) can be well maintained? (a) Yes (b) No 60. Your Comment .. ..

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59 complete the table below to indicate the contribution (if any) of the Private Organizations / Individuals to the development of this school in the last 10 years. Monetary value of contribution at the time of contribution in Naira (N Organizations <1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Private Business Organization Individual Philanthropists Religious Organizations Community / Towns Association

APPENDIX B The difference in Availability of ceiling in the Schools amongst the Local Government Areas
Chi-Square Tests Value 13.558a 17.698 7.338 171 df 4 4 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .009 .001 .007

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4.21.

The difference in Building condition amongst the Local Government Areas

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Chi-Square Tests Value 11.787 a 15.144 1.233 169 df 12 12 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .463 .234 .267

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 10 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18.

The difference in level of NGOs participation in the building of Classroom for the Schools
Chi-Square Tests Value 7.177a 10.775 1.878 177 df 4 4 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .127 .029 .171

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 2 cells (20.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.92.

The difference in level of Furniture adequacy in the Schools amongst Local Government Areas
Chi-Square Tests Value 22.044a 21.194 16.703 120 df 4 4 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000 .000 .000

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 2 cells (20.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.33.

The difference in the level of availability of toilet in the Schools amongst the Local Government Areas

cviii

Chi-Square Tests Value 27.279a 28.360 10.910 176 df 4 4 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000 .000 .001

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.94.

The difference in the level of availability of health facility in the Schools amongst the Local Government Areas
Chi-Square Tests Value 4.573a 6.312 1.277 161 df 4 4 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .334 .177 .258

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 3 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.78.

The difference in level of NGOs participation in the Health facility provision for the Schools
Chi-Square Tests Value 17.935a 13.699 6.761 98 df 8 8 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .022 .090 .009

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 10 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .24.

The difference in level of Computer offering in the schools amongst the Local Government Areas

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Chi-Square Tests Value 47.449a 37.386 29.229 159 df 4 4 1 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000 .000 .000

Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases

a. 3 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.45.

Indices of Infrastructural pathology or decay level in the Schools (iipls)


Descriptives 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Minimum Maximum 6.2565 8.8864 6.00 12.00 9.5167 12.6651 6.00 15.00 9.7199 11.4923 6.00 16.00 9.5810 10.6997 6.00 13.00 9.1118 10.5549 6.00 15.00 9.5949 10.3594 6.00 16.00 3.3797 4.9280 3.00 7.00 2.1597 6.2403 3.00 7.00 2.1626 5.8374 3.00 5.00 4.4316 6.0684 3.00 8.00 4.0751 5.5916 3.00 7.00 4.2153 5.0021 3.00 8.00 8.8777 10.2335 8.00 11.00 3.8721 11.4612 6.00 9.00 8.4986 10.0348 6.00 11.00 8.7265 9.5299 7.00 12.00 9.2278 10.1796 8.00 12.00 9.0507 9.5730 6.00 12.00 210.8900 392.3957 144.00 600.00 285.5607 408.6999 216.00 504.00 384.6370 486.8078 169.20 720.00 451.0816 526.7461 175.50 960.00 423.0345 496.6413 180.00 840.00 423.1646 467.9195 144.00 960.00

N Index of furniture decay/pathology Ogbomoso North Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Idex of Convinience Ogbomoso North Pathology Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Index of Infrastructure Ogbomoso North Pathology Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total Genaral Level of Ogbomoso North Infrastructural Decay Ogbomoso South Ogo-Oluwa Surulere Orire Total 14 11 33 57 60 175 13 5 4 12 12 46 9 3 15 39 27 93 14 11 34 59 61 179

Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 7.5714 2.27746 .60868 11.0909 2.34327 .70652 10.6061 2.49924 .43506 10.1404 2.10814 .27923 9.8333 2.79325 .36061 9.9771 2.56178 .19365 4.1538 1.28103 .35529 4.2000 1.64317 .73485 4.0000 1.15470 .57735 5.2500 1.28806 .37183 4.8333 1.19342 .34451 4.6087 1.32461 .19530 9.5556 .88192 .29397 7.6667 1.52753 .88192 9.2667 1.38701 .35813 9.1282 1.23926 .19844 9.7037 1.20304 .23152 9.3118 1.26816 .13150 301.6429 157.17969 42.00804 347.1303 91.64752 27.63277 435.7224 146.41149 25.10936 488.9138 145.17275 18.89988 459.8379 143.70049 18.39896 445.5420 151.71439 11.33967

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Variations in Level of Infrastructural Decay or Pathology


ANOVA Sum of Squares 110.482 1031.427 1141.909 10.548 68.409 78.957 14.146 133.811 147.957 523162.0 3573909 4097071 df 4 170 174 4 41 45 4 88 92 4 174 178 130790.505 20539.709 6.368 .000 Mean Square 27.620 6.067 2.637 1.669 3.537 1.521 F 4.552 Sig. .002

Index of furniture decay/pathology Idex of Convinience Pathology Index of Infrastructure Pathology

Between Groups W ithin Groups Total Between Groups W ithin Groups Total Between Groups W ithin Groups Total Between Groups W ithin Groups Total

1.580

.198

2.326

.063

Genaral Level of Infrastructural Decay

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