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Attenuate and disperse sites (dumping site/ rubbish pit): traditional form of landfilling, Attenuation mechanisms: dilution and

dispersion through pores and micro fissures into underlying saturated zones, Impossible to monitor or track the leachate pollutants. Containment sites (sanitary / MSW landfill: Wastes, leachate and gas are isolated from the surrounding environment, The containment is achieved either by natural clay bottom liners or synthetic liners or a combination of both - is expected to be leak free, Facilities for leachate and gas collection and removal are installed and regular monitoring is possible. LF for Commingled waste: Majority of LF in the world are designed for commingled MSW, In class III LF, limited amounts of non-hazardous industrial waste and sludge from water and wastewater treatment plants are also accepted, Normally native soil is used as intermediate and final cover material, If not available, compost, foam, old rugs and carpeting, dredging spoil, and demolition wastes can be used, To obtain additional LF capacity, abandoned or closed landfills can be reused to recover materials and using decomposed residue as daily cover. Landfill for shredded solid waste: Shredded waste can be placed at up to 35% greater density and some without daily cover since blowing waste, odors, flies and rates not signification problems, Less soil cover is used because shredded waste can be compacted tighter and more uniform surface, Disadvantage: needs of shredding facilities, special section for hard to shred wastes, Potential applications in areas where landfill capacity is very expensive, cover material not readily available and low precipitation, Shredded waste can also be used to produce compost which can be used as intermediate cover material. Landfill for Individual waste constituents (Monofills): E.g. Combustion ash and asbestos often identified as designated waste, Purpose is to isolate from materials placed in MSW LF, Combustion ash monofill may have odor problem due to

reduction of sulfate gas recovery system is recommended Sanitary landfill: a method of disposing solid waste on land without creating nuisance or hazard to public health or safety. Utilising engineering principles to confine wastes to the smallest practical area and to reduce it to the smallest practical volume and cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each days operation or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary Cell volume of material placed in a landfill during one operating period which includes solid waste deposited and daily cover material surrounding it Daily cover usually consists of 6 to 12 in of native soil or alternative materials (e.g. compost) applied to working faces of landfill at the end of operating period to minimize waste blowing, prevent rats, flies, etc. and control of water entering the landfill during operation Lift a complete layer of cells over the active area of the landfill Bench (terrace) a flat surface commonly used to maintain slope stability of landfill, placement of surface water drainage channel, location of landfill gas recovery piping (height LF > 50 to 75 ft) Final lift includes the cover layer Final cover layer multiple layers of soil and/or geomembrane material covering entire surface of landfill after completion of landfill operation to enhance surface drainage, intercept percolating water and support surface vegetation Leachate liquid from percolation of precipitation, uncontrolled runoff, irrigation water, infiltrating groundwater and water initially contained in wastes Landfill gas mixture of gas produced from anaerobic digestion of waste Landfill liner several layers of compacted clay and/or geomembrane material (natural or synthetic) use to line the bottom area and below-grade sides of a landfill designed to prevent migration of leachate and gas

Landfill control facilities includes liners, landfill leachate and landfill gas collection and extraction systems, daily and final cover layers Environmental monitoring involves activities associated with collection and analysis of water and air samples to monitor the movement of LFG and leachate Landfill closure steps to be taken to close and secure and landfill after filling operation is completed Landfill in Malaysia : Hazardous Waste Landfill- disposal facility, treatment , storage,must be appropriately permitted specify all design & operating practices necessary to ensure compliance. Inert Waste Landfill - deploys environmentalfriendly treatment

Open Dumping Landfill-does not protect the environment, susceptible to open burning, exposed to the scavengers. Sanitary landfill-new scientific technique, purpose- treat wastes in an environmentfriendly way, guarantee protection, risk of pollution minimized, Strict, permanent monitoring system, types of solid waste.