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XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration in water treatment

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration XIGA process modes XIGA main parameters Large scale water treatment: examples Summary

1. Introduction
Micro Filtration
10 um 100 nm giarda crypto bacteria

Ultra Filtration
100 - 10 nm colloids viruses

Nano Filtration
10 - 1 nm colour hardness pesticides

Reverse Osmosis
< 1 nm salts

colloids viruses colour hardness pesticides salts water

colour hardness pesticides salts water

salts water

water

1. Introduction
X-Flow UF concepts: Concept
TSS (mg/l) XIGA CAPFILL 0.8 mm <50 AquaFlex AquaFlex CAPFILL 0.8 mm <100 AquaFlex AquaFlex CAPFILL 1.5 mm <200 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- AirLift AirLift (MBR) COMPACT 5.2 mm <15,000 CrossFlow COMPACT 8.0 mm <40,000

Membranes used

1. Introduction
X-Flow UF concepts: when to use what?
CrossFlow 8mm

UF Concept

AirLift (MBR) 5.2mm

AquaFlex 1.5mm

AquaFlex 0.8mm

XIGA 0.8mm

~50

~100

~200

~1,000

~15,000

~40,000

Suspended Solids level (mg/l)

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Dead-end
feed water

Cross-flow
feed water

Characteristics:
Process set-up Energy consumption Investment Operation Risk of fouling Sensitivity to feed water fluctuations

permeate

permeate

Simple Low Low Discontinuous High High

Complicated High High Continuous Low Low

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Main skills UF
Complete removal of suspended solids Partial removal dissolved matter (TOC, COD, BOD) through binding to suspended matter Removal of micro-organisms: >Log 6 removal of bacteria >Log 4 removal of viruses Superb quality as RO feed water (low SDI15) Certified for use in potable water

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


8 XIGA element L 1.5 m 40 m2
Corrugated plates: optimal hydrodynamics

0.8 mm PES fibres pore size 25 nm

Bypass tubes: minimum pressure loss in housing

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Standard skids
Membrane housings in horizontal system Multiple elements per housing Membrane housings connected to central Feed, Permeate, Backwash and Concentrate headers

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Standard Norit skids
1. T-TYPE (SS316)
No. #MH #Elem. Area (m2) Cap. (m3/h)

205 206 207 208 405 406 407 408

10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32

40 48 56 64 80 96 112 128

1600 1920 2240 2560 3200 3840 4480 5120

96 115 134 154 192 230 269 307

200 240 280 320 400 480 560 640

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Standard Norit skids
2. LYNN (HDPE)
No. #MH #Elem. Area (m2) Cap. (m3/h)

202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 404 405 406 407 408 409 410

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 64 80 96 112 128 144 160

640 960 1280 1600 1920 2240 2560 2880 3200 2560 3200 3840 4480 5120 5760 6400

38 58 77 96 115 134 154 173 192 154 192 230 269 307 346 384

80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 320 400 480 560 640 720 800

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Feed

Membrane element

Permeate

Membrane housing

Feed

2. XIGA dead-end Ultrafiltration


Element 1 interconnector Element 2

Bypass tubes: minimal pressure loss in housing

3. XIGA process modes


Filtration

3. XIGA process modes

Filtration: inside outside


membrane permeate

feed

3. XIGA process modes


Backwash

3. XIGA process modes

Backwash: outside inside


membrane backwash

concentrate

3. XIGA process modes


Chemically Enhanced Backwash

3. XIGA process modes


100

Filtration
50

Filtration

Filtration

Filtration CEB

BW
0

BW

BW

-50

flux
-100

-150

-200

-250

time

3. XIGA process modes


CEB versus CIP CIP CEB

TMP

time

3. XIGA process modes


Advantags CEB versus CIP
Lower overall TMP: - lower power consumption - less compaction of cake easier BW / chemical cleaning Fully automated: - No operator intervention required - Fast procedure (10-15 minutes) No interruption of main process No proprietary chemicals

3. XIGA process modes


Single stage UF
Feed 100% Concentrate 5-20%
Typical: Recovery 80-95%

Permeate 80-95%

3. XIGA process modes


Dual stage UF
Primary UF Feed
100% 1conc. 1perm.

Permeate
95-99,5%

Sec. UF
2conc.

2perm.

Concentrate
0,5-5% Typical: Recovery 9599,5%

4. XIGA main parameters


Flux: Yield per square meter membrane surface
Ltr/m2.h or lmh Typical (filtration): Typical (backwash): 60 125 lmh 250 lmh

TMP: Trans Membrane Pressure


Pfeed Pperm (bar) Typical (filtration): Typical (backwash): Feed Pf 0,2 0,8 bar 1,0 2,0 bar Pp Permeate

4. XIGA main parameters


Permeability: Flux corrected for Pressure & Temperature
Pressure Correction Factor Temperature Correction Factor = TMP (bar) = (-)

- impact water viscosity & membrane effect on TMP - reference temperature, mostly 20C = 1

(Ltr/m2h bar) Typical:

or (lmh/bar)

200 400 lmh/bar

4. XIGA main parameters


Filtration time: Backwash time: CEB interval: Recovery: Duration of 1 filtration period
Typical: 15 60 min

min sec

Duration of 1 backwash
Typical: 40 sec

Period between 2 CEBs


Typical: 6 48 hrs

hrs %

Average permeate flow Average feed flow


Typical: 80 - 95 %

5. Large scale water treatment


WWTP

UF
Potable water production

RO

Surface water Ground water Seawater Effluent reuse

5. Large scale water treatment


Surface water examples

Potable water Inverness (1400 m3/h) Surface water Minneapolis (11.600 m3/h) Klazienaveen, The Netherlands Irrigation Water (300 m3/h)

5. Large scale water treatment


Ground water examples

PWN Heemskerk, The Netherlands 2900 m3/h Keldgate, United Kingdom 3700 m3/h Clay Lane, United Kingdom (6700 m3/h)

5. Large scale water treatment


Sea water examples

Palm Islands Duba (7700 m3/h)

UAE Potable water 450 m3/h

5. Large scale water treatment


Effluent reuse examples

Windhoek, Namibi (850 m3/h) Melbourne, Sulaibiya, Kuwait Australie (15600 (1250 m3/h) m3/h)

6. Summary
Dead-end XIGATM Ultrafiltration:
Superb filtrate quality; complete removal of SS & micro-organisms partial removal of TOC, COD & BOD Compact design with small footprint, easy module loading and replacement Fully automated operation, easy operation Large number of applications